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The Collaborative Function Of Verbal Aspect And Aktionsart: A Distributional Analysis Of English Verb-Types, Marc A. Agee 2018 Cedarville University

The Collaborative Function Of Verbal Aspect And Aktionsart: A Distributional Analysis Of English Verb-Types, Marc A. Agee

Linguistics Senior Research Projects

This paper reviews literature in aspect studies from modern linguistics and Biblical language studies and proposes syntheses of multiple definitions given for these often-confusing verbal categories as the discussion has progressed from the Nineteenth Century to the present day. To inform these definitions, key studies such as Bache (1982), Comrie (1981), Lyons (1977), and Porter (1989) are consulted. In addition to suggesting definitions for these, this paper also discusses the best way to understand aktionsart as it functions in several related languages, and as it relates to aspect in usage. An analysis of evidence for this description as it functions ...


Grammar Size And Quantitative Restrictions On Movement, Thomas Graf 2018 Stony Brook University

Grammar Size And Quantitative Restrictions On Movement, Thomas Graf

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Recently is has been proved that every Minimalist grammar can be converted into a strongly equivalent single movement normal form such that every phrase moves at most once in every derivation. The normal form conversion greatly simplifies the formalism and reduces the complexity of movement dependencies, but it also runs the risk of greatly increasing the size of the grammar. I show that no such blow-up obtains with linguistically plausible grammars that respect common constraints on movement. This establishes not only the cost-free nature of this normal form for realistic grammars, but also that the known restrictions on movement greatly ...


A Discussion Of Delimitative In Mandarin Chinese, Qi Zhang 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Discussion Of Delimitative In Mandarin Chinese, Qi Zhang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis investigates how delimitative marking in Mandarin Chinese is better considered as an instance of verb-phrase modification instead of aspect marking. The study investigates data with verb reduplication cases caused by delimitative marking from both syntactic and semantic points of view. Through observations and analyses, it is found that delimitative marking does not have the same distribution as other aspect markers, but rather shows resemblance to temporal modifiers syntactically. Semantically, instead of providing a viewpoint as other aspect markers do, delimitative indicates the temporal length (shortness) of the event. In addition, it is found that delimitative marking has strict ...


Aspects Of Quantifier Float In Thai, Khanin Chaiphet 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Aspects Of Quantifier Float In Thai, Khanin Chaiphet

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Research on Thai Q(uantifier)-float attempts to manifest the problems for each of its analysis. For the adverbial analysis, the Japanese data show that the floating quantifiers can be associated with both distributive and plurality-of-events readings while Thai does not distinguish between these two readings. For the stranding analysis, the differences from English-Thai comparative data show that Thai floating quantifiers often occur in positions where their associated NPs could not have previously occupied or have been moved from, and thus cannot be analyzed as resulting from stranding. As a solution, Thai Q-float is postulated as an instance of rightward ...


The Declensions Of Modern Eastern Armenian: A Paradigm Function Morphology Approach, Malachi W. Oyer 2017 University of Kentucky

The Declensions Of Modern Eastern Armenian: A Paradigm Function Morphology Approach, Malachi W. Oyer

Theses and Dissertations--Linguistics

In traditional grammar, the inflection of a word’s different forms based on the possible morphosyntactic property combinations of the language can be ordered into a tables. Words of the same part of speech often can be grouped together when they inflect in similar fashions. These similar groups are represented by a single word that expresses the morphosyntactic property set possible for that part of speech. These groups are called declensions. These declensions are not always complete sometimes there is a particular morphosyntactic property set that does not have a corresponding form (word). This is known as defectiveness. One approach ...


Reduced Structure In Malagasy Headlines, Ileana Paul 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Reduced Structure In Malagasy Headlines, Ileana Paul

French Studies Publications

This paper examines the register associated with headlines in Malagasy. While in manylanguages headlines appear to have reduced structure as evidenced by the absence of certaingrammatical markers (determiners, copulas, tense), Malagasy headlines show a change in wordorder from VOS to SVO. It is argued that like English, Malagasy headlines involve a truncatedsyntactic structure and that the absence of certain functional projections accounts for the changein word order.


The Form And Acquisition Of Free Relatives, Michael Clauss 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

The Form And Acquisition Of Free Relatives, Michael Clauss

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examines the syntax of Free Relatives (FRs) in English at different stages of first language acquisition. The goal is to provide a theory of Free Relatives that explains phenomena in adult and child FRs, is feasibly learnable by a child, and reflects principles expressed in theories of Universal Grammar based on the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1993, 1995, 2005).

The central empirical concern is the difference between the distribution of Wh expressions in FRs vs. Wh questions in English, the difference in grammaticality between Charles wondered dish what Sebastian made and *Charles ate what dish Sebastian made (*Wh-NP). To ...


When Errors Aren't: How Comprehenders Selectively Violate Binding Theory, Shayne Sloggett 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

When Errors Aren't: How Comprehenders Selectively Violate Binding Theory, Shayne Sloggett

Doctoral Dissertations

It has been claimed that comprehenders use the Binding Theory (Chomsky, 1986) to restrict the search for a reflexive’s antecedent in early stages of comprehension (Dillon, Mishler, Sloggett, & Phillips, 2013; Sturt, 2003; Nicol & Swinney, 1989) However, recent findings challenge this view, demonstrating that comprehenders occasionally access antecedents on the basis of their match with a reflexive’s morphosyntactic features (Chen, Jäger, & Vasishth, 2012; Patil, Lewis, & Vasishth, 2016, Parker, & Phillips, 2017). In this dissertation, I investigate the source of this ’grammatical fallibility’ in the real-time application of Principle A of the Binding Theory. Specifically, I ask whether this pattern of behavior is the direct consequence of an error-prone retrieval mechanism, or if it is instead the result of a discourse-oriented, logophoric interpretation of reflexive forms. This work presents four experiments demonstrating that ...


Amount Relatives Redux, Jon Ander Mendia 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Amount Relatives Redux, Jon Ander Mendia

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation provides a novel analysis of Amount Relatives (Carlson 1977, Heim 1987, Grosu & Landman 1998, Herdan 2008, Meier 2015, a.o). Amount Relatives are a form of non-intersective relative clause that is usually associated with amount interpretations . For example, the sentence it will take us the rest of our lives to drink the champagne they spilled that evening is most naturally interpreted as referring to an amount of champagne, and not any particular champagne. Previous accounts of Amount Relatives have converged in appealing to degree semantics in order to extract an amount from the relative clause, suggesting that the ...


Verb Bias And Plausibility In English Sentence Processing, Kendra Buck 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Verb Bias And Plausibility In English Sentence Processing, Kendra Buck

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study tests language processing models previously explored by linguistics in terms of the parsing of temporarily ambiguous English sentences. The two primary models examined in this study are the garden-path model and the constraint-based model. Each of these models provides a possible explanation for sentence processing difficulty. John Trueswell (1996) previously found properties and lexical cues attached to certain verbs in their past participle forms and lexical information in nouns which aid or inhibit readers in accurately predicting the outcome of a temporarily ambiguous sentence. His results support the constraint-based model while providing some evidence for the garden-path model ...


Movement And The Semantic Type Of Traces, Ethan Poole 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Movement And The Semantic Type Of Traces, Ethan Poole

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation argues that there are only two possible semantic representations of movement: (i) a bound variable, i.e. trace, ranging over an individual semantic type, such as entities and degrees, or (ii) reconstruction back into the launching site of movement. Even though natural language has expressions over higher types, these expressions cannot be represented as traces, which only range over individual types. I call this constraint the Trace Interpretation Constraint. The novel empirical motivation for this constraint comes from a detailed investigation of movement targeting DPs that denote properties, a kind of higher-type expression. I observe that such movement ...


Reduced Structure In Malagasy Headlines, Ileana Paul 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Reduced Structure In Malagasy Headlines, Ileana Paul

Ileana Paul

This paper examines the register associated with headlines in Malagasy. While in many
languages headlines appear to have reduced structure as evidenced by the absence of certain
grammatical markers (determiners, copulas, tense), Malagasy headlines show a change in word
order from VOS to SVO. It is argued that like English, Malagasy headlines involve a truncated
syntactic structure and that the absence of certain functional projections accounts for the change
in word order.


Deriving Superiority Effects In Multiple Wh-Fronting Without Determiners., Matthew Schuurman 2016 Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Deriving Superiority Effects In Multiple Wh-Fronting Without Determiners., Matthew Schuurman

Western Papers in Linguistics / Cahiers linguistiques de Western

This paper analyzes multiple wh-fronting with superiority effects in Mi’gmaq, an Eastern Algonquian language, to Bošković’s (2008, 2012) generalizations between languages with and those without the presence of overt articles. When the Mi’gmaq is compared to generalizations on scrambling, quantifier scope, and multiple wh-fronting with superiority effects, problematic contradictions arise, specifically with the latter generalization. According to Bošković's predictions, Mi’gmaq should be both an NP-only language based on scrambling, numeral classifiers, and quantifier scope, and a DP language based on multiple wh-fronting with superiority effects. Therefore, I propose there is no relationship between the presence ...


Argument Omission In Portuguese As A Second Language, Elizabeth Parkin, Madeline Walker 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Argument Omission In Portuguese As A Second Language, Elizabeth Parkin, Madeline Walker

Western Papers in Linguistics / Cahiers linguistiques de Western

Interlanguage grammars are complex and are shaped by a combination of general learnability issues such as transfer and generalization, and characteristics of the individual learner, such as motivation and degree of extroversion (Lightbown & Spada, 2013; Selinker, 1972). The individual factors may be particularly salient in classroom learning, where motivation plays an important role in language learning. The question is whether they also play a role in areas that are implicit, perhaps occasionally touched on by the instructor but not necessarily part of the curriculum. Furthermore, the relationship between the different factors may change according to the proficiency level of the learners. This ...


On The Syntax/Semantics Of Korean Nominal Particles, Han-Byul Chung 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

On The Syntax/Semantics Of Korean Nominal Particles, Han-Byul Chung

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation, I investigate the structural positions of i/ka-marked DPs and un/nun-marked DPs in the light of Kratzer (1988; 1995) and Diesing (1990; 1992). In Korean, unlike German (and English in part), vP-external subjects and vP-internal subjects are not distinguishable at the surface. However, by adopting Kratzer (1988; 1995) and Diesing (1990; 1992), we are able to distinguish between vP-external DPs and vP-internal DPs in Korean.

According to Kratzer and Diesing, syntactic position of a DP has affect in the interpretation of the DP itself, as well as the interpretation of ...


The Language Of Music And Math: An Investigation Of Cross-Domain Effects Of Structural Priming, Robert Anthony LaRose 2016 College of William and Mary

The Language Of Music And Math: An Investigation Of Cross-Domain Effects Of Structural Priming, Robert Anthony Larose

Undergraduate Honors Theses

There is an ongoing debate as to whether the processing of complex systems (such as language, mathematics, and music) is domain-general or domain-specific. Language, math, and music all involve cognitive systems that organize discrete elements in a hierarchical manner. If processing is domain-general, then the structures of these systems would be processed using shared mental mechanisms. Previous studies suggest that language and math share mental mechanisms for building hierarchically structured representations in real time. This thesis explores the possibility that these mental mechanisms are also shared by the cognitive systems for processing music. An experiment was designed to reveal whether ...


Forming Wh-Questions In Shona: A Comparative Bantu Perspective, Jason Zentz 2016 Yale University

Forming Wh-Questions In Shona: A Comparative Bantu Perspective, Jason Zentz

Linguistics Graduate Dissertations

Bantu languages, which are spoken throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa, permit wh- questions to be constructed in multiple ways, including wh-in-situ, full wh-movement, and partial wh-movement. Shona, a Bantu language spoken by about 13 million people in Zimbabwe and Mozambique, allows all three of these types. In this dissertation, I conduct the first in-depth examination of Shona wh-questions, drawing on fifty hours of elicitation with a native speaker consultant to explore the derivational relationships among these strategies. Wh-in-situ questions have received a wide variety of treatments in the syntactic lit- erature, ranging from covert or disguised movement to postsyntactic binding ...


A Linguistic Comparison Of Biblical Greek And English: How Should The Adverbial Participle Be Translated?, Sarah C. Nickchen 2016 Cedarville University

A Linguistic Comparison Of Biblical Greek And English: How Should The Adverbial Participle Be Translated?, Sarah C. Nickchen

Linguistics Senior Research Projects

This paper combines the two fields of linguistics and biblical Greek studies in a scientific study of original research. Linguistics can be defined as “the scientific study of the language systems of the world” (Black, 1995, 5). Biblical Greek studies focus on analysis of the original New Testament text. Semantics (the meaning of words and phrases) is one subfield of linguistics, and the focus of this paper. The Greek adverbial participle is the most versatile Greek participle. The English adverbial participle is much less versatile. Thus, this paper focuses on adverbial participles in Greek and English in order to determine ...


Animacy And Alienability: A Reconsideration Of English Possession, Jaimee Jones 2016 Liberty University

Animacy And Alienability: A Reconsideration Of English Possession, Jaimee Jones

Senior Honors Theses

Current scholarship on English possessive constructions, the s-genitive and the of-construction, largely ignores the possessive relationships inherent in certain English compound nouns. Scholars agree that, in general, an animate possessor predicts the s-genitive while an inanimate possessor predicts the of-construction. However, the current literature rarely discusses noun compounds, such as the table leg, which also express possessive relationships. However, pragmatically and syntactically, a compound cannot be considered as a true possessive construction. Thus, this paper will examine why some compounds still display possessive semantics epiphenomenally. The noun compounds that imply possession seem to exhibit relationships prototypical of inalienable possession ...


Probes And Their Horizons, Stefan Keine 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Probes And Their Horizons, Stefan Keine

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation develops a comprehensive theory of 'selective opacity', syntactic configurations in which one and the same syntactic domain is transparent to some operations, but opaque to others. The prime example of selective opacity are finite clauses in English, which are transparent to A'-movement, but opaque to A-movement. Following and extending the previous literature, I argue that selective opacity extends beyond the A/A'-distinction and even to syntactic dependencies that do not involve movement.

Empirically, I argue that selective opacity exhibits intriguing meta-generalizations, which become evident once selective opacity across constructions and languages is treated as a uniform ...


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