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The Relevance Of Shame Across Time And Location, Miranda Vander Berg, Kari Sandouka 2023 Dordt University

The Relevance Of Shame Across Time And Location, Miranda Vander Berg, Kari Sandouka

SDSU Data Science Symposium

Twitter is used among various entities professionals, politicians, and the general public as an online social network. Many tweets are informational, but others are reactive based on judgment that leads to public shaming. In response to the book “The Shame Machine” (by Cathy O’Neil), we look at Tweets to determine a linguistical and content analysis of shame. The research focuses on content analysis to define if a tweet contains language that is deduced as public shaming. Other factors relating to the tweet are the time, date, location of the author, and if it’s the initial post or a response to …


Multilingualism And Memory: Investigating Possible Differences In The Abilities Of Monolingual And Multilingual College Students, Clara E. Barned 2022 Bowling Green State University

Multilingualism And Memory: Investigating Possible Differences In The Abilities Of Monolingual And Multilingual College Students, Clara E. Barned

Honors Projects

This study investigated whether there is a difference in the memories of monolingual and multilingual undergraduate students using simple memorization tasks. There were 46 participants, 30 of which were monolingual (only knew one language) and 16 of which were multilingual (knew two or more languages). There was found to be no significant difference between the performance of the two groups, with the data generating a p-value of 0.557. This study further suggests related avenues of research and ways in which the study could be improved in the future.


What Did You Expect? An Investigation Of Lexical Preactivation In Sentence Processing, Jon Burnsky 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

What Did You Expect? An Investigation Of Lexical Preactivation In Sentence Processing, Jon Burnsky

Doctoral Dissertations

Language users predictively preactivate lexical units that appear to the comprehen- der to be likely to surface. Despite ample language experience and grammatical competence, it appears that language users tend to preactivate verbs in some contexts, called role-reversal contexts, that would create plausibility violations if they were to actually appear; these verbs assign thematic roles to their arguments in such a way that it leads to implausibility. These anomalous predictions provide a window into the mechanisms underlying lexical preactivation and are the case study that this dissertation focuses in on. This dissertation is an exploration of what linguistic information is …


Towards Explaining Variation In Entrainment, Andreas Weise 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Towards Explaining Variation In Entrainment, Andreas Weise

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Entrainment refers to the tendency of human speakers to adapt to their interlocutors to become more similar to them. This affects various dimensions and occurs in many contexts, allowing for rich applications in human-computer interaction. However, it is not exhibited by every speaker in every conversation but varies widely across features, speakers, and contexts, hindering broad application. This variation, whose guiding principles are poorly understood even after decades of entrainment research, is the subject of this thesis. We begin with a comprehensive literature review that serves as the foundation of our own work and provides a reference to guide future …


Retrieval Practice Promotes Learning Of Turkish As A Foreign Language: A Computer-Assisted Language Learning Study, Maya C. Rose 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Retrieval Practice Promotes Learning Of Turkish As A Foreign Language: A Computer-Assisted Language Learning Study, Maya C. Rose

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Adults generally find it difficult to learn a new language, yet exhibit remarkable individual differences in outcomes. Variation in second language (L2) learning is associated with input conditions (Morgan-Short et al., 2010) as well as learners’ aptitude (Dörnyei, 2005). Recent work has demonstrated benefits of retrieval practice in promoting L2 learning of grammatical patterns and vocabulary in both artificial and natural languages (Hopman & MacDonald, 2018; Keppenne et al., 2021). With that said, when retrieval practice is based on oral recall as opposed to a recognition test, it confounds potential benefits of repeated testing (Rowland, 2014) with those associated with …


The Biological Influence Of Stories & The Importance Of Reading Fiction, Elise N. Good, Katharine Schaab 2022 Kennesaw State University

The Biological Influence Of Stories & The Importance Of Reading Fiction, Elise N. Good, Katharine Schaab

The Kennesaw Journal of Undergraduate Research

Fictional narratives and stories have persisted throughout human history. However, perhaps due to a bias that stories offered nothing more than entertainment for the reader or perhaps that they are not useful outside of the realm of academia, the research within science academia has been lacking in literature on why these narratives have endured. Unfortunately, due to the lack of conversation across disciplines, particularly those of science and literature, this subject has not been thoroughly investigated through an interdisciplinary lens. Within this paper, the goal is to analyze the benefits of fictional narratives through biological, evolutionary, and neuropsychological perspectives. Research …


Yay…, ��, And #Sarcasm: Exploring How Sarcasm Is Marked In Text-Based Cmc, Bronte G. Gordon 2022 Portland State University

Yay…, ��, And #Sarcasm: Exploring How Sarcasm Is Marked In Text-Based Cmc, Bronte G. Gordon

University Honors Theses

Sarcasm is a complex phenomenon of indirect speech, when we intend a meaning different from that of the literal words we use. In face-to-face settings (FtF), facial expressions, body language, and prosodic cues can be helpful indicators of sarcasm. It becomes even harder to decipher when these physical cues are removed as in any written setting. This paper explores what text strategies are used to mark sarcasm in text-based English language communication online. Through a systematic literature review, the similarities and differences of irony and sarcasm were explored, as well as the issues these parallels and distinctions create in delineating …


Masked Language Models Directly Encode Linguistic Uncertainty, Cassandra Jacobs, Ryan J. Hubbard, Kara D. Federmeier 2022 SUNY University at Buffalo

Masked Language Models Directly Encode Linguistic Uncertainty, Cassandra Jacobs, Ryan J. Hubbard, Kara D. Federmeier

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Large language models (LLMs) have recently been used as models of psycholinguistic processing, usually focusing on lexical or syntactic surprisal. However, this approach casts away representations of utterance meaning (e.g., hidden states), which are used by LLMs to predict upcoming words. The present work explores whether hidden state representations of LLMs encode human language processing-relevant uncertainty. We specifically assess this possibility using sentences from Federmeier et al. (2007) that are either strongly or weakly predictive of a final word. Using a machine learning approach, we tested and confirmed that LLMs encode uncertainty in their hidden states.


How Well Do Lstm Language Models Learn Filler-Gap Dependencies?, Satoru Ozaki, Dan Yurovsky, Lori Levin 2022 Carnegie Mellon University

How Well Do Lstm Language Models Learn Filler-Gap Dependencies?, Satoru Ozaki, Dan Yurovsky, Lori Levin

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

This paper revisits the question of what LSTMs know about the syntax of filler-gap dependencies in English. One contribution of this paper is to adjust the metrics used by Wilcox et al. 2018 and show that their language models (LMs) learn embedded wh-questions -- a kind of filler-gap dependencies -- better than they originally claimed. Another contribution of this paper is to examine four additional filler-gap dependency constructions to see whether LMs perform equally on all types of filler-gap dependencies. We find that different constructions are learned to different extents, and there is a correlation between performance and frequency of …


Linguistic Complexity And Planning Effects On Word Duration In Hindi Read Aloud Speech, Sidharth Ranjan, Rajakrishnan Rajkumar, Sumeet Agarwal 2022 Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

Linguistic Complexity And Planning Effects On Word Duration In Hindi Read Aloud Speech, Sidharth Ranjan, Rajakrishnan Rajkumar, Sumeet Agarwal

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Our study investigates the impact of linguistic complexity and planning on word durations in Hindi read aloud speech. Reading aloud involves both comprehension and production processes, and we use measures defined by two influential theories of sentence comprehension, Surprisal Theory and Dependency Locality Theory, to model the time taken to enunciate individual words. We model planning processes using an information-theoretic measure we call FORWARD SURPRISAL, inspired by surprisal theory which has been prominent in recent psycholinguistic work. Forward surprisal aims to capture articulatory planning when readers incorporate parafoveal viewing during reading aloud. Using a Linear Mixed Model containing memory …


Evaluating Structural Economy Claims In Relative Clause Attachment, Aniello De Santo, So Young Lee 2022 University of Utah

Evaluating Structural Economy Claims In Relative Clause Attachment, Aniello De Santo, So Young Lee

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Grillo and Costa (2014) argue for a pseudo- relative (PR) first account of relative clause attachment preferences (RC) such that, when faced with a sentence ambiguous between a PR and a RC interpretation, the parser prefers committing to a PR structure first, thus giving rise to what looks like a high-attachment preference. One possible explanation for this parsing choice is in terms of simplicity of the PR structure, and overall economy principles. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis by testing the predictions of a parser for Minimalist grammars for PR and RC structures in Italian. We discuss the relevance of our …


A Corpus Study Of The Development Of The Adjective Phrase In French Children, Avery Elizabeth Baggett 2022 University of Kentucky

A Corpus Study Of The Development Of The Adjective Phrase In French Children, Avery Elizabeth Baggett

Theses and Dissertations--Linguistics

In this thesis I attempt to answer three questions:

H1) Do children use proportionally more prenominal or post-nominal placement of adjectives than adults?

H2) Are children more conservative or more creative in their behavior in alternating prenominal and post-nominal placement of adjectives?

H3) If colored terms are more frequent in child speech will they pattern more like prenominal adjectives or more like post nominal adjectives, as in adult speech?

To do this, I examine two general semantic viewpoints, opting to use Scontras & Goodman (2017) subjectivity hypothesis. Next, I provide a general overview of First Language Acquisition research and then …


Reading Comprehension Constrains Word Reading: A Tongue Twister Study By Moderating Attentional Control, Xueying Wang 2022 University of Kentucky

Reading Comprehension Constrains Word Reading: A Tongue Twister Study By Moderating Attentional Control, Xueying Wang

Theses and Dissertations--Linguistics

Numerous research studies show word reading performance influences reading comprehension. Few studies investigate how reading comprehension influences word reading. The current study explores whether alleviating the attention required for reading comprehension correlates with a better word reading performance. Three types of tongue twister reading tasks that involve recall (RR), semantic priming (PP), and instructional focus on the phonological information (PF) all have a high demand for attention on word reading. Differently, the attention demanded by PP tasks on reading comprehension is smaller than RR and RF tasks. Numbers of speech errors are used to manifest the variability of these three …


The Electrophysiological Correlates Of Text Integration And Direct Vs. Indirect Articles: A Centralized And Lateralized Examination, Deanna C. Hall 2022 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Electrophysiological Correlates Of Text Integration And Direct Vs. Indirect Articles: A Centralized And Lateralized Examination, Deanna C. Hall

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

As we read, we develop mental models of the discourse content called situation models. Situation models are integral to how we keep track of information, and to do so in an ongoing event incoming information needs to be integrated into the model or discarded. The type of information being presented, and its relation to prior data, impacts how that new information is processed. The current research examined discourse passages containing concepts that were either previously mentioned (match), mentioned with a general term (general category), unmentioned in lieu of another concept (mismatch), or completely unmentioned previously (indeterminate), and examined how these …


Finding The Means : The Bilingual Disparity In Semantic Context Use For Processing, Iyad Ghanim 2022 Montclair State University

Finding The Means : The Bilingual Disparity In Semantic Context Use For Processing, Iyad Ghanim

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Early and late bilinguals both differ in the speed with which they comprehend language or in their processing of sentences compared to monolinguals. This is possibly a result of crosslanguage interference, differential allocation of cognitive resources, or some other difference in language-dependent processes. This dissertation presents research and review focusing on one such language dependent process — the use of sentential context and lexical-associative semantic information — to process sentences. In a series of studies, 34 bilinguals and 28 monolinguals complete a retroactive masked priming task, which provides an isolated measure of the use of semantic information to backwards recognize …


Linguistic Variation From Cognitive Variability: The Case Of English 'Have', Muye Zhang 2021 Yale University

Linguistic Variation From Cognitive Variability: The Case Of English 'Have', Muye Zhang

Linguistics Graduate Dissertations

In this dissertation, I seek to construct a model of meaning variation built upon variability in linguistic structure, conceptual structure, and cognitive makeup, and in doing so, exemplify an approach to studying meaning that is both linguistically principled and neuropsychologically grounded. As my test case, I make use of the English lexical item ‘have' by proposing a novel analysis of its meaning based on its well-described variability in English and its embed- ding into crosslinguistically consistent patterns of variation and change.

I support this analysis by investigating its real-time comprehension patterns through behavioral, electropsychophysiological, and hemodynamic brain data, thereby incorporating …


What Is The Relationship Between Language And Thought?: Linguistic Relativity And Its Implications For Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

What Is The Relationship Between Language And Thought?: Linguistic Relativity And Its Implications For Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

To date, copyright scholarship has almost completely overlooked the linguistics and cognitive psychology literature exploring the connection between language and thought. An exploration of the two major strains of this literature, known as universal grammar (associated with Noam Chomsky) and linguistic relativity (centered around the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis), offers insights into the copyrightability of constructed languages and of the type of software packages at issue in Google v. Oracle recently decided by the Supreme Court. It turns to modularity theory as the key idea unifying the analysis of both languages and software in ways that suggest that the information filtering associated …


Simultaneous Bilinguals’ Comprehension Of Accented Speech, Sita Carraturo 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Simultaneous Bilinguals’ Comprehension Of Accented Speech, Sita Carraturo

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

L2-accented speech recognition has typically been studied with monolingual listeners or late L2-learners, but simultaneous bilinguals may have a different experience: their two phonologies offer flexibility in phonological-lexical mapping (Samuel and Larraza, 2015), which may be advantageous. On the other hand, the two languages cause greater lexical competition (Marian & Spivey, 2003), which may impede successful L2-accented speech recognition. The competition between a bilinguals’ two languages is the oft-cited explanation, for example, as to why bilinguals underperform monolinguals in native-accented speech-in-noise tasks (Rogers et al., 2006).

To investigate the effect of bilingualism on L2-accented speech recognition, the current studies compare …


Visual Perception In Hearing Sign Language Users, Jessica M. Lammert 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Visual Perception In Hearing Sign Language Users, Jessica M. Lammert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Deaf signers exhibit superior visual perception compared to hearing controls in several domains, including the perception of faces and peripheral motion. These visual enhancements are thought to compensate for an absence of auditory input. However, it is also possible that they reflect experience using a visual-manual language, where signers must process complex moving hand signs and facial cues simultaneously. Thus, the current study sought to isolate the effects of sign language experience by examining how visual perception is altered as a function of American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency in hearing individuals. Hearing signers completed an online test of ASL proficiency …


Happy 😊, Sad 😥Or Pizza 🍕: A Review Of Emoji Effects On Reading Times And Their Relation To Mood, Fetheya Alattar 2021 Portland State University

Happy 😊, Sad 😥Or Pizza 🍕: A Review Of Emoji Effects On Reading Times And Their Relation To Mood, Fetheya Alattar

University Honors Theses

With recent advancements in technology, emoji are continuously changing the way that people communicate and process language. Their use continues to evolve as a mechanism to counter the loss of the rich nonverbal cues of face-to-face communication. Subsequently, the need for research examining how emoji are processed and how they affect language and communication has become more important. This research specifically examines the scholarship on emoji effects on sentence reading times (RT) and how this relates to mood. Results on the effects of emoji on sentence RT are mixed. In some instances, emoji slowed RT and in others, they sped …


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