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Adding Production To High Variability Phonetic Training, Caleb Crosby 2020 University of Mississippi

Adding Production To High Variability Phonetic Training, Caleb Crosby

Honors Theses

The effectiveness of adding a production component to a High Variability Phonetic Training (HVPT) regimen to improve native Japanese speaker’s pronunciation of English [b], [v], [f], and [h] was investigated. L1 Japanese-speaking English learners were recruited as participants, and a pretest-posttest procedure was used to evaluate improvement at production of the target consonants. For the pretest and posttest, recordings were taken of participants pronouncing twelve tokens, and the recordings were rated for intelligibility by a phonetically trained native English-speaking rater. Participants were divided into two groups. Group A received only HVPT training, and group B received a regimen of ...


Vowel Category And Meanings Of Size In Tolkien's Early Lexicons, Lucas Annear 2020 Valparaiso University

Vowel Category And Meanings Of Size In Tolkien's Early Lexicons, Lucas Annear

Journal of Tolkien Research

The grounds for studying phonetic symbolism (phonosemantics, etc.) in Tolkien's invented languages were well established by Tolkien through comments made in letters, drafts of his works, and essays. Previous researchers (e.g., Smith, 2006; 2007; Gymnich, 2005) have discussed the aesthetic effects of Tolkien's elvish languages on his audience, and have also observed connections between a range of meanings and sounds in Tolkien's languages (e.g., Fimi, 2008; Rausch, 2013). However, no researchers have explored this area of study with quantitative methods. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between vowel quality and meanings ...


Musical Ability And Accent Imitation, Maria Murljacic 2020 University of Connecticut

Musical Ability And Accent Imitation, Maria Murljacic

Honors Scholar Theses

This study investigates the intersection of musical ability and accent imitation, more specifically defining what factors cause a relationship between the two. The study was run on 50 participants, who each completed an accent imitation ability assessment, a musical ability assessment, and an articulation ability assessment. The scores for the accent imitation portion were rated by anonymous online raters. Each participant filled out a questionnaire on prior musical experience and were either classified as a musician or non-musician. The analysis found that those in the musician group performed better on the musical ability, articulation, and accent ability assessment than non-musicians ...


Khmer Phonetics & Phonology: Theoretical Implications For Esl Instruction, Alex Donley 2020 Liberty University

Khmer Phonetics & Phonology: Theoretical Implications For Esl Instruction, Alex Donley

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis develops an approach to English teaching for Khmer-speaking students that centers on Khmer phonetics and phonology. Cambodia has a strong demand for English instruction, but consistently underperforms next to other nations in terms of proficiency. A significant reason for Cambodia’s skill gap is the lack of research into linguistic hurdles Khmer speakers face when learning English. This paper aims to bridge Khmer and English with an understanding of the speech systems that both languages use before turning to the unique challenges Khmer speakers must overcome based on the tenets of L1 Transfer Theory. It closes by outlining ...


Tone Mergers In Spontaneous Speech And Gaps In The Tone Inventory, Naomi Nagy, James Stanford, Holman Tse 2020 University of Toronto

Tone Mergers In Spontaneous Speech And Gaps In The Tone Inventory, Naomi Nagy, James Stanford, Holman Tse

English Faculty Scholarship

We investigate the status of three ongoing tone mergers, comparing Heritage Cantonese in Toronto and Homeland Cantonese in Hong Kong, using conversational recordings from the Heritage Language Variation and Change (HLVC) Corpus (Nagy 2009). The mergers, which have been reported from experimental tasks in several Cantonese dialects (cf. Bauer et al. 2003, Mok et al. 2013, Zhang 2018) are: T2/T5 忍 jɐn35 / 引 jɐn23; T3/T6 印 jɐn33 / 孕 jɐn22; and T4/T6 仁 jɐn11 / 孕 jɐn22. In connected speech, many contextual variables influence the acoustic value of a tone in a given syllable (cf. Stanford 2016), so each ...


The Om/Op ~ Am/Ap Merger In Cantonese: Acoustic Evidence Of A Not Quite Completed Sound Change, Holman Tse 2020 St. Catherine University

The Om/Op ~ Am/Ap Merger In Cantonese: Acoustic Evidence Of A Not Quite Completed Sound Change, Holman Tse

English Faculty Scholarship

According to Bauer & Benedict (1997: 419-420), descriptions of Cantonese published before the 1940s describe a contrast between the om/op and am/ap rime groups (ex: gom2, ‘thus, so’, 噉vs. gam2, ‘embroidered’, 錦). They say that “one presumes that these earlier scholars were making a distinction that actually existed in the Cantonese language of their time; nonetheless, it was one which eventually disappeared from standard Cantonese” (1997: 420). This presentation addresses two questions about this purported contrast by analyzing sociolinguistic interviews (spontaneous speech samples) from speakers born between 1922 and 1998: (1)Is there acoustic evidence of this contrast among Cantonese speakers born before 1940? (2)Does this distinction persist among any speakers born after 1940?Acoustic evidence comes from Lobanov normalized (Thomas & Kendall 2007) midpoint F1 and F2 measurements of 32 speakers (including 24 from Toronto and 8 from Hong Kong), recorded as part of the Heritage Language Variation and Change in ...


The Production And Perception Of Subject Focus Prosody In L2 Spanish, Covadonga Sanchez 2020 University of Massachusettes, Amherst

The Production And Perception Of Subject Focus Prosody In L2 Spanish, Covadonga Sanchez

Doctoral Dissertations

New information can be introduced in discourse through different strategies, including syntactic and prosodic ones. This project provides an account of the syntactic and intonational strategies used for focus-marking in Peninsular Spanish, Mainstream American English and L2 Spanish using parallel experimental designs and a unitary method of analysis within the Autosegmental-Metrical framework for the study of intonation. It provides a comprehensive description of specific phonological categories and their phonetic implementation not only in monolingual speech, but also as they develop in the L2 grammar of Spanish learners with different experiences with the target language, following the premises of the L2 ...


Optimal Linearization: Prosodic Displacement In Khoekhoegowab And Beyond, Leland Kusmer 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Optimal Linearization: Prosodic Displacement In Khoekhoegowab And Beyond, Leland Kusmer

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding the relationship between syntactic structures and linear strings is a challenge for modern syntactic theories. The most complete and widely accepted models — namely, the Headedness Parameter and the Linear Correspondence Axiom (Kayne, 1994) — each capture aspects of this relationship, but are either too permissive or two restrictive: A Headedness Parameter relativized to individual categories permits nearly any linear order which keeps phrases contiguous, even those that violate the Final-Over-Final Constraint (Sheehan et al. 2017); by contrast, the Linear Correspondence Axiom is well-known for ruling out head-final configurations generally. Subsequent models of linearization have typically been modifications of one of ...


“This Is A Stunning, Stunning Night”: News Media Constructions Of Emotional Reality, Karrina Janelle Oravetz 2020 California State University - San Bernardino

“This Is A Stunning, Stunning Night”: News Media Constructions Of Emotional Reality, Karrina Janelle Oravetz

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The news media is one of the main influences of people’s perception, especially during elections. It can have an influence on a voter’s perception during and after the results of an election. One of the issues that arises is that news reports are biased, which affects viewers’ perceptions and interpretations of the information reported. This paper presents an analysis of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in the genre of news media and further shows that prosodic features is another layer of analysis in CDA. I am looking specifically at how news broadcasts construct information after the 2016 election results ...


Computational Approaches To The Syntax–Prosody Interface: Using Prosody To Improve Parsing, Hussein M. Ghaly 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Computational Approaches To The Syntax–Prosody Interface: Using Prosody To Improve Parsing, Hussein M. Ghaly

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Prosody has strong ties with syntax, since prosody can be used to resolve some syntactic ambiguities. Syntactic ambiguities have been shown to negatively impact automatic syntactic parsing, hence there is reason to believe that prosodic information can help improve parsing. This dissertation considers a number of approaches that aim to computationally examine the relationship between prosody and syntax of natural languages, while also addressing the role of syntactic phrase length, with the ultimate goal of using prosody to improve parsing.

Chapter 2 examines the effect of syntactic phrase length on prosody in double center embedded sentences in French. Data collected ...


The Synchronic And Diachronic Phonology Of Nauruan: Towards A Definitive Classification Of An Understudied Micronesian Language, Kevin Hughes 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Synchronic And Diachronic Phonology Of Nauruan: Towards A Definitive Classification Of An Understudied Micronesian Language, Kevin Hughes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Nauruan is a Micronesian language spoken in the Republic of Nauru, a small island nation in the central Pacific. Lack of data and difficulty in analysis has hindered progress in better understanding Nauruan for decades, particularly regarding its phonology and its classification within the Micronesian family. Because of these challenges, earlier researchers have presented their work on Nauruan as highly tentative. This dissertation establishes more confident analyses of Nauruan phonology, sound change and classification, which have been made possible through original fieldwork.

Approximately one hundred hours of digital recordings have been collected as part of this research, including wordlists, phrases ...


Testing The Perceptual Magnet Effect In Monolinguals And Bilinguals, Michael C. Stern 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Testing The Perceptual Magnet Effect In Monolinguals And Bilinguals, Michael C. Stern

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Previous research has demonstrated an apparent warping of the perceptual space whereby the best exemplars or ‘prototypes’ of speech sound categories minimize the perceptual distance between themselves and neighboring stimuli in the same category. This phenomenon has been termed the ‘perceptual magnet effect’ (PME). The present study extends work on the PME to a speech sound category previously unstudied in this paradigm (American English /æ/), and to bilingual speech sound representation and perception. American English monolinguals and Turkish-English bilinguals completed identification tasks, category goodness rating tasks, and same-different discrimination tasks with synthesized vowel sounds from the American English /æ/ category ...


Phonologically-Informed Speech Coding For Automatic Speech Recognition-Based Foreign Language Pronunciation Training, Anthony J. Vicario 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Phonologically-Informed Speech Coding For Automatic Speech Recognition-Based Foreign Language Pronunciation Training, Anthony J. Vicario

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) systems used in foreign-language educational contexts are often not developed with the specific task of second-language acquisition in mind. Systems that are built for this task are often excessively targeted to one native language (L1) or a single phonemic contrast and are therefore burdensome to train. Current algorithms have been shown to provide erroneous feedback to learners and show inconsistencies between human and computer perception. These discrepancies have thus far hindered more extensive application of ASR in educational systems.

This thesis reviews the computational models of the human perception of American ...


Functional Load, Token Frequency, And Contact-Induced Change In Toronto Heritage Cantonese Vowels, Holman Tse 2020 St. Catherine University

Functional Load, Token Frequency, And Contact-Induced Change In Toronto Heritage Cantonese Vowels, Holman Tse

English Faculty Scholarship

Unlike many previous studies of heritage speakers showing phonological maintenance, this presentation will show evidence for a vowel merger among second-generation Toronto Cantonese speakers. Two pairs of vowels are tested for merger. Both pairs are hypothesized to merge due to the lack of similar contrasts in Toronto English: /y/~/u/ and /a/~/ɔ/. Results show merger for only /y/~/u/. This is argued to be due to the lower functional load of /y/~/u/ (three minimal pairs with /y/~/u/, but 105 minimal pairs for /a/~/ɔ/) and due to lower token frequency of /y/ and /u/ compared to /a ...


The Stability Of Segmental Properties Across Genre And Corpus Types In Low-Resource Languages, Uriel Cohen Priva, Shiying Yang, Emily Strand 2020 Brown University

The Stability Of Segmental Properties Across Genre And Corpus Types In Low-Resource Languages, Uriel Cohen Priva, Shiying Yang, Emily Strand

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Are written corpora useful for phonological research? Word frequency lists for low-resource languages have become ubiquitous in recent years (Scannell, 2007). For many languages there is direct correspondence between their written forms and their alphabets, but it is not clear whether written corpora can adequately represent language use. We use 15 low-resource languages and compare several information-theoretic properties across three corpus types. We show that despite differences in origin and genre, estimates in one corpus are highly correlated with estimates in other corpora.


Tier-Based Strictly Local Stringsets: Perspectives From Model And Automata Theory, Dakotah Lambert, James Rogers 2020 Stony Brook University

Tier-Based Strictly Local Stringsets: Perspectives From Model And Automata Theory, Dakotah Lambert, James Rogers

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Defined by Heinz et al. (2011) the Tier-Based Strictly Local (TSL) class of stringsets has not previously been characterized by an abstract property that allows one to prove a stringset's membership or lack thereof. We provide here two such characterizations: a generalization of suffix substitution closure and an algorithm based on deterministic finite-state automata (DFAs). We use the former to prove closure properties of the class. Additionally, we extend the approximation and constraint-extraction algorithms of Rogers and Lambert (2019a) to account for TSL constraints, allowing for free conversion between TSL logical formulae and DFAs.


Extending The Autosegmental Input Strictly Local Framework: Metrical Dominance And Floating Tones, Yuhong Zhu 2020 The Ohio State University

Extending The Autosegmental Input Strictly Local Framework: Metrical Dominance And Floating Tones, Yuhong Zhu

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

This paper extends the empirical coverage of the Autosegmental Input Strictly Local (A-ISL) framework (Chandlee and Jardine, 2019) by analyzing three tonal processes: floating tone suffixation in Cantonese, metrical dominance effect in Shanghai Chinese, and a combination of floating tones and metrical dominance in Suzhou Chinese. I show both the adequacy and inadequacy of the current A-ISL framework: it locally resolves some tonal processes that are otherwise non-local (Shanghai), but fails to account for other empirical data due to a lack of tonal membership specification (Suzhou). With the addition of a morphological affiliation tier, I propose an analysis for the ...


Questioning To Resolve Transduction Problems, Eric Meinhardt, Anna Mai, Eric Bakovic, Adam McCollum 2020 UC San Diego

Questioning To Resolve Transduction Problems, Eric Meinhardt, Anna Mai, Eric Bakovic, Adam Mccollum

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Elgot & Mezei (1965) show that non-deterministic regular functions (NDRFs) 𝚽 are compositions ρ ⚬ λ of two contradirectional subsequential functions (SSQs), where λ is unbounded lookahead for ρ. Such decompositions facilitate the identification of processes that require supra-SSQ expressivity. We use concepts adapted from decision theory to outline a set of necessary and sufficient properties for a composition ρ ⚬ λ to define a non-SSQ NDRF 𝚽. These conditions define a set of functions between the IF-WDRFs (McCollum et al. 2018, Hao & Andersson 2019) and proper NDRFs, organized in terms of a precise notion of the degree of lookahead that λ provides ...


Frequency Matching Behavior In On-Line Maxent Learners, Charlie O'Hara 2020 University of Southern California

Frequency Matching Behavior In On-Line Maxent Learners, Charlie O'Hara

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

No abstract provided.


Modelling Non-Local Maps As Strictly Piecewise Functions, Phillip A. Burness, Kevin McMullin 2020 University of Ottawa, Canada

Modelling Non-Local Maps As Strictly Piecewise Functions, Phillip A. Burness, Kevin Mcmullin

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

No abstract provided.


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