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Coarticulation In Two Fricative-Vowel Sequences Of Latin American Spanish, Jeff Renaud 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Coarticulation In Two Fricative-Vowel Sequences Of Latin American Spanish, Jeff Renaud

Celebration of Learning

Dialectal surveys of Latin American Spanish (Perissinotto 1975, Resnick 1975) describe three main possible pronunciations for fu (fuego 'fire') and fo (foco 'focus') sequences: faithful [f], velarized [x], and bilabialized [ɸ], in order of frequency. While the velar realization has received phonetic and theoretical consideration (Lipski 1995, Mazzaro 2011), little is understood about the voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ] in Spanish. This paper describes a three-part production study to uniformly account for the unfaithful velar and bilabial realizations.

Mazzaro (2011) explains the velar [x] variant by arguing that, given the acoustic similarity of, e.g., [fu]/[xu], listeners misperceive a speaker ...


Speech Perception In “Bubble” Noise: Korean Fricatives And Affricates By Native And Non-Native Korean Listeners, Jiyoung Choi 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Speech Perception In “Bubble” Noise: Korean Fricatives And Affricates By Native And Non-Native Korean Listeners, Jiyoung Choi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The current study examines acoustic cues used by second language learners of Korean to discriminate between Korean fricatives and affricates in noise and how these cues relate to those used by native Korean listeners. Stimuli consist of naturally-spoken consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel (CVCV) syllables: /sɑdɑ/, /s*ɑdɑ/, /tʃɑdɑ/, /tʃhɑdɑ/, and /tʃ*ɑdɑ/. In this experiment, the “bubble noise” methodology of Mandel at al. (2016) was used to identify the time-frequency locations of important cues in each utterance, i.e., where audibility of the location is significantly correlated with correct identification of the utterance in noise. Results show that non-native Korean listeners ...


Purepecha Aspirated Consonants And Their Phonetic Variants, Lluvia Camacho Cervantes 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Purepecha Aspirated Consonants And Their Phonetic Variants, Lluvia Camacho Cervantes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study describes phonetic realizations of aspirated phonemes in Purepecha [pua] from Azajo. The distribution of aspiration in Purepecha is limited to roots, a small number of spatial suffixes, one argument structure changing suffix, and clitics. Aspiration is never contrastive for inflexional suffixes, which occur in word final position. There are three basic allophones of aspirated segments: (i) post-aspirated; (ii) unaspirated, (iii) pre-aspirated, with pre-aspiration showing 4 distinct phonetic forms, depending on dialect, and phonetic context. Strengthening of pre-aspiration has been documented in the Lake and Sierra dialects as well as vowel lengthening in the Lake dialect. In Azajo Purepecha ...


English Influence On L2 Speakers’ Production Of Palatalization And Velarization, Jennifer C. Gabriele 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

English Influence On L2 Speakers’ Production Of Palatalization And Velarization, Jennifer C. Gabriele

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Irish is a Celtic language spoken in Ireland. It is currently endangered with only 73,803 people using the language on a daily basis as of 2016 (Official Office of Statistics, 2016). The reason for the decline is that English is the dominate language, pushing Irish to the periphery. Revitalization efforts have been put into place in an attempt to revitalize the language. There has been a growth in L2 speakers of Irish. The position of English as the dominate language, and high amounts of L2 speakers creates an environment where English is likely to influence the Irish language. The ...


El Andaluz Y El Español Estadounidense: Exploring Traces Of Andalusian Sibilants In U.S. Spanish, Carolyn M. Siegman 2018 Macalester College

El Andaluz Y El Español Estadounidense: Exploring Traces Of Andalusian Sibilants In U.S. Spanish, Carolyn M. Siegman

Hispanic Studies Honors Projects

The Andalucista Theory claims that Andalusian Spanish was particularly influential during the development of Spanish in Latin America during the time of Spanish colonization. The present study seeks to examine traces of Andalusian Spanish in Spanish in the United States, considering the added level of complexity brought by contact with English and heightened contact with other dialects of Spanish. By examining 10 interviews from Andalusian Spanish speakers and 12 interviews from Spanish speakers in the U.S., we provide a comparison of the modern-day phonetic realizations of , , and in these two distant linguistic regions.


Fresa Style In Mexico: Sociolinguistic Stereotypes And The Variability Of Social Meanings, Rebeca Martinez Gomez 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Fresa Style In Mexico: Sociolinguistic Stereotypes And The Variability Of Social Meanings, Rebeca Martinez Gomez

Linguistics ETDs

This dissertation examines the flexibility in the social meanings of sociolinguistic stereotypes and how linguistic and non-linguistic information affect these meanings. The investigation consists of four empirical studies surrounding the case of fresas in Mexico –members of the upper class that are perceived as using a unique linguistic style.

Study 1 investigates the linguistic and non-linguistic characteristics associated with the fresa stereotype. Through a qualitative analysis of 64 webpages and 3 performances of the style, it is shown that fresasare perceived as the counterpart of another construct, nacos,and that their linguistic style is linked to English due to ...


Stress Perception In L1 And L2 Spanish And English, Jessica Campbell 2018 College of William and Mary

Stress Perception In L1 And L2 Spanish And English, Jessica Campbell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Word-level stress, which occurs on a specific syllable of each word, aids lexical access and helps distinguish word boundaries. Three correlates are most often used in languages to denote stress: pitch, vowel duration, and intensity. However, languages differ on which of these correlates are most important or necessary at all: for Spanish, pitch is the primary correlate, but for English, duration is more important. The goal of this investigation was to determine the differences in perception of duration, pitch, or both together for bilingual speakers of English and Spanish in countries with differing dominant languages. Half of the participants (native ...


The Organization Of Lexicons: A Cross-Linguistic Analysis Of Monosyllabic Words, Shiying Yang, Chelsea Sanker, Uriel Cohen Priva 2018 Brown University

The Organization Of Lexicons: A Cross-Linguistic Analysis Of Monosyllabic Words, Shiying Yang, Chelsea Sanker, Uriel Cohen Priva

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Lexicons utilize a fraction of licit structures. Different theories predict either that lexicons prioritize contrastiveness or structural economy. Study 1 finds that the monosyllabic lexicon of Mandarin is no more distinctive than a randomly sampled baseline using the phonological inventory. Study 2 finds that the lexicons of Mandarin and American English have fewer phonotactically complex words than the random baseline: Words tend not to have multiple low-probability components. This suggests that phonological constraints can have superadditive penalties for combined violations, consistent with e.g. Albright (ms.).


A Graph Theoretic Approach For Generating Hypotheses About Phonetic Cues In Speech, Anne Marie Crinnion, Beth Malmskog, Joe Toscano 2018 Harvard University

A Graph Theoretic Approach For Generating Hypotheses About Phonetic Cues In Speech, Anne Marie Crinnion, Beth Malmskog, Joe Toscano

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Current models of speech perception suggest that combining acoustic cues and factoring out contextual variability allows listeners to recognize speech across different talkers. However, it remains unclear which specific cues are necessary and how their use varies between individual talkers. We use graph theoretic techniques to address these problems by constructing networks connecting talkers and possible cues. We identify subgraphs (Steiner trees) that connect talkers via cues consistently used to indicate specific phonemes. Classifiers trained on these cues match listeners' data better than those trained on all cues, suggesting that Steiner trees can identify the cues necessary for speech recognition.


Allomorph Discovery As A Basis For Learning Alternations, Bruce P. Hayes 2018 UCLA

Allomorph Discovery As A Basis For Learning Alternations, Bruce P. Hayes

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

No abstract provided.


Phonological Opacity As Local Optimization In Gradient Symbolic Computation, Anna Mai, Eric Bakovic, Matt Goldrick 2018 University of California, San Diego

Phonological Opacity As Local Optimization In Gradient Symbolic Computation, Anna Mai, Eric Bakovic, Matt Goldrick

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

We present a novel approach to counterbleeding rule interactions in Yokuts (Californian) using Gradient Symbolic Computation (GSC). GSC, a dynamical systems model, optimizes two constraint sets: a set specifying a Harmonic Grammar (HG) and a set of quantization constraints preferring discrete symbolic states. During optimization, quantization strength gradually increases, increasing the relative harmony of discrete symbolic vs. intermediate blend states. The output of the system therefore reflects the dynamics of optimization, not simply grammatical harmony. With appropriate dynamics, relatively high harmony intermediate states can trap optimization near less globally harmonic but locally optimal symbolic candidates; this can model Yokuts counterbleeding.


Learning Both Variability And Exceptionality In Probabilistic Ot Grammars, Aleksei Nazarov 2018 University of Huddersfield

Learning Both Variability And Exceptionality In Probabilistic Ot Grammars, Aleksei Nazarov

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

The co-existence of variability and exceptionality in the same language, like in Modern Hebrew (Temkin-Martínez 2010), challenges OT-style learners. Probabilistic OT (e.g., Boersma 1998) captures variability, while exceptional words can be identified (e.g., Becker 2009) by inconsistency detection (Tesar 1995) in non-probabilistic OT; no previous proposal can do both. I propose a “soft inconsistency” criterion that identifies exceptional words in the probabilistic Expectation Driven Learning framework (Jarosz 2015), allowing learning of both variability and exceptionality. Tested on simplified Hebrew data, this model learns both the variable default pattern (>=95% accuracy) and the pattern of exceptions (>=95% overall ...


Pedagogy Of Pitch In L2 Blackfoot, Naatosi I. Fish 2018 University of Montana

Pedagogy Of Pitch In L2 Blackfoot, Naatosi I. Fish

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Pitch in Blackfoot is characterized by the raising of relative pitch on a syllable in a word. Pitch is not a consciously recognized piece of information among native speakers or teachers. However, pitch is important as it impacts the meaning of words. This study looks at the efficacy of visual guides for Blackfoot pronunciation of pitch by second language learners. I hypothesized that use of visual assistance would improve pitch pronunciation in second language learners.

Subjects were nine Blackfoot learners recruited on campus. Participants were shown 15 words with images and asked to pronounce them. Subjects were then given pitch ...


Formal Restrictions On Multiple Tiers, Alena Aksenova, Sanket Deshmukh 2018 Stony Brook University

Formal Restrictions On Multiple Tiers, Alena Aksenova, Sanket Deshmukh

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

In this paper, we use harmony systems with multiple feature spreadings as a litmus test for the possible configurations of items involved in certain dependence. The subregular language classes, and the class of tier-based strictly local (TSL) languages in particular, have shown themselves as a good fit for different aspects of natural language. It is also known that there are some patterns that cannot be captured by a single TSL grammar. However, no proposed limitations exist on tier alphabets of several cooperating TSL grammars. While theoretically possible relations among tier alphabets of several TSL grammars are containment, disjunction and intersection ...


Decomposing Phonological Transformations In Serial Derivations, Andrew Lamont 2018 University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Decomposing Phonological Transformations In Serial Derivations, Andrew Lamont

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

While most phonological transformations have been shown to be subsequential, there are tonal processes that do not belong to any subregular class, thereby making it difficult to identify a tighter bound on the complexity of phonological processes than the regular languages. This paper argues that a tighter bound obtains from examining the way transformations are computed: when derived in serial, phonological processes can be decomposed into iterated subsequential maps.


Imdlawn Tashlhiyt Berber Syllabification Is Quantifier-Free, Kristina Strother-Garcia 2018 University of Delaware

Imdlawn Tashlhiyt Berber Syllabification Is Quantifier-Free, Kristina Strother-Garcia

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Imdlawn Tashlhiyt Berber (ITB) is unusual due to its tolerance of non-vocalic syllabic nuclei. Rule-based and constraint-based accounts of ITB syllabification do not directly address the question of how complex the process is. Model theory and formal logic allow for comparison of complexity across different theories of phonology by identifying the computational power (or expressivity) of linguistic formalisms in a grammar-independent way. With these tools, I develop a mathematical formalism for representing ITB syllabification using Quantifier-Free (QF) logic, one of the least powerful logics known. This result indicates that ITB syllabification is relatively simple from a computational standpoint and that ...


Investigating The Consequences Of Iterated Learning In Phonological Typology, Coral Hughto 2018 University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Investigating The Consequences Of Iterated Learning In Phonological Typology, Coral Hughto

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

This work builds on previous investigations of the effects of learning biases on gradient typological predictions in phonology. Our previous work (e.g. Hughto and Pater 2017) used an interactive, agent-based learning model and found robust biases against cumulativity effects in weighted-constraint grammars, and towards more deterministic grammars, where one output accumulates majority probability. This work compares the results of using an iterated learning model, in which “parent” agents teach “child” agents in a generational chain, and finds that these biases are present, but less robust across parameter settings. The deterministic bias was only present with longer learning times; the ...


Similarity-Based Phonological Generalization, Brandon Prickett 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Similarity-Based Phonological Generalization, Brandon Prickett

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Halle (1978) suggested that abstract, partial feature-based representations could explain the generalization seen in phonology. An alternative explanation for this is that the similarity of different sounds causes speakers to treat them similarly (Cristia et al. 2013). To test which explanation better predicts the experimental results of Cristia et al. (2013), I created a MaxEnt learner that uses similarity in its learning update to encourage generalization to similar segments. My learner's predictions match the results found by Cristia et al. (2013) more accurately than a previously proposed MaxEnt learner (Moreton et al. 2017) that relies on generalization caused by ...


A Markedly Different Approach: Investigating Pie Stops Using Modern Empirical Methods, Phillip Barnett 2018 University of Kentucky

A Markedly Different Approach: Investigating Pie Stops Using Modern Empirical Methods, Phillip Barnett

Theses and Dissertations--Linguistics

In this thesis, I investigate a decades-old problem found in the stop system of Proto-Indo-European (PIE). More specifically, I will be investigating the paucity of */b/ in the forms reconstructed for the ancient, hypothetical language. As cross-linguistic evidence and phonological theory alone have fallen short of providing a satisfactory answer, herein will I employ modern empirical methods of linguistic investigation, namely laboratory phonology experiments and computational database analysis. Following Byrd 2015, I advocate for an examination of synchronic phenomena and behavior as a method for investigating diachronic change.

In Chapter 1, I present an overview of the various proposed phonological ...


How To Delete, John J. McCarthy 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

How To Delete, John J. Mccarthy

John J. McCarthy

Using data from Arabic and other languages, this chapter argues that segmental deletion processes are gradual in the sense that segments are lost through attrition rather than all at once. The argument is framed within Harmonic Serialism, a derivational version of Optimality Theory that allows deletion processes to be decomposed into successive reduction steps.


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