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Covert Determiners In Appalachian English Narrative Declarative Sentences, William Oliver 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Covert Determiners In Appalachian English Narrative Declarative Sentences, William Oliver

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this thesis, I explore the syntax and semantics of covert determiners (Ds) in matrix subject determiner phrases (DPs) with definite specific interpretations. To conduct my investigation, I used the Audio-Aligned and Parsed Corpus of Appalachian English (AAPCAppE), a million-word Penn Treebank corpus, and the software CorpusSearch, a Java program that searches Penn Treebank corpora. My research shows that Appalachian English contains a linguistic phenomenon where speakers drop the D, replacing overt Ds with covert Ds, in definite specific DPs. For example, where Standard English speakers say The doctor came by horseback, Appalachian speakers may use a covert D in ...


A Claiming Of Kin: A Linguistic Analysis Of Southern Appalachian English In Melissa Range's Scriptorium: Poems, Jolee White 2022 East Tennessee State University

A Claiming Of Kin: A Linguistic Analysis Of Southern Appalachian English In Melissa Range's Scriptorium: Poems, Jolee White

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The research studies the Southern Appalachian dialect present in five poems in Melissa Range’s Scriptorium: Poems. The linguistic phenomena characteristic of Southern Appalachian English observed and analyzed in the poems include lexicon, grammatical features, and phonological aspects. The research seeks to bring attention to this Appalachian woman writer as well as to bring understanding of her reasoning behind incorporating the dialect in her poetry. It establishes that the five poems by Range contain the lexicon, grammatical features, and phonological aspects of the SAE dialect. It holds meaning both grammatically and pragmatically within the context of the poem and Appalachia.


Nominal Incorporation In Shiwilu (Kawapanan): Nouns, Classifiers And The Deceased Marker =Ku’, Pilar Valenzuela 2022 Chapman University

Nominal Incorporation In Shiwilu (Kawapanan): Nouns, Classifiers And The Deceased Marker =Ku’, Pilar Valenzuela

World Languages and Cultures Faculty Books and Book Chapters

"Shiwilu is a good representative of the Andes-Amazonia transitional zone, in that it exhibits a mixture of phonological and grammatical traits that are typical of the languages of these two regions (Valenzuela 2015, 2018). The present article addresses a phenomenon that is common in Amazonian languages but absent in the Central Andean families Quechuan and Aymaran: nominal incorporation (Dixon and Aikhenvald 1999: 10; Adelaar with Muysken 2004; Aikhen- vald 2017: 296). In this work, ‘nominal incorporation’ is a cover term to designate the process of inserting into the verb a noun, a classifier, or the deceased marker =ku’."


The Linearization Of V(P)-Doubling Constructions, Rong Yin 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Linearization Of V(P)-Doubling Constructions, Rong Yin

Doctoral Dissertations

When an item moves, it is usually pronounced once but in some cases, it is pronounced multiple times. So, a question is: What determines whether a moved item gets pronounced in only one of its positions or in multiple positions? This dissertation aims at providing an answer to this question by designing a linearization process that yields the correct phonetic realization of a moved item, with a focus on V(P) movement. In particular, this dissertation provides a detailed analysis of how V(P)-doubling cases are linearized and thus show how a V(P) ends up being pronounced multiple ...


Learning Constraints On Wh-Dependencies By Learning How To Efficiently Represent Wh-Dependencies: A Developmental Modeling Investigation With Fragment Grammars, Niels Dickson, Lisa Pearl, Richard Futrell 2022 University of California, Irvine

Learning Constraints On Wh-Dependencies By Learning How To Efficiently Represent Wh-Dependencies: A Developmental Modeling Investigation With Fragment Grammars, Niels Dickson, Lisa Pearl, Richard Futrell

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

It’s hotly contested how children learn constraints on wh-dependencies, called syntactic islands. When learning this knowledge, a prerequisite is knowing how to represent wh-dependencies so that constraints can be hypothesized over those representations. Previous work has explained disparate sets of syntactic island constraints by assuming different wh-dependency representations, without a unified dependency representation capturing all these constraints. We implement a modeled learner who learns a Fragment Grammar (FG) representation of wh-dependencies–a representation comprised of potentially different-sized fragments that combine to form full dependencies–that best accounts for the input while being as compact as ...


Can Language Models Capture Syntactic Associations Without Surface Cues? A Case Study Of Reflexive Anaphor Licensing In English Control Constructions, Soo-Hwan Lee, Sebastian Schuster 2022 New York University

Can Language Models Capture Syntactic Associations Without Surface Cues? A Case Study Of Reflexive Anaphor Licensing In English Control Constructions, Soo-Hwan Lee, Sebastian Schuster

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

We examine GPT-2 (Radford et al., 2019), which is trained only on surface strings, to see whether or not the model makes correct predictions about the agreement patterns of a reflexive anaphor in English control constructions. Our findings show that GPT-2 struggles with transitive subject control constructions, but does well on transitive object control constructions. One reason might be that the model tries to associate the anaphor with the closest noun phrase. Moreover, while we find that a model with a larger number of parameters shows higher accuracy on the tasks related to subject control constructions, performance remains below chance.


How Well Do Lstm Language Models Learn Filler-Gap Dependencies?, Satoru Ozaki, Dan Yurovsky, Lori Levin 2022 Carnegie Mellon University

How Well Do Lstm Language Models Learn Filler-Gap Dependencies?, Satoru Ozaki, Dan Yurovsky, Lori Levin

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

This paper revisits the question of what LSTMs know about the syntax of filler-gap dependencies in English. One contribution of this paper is to adjust the metrics used by Wilcox et al. 2018 and show that their language models (LMs) learn embedded wh-questions -- a kind of filler-gap dependencies -- better than they originally claimed. Another contribution of this paper is to examine four additional filler-gap dependency constructions to see whether LMs perform equally on all types of filler-gap dependencies. We find that different constructions are learned to different extents, and there is a correlation between performance and frequency of constructions in ...


Evaluating Structural Economy Claims In Relative Clause Attachment, Aniello De Santo, So Young Lee 2022 University of Utah

Evaluating Structural Economy Claims In Relative Clause Attachment, Aniello De Santo, So Young Lee

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Grillo and Costa (2014) argue for a pseudo- relative (PR) first account of relative clause attachment preferences (RC) such that, when faced with a sentence ambiguous between a PR and a RC interpretation, the parser prefers committing to a PR structure first, thus giving rise to what looks like a high-attachment preference. One possible explanation for this parsing choice is in terms of simplicity of the PR structure, and overall economy principles. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis by testing the predictions of a parser for Minimalist grammars for PR and RC structures in Italian. We discuss the relevance of our ...


Non-Argumental Clitics In Spanish And Galician: A Case Study Of The Distribution Of Solidarity And Ethical Clitics, Susana Huidobro 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Non-Argumental Clitics In Spanish And Galician: A Case Study Of The Distribution Of Solidarity And Ethical Clitics, Susana Huidobro

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation explores the properties of what traditional grammars call “superfluous elements” or non-arguments, so-called Ethical Dative Clitics (Bello 1954, Seco 1962 among others) and Solidarity Clitics (Álvarez, Rosario, X.L. Regueira & H. Monteaguedo 1986) in Spanish and Galician. This research fills an important gap in the existing formal literature on these forms, providing the first thorough syntactic and typological investigation of the latter phenomenon.

The study of non-argumental datives encounters difficulties at different levels: at a descriptive/empirical as well as at a theoretical level. From a descriptive point of view, there are no, so far in the literature ...


The Syntax Of Passives And Related Constructions In Mandarin Chinese, Shangyan Pan 2022 Bucknell University

The Syntax Of Passives And Related Constructions In Mandarin Chinese, Shangyan Pan

Honors Theses

This thesis discusses the Mandarin Chinese passive, a construction that differs in significant ways from its better known, European counterparts. While the passive is one of the most well-studied constructions in syntax, the passive in Chinese remains understudied and not as well understood. The thesis offers an analysis of multiple passive markers in Chinese, focusing on bei and gei. Superficially, the two markers both participate in passive and passive-like constructions. However, upon closer scrutiny, it is demonstrated that only bei qualifies as a true passive marker, while gei is shown to belong to a more general category of Non-Active Voice ...


A Corpus Study Of The Development Of The Adjective Phrase In French Children, Avery Elizabeth Baggett 2022 University of Kentucky

A Corpus Study Of The Development Of The Adjective Phrase In French Children, Avery Elizabeth Baggett

Theses and Dissertations--Linguistics

In this thesis I attempt to answer three questions:

H1) Do children use proportionally more prenominal or post-nominal placement of adjectives than adults?

H2) Are children more conservative or more creative in their behavior in alternating prenominal and post-nominal placement of adjectives?

H3) If colored terms are more frequent in child speech will they pattern more like prenominal adjectives or more like post nominal adjectives, as in adult speech?

To do this, I examine two general semantic viewpoints, opting to use Scontras & Goodman (2017) subjectivity hypothesis. Next, I provide a general overview of First Language Acquisition research and then I ...


Clitic Doubling: The Case Of Nariño Andean Spanish, Jessica Paola Jurado Eraso 2022 West Virginia University

Clitic Doubling: The Case Of Nariño Andean Spanish, Jessica Paola Jurado Eraso

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

This thesis examines the behavior of clitic doubling in Nariñense, a little-studied Andean Spanish variety spoken in the southwest of Colombia, and compares it to well-studied varieties such as standard Peninsular, Rioplatense, and other Andean Spanish varieties. Its aim is to present novel data about clitic doubling in order to shed more light into the extensive literature about this phenomenon in Spanish. Through spontaneous speech recordings obtained from thirty native speakers of Nariñense, 133 sentences involving clitic doubling were analyzed. Features such as agreement matching between the clitic and the doubled NP, use of the preposition a to introduce the ...


Try Come Look At This Construction!, Kento Tanaka 2021 Hopkins-Nanjing Center

Try Come Look At This Construction!, Kento Tanaka

Yale Working Papers in Grammatical Diversity

The try get construction, used by some speakers of Hawai‘i English, consists of the bare form of the verb try immediately followed by the bare form of another verb, as in We’ll try get some coffee tomorrow. In this paper, I first describe the usage of this construction, showing that it behaves essentially identically to the widespread go get construction described most notably by Zwicky (1969) and Pullum (1990). I then analyze the syntax of the try get construction adopting Bjorkman’s (2016) proposal for the go get construction.


The Syntactic And Semantic Atoms Of The Spray/Load Alternation, Michael A. Wilson 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Syntactic And Semantic Atoms Of The Spray/Load Alternation, Michael A. Wilson

Doctoral Dissertations

What is the relationship between the word spray in the sentence John sprayed the paint onto the wall and its identically pronounced counterpart in John sprayed the wall with the paint? At some level, we recognize these two uses of spray as the same word. But the fact that they combine with their arguments in different ways means they cannot be identical. The relationship between these two uses of spray—called the spray/load alternation—is productive in a way that a descriptively adequate grammar of English should capture. Other verbs show the same pattern, adults and children extend it ...


Get My Syntax On, Heidi Lei 2021 Choate Rosemary Hall

Get My Syntax On, Heidi Lei

Yale Working Papers in Grammatical Diversity

In this paper, I describe and analyze an instance of micro-syntactic variation in American English, a construction I refer to as get my X on. There is considerable flexibility in the construction, involving the types of determiners allowed, the phrasal verbs used, and most notably, the structure of the DP my X. In Standard American English, the X following a possessive pronoun is generally restricted to nouns. However, in this construction, X can be a lexical verb like sing, teach, or even celebrate. Some speakers of African American English accept only the bare verb, rejecting concrete nouns, verb-derived nouns, and ...


Anymore Once More: Geographical And Syntactic Distribution, Laurence R. Horn 2021 Yale University

Anymore Once More: Geographical And Syntactic Distribution, Laurence R. Horn

Yale Working Papers in Grammatical Diversity

Occurrences of non-polarity anymore (NPAM) or so-called “positive anymore” with the approximate meaning of ‘nowadays’ have long been collected by North American dialectologists. The name of the construction is misleading, however, since mainstream anymore, as a garden-variety negative polarity item, is acceptable (like ever or anyone) in a range of grammatically “positive” but downward entailing environments. After touching on the semantic characterization of mainstream and non-polarity anymore and the “stigma enigma” presented by the variable social diagnosis of the construction by those familiar and unfamiliar with it, we present the results a study of the grammatical and geographical distribution of ...


Variations On Defining A Dialect Region, Sasha Lioutikova 2021 Yale University

Variations On Defining A Dialect Region, Sasha Lioutikova

Yale Working Papers in Grammatical Diversity

This paper explores various methods of defining a dialect region, using syntactic constructions characteristic of the American South. We consider three important characteristics of such a method: place, feature, and measure. ”Place” details how data points should be grouped, ”feature” details which data points should be used, and ”measure” details how the data should be analyzed. While we may not claim one method as superior to any other, this research can provide insight into how different techniques of characterizing geographic variation may affect the resulting dialect regions.


How Humans Produce And Interpret Sentences Using Syntax, Jun Tamura 2021 Syracuse University

How Humans Produce And Interpret Sentences Using Syntax, Jun Tamura

English Language Institute

Humans are able to use languages freely and understand the meaning of languages. This universal linguistic ability of humans can be accounted for by “syntax” in our brains, for which I will provide three pieces of supportive evidence.


Language As The Medium: A Literature Review. Harnessing The Prolific Power Of Dramatic Language As A Therapeutic Tool In Drama Therapy, Edward Freeman 2021 Lesley University

Language As The Medium: A Literature Review. Harnessing The Prolific Power Of Dramatic Language As A Therapeutic Tool In Drama Therapy, Edward Freeman

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Language in and of the theatre, with its palate of variegated writing styles and playwrights from throughout time, has the potential to be harnessed, focused, and systematized for use as a therapeutic tool within drama therapy – the field’s artistic medium. Drama therapy could benefit from having a specific medium germane to its artform which has the potential to provide practitioners with a common resource and means of communication, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment planning, as well as align the field with other creative arts therapies. Language encompasses all forms of human communication – speaking, writing, signing, gesturing, expressing facially – and voice ...


A Lexical And Syntactic Study Of Research Article Titles In Library Science And Scientometrics, Junli Diao 2021 CUNY York College

A Lexical And Syntactic Study Of Research Article Titles In Library Science And Scientometrics, Junli Diao

Publications and Research

Title of a research article is an abstract of the abstract. Titles play a decisive role in convincing readers at first sight whether articles are worth reading or not. Not only do research article titles show how carefully words are chosen by authors, but also reflect disciplinary differences in terms of title words and structure between hard sciences and soft sciences. This study examined the lexical density and syntactic structure of 690 research article titles chosen from five Library Science and Scientometrics journals, aiming to reveal disciplinary differences. The result suggested both Library Science and Scientometrics have almost the same ...


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