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Phonetics and Phonology Commons

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L2 Learners And The Intelligiblity Of The Bostonian And Californian Accents, Russell Paul Kapryn 2019 California State University - San Bernardino

L2 Learners And The Intelligiblity Of The Bostonian And Californian Accents, Russell Paul Kapryn

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This thesis investigates issues of intelligibility through the lens and focus of prosody when the Bostonian and Los Angeles-based accents are heard in casually occurring conversation by native and non-native speakers. Over the spring and summer of 2017, six native speakers and 11 non-native speakers of English were interviewed from having listened to two 2.5 minute audio sample clips of speakers who have these accents. Respondents were asked questions such as what was difficult or easy or whether they could summarize the recordings for me. Findings indicate that while the native speakers often had difficulty with vocabulary due to ...


Text-Speech Alignment: A Robin Hood Approach For Endangered Languages, Claire Bowern, Rikker Dockum, Sarah Babinski, Hunter Craft, Anelisa Fergus, Dolly Goldenberg 2019 Yale University

Text-Speech Alignment: A Robin Hood Approach For Endangered Languages, Claire Bowern, Rikker Dockum, Sarah Babinski, Hunter Craft, Anelisa Fergus, Dolly Goldenberg

Yale Day of Data

Forced alignment automatically aligns audio recordings of spoken language with transcripts at the level of individual sounds, greatly reducing the time required to prepare data for linguistic analysis. However, existing algorithms are mostly trained on a few well-documented languages. We test the performance of three algorithms against manually aligned data on data from a highly endangered language. At least some tasks, unsupervised alignment (either based on English or trained from a small corpus) is sufficiently reliable for it to be used on legacy data for low-resource languages. Descriptive phonetic work on vowel inventories and prosody can be accurately captured by ...


Q-Theory Representations Are Logically Equivalent To Autosegmental Representations, Nick Danis, Adam Jardine 2019 Princeton University

Q-Theory Representations Are Logically Equivalent To Autosegmental Representations, Nick Danis, Adam Jardine

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

We use model theory and logical interpretations to systematically compare two competing representational theories in phonology, Q-Theory (Shih and Inkelas, 2014, forthcoming) and Autosegmental Phonology (Goldsmith, 1976). We find that, under reasonable assumptions for capturing tone patterns, Q-Theory Representations are equivalent to Autosegmental Representations, in that any constraint that can be written in one theory can be written in another. This contradicts the assertions of Shih and Inkelas, who claim that Q-Theory Representations are different from, and superior to, Autosegmental Representations.


Segmentation And Ur Acquisition With Ur Constraints, Max Nelson 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Segmentation And Ur Acquisition With Ur Constraints, Max Nelson

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

This paper presents a model that treats segmentation and underlying representation acquisition as parallel, interacting processes. A probability distribution over mappings from underlying to surface forms is defined us- ing a Maximum Entropy grammar which weights a set of underlying representation constraints (URCs) (Apoussidou, 2007; Pater et al., 2012). URCs are induced from observed surface strings and used to generate candidates. Structural ambiguity arising from the com- parison of segmented outputs to unsegmented surface strings is handled with Expectation Maximization (Dempster et al., 1977; Jarosz, 2013). The model successfully learns a simple voicing assimilation rule and segmentation via correspondences between ...


Learning Exceptionality And Variation With Lexically Scaled Maxent, Coral Hughto, Andrew Lamont, Brandon Prickett, Gaja Jarosz 2019 University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Learning Exceptionality And Variation With Lexically Scaled Maxent, Coral Hughto, Andrew Lamont, Brandon Prickett, Gaja Jarosz

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

A growing body of research in phonology addresses the representation and learning of variable processes and exceptional, lexically conditioned processes. Linzen et al. (2013) present a MaxEnt model with additive lexical scales to account for data exhibiting both variation and exceptionality. In this paper, we implement a learning model for lexically scaled MaxEnt grammars which we show to be successful across a range of data containing patterns of variation and exceptionality. We also explore how the model's parameters and the rate of exceptionality in the data influence its performance and predictions for novel forms.


Rnn Classification Of English Vowels: Nasalized Or Not, Ling Liu, Mans Hulden, Rebecca Scarborough 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

Rnn Classification Of English Vowels: Nasalized Or Not, Ling Liu, Mans Hulden, Rebecca Scarborough

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Vowel nasality is perceived and used by English listeners though it is not phonemic. Feature-based classifiers have been built to evaluate what features are useful for nasality perception and measurement. These classifiers require heavy high-level feature engineering with most features discrete and measured at discrete points. Recurrent neural networks can take advantage of sequential information, and has the advantage of freeing us from high-level feature engineering and potentially being stronger simulation models with a holistic view. Therefore, we constructed two types of RNN classifiers (vanilla RNN and LSTM) with MFCCs of the vowel as input to predict whether the vowel ...


The Effects Of Code-Mixing On Second Language Development, Aimee K. Spice 2018 Cedarville University

The Effects Of Code-Mixing On Second Language Development, Aimee K. Spice

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

Second language development is an important topic of discussion in an increasingly multilingual world. This study aims to examine and detail research on the effects of code-mixing (CM) on second language development, answering how CM facilitates or constrains second language acquisition. Peer-reviewed articles on the topic published between 2013 and 2018 were examined and synthesized. Language learners/multilinguals answered questionnaires about their views on CM and second language acquisition, and a language teacher was interviewed regarding use of L1 in the language classroom and CM as a pedagogical tool. This study found that CM can be a beneficial tool for ...


A Sociophonetic Analysis Of Albuquerque Drag Queens, Lindsay Morrone 2018 University of New Mexico

A Sociophonetic Analysis Of Albuquerque Drag Queens, Lindsay Morrone

Shared Knowledge Conference

Although anyone can be assumed to engage in style-shifting to construct a persona (e.g. Podesva 2007b, Eckert 2008), in the case of drag performers it can be argued that style-shifting results not in an alternate persona but in a performative identity. With this hypothesis in mind, this case study uses a style-shifting paradigm to explore the varying social meanings of phonation type and vowel quality in the construction of a drag queen identity. The speech of two gay male Hispanic drag queens (DQs) from Albuquerque, New Mexico (ABQ) was investigated in various speech situations to identify social meanings indexed ...


Selective Stimulability In The Speech And Language Assessment Of Bilingual Children With Selective Mutism, Elizabeth Harbaugh , M.S., CCC-SLP, Raul F. Prezas , Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Robin L. Edge , Ph.D., CCC-SLP 2018 Texas Christian University

Selective Stimulability In The Speech And Language Assessment Of Bilingual Children With Selective Mutism, Elizabeth Harbaugh , M.S., Ccc-Slp, Raul F. Prezas , Ph.D., Ccc-Slp, Robin L. Edge , Ph.D., Ccc-Slp

Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice

English Language Learners (ELLs) with Selective Mutism (SM) mirror their typically developing, bilingual peers who are going through the silent period. The silent period is a normal phenomenon characterized by decreased expressive language and a general lack of communication that is temporary. Understanding second language acquisition and differentiating SM from the silent period, however, is critical to reduce over- and under-identification of children for services. Whereas bilingual children with SM do not speak in either of their languages, bilingual children in the silent period are only silent in their second language. Although limited information exists regarding assessment and treatment for ...


The Sound Patterns Of Kachok In The Context Of Bahnaric And North-Bahnaric Studies, Emily L. Olsen 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Sound Patterns Of Kachok In The Context Of Bahnaric And North-Bahnaric Studies, Emily L. Olsen

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation presents a description of the sound patterns of Kachok, Austroasiatic language spoken in northeastern Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia. The language is spoken by approximately 3000 people and is considered endangered (Simons & Fennig, 2018). Kachok is undocumented, and this dissertation is the first attempt to describe the language and its sound patterns. The goals of this dissertation are twofold: to contribute to linguistics and the science of phonetics and phonological typology, as well as increase the body of work on Austro-Asiatic languages, and to create resources for the Kachok language, culture, and people that have the potential to outlive the ...


Phonetic Properties Of Oral Stops In Three Languages With No Voicing Distinction, Stephanie M. Kakadelis 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Phonetic Properties Of Oral Stops In Three Languages With No Voicing Distinction, Stephanie M. Kakadelis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Almost all studies on the phonetics of oral stop voicing patterns focus on languages with a voicing distinction. This gives rise to some debate regarding which aspects of voicing patterns arise from inherent articulatory effects related to the production of a voicing distinction, and which aspects are intentional adjustments by speakers meant to enhance a phonological contrast.

This study investigates the phonetic properties of oral stops in three No Voicing Distinction (NVD) languages; Bardi (bcj), Arapaho (arp), and Sierra Norte de Puebla Nahuatl (azz). NVD languages do not utilize the larynx to maintain a contrast between any two sounds in ...


Coarticulation In Two Fricative-Vowel Sequences Of Latin American Spanish, Jeff Renaud 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Coarticulation In Two Fricative-Vowel Sequences Of Latin American Spanish, Jeff Renaud

Celebration of Learning

Dialectal surveys of Latin American Spanish (Perissinotto 1975, Resnick 1975) describe three main possible pronunciations for fu (fuego 'fire') and fo (foco 'focus') sequences: faithful [f], velarized [x], and bilabialized [ɸ], in order of frequency. While the velar realization has received phonetic and theoretical consideration (Lipski 1995, Mazzaro 2011), little is understood about the voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ] in Spanish. This paper describes a three-part production study to uniformly account for the unfaithful velar and bilabial realizations.

Mazzaro (2011) explains the velar [x] variant by arguing that, given the acoustic similarity of, e.g., [fu]/[xu], listeners misperceive a speaker ...


Speech Perception In “Bubble” Noise: Korean Fricatives And Affricates By Native And Non-Native Korean Listeners, Jiyoung Choi 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Speech Perception In “Bubble” Noise: Korean Fricatives And Affricates By Native And Non-Native Korean Listeners, Jiyoung Choi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The current study examines acoustic cues used by second language learners of Korean to discriminate between Korean fricatives and affricates in noise and how these cues relate to those used by native Korean listeners. Stimuli consist of naturally-spoken consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel (CVCV) syllables: /sɑdɑ/, /s*ɑdɑ/, /tʃɑdɑ/, /tʃhɑdɑ/, and /tʃ*ɑdɑ/. In this experiment, the “bubble noise” methodology of Mandel at al. (2016) was used to identify the time-frequency locations of important cues in each utterance, i.e., where audibility of the location is significantly correlated with correct identification of the utterance in noise. Results show that non-native Korean listeners ...


English Influence On L2 Speakers’ Production Of Palatalization And Velarization, Jennifer C. Gabriele 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

English Influence On L2 Speakers’ Production Of Palatalization And Velarization, Jennifer C. Gabriele

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Irish is a Celtic language spoken in Ireland. It is currently endangered with only 73,803 people using the language on a daily basis as of 2016 (Official Office of Statistics, 2016). The reason for the decline is that English is the dominate language, pushing Irish to the periphery. Revitalization efforts have been put into place in an attempt to revitalize the language. There has been a growth in L2 speakers of Irish. The position of English as the dominate language, and high amounts of L2 speakers creates an environment where English is likely to influence the Irish language. The ...


Purepecha Aspirated Consonants And Their Phonetic Variants, Lluvia Camacho Cervantes 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Purepecha Aspirated Consonants And Their Phonetic Variants, Lluvia Camacho Cervantes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study describes phonetic realizations of aspirated phonemes in Purepecha [pua] from Azajo. The distribution of aspiration in Purepecha is limited to roots, a small number of spatial suffixes, one argument structure changing suffix, and clitics. Aspiration is never contrastive for inflexional suffixes, which occur in word final position. There are three basic allophones of aspirated segments: (i) post-aspirated; (ii) unaspirated, (iii) pre-aspirated, with pre-aspiration showing 4 distinct phonetic forms, depending on dialect, and phonetic context. Strengthening of pre-aspiration has been documented in the Lake and Sierra dialects as well as vowel lengthening in the Lake dialect. In Azajo Purepecha ...


El Andaluz Y El Español Estadounidense: Exploring Traces Of Andalusian Sibilants In U.S. Spanish, Carolyn M. Siegman 2018 Macalester College

El Andaluz Y El Español Estadounidense: Exploring Traces Of Andalusian Sibilants In U.S. Spanish, Carolyn M. Siegman

Hispanic Studies Honors Projects

The Andalucista Theory claims that Andalusian Spanish was particularly influential during the development of Spanish in Latin America during the time of Spanish colonization. The present study seeks to examine traces of Andalusian Spanish in Spanish in the United States, considering the added level of complexity brought by contact with English and heightened contact with other dialects of Spanish. By examining 10 interviews from Andalusian Spanish speakers and 12 interviews from Spanish speakers in the U.S., we provide a comparison of the modern-day phonetic realizations of , , and in these two distant linguistic regions.


Fresa Style In Mexico: Sociolinguistic Stereotypes And The Variability Of Social Meanings, Rebeca Martinez Gomez 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Fresa Style In Mexico: Sociolinguistic Stereotypes And The Variability Of Social Meanings, Rebeca Martinez Gomez

Linguistics ETDs

This dissertation examines the flexibility in the social meanings of sociolinguistic stereotypes and how linguistic and non-linguistic information affect these meanings. The investigation consists of four empirical studies surrounding the case of fresas in Mexico –members of the upper class that are perceived as using a unique linguistic style.

Study 1 investigates the linguistic and non-linguistic characteristics associated with the fresa stereotype. Through a qualitative analysis of 64 webpages and 3 performances of the style, it is shown that fresasare perceived as the counterpart of another construct, nacos,and that their linguistic style is linked to English due to ...


Stress Perception In L1 And L2 Spanish And English, Jessica Campbell 2018 College of William and Mary

Stress Perception In L1 And L2 Spanish And English, Jessica Campbell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Word-level stress, which occurs on a specific syllable of each word, aids lexical access and helps distinguish word boundaries. Three correlates are most often used in languages to denote stress: pitch, vowel duration, and intensity. However, languages differ on which of these correlates are most important or necessary at all: for Spanish, pitch is the primary correlate, but for English, duration is more important. The goal of this investigation was to determine the differences in perception of duration, pitch, or both together for bilingual speakers of English and Spanish in countries with differing dominant languages. Half of the participants (native ...


En Busca Del Diamante: Using Tasks To Mitigate Word Reduction In Spoken Learner Spanish, Sergio Ruiz-Pérez, Lorena Alarcón, Avizia Long 2018 Texas Tech University

En Busca Del Diamante: Using Tasks To Mitigate Word Reduction In Spoken Learner Spanish, Sergio Ruiz-Pérez, Lorena Alarcón, Avizia Long

Faculty Publications

A common feature of second language Spanish, particularly in the case of native English-speaking learners, is to shorten or reduce segments within words (Schwegler & Kempff, 2007). This is particularly noticeable with multi-syllabic words (e.g., ingeniería, floristería, cafetería), and mispronunciations during second language interaction influence speech intelligibility. To address this pronunciation challenge and provide learners with opportunities for practice of words that demonstrate this reduction, we designed a two-way information gap task to draw learners' attention to these words in second language Spanish interaction. We specifically used principles of task-based language teaching and learning (e.g., Ellis, 2009; M. H. Long, 2015; Robinson, 2011; Skehan, 2014) to make pronunciation of these words task essential or necessary for completion of the task (cf. Solon, Long, & Gurzynski-Weiss, 2017).


Korean Learners' Acquisition Of Intervocalic /B D G/ In Spanish, Avizia Long 2018 Texas Tech University

Korean Learners' Acquisition Of Intervocalic /B D G/ In Spanish, Avizia Long

Faculty Publications

Research on the second language (L2) acquisition of the voiced intervocalic stops /b d g/ in Spanish (e.g., lobo “wolf,” lado “side,” lago “lake”) has been instrumental in analyzing and describing the process by which learners acquire aspects of a L2 sound system. However, this particular strand of research has been conducted nearly exclusively on native English-speaking learners (e.g., Bongiovanni et al., 2015; Cabrelli Amaro, 2017; Díaz-Campos, 2004; Face & Menke, 2009; Lord, 2010; Zampini, 1994, 1997), limiting the generalizability of attested findings to learners of distinct first language (L1) backgrounds. This study examined 66 native Korean-speaking learners’ acquisition of intervocalic ...


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