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Phonetics and Phonology Commons

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How To Delete, John J. McCarthy 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

How To Delete, John J. Mccarthy

John J. McCarthy

Using data from Arabic and other languages, this chapter argues that segmental deletion processes are gradual in the sense that segments are lost through attrition rather than all at once. The argument is framed within Harmonic Serialism, a derivational version of Optimality Theory that allows deletion processes to be decomposed into successive reduction steps.


Melodic Language And Linguistic Melodies: Singing In Tone Languages, Aaron Carter-Enyi 2017 Morehouse College

Melodic Language And Linguistic Melodies: Singing In Tone Languages, Aaron Carter-Enyi

Africana Digital Ethnography Project

Approximately 60% of the world’s languages are tonal, wherein alterations of pitch change the meaning of words. Two-syllable words in Yorùbá can have as many as five separate meanings, and single- syllable words in Mandarin up to four. Among tone-language speakers, acute pitch sensitivity is developed at an early age as part of language acquisition. The result is that speakers of tone languages are generally more sensitive to pitch than stress-language speakers. For speakers of stress languages, it is difficult to conceive of this other aurality, in which sound is perceived in a different way. But music holds the ...


Songs, Lushootseed Language Institute, Zalmai Zeke Zahir 2017 University of Washington Tacoma

Songs, Lushootseed Language Institute, Zalmai Zeke Zahir

Lushootseed Language Institute

Song #1: This song refers to our language and culture. It is for us.

Song #2 This song is for the language.

Song #3: Greeting song. This song is used as a greeting by the Snoqualmie people.

Song #4: Shoes off song. This song is a celebration of taking our shoes off and reestablishing our connections to the Mother Earth.

Song #5: "Squirrel Song" The work is kind of easy. This is a challenge dance song. The dance itself represents the squirrel's chasing each other as often times seen in the woods. It consists of hopping low to the ...


Individual And Group Differences In Sound Category Learning, Ben Carlstrom 2017 Portland State University

Individual And Group Differences In Sound Category Learning, Ben Carlstrom

Student Research Symposium

Abstract: We examined the role of procedural-, declarative-, and working-memory systems in adults learning novel sound categories. Adults have fully developed declarative-memory skills that sometimes inhibit their ability to learn implicitly/procedurally (Filoteo, Lauritzen, & Maddox, 2010). Models of impaired language like the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis suggest that procedural-memory deficits are predictive of language-learning outcomes (Lum, Conti-Ramsden, Page, & Ullman, 2011). This study tested the hypothesis that language structure is best learned implicitly/procedurally, which has implications for L2 learning and language impairment. The novel sound categories presented to participants varied along a phonologically non-native dimension, pitch, and a native dimension, vowel ...


American English Speakers' Perception Of Non-Native Phonotactic Constraints: The Influence Of Training In Phonology, Bailey R. Pearson 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

American English Speakers' Perception Of Non-Native Phonotactic Constraints: The Influence Of Training In Phonology, Bailey R. Pearson

Rehabilitation, Human Resources and Communication Disorders Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of the present study was to examine the differences between perceptions of non-native phonotactic rules and constraints by monolingual English-speaking undergraduate students in a program of communication disorders who had taken and passed a course in the study of phonology and by undergraduate students in communication disorders who had not yet taken a course in phonology. Participants listened to audio recordings of words from Hindi, Hmong, Kurdish, Russian, and Swedish recorded by speakers fluent in those languages. Each of the words contained at least one phonotactic constraint that is not permitted in American English phonology. Participants were instructed ...


Cross-Linguistic Phonosemantics, Raleigh Anne Butler 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Cross-Linguistic Phonosemantics, Raleigh Anne Butler

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Ambisyllabic Consonant Lengthening In English, Alexa Rosalsky 2017 College of William and Mary

Ambisyllabic Consonant Lengthening In English, Alexa Rosalsky

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ambisyllabic consonants are thought to be shared between two syllables and form both a coda and an onset while not being notably longer than singleton consonants. This thesis attempts to determine whether these ambisyllabic consonants pattern durationally like onset, codas, or neither through a production experiment using nonce words. This not only provides evidence for how the words are actually syllabified, it also may give insight into why such consonants are perceived as being shared by two syllables by many speakers. A production experiment finds that "ambisyllabic" consonants pattern durationally like onsets. This strongly suggests that they are onsets and ...


Predicting Discrimination Accuracy By Assimilation Pattern: How Do Mandarin Speakers Discriminate English Vowels?, Yuan Chai 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Predicting Discrimination Accuracy By Assimilation Pattern: How Do Mandarin Speakers Discriminate English Vowels?, Yuan Chai

Linguistics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) claimed that two types of non-native contrasts are easiest to discriminate: 1) when two sounds are assimilated into two different native categories; 2) when one sound is categorized while the other is not (Best, 1991). However, some study found the latter is worse discriminated than the former (Guion et al., 2000). The current study asks why such disagreement emerges and postulates that it is cause by PAM not allowing multiple-category assimilations.

30 Mandarin and English native speakers conducted three experiments: discriminating English contrasts /i/-/ɪ/; /eɪ/-/ɪ/; /ɛ/-/æ/; /ʊ/-/u/; assimilating those English vowels ...


(In)Variability In The Samoan Syntax/Prosody Interface And Consequences For Syntactic Parsing, Kristine M. Yu, Edward P. Stabler 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

(In)Variability In The Samoan Syntax/Prosody Interface And Consequences For Syntactic Parsing, Kristine M. Yu, Edward P. Stabler

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

While it has long been clear that prosody should be part of the grammar influencing the action of the syntactic parser, how to bring prosody into computational models of syntactic parsing has remained unclear. The challenge is that prosodic information in the speech signal is the result of the interaction of a multitude of conditioning factors. From this output, how can we factor out the contribution of syntax to conditioning prosodic events? And if we are able to do that factorization and define a production model from the syntactic grammar to a prosodified utterance, how can we then define a ...


The Role Of Time In Phonetic Spaces: Temporal Resolution In Cantonese Tone Perception, Kristine M. Yu 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Role Of Time In Phonetic Spaces: Temporal Resolution In Cantonese Tone Perception, Kristine M. Yu

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

The role of temporal resolution in speech perception (e.g. whether tones are parameterized with fundamental frequency sampled every 10 ms, or just twice in the syllable) is sometimes overlooked, and the temporal resolution relevant for tonal perception is still an open question. The choice of temporal resolution matters because how we understand the recognition, dispersion, and learning of phonetic categories is entirely predicated on what parameters we use to define the phonetic space that they lie in. Here, we present a tonal perception experiment in Cantonese where we used interrupted speech in trisyllabic stimuli to study the effect of ...


Preferential Early Attribution In Segmental Parsing, Amanda Rysling 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Preferential Early Attribution In Segmental Parsing, Amanda Rysling

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation investigates parsing in segmental perception, or the process by which listeners map the continuous acoustic signal that reaches their ears to the linguistic representations over which phonology operates. It addresses questions of when listeners decide that they have heard acoustic evidence about the identity of one speech sound, versus evidence about the identity of a following sound, and when this linguistic knowledge is applied relative to when it is received during the course of on-line perception and processing. The central argument advanced here is that the beginnings of answers to these questions require the recognition of a domain-general ...


Review Of _Harmonic Grammar And Harmonic Serialism_, Eric Baković 2016 University of California, San Diego

Review Of _Harmonic Grammar And Harmonic Serialism_, Eric Baković

Eric Baković

Harmonic Grammar and Harmonic Serialism (henceforth HGHS) consists of thirteen chapters addressing matters of empirical, theoretical, and typological concern to Harmonic Grammar (HG) and Harmonic Serialism (HS). As the editors note in their preface, HG and HS are "in some ways relatives of OT [Optimality Theory] in that they incorporate much of its structure (e.g. candidate comparison by markedness and faithfulness constraints)," except that "HS questions the choice of parallel over serial evaluations, while HG questions the assumption that constraints are ranked rather than weighted." Anyone interested in an introduction to and further developments within either HG or HS ...


Language Analysis Skills Of Children With Mental Retardation, Hyla Rubin 2016 The College of New Rochelle

Language Analysis Skills Of Children With Mental Retardation, Hyla Rubin

Hyla Rubin

The ability of children with moderate mental retardation to analyze orally presented sentences into words and words into syllables and phonemes was studied. The subjects, ages 10 to 15, were grouped by method of reading instruction. All of them could analyze spoken sentences into words and words into syllables equally well. However, subjects receiving code-emphasis reading instruction performed significantly better on the more difficult phoneme manipulation tasks than did subjects receiving whole-word instruction. Results suggest that code-emphasis reading instruction for some subjects with mental retardation should be used. Further research on linguistic analysis skills and the use of code-emphasis reading ...


Integrating Sound Symbolism With Core Grammar: The Case Of Expressive Palatalization, John Alderete, Alexei Kochetov 2016 Simon Fraser University

Integrating Sound Symbolism With Core Grammar: The Case Of Expressive Palatalization, John Alderete, Alexei Kochetov

Alexei Kochetov

Fifty cases of sound-symbolic expressive palatalization were collected in a typological survey of babytalk registers, diminutive constructions, and other sound symbolic systems. Analysis of the typological trends and language-particular examples reveals important differences between expressive palatalization and phonologically motivated palatalization. To account for expressive palatalization, we propose a novel set of Express(X) constraints in Optimality Theory. The integration of the Express(X) constraints with the rest of phonology is shown to explain the typological differences between expressive and phonological palatalization, account for the phonological extension of expressive palatalization, and constitute a general theoretical framework for sound symbolic phonological patterns.


An On-Line Supplement To Alderete & Kochetov (To Appear), Language, John Alderete, Alexei Kochetov 2016 Simon Fraser University

An On-Line Supplement To Alderete & Kochetov (To Appear), Language, John Alderete, Alexei Kochetov

Alexei Kochetov

No abstract provided.


Phonological Awareness: Normally Developing And Language Delayed Children, Hyla Rubin 2016 The College of New Rochelle

Phonological Awareness: Normally Developing And Language Delayed Children, Hyla Rubin

Hyla Rubin

This study compared 15 nonnal and 13 language delayed fourand five-year-old children on a range of tasks of phonological awareness. The tasks differed in the degree of explicit linguistic analysis that was required. The language delayed group always performed below the level of the nonnal children, and there were significant group differences on several tasks. A significant interaction effect reflected the greater difficulty language delayed children experienced with tasks that required the most explicit analysis. The tasks used in this study could be used in intervention research with language delayed children. They can also be used in therapy and classroom ...


A Diachronic Approach To The Confusion Of B With V In Spanish, Eva Núñez-Méndez 2016 Portland State University

A Diachronic Approach To The Confusion Of B With V In Spanish, Eva Núñez-Méndez

World Languages and Literatures Faculty Publications and Presentations

This volume presents specific topics in diachronic Hispanic linguistics. These topics include: lexical survivals in Ibero-Romance, Arabisms, lexical variation in early modern Spain, the origins of the confusion of b with v, Andalusian Spanish in the Americas, the expansion of seseo and yeísmo, processes of koineization, syntactic change in scribal documentation from the Middle Ages, and the semantic changes of the verbs ser, estar and haber. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the Spanish lexicon, phonetics, morphosyntax, dialectology and semantics with the input of ten prominent scholars.

It focuses not only on relevant issues in the evolution of Spanish but ...


Contextualized Recognition Of Fingerspelled Words, Campbell McDermid, Lynn Finton, Alexis Chasney 2016 National Technical Institute for the Deaf

Contextualized Recognition Of Fingerspelled Words, Campbell Mcdermid, Lynn Finton, Alexis Chasney

Journal of Interpretation

Fingerspelling, an aspect of American Sign Language, is difficult for second language English-speaking adults to learn (Bahleda, 1998), yet mastery is required by professional ASL-English interpreters. This study compared novice and expert interpreters’ interpretation of fingerspelled words under the assumption that exposure to priming material in their L1, English, would enable the interpreters to recognize those terms when fingerspelled in their L2, ASL. In this study, participants (15 novices, 15 experts) were asked to interpret an ASL text with 25 “carefully” fingerspelled words embedded. Ten subjects were not given priming materials, ten a list of words in printed English that ...


Therapy Dogs In The College Classroom: The Effect Of Dogs On Stress, Anxiety, And Spanish L2 Phonological Learning And Performance, Elaine Maralee Henry 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Therapy Dogs In The College Classroom: The Effect Of Dogs On Stress, Anxiety, And Spanish L2 Phonological Learning And Performance, Elaine Maralee Henry

Doctoral Dissertations

Anxiety and stress invoked by the second language classroom setting has the ability to cause numerous detrimental physiological changes which impair the learning process. A more natural, “immersion” type atmosphere is often desired when teaching a second language; however, this is not typically possible with college classes. Therefore, the addition of therapy dogs to college second language classes may be a beneficial solution since therapy dogs are frequently cited as having the ability to lower stress and anxiety in many different settings. Stroking and interacting with a dog may reduce many markers of stress, including blood pressure, heart rate, and ...


Supralaryngeal Implementation Of Length And Laryngeal Contrasts In Japanese And Korean, Alexei Kochetov, Yoonjung Kang 2016 University of Toronto, Scarborough

Supralaryngeal Implementation Of Length And Laryngeal Contrasts In Japanese And Korean, Alexei Kochetov, Yoonjung Kang

Alexei Kochetov

This paper investigates supralaryngeal characteristics of Japanese and Korean length and laryngeal contrasts in stops and affricates. Electropalatography data collected from 5 Japanese and 5 Korean speakers revealed similar differences among the consonants in the degree of linguopalatal contact and duration of the closure. Japanese (voiceless) geminate and Korean fortis obstruents were most constricted and had the longest duration (although considerably longer in Japanese). Japanese voiced and Korean lenis obstruents were least constricted and had the shortest duration. Japanese voiceless (singleton) and Korean aspirated obstruents showed intermediate degree of contact and duration. Both stops and affricates showed a positive correlation ...


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