Learnability And Overgeneration In Computational Syntax, 2019 Yale University
Learnability And Overgeneration In Computational Syntax, Yiding Hao
Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics
This paper addresses the hypothesis that unnatural patterns generated by grammar formalisms can be eliminated on the grounds that they are unlearnable. I consider three examples of formal languages thought to represent dependencies unattested in natural language syntax, and show that all three can be learned by grammar induction algorithms following the Distributional Learning paradigm of Clark and Eyraud (2007). While learnable language classes are restrictive by necessity (Gold, 1967), these facts suggest that learnability alone may be insufficient for addressing concerns of overgeneration in syntax.
22 - “Make Me A Sandwich” - “Poof, You’Re A Sandwich!”: Ditransitive Syntax In The Brain, 2018 University of North Georgia
22 - “Make Me A Sandwich” - “Poof, You’Re A Sandwich!”: Ditransitive Syntax In The Brain, Haley Shea J. Barfield
Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)
How does the brain distinguish between sentences with nearly identical structures? Neurolinguists have begun to form a fascinating picture of language in the brain in the decades since the first observation of event-related potentials during language tasks. A deeper understanding of syntactic activity—including pattern recognition, ambiguity resolution, and interpretation of functional constituents during sentence processing—would yield insights beneficial to the fields of language education, brain-computer interface, human-computer interaction, and neurolinguistic programs for language acquisition, speech therapy, and rehabilitation of communicative disorders.
To map the brain’s responses to sentence structures, we will use scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to measure ...
Women In The New Testament’S Church Ministry: The Problem Of Remaining Silent, 2018 Liberty University
Women In The New Testament’S Church Ministry: The Problem Of Remaining Silent, Jose A. Santiago
Diligence: Journal of the Liberty University Online Religion Capstone in Research and Scholarship
In 1 Corinthians 14:34, one finds Paul’ command that women ought to keep silent in the church setting. As a result, this command appears to be a subject of great debate for many since the text seems to contradict Scripture’ view of women’s involvement in ministry. In addition, it seems to contradict the fact that Paul has just previously mentioned women prophesying (1 Corinthians 11:5). Hence, it creates a problem designating this verse to be un-Pauline in nature, either by interpolation or allusive quotation. Subsequently, this begs for further investigation of Paul’s prohibition of a woman ...
Amount Superlatives And Measure Phrases, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Amount Superlatives And Measure Phrases, E. Cameron Wilson
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
This dissertation provides a novel analysis of quantity superlatives by bringing together research on three interrelated topics: superlative ambiguity, semantic constraints on measure constructions, and the internal structure of the extended nominal phrase. I analyze the quantity words, most, least, and fewest as superlatives of quantificational adjectives (Q-adjectives), but argue that these are often embedded inside a covert measure construction, rather than directly modifying the overt noun. I also introduce novel data showing that the measure phrases that appear in overt pseudopartitive constructions have more complex internal structure than previously assumed. Specifically, they may contain adjectives, including superlative inflection in ...
The Variable Expression Of Transitive Subject And Possesor In Wayuunaiki (Guajiro), 2018 Universitiy of New Mexico
The Variable Expression Of Transitive Subject And Possesor In Wayuunaiki (Guajiro), Andres M. Sabogal
In Wayuunaiki, verbal affixes cross-reference clausal arguments in various ways. Most notably, there are two ways to express transitive subjects, and two ways to express possessors. Much like voice alternatives, the variable expression of subject and possessor impart different perspectives on a situation type, but unlike traditional voice categories, syntactic valence remains equal. This dissertation characterizes these constructions with a specific question in mind: what do these two cross-referencing alternations communicate and what influences their usage? To answer these questions, I consider the linguistic properties observed in the usage of these constructions in narratives (Jusayú 1986, 1994), and informal conversations ...
Acquisition Of Catalan And Spanish Morphosyntax In The Catalan-Spanish Bilingual Context, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Acquisition Of Catalan And Spanish Morphosyntax In The Catalan-Spanish Bilingual Context, Adriana Soto-Corominas
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
This dissertation investigated the acquisition of Catalan and Spanish morphosyntax by early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals living in Catalunya, a province of Spain with widespread societal bilingualism. Specifically, it focused on the acquisition of six clitic pronouns in Catalan that have different representations in Spanish. Of the six, partitive en, oblique en, locative hi, and oblique hi do not have direct counterparts in Spanish, and correspond to ellipsis in the adult grammar. The accusative neuter clitic ho and masculine clitic l constitute a distinction based on specificity and gender not made in Spanish and both correspond to Spanish lo.
With the help ...
The Collaborative Function Of Verbal Aspect And Aktionsart: A Distributional Analysis Of English Verb-Types, 2018 Cedarville University
The Collaborative Function Of Verbal Aspect And Aktionsart: A Distributional Analysis Of English Verb-Types, Marc A. Agee
Linguistics Senior Research Projects
This paper reviews literature in aspect studies from modern linguistics and Biblical language studies and proposes syntheses of multiple definitions given for these often-confusing verbal categories as the discussion has progressed from the Nineteenth Century to the present day. To inform these definitions, key studies such as Bache (1982), Comrie (1981), Lyons (1977), and Porter (1989) are consulted. In addition to suggesting definitions for these, this paper also discusses the best way to understand aktionsart as it functions in several related languages, and as it relates to aspect in usage. An analysis of evidence for this description as it functions ...
Constraints On Izāfa In Sorani Kurdish, 2018 University of Kentucky
Constraints On Izāfa In Sorani Kurdish, Ali Salehi
Theses and Dissertations--Linguistics
This study examines the distribution and the status of the izāfa particle in Sorani Kurdish (Central Kurdish). It uses a corpus-based analysis to investigate the forms and the pattern of distribution of the izāfa particle in Sorani, a dominant dialect of Kurdish among the Western Iranian languages. The study details an investigation of the appearance of izāfa in various NPs using a variety of data mostly from the corpus but supplemented by the grammaticality judgments of native speakers. I show that next to parallel properties seen in other Western Iranian languages, Sorani Kurdish izāfa shows a form alternation. I examine ...
Grammar Size And Quantitative Restrictions On Movement, 2018 Stony Brook University
Grammar Size And Quantitative Restrictions On Movement, Thomas Graf
Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics
Recently is has been proved that every Minimalist grammar can be converted into a strongly equivalent single movement normal form such that every phrase moves at most once in every derivation. The normal form conversion greatly simplifies the formalism and reduces the complexity of movement dependencies, but it also runs the risk of greatly increasing the size of the grammar. I show that no such blow-up obtains with linguistically plausible grammars that respect common constraints on movement. This establishes not only the cost-free nature of this normal form for realistic grammars, but also that the known restrictions on movement greatly ...
Attitudes De Se And Logophoricity, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Attitudes De Se And Logophoricity, Yangsook Park
This dissertation investigates two related notions that represent attitudes and perspectives, de se attitudes and the notion of logophoricity, based on the case study of the long-distance reflexive caki in Korean, which specifically encodes attitudes towards oneself in attitude reports or co-refers with individuals whose point of view or perspective is represented in a sentence.
The main claim of this thesis is that there are distinct semantic/syntactic mechanisms for the obligatory de se interpretation of the long-distance reflexive caki on the one hand, and the long-distance binding of caki on the other. Specifically, for the semantics of the de ...
Responding To Questions And Assertions: Embedded Polar Response Particles, Ellipsis, And Contrast, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Responding To Questions And Assertions: Embedded Polar Response Particles, Ellipsis, And Contrast, Jeremy Pasquereau
This dissertation studies the distribution of Polar Response Particles (i.e. yes/no particles) in embedded contexts with a focus on European French.
Typology Of Bizarre Linguistic Varieties, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Typology Of Bizarre Linguistic Varieties, David Erschler
This dissertation deals with the typology and analysis of several types of ellipsis that have received little or no attention so far in the literature. The theoretical goal of the dissertation is to propose analyses of sluicing and gapping that will be able to account for cross-linguistic variation in this domain. While the overall approach of the dissertation is typological, a particular focus is made upon data from Russian, Georgian (the South Caucasian language family), as well as Digor and Iron Ossetic (Iranian; Indo-European).
The Head-Quarters Of Mandarin Arguments, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst
The Head-Quarters Of Mandarin Arguments, Hsin-Lun Huang
This dissertation looks at the syntactic distributions of various Mandarin arguments and develops an argument structure that takes into account the arguments’ semantic types. Theories of argument realization mostly build on a one-to-one correspondence between the syntactic positions of arguments and the thematic relations they bear to the verb in the underlying structure. And this correspondence is rooted in the assumption that the argument positions in the verb’s projection must be saturated before other semantic compositions can take place. This dissertation argues that the saturation requirement can be alleviated, depending on whether languages make a morphological distinction in their ...
Constructing A Grammatically Enriched Children's Book, 2017 Bowling Green State University
Constructing A Grammatically Enriched Children's Book, Rebecca Ebert
The intended purpose of this book is to serve as a grammatically rich resource of the grammatical structure: third person singular present tense. It is targets preschool age children with or at risk for a specific language impairment (SLI). More specifically, this book can be used as a clinical tool by speech-language pathologists in order to assist those with language delays in acquiring this difficult structure. Third person singular present tense is a morpheme that is acquired later in child language development due to its complexity, rarity and acoustic factors. Creating a clinical resource with an abundance of third person ...
A Discussion Of Delimitative In Mandarin Chinese, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
A Discussion Of Delimitative In Mandarin Chinese, Qi Zhang
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
This thesis investigates how delimitative marking in Mandarin Chinese is better considered as an instance of verb-phrase modification instead of aspect marking. The study investigates data with verb reduplication cases caused by delimitative marking from both syntactic and semantic points of view. Through observations and analyses, it is found that delimitative marking does not have the same distribution as other aspect markers, but rather shows resemblance to temporal modifiers syntactically. Semantically, instead of providing a viewpoint as other aspect markers do, delimitative indicates the temporal length (shortness) of the event. In addition, it is found that delimitative marking has strict ...
Aspects Of Quantifier Float In Thai, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Aspects Of Quantifier Float In Thai, Khanin Chaiphet
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Research on Thai Q(uantifier)-float attempts to manifest the problems for each of its analysis. For the adverbial analysis, the Japanese data show that the floating quantifiers can be associated with both distributive and plurality-of-events readings while Thai does not distinguish between these two readings. For the stranding analysis, the differences from English-Thai comparative data show that Thai floating quantifiers often occur in positions where their associated NPs could not have previously occupied or have been moved from, and thus cannot be analyzed as resulting from stranding. As a solution, Thai Q-float is postulated as an instance of rightward ...
Reduced Structure In Malagasy Headlines, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Reduced Structure In Malagasy Headlines, Ileana Paul
French Studies Publications
This paper examines the register associated with headlines in Malagasy. While in manylanguages headlines appear to have reduced structure as evidenced by the absence of certaingrammatical markers (determiners, copulas, tense), Malagasy headlines show a change in wordorder from VOS to SVO. It is argued that like English, Malagasy headlines involve a truncatedsyntactic structure and that the absence of certain functional projections accounts for the changein word order.
Verb Bias And Plausibility In English Sentence Processing, 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder
Verb Bias And Plausibility In English Sentence Processing, Kendra Buck
Undergraduate Honors Theses
This study tests language processing models previously explored by linguistics in terms of the parsing of temporarily ambiguous English sentences. The two primary models examined in this study are the garden-path model and the constraint-based model. Each of these models provides a possible explanation for sentence processing difficulty. John Trueswell (1996) previously found properties and lexical cues attached to certain verbs in their past participle forms and lexical information in nouns which aid or inhibit readers in accurately predicting the outcome of a temporarily ambiguous sentence. His results support the constraint-based model while providing some evidence for the garden-path model ...
Movement And The Semantic Type Of Traces, 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Movement And The Semantic Type Of Traces, Ethan Poole
This dissertation argues that there are only two possible semantic representations of movement: (i) a bound variable, i.e. trace, ranging over an individual semantic type, such as entities and degrees, or (ii) reconstruction back into the launching site of movement. Even though natural language has expressions over higher types, these expressions cannot be represented as traces, which only range over individual types. I call this constraint the Trace Interpretation Constraint. The novel empirical motivation for this constraint comes from a detailed investigation of movement targeting DPs that denote properties, a kind of higher-type expression. I observe that such movement ...
When Errors Aren't: How Comprehenders Selectively Violate Binding Theory, 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst
When Errors Aren't: How Comprehenders Selectively Violate Binding Theory, Shayne Sloggett
It has been claimed that comprehenders use the Binding Theory (Chomsky, 1986) to restrict the search for a reflexive’s antecedent in early stages of comprehension (Dillon, Mishler, Sloggett, & Phillips, 2013; Sturt, 2003; Nicol & Swinney, 1989) However, recent findings challenge this view, demonstrating that comprehenders occasionally access antecedents on the basis of their match with a reflexive’s morphosyntactic features (Chen, Jäger, & Vasishth, 2012; Patil, Lewis, & Vasishth, 2016, Parker, & Phillips, 2017). In this dissertation, I investigate the source of this ’grammatical fallibility’ in the real-time application of Principle A of the Binding Theory. Specifically, I ask whether this pattern of behavior is the direct consequence of an error-prone retrieval mechanism, or if it is instead the result of a discourse-oriented, logophoric interpretation of reflexive forms. This work presents four experiments demonstrating that ...