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A Sociophonetic Analysis Of Albuquerque Drag Queens, Lindsay Morrone 2018 University of New Mexico

A Sociophonetic Analysis Of Albuquerque Drag Queens, Lindsay Morrone

Shared Knowledge Conference

Although anyone can be assumed to engage in style-shifting to construct a persona (e.g. Podesva 2007b, Eckert 2008), in the case of drag performers it can be argued that style-shifting results not in an alternate persona but in a performative identity. With this hypothesis in mind, this case study uses a style-shifting paradigm to explore the varying social meanings of phonation type and vowel quality in the construction of a drag queen identity. The speech of two gay male Hispanic drag queens (DQs) from Albuquerque, New Mexico (ABQ) was investigated in various speech situations to identify social meanings indexed ...


Selective Stimulability In The Speech And Language Assessment Of Bilingual Children With Selective Mutism, Elizabeth Harbaugh , M.S., CCC-SLP, Raul F. Prezas , Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Robin L. Edge , Ph.D., CCC-SLP 2018 Texas Christian University

Selective Stimulability In The Speech And Language Assessment Of Bilingual Children With Selective Mutism, Elizabeth Harbaugh , M.S., Ccc-Slp, Raul F. Prezas , Ph.D., Ccc-Slp, Robin L. Edge , Ph.D., Ccc-Slp

Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice

English Language Learners (ELLs) with Selective Mutism (SM) mirror their typically developing, bilingual peers who are going through the silent period. The silent period is a normal phenomenon characterized by decreased expressive language and a general lack of communication that is temporary. Understanding second language acquisition and differentiating SM from the silent period, however, is critical to reduce over- and under-identification of children for services. Whereas bilingual children with SM do not speak in either of their languages, bilingual children in the silent period are only silent in their second language. Although limited information exists regarding assessment and treatment for ...


The Sound Patterns Of Kachok In The Context Of Bahnaric And North-Bahnaric Studies, Emily L. Olsen 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Sound Patterns Of Kachok In The Context Of Bahnaric And North-Bahnaric Studies, Emily L. Olsen

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation presents a description of the sound patterns of Kachok, Austroasiatic language spoken in northeastern Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia. The language is spoken by approximately 3000 people and is considered endangered (Simons & Fennig, 2018). Kachok is undocumented, and this dissertation is the first attempt to describe the language and its sound patterns. The goals of this dissertation are twofold: to contribute to linguistics and the science of phonetics and phonological typology, as well as increase the body of work on Austro-Asiatic languages, and to create resources for the Kachok language, culture, and people that have the potential to outlive the ...


Phonetic Properties Of Oral Stops In Three Languages With No Voicing Distinction, Stephanie M. Kakadelis 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Phonetic Properties Of Oral Stops In Three Languages With No Voicing Distinction, Stephanie M. Kakadelis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Almost all studies on the phonetics of oral stop voicing patterns focus on languages with a voicing distinction. This gives rise to some debate regarding which aspects of voicing patterns arise from inherent articulatory effects related to the production of a voicing distinction, and which aspects are intentional adjustments by speakers meant to enhance a phonological contrast.

This study investigates the phonetic properties of oral stops in three No Voicing Distinction (NVD) languages; Bardi (bcj), Arapaho (arp), and Sierra Norte de Puebla Nahuatl (azz). NVD languages do not utilize the larynx to maintain a contrast between any two sounds in ...


Coarticulation In Two Fricative-Vowel Sequences Of Latin American Spanish, Jeff Renaud 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Coarticulation In Two Fricative-Vowel Sequences Of Latin American Spanish, Jeff Renaud

Celebration of Learning

Dialectal surveys of Latin American Spanish (Perissinotto 1975, Resnick 1975) describe three main possible pronunciations for fu (fuego 'fire') and fo (foco 'focus') sequences: faithful [f], velarized [x], and bilabialized [ɸ], in order of frequency. While the velar realization has received phonetic and theoretical consideration (Lipski 1995, Mazzaro 2011), little is understood about the voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ] in Spanish. This paper describes a three-part production study to uniformly account for the unfaithful velar and bilabial realizations.

Mazzaro (2011) explains the velar [x] variant by arguing that, given the acoustic similarity of, e.g., [fu]/[xu], listeners misperceive a speaker ...


English Influence On L2 Speakers’ Production Of Palatalization And Velarization, Jennifer C. Gabriele 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

English Influence On L2 Speakers’ Production Of Palatalization And Velarization, Jennifer C. Gabriele

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Irish is a Celtic language spoken in Ireland. It is currently endangered with only 73,803 people using the language on a daily basis as of 2016 (Official Office of Statistics, 2016). The reason for the decline is that English is the dominate language, pushing Irish to the periphery. Revitalization efforts have been put into place in an attempt to revitalize the language. There has been a growth in L2 speakers of Irish. The position of English as the dominate language, and high amounts of L2 speakers creates an environment where English is likely to influence the Irish language. The ...


Purepecha Aspirated Consonants And Their Phonetic Variants, Lluvia Camacho Cervantes 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Purepecha Aspirated Consonants And Their Phonetic Variants, Lluvia Camacho Cervantes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study describes phonetic realizations of aspirated phonemes in Purepecha [pua] from Azajo. The distribution of aspiration in Purepecha is limited to roots, a small number of spatial suffixes, one argument structure changing suffix, and clitics. Aspiration is never contrastive for inflexional suffixes, which occur in word final position. There are three basic allophones of aspirated segments: (i) post-aspirated; (ii) unaspirated, (iii) pre-aspirated, with pre-aspiration showing 4 distinct phonetic forms, depending on dialect, and phonetic context. Strengthening of pre-aspiration has been documented in the Lake and Sierra dialects as well as vowel lengthening in the Lake dialect. In Azajo Purepecha ...


Speech Perception In “Bubble” Noise: Korean Fricatives And Affricates By Native And Non-Native Korean Listeners, Jiyoung Choi 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Speech Perception In “Bubble” Noise: Korean Fricatives And Affricates By Native And Non-Native Korean Listeners, Jiyoung Choi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The current study examines acoustic cues used by second language learners of Korean to discriminate between Korean fricatives and affricates in noise and how these cues relate to those used by native Korean listeners. Stimuli consist of naturally-spoken consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel (CVCV) syllables: /sɑdɑ/, /s*ɑdɑ/, /tʃɑdɑ/, /tʃhɑdɑ/, and /tʃ*ɑdɑ/. In this experiment, the “bubble noise” methodology of Mandel at al. (2016) was used to identify the time-frequency locations of important cues in each utterance, i.e., where audibility of the location is significantly correlated with correct identification of the utterance in noise. Results show that non-native Korean listeners ...


El Andaluz Y El Español Estadounidense: Exploring Traces Of Andalusian Sibilants In U.S. Spanish, Carolyn M. Siegman 2018 Macalester College

El Andaluz Y El Español Estadounidense: Exploring Traces Of Andalusian Sibilants In U.S. Spanish, Carolyn M. Siegman

Hispanic Studies Honors Projects

The Andalucista Theory claims that Andalusian Spanish was particularly influential during the development of Spanish in Latin America during the time of Spanish colonization. The present study seeks to examine traces of Andalusian Spanish in Spanish in the United States, considering the added level of complexity brought by contact with English and heightened contact with other dialects of Spanish. By examining 10 interviews from Andalusian Spanish speakers and 12 interviews from Spanish speakers in the U.S., we provide a comparison of the modern-day phonetic realizations of , , and in these two distant linguistic regions.


Fresa Style In Mexico: Sociolinguistic Stereotypes And The Variability Of Social Meanings, Rebeca Martinez Gomez 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Fresa Style In Mexico: Sociolinguistic Stereotypes And The Variability Of Social Meanings, Rebeca Martinez Gomez

Linguistics ETDs

This dissertation examines the flexibility in the social meanings of sociolinguistic stereotypes and how linguistic and non-linguistic information affect these meanings. The investigation consists of four empirical studies surrounding the case of fresas in Mexico –members of the upper class that are perceived as using a unique linguistic style.

Study 1 investigates the linguistic and non-linguistic characteristics associated with the fresa stereotype. Through a qualitative analysis of 64 webpages and 3 performances of the style, it is shown that fresasare perceived as the counterpart of another construct, nacos,and that their linguistic style is linked to English due to ...


Stress Perception In L1 And L2 Spanish And English, Jessica Campbell 2018 College of William and Mary

Stress Perception In L1 And L2 Spanish And English, Jessica Campbell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Word-level stress, which occurs on a specific syllable of each word, aids lexical access and helps distinguish word boundaries. Three correlates are most often used in languages to denote stress: pitch, vowel duration, and intensity. However, languages differ on which of these correlates are most important or necessary at all: for Spanish, pitch is the primary correlate, but for English, duration is more important. The goal of this investigation was to determine the differences in perception of duration, pitch, or both together for bilingual speakers of English and Spanish in countries with differing dominant languages. Half of the participants (native ...


En Busca Del Diamante: Using Tasks To Mitigate Word Reduction In Spoken Learner Spanish, Sergio Ruiz-Pérez, Lorena Alarcón, Avizia Long 2018 Texas Tech University

En Busca Del Diamante: Using Tasks To Mitigate Word Reduction In Spoken Learner Spanish, Sergio Ruiz-Pérez, Lorena Alarcón, Avizia Long

Faculty Publications

A common feature of second language Spanish, particularly in the case of native English-speaking learners, is to shorten or reduce segments within words (Schwegler & Kempff, 2007). This is particularly noticeable with multi-syllabic words (e.g., ingeniería, floristería, cafetería), and mispronunciations during second language interaction influence speech intelligibility. To address this pronunciation challenge and provide learners with opportunities for practice of words that demonstrate this reduction, we designed a two-way information gap task to draw learners' attention to these words in second language Spanish interaction. We specifically used principles of task-based language teaching and learning (e.g., Ellis, 2009; M. H. Long, 2015; Robinson, 2011; Skehan, 2014) to make pronunciation of these words task essential or necessary for completion of the task (cf. Solon, Long, & Gurzynski-Weiss, 2017).


Korean Learners' Acquisition Of Intervocalic /B D G/ In Spanish, Avizia Long 2018 Texas Tech University

Korean Learners' Acquisition Of Intervocalic /B D G/ In Spanish, Avizia Long

Faculty Publications

Research on the second language (L2) acquisition of the voiced intervocalic stops /b d g/ in Spanish (e.g., lobo “wolf,” lado “side,” lago “lake”) has been instrumental in analyzing and describing the process by which learners acquire aspects of a L2 sound system. However, this particular strand of research has been conducted nearly exclusively on native English-speaking learners (e.g., Bongiovanni et al., 2015; Cabrelli Amaro, 2017; Díaz-Campos, 2004; Face & Menke, 2009; Lord, 2010; Zampini, 1994, 1997), limiting the generalizability of attested findings to learners of distinct first language (L1) backgrounds. This study examined 66 native Korean-speaking learners’ acquisition of intervocalic ...


Investigating Prosodic Accommodation In Clinical Interviews With Depressed Patients, Brian Vaughan, Carolina De Pasquale, Lorna Wilson, Charlie Cullen, Brian Lawlor 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland

Investigating Prosodic Accommodation In Clinical Interviews With Depressed Patients, Brian Vaughan, Carolina De Pasquale, Lorna Wilson, Charlie Cullen, Brian Lawlor

Conference Papers

Six in-depth clinical interviews, involving six elderly female patients (aged 60+) and one female psychiatrist, were recorded and analysed for a number of prosodic accommodation variables.

Our analysis focused on pitch, speaking time, and vowel-space ratio. Findings indicate that there is a dynamic manifestation of prosodic accommodation over the course of the interactions. There is clear adaptation on the part of the psychiatrist, even going so far as to have a reduced vowel-space ratio, mirroring a reduced vowel-space ratio in the depressed patients. Previous research has found a reduced vowel-space ratio to be associated with psychological distress; however, we suggest ...


The Organization Of Lexicons: A Cross-Linguistic Analysis Of Monosyllabic Words, Shiying Yang, Chelsea Sanker, Uriel Cohen Priva 2018 Brown University

The Organization Of Lexicons: A Cross-Linguistic Analysis Of Monosyllabic Words, Shiying Yang, Chelsea Sanker, Uriel Cohen Priva

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Lexicons utilize a fraction of licit structures. Different theories predict either that lexicons prioritize contrastiveness or structural economy. Study 1 finds that the monosyllabic lexicon of Mandarin is no more distinctive than a randomly sampled baseline using the phonological inventory. Study 2 finds that the lexicons of Mandarin and American English have fewer phonotactically complex words than the random baseline: Words tend not to have multiple low-probability components. This suggests that phonological constraints can have superadditive penalties for combined violations, consistent with e.g. Albright (ms.).


A Graph Theoretic Approach For Generating Hypotheses About Phonetic Cues In Speech, Anne Marie Crinnion, Beth Malmskog, Joe Toscano 2018 Harvard University

A Graph Theoretic Approach For Generating Hypotheses About Phonetic Cues In Speech, Anne Marie Crinnion, Beth Malmskog, Joe Toscano

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Current models of speech perception suggest that combining acoustic cues and factoring out contextual variability allows listeners to recognize speech across different talkers. However, it remains unclear which specific cues are necessary and how their use varies between individual talkers. We use graph theoretic techniques to address these problems by constructing networks connecting talkers and possible cues. We identify subgraphs (Steiner trees) that connect talkers via cues consistently used to indicate specific phonemes. Classifiers trained on these cues match listeners' data better than those trained on all cues, suggesting that Steiner trees can identify the cues necessary for speech recognition.


Allomorph Discovery As A Basis For Learning Alternations, Bruce P. Hayes 2018 UCLA

Allomorph Discovery As A Basis For Learning Alternations, Bruce P. Hayes

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

No abstract provided.


Phonological Opacity As Local Optimization In Gradient Symbolic Computation, Anna Mai, Eric Bakovic, Matt Goldrick 2018 University of California, San Diego

Phonological Opacity As Local Optimization In Gradient Symbolic Computation, Anna Mai, Eric Bakovic, Matt Goldrick

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

We present a novel approach to counterbleeding rule interactions in Yokuts (Californian) using Gradient Symbolic Computation (GSC). GSC, a dynamical systems model, optimizes two constraint sets: a set specifying a Harmonic Grammar (HG) and a set of quantization constraints preferring discrete symbolic states. During optimization, quantization strength gradually increases, increasing the relative harmony of discrete symbolic vs. intermediate blend states. The output of the system therefore reflects the dynamics of optimization, not simply grammatical harmony. With appropriate dynamics, relatively high harmony intermediate states can trap optimization near less globally harmonic but locally optimal symbolic candidates; this can model Yokuts counterbleeding.


Learning Both Variability And Exceptionality In Probabilistic Ot Grammars, Aleksei Nazarov 2018 University of Huddersfield

Learning Both Variability And Exceptionality In Probabilistic Ot Grammars, Aleksei Nazarov

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

The co-existence of variability and exceptionality in the same language, like in Modern Hebrew (Temkin-Martínez 2010), challenges OT-style learners. Probabilistic OT (e.g., Boersma 1998) captures variability, while exceptional words can be identified (e.g., Becker 2009) by inconsistency detection (Tesar 1995) in non-probabilistic OT; no previous proposal can do both. I propose a “soft inconsistency” criterion that identifies exceptional words in the probabilistic Expectation Driven Learning framework (Jarosz 2015), allowing learning of both variability and exceptionality. Tested on simplified Hebrew data, this model learns both the variable default pattern (>=95% accuracy) and the pattern of exceptions (>=95% overall ...


Formal Restrictions On Multiple Tiers, Alena Aksenova, Sanket Deshmukh 2018 Stony Brook University

Formal Restrictions On Multiple Tiers, Alena Aksenova, Sanket Deshmukh

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

In this paper, we use harmony systems with multiple feature spreadings as a litmus test for the possible configurations of items involved in certain dependence. The subregular language classes, and the class of tier-based strictly local (TSL) languages in particular, have shown themselves as a good fit for different aspects of natural language. It is also known that there are some patterns that cannot be captured by a single TSL grammar. However, no proposed limitations exist on tier alphabets of several cooperating TSL grammars. While theoretically possible relations among tier alphabets of several TSL grammars are containment, disjunction and intersection ...


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