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Language Analysis Skills Of Children With Mental Retardation, Hyla Rubin 2016 The College of New Rochelle

Language Analysis Skills Of Children With Mental Retardation, Hyla Rubin

Hyla Rubin

The ability of children with moderate mental retardation to analyze orally presented sentences into words and words into syllables and phonemes was studied. The subjects, ages 10 to 15, were grouped by method of reading instruction. All of them could analyze spoken sentences into words and words into syllables equally well. However, subjects receiving code-emphasis reading instruction performed significantly better on the more difficult phoneme manipulation tasks than did subjects receiving whole-word instruction. Results suggest that code-emphasis reading instruction for some subjects with mental retardation should be used. Further research on linguistic analysis skills and the use of code-emphasis reading ...


Integrating Sound Symbolism With Core Grammar: The Case Of Expressive Palatalization, John Alderete, Alexei Kochetov 2016 Simon Fraser University

Integrating Sound Symbolism With Core Grammar: The Case Of Expressive Palatalization, John Alderete, Alexei Kochetov

Alexei Kochetov

Fifty cases of sound-symbolic expressive palatalization were collected in a typological survey of babytalk registers, diminutive constructions, and other sound symbolic systems. Analysis of the typological trends and language-particular examples reveals important differences between expressive palatalization and phonologically motivated palatalization. To account for expressive palatalization, we propose a novel set of Express(X) constraints in Optimality Theory. The integration of the Express(X) constraints with the rest of phonology is shown to explain the typological differences between expressive and phonological palatalization, account for the phonological extension of expressive palatalization, and constitute a general theoretical framework for sound symbolic phonological patterns.


An On-Line Supplement To Alderete & Kochetov (To Appear), Language, John Alderete, Alexei Kochetov 2016 Simon Fraser University

An On-Line Supplement To Alderete & Kochetov (To Appear), Language, John Alderete, Alexei Kochetov

Alexei Kochetov

No abstract provided.


Phonological Awareness: Normally Developing And Language Delayed Children, Hyla Rubin 2016 The College of New Rochelle

Phonological Awareness: Normally Developing And Language Delayed Children, Hyla Rubin

Hyla Rubin

This study compared 15 nonnal and 13 language delayed fourand five-year-old children on a range of tasks of phonological awareness. The tasks differed in the degree of explicit linguistic analysis that was required. The language delayed group always performed below the level of the nonnal children, and there were significant group differences on several tasks. A significant interaction effect reflected the greater difficulty language delayed children experienced with tasks that required the most explicit analysis. The tasks used in this study could be used in intervention research with language delayed children. They can also be used in therapy and classroom ...


Contextualized Recognition Of Fingerspelled Words, Campbell McDermid, Lynn Finton, Alexis Chasney 2016 National Technical Institute for the Deaf

Contextualized Recognition Of Fingerspelled Words, Campbell Mcdermid, Lynn Finton, Alexis Chasney

Journal of Interpretation

Fingerspelling, an aspect of American Sign Language, is difficult for second language English-speaking adults to learn (Bahleda, 1998), yet mastery is required by professional ASL-English interpreters. This study compared novice and expert interpreters’ interpretation of fingerspelled words under the assumption that exposure to priming material in their L1, English, would enable the interpreters to recognize those terms when fingerspelled in their L2, ASL. In this study, participants (15 novices, 15 experts) were asked to interpret an ASL text with 25 “carefully” fingerspelled words embedded. Ten subjects were not given priming materials, ten a list of words in printed English that ...


Therapy Dogs In The College Classroom: The Effect Of Dogs On Stress, Anxiety, And Spanish L2 Phonological Learning And Performance, Elaine Maralee Henry 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Therapy Dogs In The College Classroom: The Effect Of Dogs On Stress, Anxiety, And Spanish L2 Phonological Learning And Performance, Elaine Maralee Henry

Doctoral Dissertations

Anxiety and stress invoked by the second language classroom setting has the ability to cause numerous detrimental physiological changes which impair the learning process. A more natural, “immersion” type atmosphere is often desired when teaching a second language; however, this is not typically possible with college classes. Therefore, the addition of therapy dogs to college second language classes may be a beneficial solution since therapy dogs are frequently cited as having the ability to lower stress and anxiety in many different settings. Stroking and interacting with a dog may reduce many markers of stress, including blood pressure, heart rate, and ...


Supralaryngeal Implementation Of Length And Laryngeal Contrasts In Japanese And Korean, Alexei Kochetov, Yoonjung Kang 2016 University of Toronto, Scarborough

Supralaryngeal Implementation Of Length And Laryngeal Contrasts In Japanese And Korean, Alexei Kochetov, Yoonjung Kang

Alexei Kochetov

This paper investigates supralaryngeal characteristics of Japanese and Korean length and laryngeal contrasts in stops and affricates. Electropalatography data collected from 5 Japanese and 5 Korean speakers revealed similar differences among the consonants in the degree of linguopalatal contact and duration of the closure. Japanese (voiceless) geminate and Korean fortis obstruents were most constricted and had the longest duration (although considerably longer in Japanese). Japanese voiced and Korean lenis obstruents were least constricted and had the shortest duration. Japanese voiceless (singleton) and Korean aspirated obstruents showed intermediate degree of contact and duration. Both stops and affricates showed a positive correlation ...


The Language Identification Problem: Formant Analysis And Cross-Linguistic Uniqueness, Lyndon Rey 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Language Identification Problem: Formant Analysis And Cross-Linguistic Uniqueness, Lyndon Rey

Western Papers in Linguistics / Cahiers linguistiques de Western

In the field of computational linguistics, spoken language recognition (through the use of wordlists and morphological markers) is a resource-intensive process: the input must be parsed from the inputted speech signal, words must be hypothesized, and then subsequently word-lists for any likely language must be iterated through. To note, spoken language recognition does not refer to the process of identifying the meaning of the input; rather, it is finding the language of which the speaker is speaking (not necessarily 'parsing' the input). In my research, the question of whether a language can be positively and uniquely identified through small nuances ...


Palatalization And Glide Strengthening As Competing Repair Strategies: Evidence From Kirundi, Alexei Kochetov 2016 University of Toronto

Palatalization And Glide Strengthening As Competing Repair Strategies: Evidence From Kirundi, Alexei Kochetov

Alexei Kochetov

Alternations involving place-changing palatalization (e.g. t+j à ʧ in spirit – spiritual) are very common and have been a focus of much generative phonological work since Chomsky & Halle’s (1968) ‘Sound Pattern of English’. The interest in palatalization and its mechanisms (see e.g. Sagey 1990; Chen 1996; Bateman 2007) has somewhat obscured the question of how these processes fit into a wider typology of segmental alternations. What happens when palatalization fails to apply? Do other processes take its place and apply under the same circumstances? In this paper, I argue for a close functional and formal affinity between ...


What’S In A Name? Sound Symbolism And Coffee Shops, Claire Anderson 2016 Cedarville University

What’S In A Name? Sound Symbolism And Coffee Shops, Claire Anderson

Linguistics Senior Research Projects

This study explores the relationship between sound symbolism and coffee shop names. Specifically, phonetic qualities in coffee shop names have crossmodal associations with other sensory experiences such as taste, sight, sound, and touch. Previous studies show a strong association between product or brand name and consumer preference; therefore, a study of coffee shop names is worthwhile in expanding the corpus of sound symbolism knowledge. A phonetic analysis of top-rated coffee shops in the United States, paired with a survey, shows that a balance of stops and smoother phonemes (fricatives, nasals, laterals, etc.), as well as a mixture of front and ...


Short­‐Term Test-­Retest Reliability Of Informal Phonological Analysis For 2­‐Year‐Old Late Talkers, Jordan Gearheart, Ann Walker, Shari L. DeVeney 2016 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Short­‐Term Test-­Retest Reliability Of Informal Phonological Analysis For 2­‐Year‐Old Late Talkers, Jordan Gearheart, Ann Walker, Shari L. Deveney

Special Education and Communication Disorders Faculty Proceedings & Presentations

This poster discusses: Background, Research Question, Method, Results, Conclusions, Clinical Implications, and Limitations & Future Directions.


Cross-Level Interactions In Harmonic Serialism, John McCarthy, Joe Pater, Kathryn Pruitt 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Cross-Level Interactions In Harmonic Serialism, John Mccarthy, Joe Pater, Kathryn Pruitt

John J. McCarthy

Cross-level interactions are phonological processes that make reference to multiple levels of the prosodic hierarchy, such as vowel shortening in the weak position of a foot. Cross-level interactions figure in most arguments for parallelism in Optimality Theory. This chapter demonstrates with several case studies how cross-level interactions can be analyzed in Harmonic Serialism. The key insight is that the relevant constraints may be violated in the course of the derivation, even if they are obeyed in underlying and surface forms. Cross-level interactions require parallelism only if constraints are inviolable, but that is inconsistent with a fundamental premise of Harmonic Serialism ...


The Theory And Practice Of Harmonic Serialism, John McCarthy 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

The Theory And Practice Of Harmonic Serialism, John Mccarthy

John J. McCarthy

This chapter explains what Harmonic Serialism is and how it differs from standard parallel Optimality Theory. Several arguments in support of Harmonic Serialism are presented.


Grammar Of Zị́R, Amiawatoa Downey 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Grammar Of Zị́R, Amiawatoa Downey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Grammar of Zị́r is a ConLang project with the aim of increasing proficiency in all aspects of Linguistics by hands-on application in the creation and thorough description of a newly created language.


The Representation Of Probabilistic Phonological Patterns: Neurological, Behavioral, And Computational Evidence From The English Stress System, Claire Moore-Cantwell 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Representation Of Probabilistic Phonological Patterns: Neurological, Behavioral, And Computational Evidence From The English Stress System, Claire Moore-Cantwell

Doctoral Dissertations May 2014 - current

This dissertation investigates the cognitive mechanism underlying language users' ability to generalize probabilistic phonological patterns in their lexicon to novel words. Specifically, do speakers represent probabilistic patterns using abstract grammatical constraints? If so, this system of constraints would, like categorical phonological generalizations (a) be limited in the space of possible generalizations it can represent, and (b) apply to known and novel words alike without reference to specific known words. I examine these two predictions, comparing them to the predictions of alternative models. Analogical models are specifically considered. In chapter 3 I examine speakers' productions of novel words without near lexical ...


Extending Hidden Structure Learning: Features, Opacity, And Exceptions, Aleksei I. Nazarov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Extending Hidden Structure Learning: Features, Opacity, And Exceptions, Aleksei I. Nazarov

Doctoral Dissertations May 2014 - current

This dissertation explores new perspectives in phonological hidden structure learning (inferring structure not present in the speech signal that is necessary for phonological analysis; Tesar 1998, Jarosz 2013a, Boersma and Pater 2016), and extends this type of learning towards the domain of phonological features, towards derivations in Stratal OT (Bermúdez-Otero 1999), and towards exceptionality indices in probabilistic OT. Two more specific themes also come out: the possibility of inducing instead of pre-specifying the space of possible hidden structures, and the importance of cues in the data for triggering the use of hidden structure. In chapters 2 and 4, phonological features ...


The Tunica Stress Conspiracy Revisited, 2015 Selected Works

The Tunica Stress Conspiracy Revisited

Eric Baković

Kisseberth (1970b) distinguishes rules in Tunica (Haas 1940) that are subject to a constraint penalizing adjacent stresses from rules that are not subject to this constraint. This distinction appears on the surface to be particularly suited to a straightforward analysis within OT (Prince & Smolensky 1993): No-Clash is ranked above constraints responsible for the rules that are subject to it and below constraints responsible for the rules that are not. The full range of relevant facts in Tunica suggest that No-Clash is only crucially dominated and violated lexically, however; postlexically, No-Clash is undominated and there are no adjacent stresses on the ...


Articulation And Acoustics Of Kannada Affricates: A Case Of Geminate /ʧ/, Alexei Kochetov, N. Sreedevi 2015 University of Toronto

Articulation And Acoustics Of Kannada Affricates: A Case Of Geminate /ʧ/, Alexei Kochetov, N. Sreedevi

Alexei Kochetov

Affricates have been observed to be problematic in phonological acquisition and disordered speech across languages, due to their relatively complex spatial and temporal articulatory patterns. Remediation of difficulties in the production of affricates requires understanding of how these sounds are typically produced. This study presents the first systematic articulatory and acoustic investigation of voiceless geminate affricate /ʧ/ in Kannada (a Dravidian language), compared to the palatal glide and the voiceless dental stop. Ultrasound data from 10 normal speakers from Mysore, India revealed that /ʧ/ is produced with the tongue shape intermediate between the palatal glide and the dental stop, and ...


Examining The Influence Of Using Audiobooks On The Improvement Of Sound Recognition And Sound Production Of Iranian Efl Learners, Ali Taghinezhad 2015 Shiraz University

Examining The Influence Of Using Audiobooks On The Improvement Of Sound Recognition And Sound Production Of Iranian Efl Learners, Ali Taghinezhad

Ali Taghinezhad

Undoubtedly, pronunciation is a significant factor in communication and it can be a source of unintelligibility between interlocutors. Several materials can contribute to the improvement of pronunciation skill one of which seems to be audiobooks. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the influence of using audiobooks on the improvement of pronunciation ability of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 90 elementary, intermediate, and upper-intermediate students from three English language institutes were selected in Shiraz, Iran. In order to examine the effect of using audiobooks on students’ sound recognition and sound production, two tests were administered to the students as ...


Contingent Optionality, Eric Baković 2015 University of California, San Diego

Contingent Optionality, Eric Baković

lutfi.format@gmail.com

No abstract provided.


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