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The Syntactic And Semantic Atoms Of The Spray/Load Alternation, Michael A. Wilson 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Syntactic And Semantic Atoms Of The Spray/Load Alternation, Michael A. Wilson

Doctoral Dissertations

What is the relationship between the word spray in the sentence John sprayed the paint onto the wall and its identically pronounced counterpart in John sprayed the wall with the paint? At some level, we recognize these two uses of spray as the same word. But the fact that they combine with their arguments in different ways means they cannot be identical. The relationship between these two uses of spray—called the spray/load alternation—is productive in a way that a descriptively adequate grammar of English should capture. Other verbs show the same pattern, adults and children extend it ...


Cross-Linguistic Morphosyntactic Influence In Bilingual Speakers Of Jamaican Creole And Jamaican English, Taryn R. Malcolm 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cross-Linguistic Morphosyntactic Influence In Bilingual Speakers Of Jamaican Creole And Jamaican English, Taryn R. Malcolm

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Bilingualism in Jamaica is of considerable consequence, as most individuals are early bilinguals, speaking both a variety of Jamaican Creole (JC) from birth and having standardized English (sE) as the language of instruction in education. Immigrants from Jamaica to the United States are an ideal population to examine how cross-linguistic influence (CLI) impacts morphosyntax as JC and sE differ in morphosyntactic constructions, including verb tense- marking, subject-verb agreement, and copula use. While much of the work in the field of CLI has examined spoken language pairs with varying degrees of similarity (or difference) between the languages, examining CLI in a ...


Systematics Of Eastern North American Podothrombium (Parasitengona: Podothrombiidae), Kelsey Lynn Cline 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Systematics Of Eastern North American Podothrombium (Parasitengona: Podothrombiidae), Kelsey Lynn Cline

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Velvet mites of the genus Podothrombium Berlese, 1910 are found worldwide with only two described species known from North America, both occurring on the west coast. The present study describes five new species occurring in the east, from both larval and post-larval stages. Species hypotheses are supported with morphology and analysis of mitochondrial (barcoding region of COI) and nuclear genes (D2-3 expansion regions of 28S rDNA). Specimens are incorporated from the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), allowing our dataset to span most of North America. Therefore, we were able to raise the number of Podothrombium in North America from ...


Plprepare: A Grammar Checker For Challenging Cases, Jacob Hoyos 2021 East Tennessee State University

Plprepare: A Grammar Checker For Challenging Cases, Jacob Hoyos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates one of the Polish language’s most arbitrary cases: the genitive masculine inanimate singular. It collects and ranks several guidelines to help language learners discern its proper usage and also introduces a framework to provide detailed feedback regarding arbitrary cases. The study tests this framework by implementing and evaluating a hybrid grammar checker called PLPrepare. PLPrepare performs similarly to other grammar checkers and is able to detect genitive case usages and provide feedback based on a number of error classifications.


Brown's Stages Of Morphosyntactic Development Applied To The Typical Development Of Italian, Marie Laiche 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Brown's Stages Of Morphosyntactic Development Applied To The Typical Development Of Italian, Marie Laiche

LSU Master's Theses

Background: In A First Language (1973), Roger Brown called for an increase in crosslinguistic data and analysis of morphosyntax across languages as more research in this field is crucial for working out the overarching determinants of language acquisition order and for the ability to accurately compare child language acquisition across different languages. An increase in this research would benefit linguistic researchers and speech-language-pathologists offering services to or evaluating children speaking a different language or more than one language. The current study seeks to add to the field of crosslinguistic research by adapting Brown’s guidelines of English language acquisition to ...


Formalizing Inflectional Paradigm Shape With Information Theory, Grace LeFevre, Micha Elsner, Andrea D. Sims 2021 The Ohio State University

Formalizing Inflectional Paradigm Shape With Information Theory, Grace Lefevre, Micha Elsner, Andrea D. Sims

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

“Paradigm shape,” our term for the morphological structure formed by implicative relations between inflected forms, has not been formally quantified in a gradient manner. We develop a method to formalize paradigm shape by modeling the joint effect of stem alternations and affixes. Applied to Spanish verbs, our model successfully captures aspects of both allomorphic and distributional classes. These results are replicable and extendable to other languages.


Learning Morphological Productivity As Meaning-Form Mappings, Sarah R. Payne, Jordan Kodner, Charles Yang 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Learning Morphological Productivity As Meaning-Form Mappings, Sarah R. Payne, Jordan Kodner, Charles Yang

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Child language acquisition is famously accurate despite the sparsity of linguistic input. In this paper, we introduce a cognitively motivated method for morphological acquisition with a special focus on verbal inflections. Using UniMorph annotations as an approximation of children’s semantic representation of verbal inflection, we use the Tolerance Principle to explicitly identify the formal processes of segmentation and mutation that productively encode the semantic relations (e.g., past tense) between stems and inflected forms. Using a child-directed corpus of verbal inflection forms, our model acquires the verbal inflection morphemes of Spanish and English as a list of explicit and ...


Deep Neural Networks Easily Learn Unnatural Infixation And Reduplication Patterns, Coleman Haley, Colin Wilson 2021 Johns Hopkins University

Deep Neural Networks Easily Learn Unnatural Infixation And Reduplication Patterns, Coleman Haley, Colin Wilson

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

No abstract provided.


Person-Based Prominence In Ojibwe, Christopher Hammerly 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Person-Based Prominence In Ojibwe, Christopher Hammerly

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation develops a formal and psycholinguistic theory of person-based prominence effects, the finding that certain categories of person such as "first" and "second" (the "local" persons) are privileged by the grammar. The thesis takes on three questions: (i) What are the possible categories related to person? (ii) What are the possible prominence relationships between these categories? And (iii) how is prominence information used to parse and interpret linguistic input in real time?

The empirical through-line is understanding obviation — a “spotlighting” system, found most prominently in the Algonquian family of languages, that splits the (ani- mate) third persons into two ...


Acquisition Orders And Instructional Sequences: A Case Study Of Russian Textbooks, Olga Ozhiganova 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Acquisition Orders And Instructional Sequences: A Case Study Of Russian Textbooks, Olga Ozhiganova

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Previous research on English as a second language has established the linguistic phenomenon of the natural order of morpheme acquisition in which grammatical features are acquired by learners in a specific order. The acquisition of Russian morphosyntax as an L2 had not been established until Gor’s (2019) research. The present study employs Gor’s (2019) findings to examine whether the order in which five Russian morphosyntactic features—case, impersonal sentences, location-direction, aspect, verbs of motion (VoM)—are acquired is reflected in second-year Russian instructional materials by investigating three commonly used textbooks. The results reveal that (1) the documented order ...


An Introductory Overview Of The Koyukon (Athabaskan) Verb, Jonathan K. Vincent 2020 Portland State University

An Introductory Overview Of The Koyukon (Athabaskan) Verb, Jonathan K. Vincent

University Honors Theses

The Athabaskan languages of western North America are notorious for exhibiting highly complex verbal morphology. Koyukon, a language spoken along the Yukon River in Alaska, and a member of the Northern branch of the Athabaskan family, is one such example. This overview seeks to introduce students and language practitioners to the theoretical fundamentals of Koyukon's verbal morphology, including the parts that constitute the discontinuous verbal base, or 'verb theme,' as well as the inflectional and derivational processes under which a verb theme may go in order to render morphologically complex surface forms with richly engineered meaning. These principles are ...


Copulative Compounds Formed By Prepositional Interfixes In Persian Language, Nuriddinov Nodir Mr 2020 Tashkent state institute of oriental studies

Copulative Compounds Formed By Prepositional Interfixes In Persian Language, Nuriddinov Nodir Mr

Scientific Bulletin of Namangan State University

Copulative compounds are such compound words that are formed by lexicalization. The components of copulative compounds are equal by semantic. The article also discusses the term "copulative compound" and its studying in scientific works of Russian and Iranian linguists. As well as with examples collected from sources it is carried out structural-semantic analysis of copulative compounds formed by prepositional interfixes.


Modeling Morphological Processing In Human Magnetoencephalography, Yohei Oseki, Alec Marantz 2020 Waseda University

Modeling Morphological Processing In Human Magnetoencephalography, Yohei Oseki, Alec Marantz

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

In this paper, we conduct a magnetoencephalography (MEG) lexical decision experiment and computationally model morphological processing in the human brain, especially the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the visual ventral stream. Five neurocomputational models of morphological processing are constructed and evaluated against human neural activities: Character Markov Model and Syllable Markov Model as "amorphous" models without morpheme units, and Morpheme Markov Model, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar (PCFG) as "morphous" models with morpheme units structured linearly or hierarchically. Our MEG experiment and computational modeling demonstrate that "morphous" models outperformed "amorphous" models, PCFG was most neurologically accurate ...


Modeling The Learning Of The Person Case Constraint, Adam Liter, Naomi H. Feldman 2020 University of Maryland, College Park

Modeling The Learning Of The Person Case Constraint, Adam Liter, Naomi H. Feldman

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Many domains of linguistic research posit feature bundles as an explanation for various phenomena. Such hypotheses are often evaluated on their simplicity (or parsimony). We take a complementary approach. Specifically, we evaluate different hypotheses about the representation of person features in syntax on the basis of their implications for learning the Person Case Constraint (PCC). The PCC refers to a phenomenon where certain combinations of clitics (pronominal bound morphemes) are disallowed with ditransitive verbs. We compare a simple theory of the PCC, where person features are represented as atomic units, to a feature-based theory of the PCC, where person features ...


Stop The Morphological Cycle, I Want To Get Off: Modeling The Development Of Fusion, Micha Elsner, Martha B. Johnson, Stephanie Antetomaso, Andrea D. Sims 2020 The Ohio State University

Stop The Morphological Cycle, I Want To Get Off: Modeling The Development Of Fusion, Micha Elsner, Martha B. Johnson, Stephanie Antetomaso, Andrea D. Sims

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Historical linguists observe that many fusional (unsegmentable) morphological structures developed from agglutinative (segmentable) predecessors. Such changes may result when learners fail to acquire a phonological alternation, and instead, “chunk” the altered versions of morphemes and memorize them as underlying representations. We present a Bayesian model of this process, which learns which morphosyntactic properties are chunked together, what their underlying representations are, and what phonological processes apply to them. In simulations using artificial data, we provide quantitative support to two claims about agglutinative and fusional structures: that optional morphological markers discourage fusion from developing, but that stress-based vowel reduction encourages it.


Inflectional Networks: Graph-Theoretic Tools For Inflectional Typology, Andrea D. Sims 2020 The Ohio State University

Inflectional Networks: Graph-Theoretic Tools For Inflectional Typology, Andrea D. Sims

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

The interpredictability of the inflected forms of lexemes is increasingly important to questions of morphological complexity and typology, but tools to quantify and visualize this aspect of inflectional organization are lacking, inhibiting effective cross-linguistic comparison. In this paper I use metrics from graph theory to describe and compare the organizational structure of inflectional systems. Graph theory offers a well-established toolbox for describing the properties of networks, making it ideal for this purpose. Comparison of nine languages reveals previously unobserved generalizations about the typological space of morphological systems. This is the first paper to apply graph-theoretic tools to the goal of ...


Multi-Input Strictly Local Functions For Templatic Morphology, Hossep Dolatian, Jonathan Rawski 2020 Stony Brook University

Multi-Input Strictly Local Functions For Templatic Morphology, Hossep Dolatian, Jonathan Rawski

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

This paper presents an automata-theoretic characterization of templatic morphology. We generalize the Input Strictly Local class of functions, which characterize a majority of concatenative morphology, to consider multiple lexical inputs. We show that strictly local asynchronous multi-tape transducers successfully capture this typology of nonconcatenative template filling. This characterization and restriction uniquely opens up representational issues in morphological computation


Pmkns For Pie: Parsed Morphological Katr Networks Of Sanskrit For Proto-Indo-European, Ryan Mark McDonald 2020 University of Kentucky

Pmkns For Pie: Parsed Morphological Katr Networks Of Sanskrit For Proto-Indo-European, Ryan Mark Mcdonald

Theses and Dissertations--Linguistics

In this thesis, I construct two computational networks for Sanskrit to test theories of nominal accentuation as a way of examining the simplicity of each theory. I will be examining the Paradigmatic Approach and the Compositional Approach to nominal accentuation. For the Paradigmatic Approach, nominals are categorized into mobile and static categories based on how the accent appears in the paradigm (Fortson 2010). For the Compositional Approach, accent mobility is a result of the combination of morphemes and their inherent accent states (Kirparsky 2010). To construct these networks, I use the KATR extension to the DATR language for lexical knowledge ...


Studies On The Anatomy Of Teleosts, Katherine Elliott Bemis 2020 William & Mary - Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Studies On The Anatomy Of Teleosts, Katherine Elliott Bemis

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The Longnose Lancetfish, Alepisaurus ferox, is a pelagic marine fish that has a heterodont dentition, including large fangs on both the upper and lower jaws. Their diet is well documented and includes salps, hyperiid amphipods, pelagic polychaete worms, mesopelagic fishes, and cephalopods. However, the function of the heterodont dentition, the structure of the teeth, and replacement mode is largely unknown. We studied a series of A. ferox to describe their dentition and tooth replacement. All teeth are replaced extraosseously. Palatine and dentary fangs develop horizontally in the oral epithelium on the lingual surface of dentigerous bones. Developing fangs rotate into ...


Structural And Tissue-Level Adaptations Of Lumbar Intervertebral Discs In Humans With Inducible Low Back Pain Symptoms, Christian Isaiah Weber 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Structural And Tissue-Level Adaptations Of Lumbar Intervertebral Discs In Humans With Inducible Low Back Pain Symptoms, Christian Isaiah Weber

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Low back pain (LBP) is a devastating musculoskeletal ailment that impacts majority of the global population. Up to 95% of cases are considered nonspecific where the origin is unclear. Although there is a diagnosis with these cases, there lacks specificity that would help individuals with treatment and pain management. Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are primarily utilized in the diagnosis of LBP as it illuminates internal structures of the spine. One important structure clearly identified with MRI is the intervertebral disc (IVD) that is susceptible to injury and disease. Further, diagnostic imaging is performed lying down where ...


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