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Phonetics and Phonology Commons

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The Effect Of Speaking Rate On Vowel Variability Based On The Uncontrolled Manifold Approach And Flow-Based Invertible Neural Network Modeling, Jaekoo Kang 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effect Of Speaking Rate On Vowel Variability Based On The Uncontrolled Manifold Approach And Flow-Based Invertible Neural Network Modeling, Jaekoo Kang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Variability is intrinsic to human speech production. One approach to understand variability in speech is to decompose it into task-irrelevant (“good”) and task-relevant (“bad”) parts with respect to speech tasks. Based on the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach, this dissertation investigates how vowel token-to-token variability in articulation and acoustics can be decomposed into “good” and “bad” parts and how speaking rate changes the pattern of these two from the Haskins IEEE rate comparison database. Furthermore, it is examined whether the “good” part of variability, or flexibility, can be modeled directly from speech data using the flow-based invertible neural networks framework. The ...


Phonetic Contrast In New York Hasidic Yiddish Vowels: Language Contact, Variation, And Change, Chaya R. Nove 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Phonetic Contrast In New York Hasidic Yiddish Vowels: Language Contact, Variation, And Change, Chaya R. Nove

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study analyzes the acoustic correlates of the length contrast in New York Hasidic Yiddish (HY) peripheral vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/, and compares them across four generations of native speakers for evidence of change over time. HY vowel tokens are also compared to English vowels produced by the New York-born speakers to investigate the influence of language contact on observed changes. Additionally, the degree to which individual speakers orient towards or away from the Hasidic community is quantified via an ethnographically informed survey to examine its correlation with /u/-fronting, a sound change that is widespread in the non-Hasidic ...


Lexical Stress Realization In Mandarin Second Language Learners Of English: An Acoustic And Articulatory Study, Boram Kim 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Lexical Stress Realization In Mandarin Second Language Learners Of English: An Acoustic And Articulatory Study, Boram Kim

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation investigated the acoustic and articulatory correlates of lexical stress in Mandarin second language (L2) learners of English, as well as in first language (L1) speakers. The present study used a minimal pair respective to stress location (e.g., OBject versus obJECT) obtained from a publicly available Mandarin Accented English Electromagnetic articulography corpus dataset. In the acoustic domain, the use of acoustic parameters (duration, intensity, F0, and vowel quality) was measured in stressed and unstressed vowels. In the articulatory domain, the positional information from tongue tip (TT), tongue dorsum (TD), upper lip (UL), lower lip (LL), and jaw (JAW ...


Learning Phonology With Sequence-To-Sequence Neural Networks, Brandon Prickett 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Learning Phonology With Sequence-To-Sequence Neural Networks, Brandon Prickett

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation tests sequence-to-sequence neural networks to see whether they can simulate human phonological learning and generalization in a number of artificial language experiments. These experiments and simulations are organized into three chapters: one on opaque interactions, one on computational complexity in phonology, and one on reduplication. The first chapter focuses on two biases involving interactions that have been proposed in the past: a bias for transparent patterns and a bias for patterns that maximally utilize all of the processes in a language. The second chapter looks at harmony patterns of varying complexity to see whether both Formal Language Theory ...


Language As The Medium: A Literature Review. Harnessing The Prolific Power Of Dramatic Language As A Therapeutic Tool In Drama Therapy, Edward Freeman 2021 Lesley University

Language As The Medium: A Literature Review. Harnessing The Prolific Power Of Dramatic Language As A Therapeutic Tool In Drama Therapy, Edward Freeman

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Language in and of the theatre, with its palate of variegated writing styles and playwrights from throughout time, has the potential to be harnessed, focused, and systematized for use as a therapeutic tool within drama therapy – the field’s artistic medium. Drama therapy could benefit from having a specific medium germane to its artform which has the potential to provide practitioners with a common resource and means of communication, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning, as well as align the field with other creative arts therapies. Language encompasses all forms of human communication – speaking, writing, signing, gesturing, expressing facially – and voice ...


A Phonological Analysis Of The Word-Borrowing Process In VolapüK, Yutong Zhang 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

A Phonological Analysis Of The Word-Borrowing Process In VolapüK, Yutong Zhang

Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

This paper analyzes the phonological process present in the word-borrowing process in Volapük nulik, the later version of Volapük – one of the world’s first constructed international auxiliary languages that achieved more than a million speakers – through an analogy with the loanword adaptation process taking place in a natural language. It examines the emergent phonological patterns within this process, despite the inherited arbitrariness of any constructed languages, and compares them with the prescriptive rules regulating the word-borrowing process featured in its grammar. The paper is divided into three parts: Part I generalizes the syllable shape in Volapük from a 1000-base ...


Singing And Pronunciation: A Review Of The Literature, Kassidy Joyner 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Singing And Pronunciation: A Review Of The Literature, Kassidy Joyner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Observed differences exist in the pronunciation abilities of individual language learners, especially adult learners. Musical ability and experience are possible factors that have been attributed to language pronunciation abilities. Although there has been a large amount of research concerning the effects of general musical ability and training on language abilities, very few studies have investigated the musical sub-category of singing. Research on the use of songs in the language classroom has largely tested the effects of song on vocabulary acquisition, while very few studies have explored the effects of song on pronunciation. Given that singing and pronunciation both use similar ...


Methods And Effects Of Shadowing Using Online Authentic Videos On L2 Acquisition Of Mandarin Chinese Tones, Ai-Ling Lu 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Methods And Effects Of Shadowing Using Online Authentic Videos On L2 Acquisition Of Mandarin Chinese Tones, Ai-Ling Lu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mandarin Chinese tones are notoriously difficult for second language (L2) learners. Previous research focuses on tone training methods that can help learners produce monosyllabic lexical tones, and studies about the production of multisyllabic lexical tones at the sentence level in spontaneous speech are limited. This study applies shadowing—a method where the learners repeat what they heard with as little delay as possible—to tone training and compares the effects of using authentic videos and textbook audios as shadowing materials for beginner L2 Mandarin learners’ tone improvement at the sentence level. Fourteen students in elementary Chinese classes at an American ...


Cross-Dialectal Vowel Mapping And Glide Perception, Abram Clear 2021 William & Mary

Cross-Dialectal Vowel Mapping And Glide Perception, Abram Clear

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Broadening our understandings of how the perceptual system accounts for dialectal vowel variation, this research investigates the perceptual mapping of Appalachian English (AE) monophthongal [aɪ]. I explore this mapping through the secondary perception of palatal glides in hiatus sequences of monophthongal [aɪ.a]. Formant transitions from a high front vowel to a non-high, non-front vowel mimic the formant signature of a canonical [j], resulting in the perception of an acoustic glide (Hogoboom 2020). I ask if listeners may still perceive a glide when canonical formant transitions are absent. If participants map monophthongal [aɪ] to a high front position, they might ...


Quantifying Dimensions Of The Vowel Space In Patients With Schizophrenia And Controls, Elizabeth Maneval 2021 William & Mary

Quantifying Dimensions Of The Vowel Space In Patients With Schizophrenia And Controls, Elizabeth Maneval

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The speech of patients with schizophrenia has been characterized as being aprosodic, or lacking pitch variation. Recent research on linguistic aspects of schizophrenia has looked at the vowel space to determine if there is some correlation between acoustic aspects of speech and patient status (Compton et al. 2018). Additional research by Hogoboom et al. (submitted) noted that measurements of Euclidean distance (ED), which is the average distance from the center of the vowel space to all vowels produced, and vowel density, which is the proportion of vowels clustered together in the center of the vowel space, were significantly correlated for ...


Accessing The Gray Area Between Phonetics And Phonology: The Development Of Vowel Length As A Subphonemic Cue, Abby Fergus 2021 William & Mary

Accessing The Gray Area Between Phonetics And Phonology: The Development Of Vowel Length As A Subphonemic Cue, Abby Fergus

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Previous research has shown that speakers of English use vowel length as a subphonemic cue to the voicing of a following obstruent. Countless studies have demonstrated adults’ ability to make a voicing judgement based upon vowel length but studies with children have provided mixed and sometimes conflicting results. In the present study, we sought to first determine whether adults would exhibit varying sensitivity to vowel length based upon whether it is found in a position where it is predictive of the phonemic status of another sound (i.e. serving as a subphonemic cue). Second, we removed top-down information in order ...


Creaky Voice: Interactional Effects In Production And Perception, Victoria Anita Voorhees 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Creaky Voice: Interactional Effects In Production And Perception, Victoria Anita Voorhees

Masters Theses

My thesis investigates creaky voice and how it functions interactionally within social situations, as well as how it is perceived by others. “Creaky voice” happens when a person speaks at their lowest range, also known as their “vocal fry.” This causes “a vocal effect produced by a very slow vibration of only one end of the vocal cords” (Crystal 1997, 98). I am interested in knowing which populations utilize creaky voice most. Additionally, I aim to explore how creaky voice is perceived by others. To conduct this investigation, I have conducted both a production and perception study. Within the production ...


(Not) Speaking Spanish: Explicit Pronunciation Instruction In The Online High School Classroom, Brahm vanWoerden 2021 Western Washington University

(Not) Speaking Spanish: Explicit Pronunciation Instruction In The Online High School Classroom, Brahm Vanwoerden

WWU Honors College Senior Projects

Students in the language classroom often face a variety of challenges inherent to the process of learning a second language as an adult. These range from lack of sufficient motivation to structurally uninspired curriculum and are often amplified in the case of a drastic shift in environment. Such a shift took place rapidly over the course of 2020, transforming thousands of classrooms into virtual versions of themselves in a matter of weeks. Students began to receive vastly different quantities and types of language input and interacted with the language in substantially affected ways. Factors that previously played a large role ...


Spe-29 - Voice & Articulation (Advanced Assignment), Laura Spinu 2021 CUNY Kingsborough Community College

Spe-29 - Voice & Articulation (Advanced Assignment), Laura Spinu

Open Educational Resources

This two-part assignment introduces students to spectrogram reading by asking them (1) to explore a set of spectrograms representing the days of the week, and then (2) record their own spectrogram and add a picture of it to a common "Mystery Spectrograms" folder for use in a subsequent assignment (and also in classroom activities).

NOTE: by the time this assignment is introduced, the students have already learned how to record themselves and save sound files using the Praat software for acoustic analysis. If they are not familiar with the procedure, this tutorial will help:

Making a recording in PRAAT


Spe-29 - Voice & Articulation (Intro Assignment), Laura Spinu 2021 CUNY Kingsborough Community College

Spe-29 - Voice & Articulation (Intro Assignment), Laura Spinu

Open Educational Resources

This assignment is asking students to collaboratively create a database of "good" and "bad" voices for subsequent analysis.


Prosody And Intonation In Formosan Languages, Benjamin K. Macaulay 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prosody And Intonation In Formosan Languages, Benjamin K. Macaulay

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Formosan languages are the languages of the Aboriginal peoples of Taiwan. These languages are part of the Austronesian language family, and represent all but one primary branch of this family of 1,200+ languages. The Formosan languages are endangered, some critically so. While these languages have seen attention in the literature for their syntactic and phonological systems, little work has been done on their prosodic structure or intonation.

This dissertation analyzes the prosodic structure and intonational phonology of Mantauran Rukai, Budai Rukai, Tsou, Kanakanavu, Hla’alua, Sandimen Paiwan, Piuma Paiwan, Kavalan, Amis, Bunun, Tgdaya Seediq, Truku Seediq, and Pazeh ...


The Pre-Nasal Allophonic Splitting Of /Ɛ/ In Toronto Heritage Cantonese, Holman Tse 2021 St. Catherine University

The Pre-Nasal Allophonic Splitting Of /Ɛ/ In Toronto Heritage Cantonese, Holman Tse

English Faculty Scholarship

Muysken (2019) has argued that the most convincing cases of contact-induced change in heritage languages involve the dominant language having two distinctions mapping on to one (2-to-1). Evidence of such a case from Toronto heritage Cantonese will be discussed. Toronto English (the dominant language) has an allophonic split in which the TRAP vowel is raised and fronted in pre-nasal contexts. This is argued to influence the development of a similar allophonic split, led by lower proficiency speakers, in which Cantonese /ɛ/ is fronted before nasal consonants. The lack of an /ɛ/ split in Hong Kong Cantonese provides further support for ...


Learnability Of Indexed Constraint Analyses Of Phonological Opacity, Aleksei Nazarov 2021 Utrecht University

Learnability Of Indexed Constraint Analyses Of Phonological Opacity, Aleksei Nazarov

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

This paper explores the learnability of indexed constraint (Pater, 2000) analyses of opacity based on the case study of raising in Canadian English (Chomsky, 1964; Chambers, 1973). Such analyses, while avoiding multiple levels of derivation or representation, require the learner to induce indexed constraints, connect these constraints to particular segments in the lexicon, and rank these constraints. An implementation of Round’s (2017) learner for indexed constraints, which is an extension of Biased Constraint Demotion (Prince and Tesar, 2004), is used here to test whether a simple learner can rise to this challenge and learn a restrictive analysis of the ...


Learning Interactions Of Local And Non-Local Phonotactic Constraints From Positive Input, Aniello De Santo, Alëna Aksënova 2021 University of Utah

Learning Interactions Of Local And Non-Local Phonotactic Constraints From Positive Input, Aniello De Santo, Alëna Aksënova

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

This paper proposes a grammatical inference algorithm to learn input-sensitive tier-based strictly local languages across multiple tiers from positive data only, when the locality of the tier-constraints and the tier-projection function is set to 2 (MITSL; De Santo and Graf, 2019). We conduct simulations showing that the algorithm succeeds in learning MITSL patterns over a set of artificial languages.


Consonant Harmony, Disharmony, Memory And Time Scales, Adamantios Gafos 2021 Universität Potsdam

Consonant Harmony, Disharmony, Memory And Time Scales, Adamantios Gafos

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

I argue that properties of memory offer an appropriate grounding for a number of characteristics of long distance consonantal co-occurrence restrictions whose basis had so far remained unclear.


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