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Enhancing Memory Through Literary Features, Sarah Naylor 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Enhancing Memory Through Literary Features, Sarah Naylor

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Literary devices used by a writer can influence and impact the manner in which readers respond and interact with a text. Both the perspectives readers are expected to take while reading and the amount of foregrounding in a text cognitively and affectively influence a reader’s experience. However, little research has explored what effects these factors have on verbatim memory. For this research, participants were instructed to read a short literary story either by identifying with the protagonist or as a spectator. After reading and completing a range of other tasks, participants were asked to select sentences they saw in the …


Attrition And Assimilation: The Neural Mechanisms Of Mandarin-English Bilingualism, Natalie P. Robison 2024 Portland State University

Attrition And Assimilation: The Neural Mechanisms Of Mandarin-English Bilingualism, Natalie P. Robison

University Honors Theses

This line of research investigates attrition of native language (L1) Mandarin proficiency with increasing proficiency in English. English uses pitch to denote intonation (e.g., “it’s there?” versus “it’s there!”), while Mandarin additionally uses pitch to indicate word meanings; e.g., /he/ means “drink” when spoken with a high, level tone, or “river” when spoken with a rising tone. The present study delineates between two alternative explanations for the prior finding (Quam & Creel, 2017a) that English proficiency correlates with attrition of Mandarin tones, but not Mandarin vowels. This pattern could be explained by 1) assimilability of the Mandarin vowel contrasts used …


Prosodic Marking Of Focus In Autistic And Neurotypical Adults, Nishtha N. Trivedi 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prosodic Marking Of Focus In Autistic And Neurotypical Adults, Nishtha N. Trivedi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Purpose: This study investigates how adult autistic speakers compare with neurotypical speakers in the manipulation of prosody to mark narrow and contrastive focus in American English. In particular, it explores whether the two groups differ in terms of pitch accent status, pitch accent type, and overall nuclear contour patterns in focus marking.

Methods: We conducted an experiment eliciting speech from autistic and neurotypical adults in which we compared their use of pitch accent in answers to wh-questions and in corrective statements.

Results: We found neurotypical speakers to primarily use H* to mark narrow focus on subjects and L+H* to mark …


Comparing Executive Control: Bilingualism's Cognitive Advantage, Malcolm Jasmin, Tonya Buchanan Ph.D. 2024 CWU

Comparing Executive Control: Bilingualism's Cognitive Advantage, Malcolm Jasmin, Tonya Buchanan Ph.D.

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

The Stroop Task is a widely used method for studying executive control. It helps to understand cognitive processes like inhibition and attentional regulation to examine how reading text and naming colors can interfere with each other. The study intends to use the Stroop Task to explore the executive control abilities of both bilingual and monolingual individuals. Previous research has shown that bilingual individuals perform better in the Stroop test compared to those who only speak one language (Bialystok et al., 2010). The impact of this advantage is believed to be due to the need to switch between languages and prevent …


The Relationship Between Autistic Traits, Autistic Camouflaging, And Adults’ Representations Of Abstract And Social Concepts, Henry Tomiser, Katja Wiemer Dr. 2024 Northern Illinois University

The Relationship Between Autistic Traits, Autistic Camouflaging, And Adults’ Representations Of Abstract And Social Concepts, Henry Tomiser, Katja Wiemer Dr.

Honors Capstones

Concrete concepts (e.g., BUTTON) can be experienced directly by the senses, whereas abstract concepts (e.g., FRIENDSHIP) cannot. Additionally, the mind may represent abstract concepts using more introspective, social, and emotional information than concrete concepts. Social difficulties are one defining feature of autism, and autistic individuals may use social camouflaging to hide these difficulties, but the precise nature of social processing in autism is not known. This study aims to explore possible links between autistic traits, autistic camouflaging, and mental representations of concepts. Participants gave open-ended definitions for concepts varying in concreteness and social content via an online survey. Responses were …


Training Grammaticality: Can People Be Taught To Perceive The Singular ‘They’ As Grammatical?, Val Willham 2024 William & Mary

Training Grammaticality: Can People Be Taught To Perceive The Singular ‘They’ As Grammatical?, Val Willham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the usage of personal pronouns other than he and she becomes more mainstream, debates about their usage have become more and more common. Many of the reasons discouraging their use are rooted in negative attitudes toward people who prefer to be referred to as such (Patev, et al 2019). However, prior research has also found that perceptions of singular gender-neutral pronouns like they/them as being grammatically confusing can be an obstacle toward their use, even by people who otherwise hold positive opinions towards transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) individuals (Patev, et al 2019). Given the role that language use …


Gestalt Language Processing In Accredited Communication Sciences And Disorders Programs, William Harris 2024 The University of Southern Mississippi

Gestalt Language Processing In Accredited Communication Sciences And Disorders Programs, William Harris

Master's Theses

The language development and usage of autistic individuals has become a controversial topic in many of the disciplines and professions providing support to these individuals. As a result, two theories of language processing have been proposed. Analytical language processing suggests that children process and develop language from its most simple form, a phoneme, to its most complex form, a word or phrase. However, the theory of gestalt language processing proposes that some children may instead extract larger, more complex language such as whole words and phrases first and break it down to the simpler language. Gestalt language processing is often …


Developing 240 Spanish Word Pair Stimuli For A Psycholinguistic Experiment, Francisco Villa 2024 Montclair State University

Developing 240 Spanish Word Pair Stimuli For A Psycholinguistic Experiment, Francisco Villa

Student Research Symposium

Metaphors are linguistically interesting because they involve going beyond literal interpretation. For example, “night owl” can refer to an animal or a person who is active at night. Psycholinguistic researchers investigating metaphor comprehension must develop sets of stimuli (linguistic items used in experiments) that include metaphors and literal items as a baseline. One approach is to use metaphorical word pairs, because it lets researchers control several important variables, including how frequent words are within the language. For the first time, we have created a set of word pair stimuli in Spanish, which is particularly challenging because most metaphors consist of …


The Influence Of Texting On Perceived Warmth: The Role Of Punctuation And Emoji, Elizabeth Mathews 2024 Liberty University

The Influence Of Texting On Perceived Warmth: The Role Of Punctuation And Emoji, Elizabeth Mathews

Senior Honors Theses

Technology Mediated Communication (TMC) has become an essential part of interpersonal communication. Punctuation and emoji are major vessels of nonverbal communication in texting. The impact of punctuation and emoji use on perceptions of warmth was tested with 291 residential undergraduate students at Liberty University who were at least 18 years old. Through an online questionnaire, participants read a series of text messages with a randomly assigned condition of having either punctuation and emoji, punctuation and no emoji, no punctuation and emoji, or no punctuation and no emoji. Results indicated a significant main effect for the presence of emoji on perceived …


Auditory Free Classification Of Gender Diverse Speakers, Brandon Merritt, Tessa Bent, Rowan Kilgore, Cameron Eads 2024 Indiana University - Bloomington

Auditory Free Classification Of Gender Diverse Speakers, Brandon Merritt, Tessa Bent, Rowan Kilgore, Cameron Eads

Departmental Papers (Speech)

Auditory attribution of speaker gender has historically been assumed to operate within a binary framework. The prevalence of gender diversity and its associated sociophonetic variability motivates an examination of how listeners perceptually represent these diverse voices. Utterances from 30 transgender (1 agender individual, 15 non-binary individuals, 7 transgender men, and 7 transgender women) and 30 cisgender (15 men and 15 women) speakers were used in an auditory free classification paradigm, in which cisgender listeners classified the speakers on perceived general similarity and gender identity. Multidimensional scaling of listeners’ classifications revealed twodimensional solutions as the best fit for general similarity classifications. …


Exploring Cross-Linguistic Speech Perception In Hindi, English, And Romance-Language Through Temporal Dynamics Of Neural Activity, Yuga Kothari 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Exploring Cross-Linguistic Speech Perception In Hindi, English, And Romance-Language Through Temporal Dynamics Of Neural Activity, Yuga Kothari

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study examines the effect of linguistic experience on the neural processing of Voice Onset Time (VOT) in Hindi and Romance language (Spanish and Portuguese) individuals who are bilingual in English and monolingual English speakers using the event-related potential (ERP) Mismatch Negativity (MMN) response. VOT is a linguistic property that measures the time elapsed between the release of a stop consonant and the beginning of voicing, that is, vocal fold vibration of a following vowel. In a double-oddball paradigm, participants’ (n = 41) ERP were recorded while listening to speech sounds differing in VOT. The bilabial short lag stop [p] …


Segmental Error Gravity In L2 Arabic Speech Comprehensibility And Accentedness: L1 Consonant Age Of Acquisition As A Predictor, Mark Papai 2024 American University in Cairo

Segmental Error Gravity In L2 Arabic Speech Comprehensibility And Accentedness: L1 Consonant Age Of Acquisition As A Predictor, Mark Papai

Theses and Dissertations

Second language (L2) pronunciation studies have found that the intelligibility (i.e., listeners’ actual understanding) of L2 speech is most closely related to its comprehensibility (i.e., listeners' ease of understanding) rather than to its overall nativelike pronunciation. The segmental errors that are most detrimental to communication are predicted by phoneme Functional Load (FL): mispronouncing high FL segments affects speech comprehensibility more negatively than mispronouncing low FL ones. However, no data are available on the FL hierarchy of Arabic segments. On the other hand, FL correlates highly with consonant age of acquisition (CAoA) in languages that rely heavily on consonants to contrast …


The Influence Of Visual Perspective On The Cognitive Effort Required For Mental Representation, Jeffrey P. Hong 2024 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Influence Of Visual Perspective On The Cognitive Effort Required For Mental Representation, Jeffrey P. Hong

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Mental representation is the process by which an individual simulates an event in their mind’s eye. This process is the foundation of the ability to remember the past, engage in prospective thinking, or imagine fictitious scenarios. An individual can mentally represent any event through their own eyes—the first-person perspective or from the viewpoint of an external observer—the third-person perspective. The perspective of representation influences outcomes related to memory, visuospatial processing, affect, social cognition, clinical diagnoses, and language processing. In turn, an individual’s tendency to favour either perspective is shaped by related factors.

The current research consists of four experiments, designed …


Attraction Effects In Referential Dependencies, Emily Graham 2024 University of Texas at Arlington

Attraction Effects In Referential Dependencies, Emily Graham

Linguistics & TESOL Dissertations

This dissertation explores the differences in the real-time processing of long-distance dependencies and how the processing of these dependencies functions within a cue-based retrieval model. During subject-verb agreement (SVA) comprehension, the processing of the verb is influenced by attractor noun phrases (NPs) that cannot control agreement. Referential dependencies, however, are less susceptible to such attraction effects. Many studies examining ungrammatical sentences in which a reflexive or pronoun mismatches with its antecedent in number/gender have indicated that the processing of these referentially dependent elements is largely uninfluenced by grammatically unavailable attractor NPs. These disparities have been taken to indicate that SVA …


Characterizing The Relationship Between Accented Speech Intelligibility And Listening Effort, Mel Mallard 2023 Washington University in St. Louis

Characterizing The Relationship Between Accented Speech Intelligibility And Listening Effort, Mel Mallard

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unfamiliar accents can make speech communication difficult, both by reducing speech intelligibility and by increasing the effort listeners must put forth to understand speech. However, these two constructs, while related, are independent: for example, two 100% intelligible utterances may require different amounts of effort to accurately process. To better characterize the relationship between intelligibility and effort, this study presents speakers of four intelligibility levels (one natively-accented English speaker, and three Mandarin-accented English speakers) within a dual-task paradigm (featuring a vibrotactile secondary task) to measure listening effort. We found a negative nonlinear relationship between intelligibility and effort, with the steepest slope …


How Prefixation, Onset Length, And Coda Length Determine Lexical Stress Assignment When Reading Aloud, Kayla Hensley 2023 Washington University in St. Louis

How Prefixation, Onset Length, And Coda Length Determine Lexical Stress Assignment When Reading Aloud, Kayla Hensley

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lexical stress, or which syllable is emphasized in a multisyllabic word, can provide important cues for speech segmentation, lexical class, and reading acquisition. Despite this, much of the literature on reading has focused on single syllable words, neglecting the role that stress can play. In this project, I examine the role of prefixation, onset and coda length in assigning stress in disyllabic words when reading aloud. Study 1 is a corpus analysis of English words with grade level information to replicate the model developed by Treiman et al. 2020 and check for age differences. There were no significant differences on …


The Development And Validation Of An Efl Learner Attitude Scale For Phonetic Symbol Learning In A Chinese University Context, Jie Zeng, Yi Qin, Yu Zong, Tengfei Zhao, Xiping Wang 2023 Chengdu Normal University, China

The Development And Validation Of An Efl Learner Attitude Scale For Phonetic Symbol Learning In A Chinese University Context, Jie Zeng, Yi Qin, Yu Zong, Tengfei Zhao, Xiping Wang

Journal of English and Applied Linguistics

Research has established that learner attitude significantly impacts the outcomes of learning English as a foreign language (EFL). However, previous studies have rarely considered a validated attitude scale for English phonetic symbol learning (EPSL). This study aims to develop and validate a scale to measure students' attitudes toward EPSL by integrating findings from learning attitude research in education and psychology. The results demonstrate that the attitude scale can predict attitudes towards EPSL in the context of a Chinese university and has good reliability and validity (KMO=0.892, α=0.749). Pedagogical suggestions are made to help students develop a more positive attitude toward …


The Online Processing Of Even's Likelihood Presupposition, Erika Mayer 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Online Processing Of Even's Likelihood Presupposition, Erika Mayer

Doctoral Dissertations

Even is a focus-sensitive semantic operator that introduces a presupposition about likelihood. Under many semantic accounts, even’s likelihood presupposition requires the sentence with even to be less likely than a set of contextually-relevant alternatives. On one hand, even’s presupposition is complex, and this complexity may cause delays in processing. On the other hand, despite—and indeed because—of this complexity, even has the potential to be highly informative to readers. In this dissertation, I investigate whether and how even interacts with lexical predictability in online processing. If comprehenders are able to rapidly process even, they may be able to …


Association Strength Between Concepts As The Origin Of The "Foreign Language Effect", Emilia Ezrina 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Association Strength Between Concepts As The Origin Of The "Foreign Language Effect", Emilia Ezrina

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Bilinguals sometimes make decisions in verbal tasks differently in their first (L1) and second (L2) language. This phenomenon is known as the foreign language effect (FLE), and it suggests strong connections between language and cognition. On the one hand, it is possible that L2 “blunts” emotional language. However, the FLE can be observed in non-emotional tasks. Therefore, it is possible that L2 requires more deliberate processing due to increased cognitive load, leading to more rational decisions. The support for each explanation is mixed.

In this thesis we propose looking for a single explanation for all instances of the FLE. After …


The Impact Of Semantics And Syntax On Lexical Retrieval In Individuals With Aphasia, Marta M. Korytkowska 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Impact Of Semantics And Syntax On Lexical Retrieval In Individuals With Aphasia, Marta M. Korytkowska

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Nearly all people with aphasia (PWA) report difficulty with lexical retrieval (i.e., anomia). While there are several tasks used to measure lexical retrieval, each poses different degrees and types of challenges. For example, some studies have found that PWA performance varies depending on the type of lexical retrieval task. The tasks that have been used include lexical retrieval in isolation tasks (such as picture-naming), lexical retrieval in sentence level tasks (such as narration tasks), and lexical retrieval in sentence-completion tasks. Some studies have found no differences between the accuracy of lexical retrieval in isolation and at the sentence level (e.g., …


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