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Untangling The Evolution Of Body-Part Terminology In Pano: Conservative Versus Innovative Traits In Body-Part Lexicalization, Roberto Zariquiey, Javier Vera, Simon J. Greenhill, Pilar Valenzuela, Russell J. Gray, Johann-Mattis List 2022 Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

Untangling The Evolution Of Body-Part Terminology In Pano: Conservative Versus Innovative Traits In Body-Part Lexicalization, Roberto Zariquiey, Javier Vera, Simon J. Greenhill, Pilar Valenzuela, Russell J. Gray, Johann-Mattis List

World Languages and Cultures Faculty Articles and Research

Although language-family specific traits which do not find direct counterparts outside a given language family are usually ignored in quantitative phylogenetic studies, scholars have made ample use of them in qualitative investigations, revealing their potential for identifying language relationships. An example of such a family specific trait are body-part expressions in Pano languages, which are often lexicalized forms, composed of bound roots (also called body-part prefixes in the literature) and non-productive derivative morphemes (called here body-part formatives). We use various statistical methods to demonstrate that whereas body-part roots are generally conservative, body-part formatives exhibit diverse chronologies and are often the …


Degrees Of Temporal Remoteness In Pano: Contribution To The Cross-Linguistic Study Of Tense, Pilar Valenzuela, Sanderson Castro Soares de Oliveira 2022 Chapman University

Degrees Of Temporal Remoteness In Pano: Contribution To The Cross-Linguistic Study Of Tense, Pilar Valenzuela, Sanderson Castro Soares De Oliveira

World Languages and Cultures Faculty Articles and Research

Beyond simply indicating future or past tense, the languages of the Pano family grammatically distinguish various degrees of temporal distance relative to a reference point, typically the moment of utterance; i.e., they possess what has been called ‘metrical tense’ (Chung & Timberlake 1985; Frawley 1992), ‘degrees of remoteness’ (Comrie 1985; Dahl 1985; Bybee et al. 1994; Botne 2012), or ‘graded tense’ (Cable 2013). This article offers a comparative analysis of the rich graded tense systems found in Pano, concentrating on morphologically expressed categories. In so doing, it seeks to expand our typological knowledge of languages exhibiting this feature, particularly …


Nominal Incorporation In Shiwilu (Kawapanan): Nouns, Classifiers And The Deceased Marker =Ku’, Pilar Valenzuela 2022 Chapman University

Nominal Incorporation In Shiwilu (Kawapanan): Nouns, Classifiers And The Deceased Marker =Ku’, Pilar Valenzuela

World Languages and Cultures Faculty Books and Book Chapters

"Shiwilu is a good representative of the Andes-Amazonia transitional zone, in that it exhibits a mixture of phonological and grammatical traits that are typical of the languages of these two regions (Valenzuela 2015, 2018). The present article addresses a phenomenon that is common in Amazonian languages but absent in the Central Andean families Quechuan and Aymaran: nominal incorporation (Dixon and Aikhenvald 1999: 10; Adelaar with Muysken 2004; Aikhen- vald 2017: 296). In this work, ‘nominal incorporation’ is a cover term to designate the process of inserting into the verb a noun, a classifier, or the deceased marker =ku’."


The Syntax Of Passives And Related Constructions In Mandarin Chinese, Shangyan Pan 2022 Bucknell University

The Syntax Of Passives And Related Constructions In Mandarin Chinese, Shangyan Pan

Honors Theses

This thesis discusses the Mandarin Chinese passive, a construction that differs in significant ways from its better known, European counterparts. While the passive is one of the most well-studied constructions in syntax, the passive in Chinese remains understudied and not as well understood. The thesis offers an analysis of multiple passive markers in Chinese, focusing on bei and gei. Superficially, the two markers both participate in passive and passive-like constructions. However, upon closer scrutiny, it is demonstrated that only bei qualifies as a true passive marker, while gei is shown to belong to a more general category of Non-Active …


Morphosyntactic Variation In Bantu: Focus On East Africa, Peter Edelsten, Hannah Gibson, Rozenn Guérois, Gastor Mapunda, Lutz Marten, Julius Taji 2022 SOAS

Morphosyntactic Variation In Bantu: Focus On East Africa, Peter Edelsten, Hannah Gibson, Rozenn Guérois, Gastor Mapunda, Lutz Marten, Julius Taji

Journal of the Language Association of Eastern Africa

Recent studies have developed a systematic approach to morphosyntactic variation among Bantu languages, taking well-known and widely attested construction types as a starting point and sketching their distribution across the family. One such approach, Guérois et al. (2017), utilises 142 morphosyntactic parameters or features, across a sample of some 50 Bantu languages (Marten et al. 2018). The present paper builds on this work and focusses on 10 parameters of variation where there is a significant difference between the values for East African Bantu languages and non-East African Bantu languages of the sample. The parameters relate to areas such as noun …


A Linguistic Analysis Of Rukiga Personal Names, Allen Asiimwe 2022 Makerere University

A Linguistic Analysis Of Rukiga Personal Names, Allen Asiimwe

Journal of the Language Association of Eastern Africa

The goal of the paper is to provide a linguistic description of the structure of personal names in a lesser studied Bantu language of Uganda, Rukiga (JE14). Data show that Rukiga personal names are presented as lexical entities but with underlying elaborate grammatical structures derived from the syntax, morphology, phonology and the lexicon of the language. Personal names in Rukiga form a special category of nouns derived from nouns, adjectives, verbs, phrases, clauses and full sentences. This study establishes that truncation, affixal derivation, lexicalization of phrases, clauses and sentences are employed in name-formation. The study further reveals that the socio-cultural …


The Structure Of The Iraqw Noun Phrase, Chrispina Alphonce 2022 University of Dodoma

The Structure Of The Iraqw Noun Phrase, Chrispina Alphonce

Journal of the Language Association of Eastern Africa

The structure of the noun phrase (NP) is demonstrated to differ among languages. Albeit studies that paid attention on Southern Cushitic languages in general and Iraqw in particular, their contribution is selective to the general grammar of the language while the structure of the NP is scarcely described. This study contributes to the description of the language through an empirical explanation of the elements and the morphosyntactic properties of the NP in the language. It describes the orders of the elements, their co-occurrence, and constraints to illuminate the structure of the NP of the language. It draws on the data …


Pragmatic Inferences Of Locative Enclitics In Luganda, Moureen Nanteza 2022 Makerere University

Pragmatic Inferences Of Locative Enclitics In Luganda, Moureen Nanteza

Journal of the Language Association of Eastern Africa

This paper examines the non-locative functions of locative enclitics in Luganda (JE 15). Locative enclitics are words which cannot stand alone but attach on a verb to make meaning. Their status is ambiguous between free word and affix, hence motivating their analysis as enclitics. The enclitics are attached on the post final position of their hosts. Although the locative enclitics occur regularly in some Bantu languages (Luganda, Runyankore-Rukiga, Runyoro- Rutooro, Lunda, Ikizu, Fwe, Chichewa, Kinyarwanda among others), they have not been widely studied in the literature. The paper looks at verbal locative enclitics only but the locative enclitics also appear …


The Syntactic And Semantic Atoms Of The Spray/Load Alternation, Michael A. Wilson 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Syntactic And Semantic Atoms Of The Spray/Load Alternation, Michael A. Wilson

Doctoral Dissertations

What is the relationship between the word spray in the sentence John sprayed the paint onto the wall and its identically pronounced counterpart in John sprayed the wall with the paint? At some level, we recognize these two uses of spray as the same word. But the fact that they combine with their arguments in different ways means they cannot be identical. The relationship between these two uses of spray—called the spray/load alternation—is productive in a way that a descriptively adequate grammar of English should capture. Other verbs show the same pattern, adults and children extend …


Cross-Linguistic Morphosyntactic Influence In Bilingual Speakers Of Jamaican Creole And Jamaican English, Taryn R. Malcolm 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cross-Linguistic Morphosyntactic Influence In Bilingual Speakers Of Jamaican Creole And Jamaican English, Taryn R. Malcolm

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Bilingualism in Jamaica is of considerable consequence, as most individuals are early bilinguals, speaking both a variety of Jamaican Creole (JC) from birth and having standardized English (sE) as the language of instruction in education. Immigrants from Jamaica to the United States are an ideal population to examine how cross-linguistic influence (CLI) impacts morphosyntax as JC and sE differ in morphosyntactic constructions, including verb tense- marking, subject-verb agreement, and copula use. While much of the work in the field of CLI has examined spoken language pairs with varying degrees of similarity (or difference) between the languages, examining CLI in a …


Systematics Of Eastern North American Podothrombium (Parasitengona: Podothrombiidae), Kelsey Lynn Cline 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Systematics Of Eastern North American Podothrombium (Parasitengona: Podothrombiidae), Kelsey Lynn Cline

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Velvet mites of the genus Podothrombium Berlese, 1910 are found worldwide with only two described species known from North America, both occurring on the west coast. The present study describes five new species occurring in the east, from both larval and post-larval stages. Species hypotheses are supported with morphology and analysis of mitochondrial (barcoding region of COI) and nuclear genes (D2-3 expansion regions of 28S rDNA). Specimens are incorporated from the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), allowing our dataset to span most of North America. Therefore, we were able to raise the number of Podothrombium in North America from …


Plprepare: A Grammar Checker For Challenging Cases, Jacob Hoyos 2021 East Tennessee State University

Plprepare: A Grammar Checker For Challenging Cases, Jacob Hoyos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates one of the Polish language’s most arbitrary cases: the genitive masculine inanimate singular. It collects and ranks several guidelines to help language learners discern its proper usage and also introduces a framework to provide detailed feedback regarding arbitrary cases. The study tests this framework by implementing and evaluating a hybrid grammar checker called PLPrepare. PLPrepare performs similarly to other grammar checkers and is able to detect genitive case usages and provide feedback based on a number of error classifications.


Brown's Stages Of Morphosyntactic Development Applied To The Typical Development Of Italian, Marie Laiche 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Brown's Stages Of Morphosyntactic Development Applied To The Typical Development Of Italian, Marie Laiche

LSU Master's Theses

Background: In A First Language (1973), Roger Brown called for an increase in crosslinguistic data and analysis of morphosyntax across languages as more research in this field is crucial for working out the overarching determinants of language acquisition order and for the ability to accurately compare child language acquisition across different languages. An increase in this research would benefit linguistic researchers and speech-language-pathologists offering services to or evaluating children speaking a different language or more than one language. The current study seeks to add to the field of crosslinguistic research by adapting Brown’s guidelines of English language acquisition to the …


Formalizing Inflectional Paradigm Shape With Information Theory, Grace LeFevre, Micha Elsner, Andrea D. Sims 2021 The Ohio State University

Formalizing Inflectional Paradigm Shape With Information Theory, Grace Lefevre, Micha Elsner, Andrea D. Sims

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

“Paradigm shape,” our term for the morphological structure formed by implicative relations between inflected forms, has not been formally quantified in a gradient manner. We develop a method to formalize paradigm shape by modeling the joint effect of stem alternations and affixes. Applied to Spanish verbs, our model successfully captures aspects of both allomorphic and distributional classes. These results are replicable and extendable to other languages.


Learning Morphological Productivity As Meaning-Form Mappings, Sarah R. Payne, Jordan Kodner, Charles Yang 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Learning Morphological Productivity As Meaning-Form Mappings, Sarah R. Payne, Jordan Kodner, Charles Yang

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Child language acquisition is famously accurate despite the sparsity of linguistic input. In this paper, we introduce a cognitively motivated method for morphological acquisition with a special focus on verbal inflections. Using UniMorph annotations as an approximation of children’s semantic representation of verbal inflection, we use the Tolerance Principle to explicitly identify the formal processes of segmentation and mutation that productively encode the semantic relations (e.g., past tense) between stems and inflected forms. Using a child-directed corpus of verbal inflection forms, our model acquires the verbal inflection morphemes of Spanish and English as a list of explicit and linguistically interpretable …


Deep Neural Networks Easily Learn Unnatural Infixation And Reduplication Patterns, Coleman Haley, Colin Wilson 2021 Johns Hopkins University

Deep Neural Networks Easily Learn Unnatural Infixation And Reduplication Patterns, Coleman Haley, Colin Wilson

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

No abstract provided.


Person-Based Prominence In Ojibwe, Christopher Hammerly 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Person-Based Prominence In Ojibwe, Christopher Hammerly

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation develops a formal and psycholinguistic theory of person-based prominence effects, the finding that certain categories of person such as "first" and "second" (the "local" persons) are privileged by the grammar. The thesis takes on three questions: (i) What are the possible categories related to person? (ii) What are the possible prominence relationships between these categories? And (iii) how is prominence information used to parse and interpret linguistic input in real time?

The empirical through-line is understanding obviation — a “spotlighting” system, found most prominently in the Algonquian family of languages, that splits the (ani- mate) third persons into …


Acquisition Orders And Instructional Sequences: A Case Study Of Russian Textbooks, Olga Ozhiganova 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Acquisition Orders And Instructional Sequences: A Case Study Of Russian Textbooks, Olga Ozhiganova

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Previous research on English as a second language has established the linguistic phenomenon of the natural order of morpheme acquisition in which grammatical features are acquired by learners in a specific order. The acquisition of Russian morphosyntax as an L2 had not been established until Gor’s (2019) research. The present study employs Gor’s (2019) findings to examine whether the order in which five Russian morphosyntactic features—case, impersonal sentences, location-direction, aspect, verbs of motion (VoM)—are acquired is reflected in second-year Russian instructional materials by investigating three commonly used textbooks. The results reveal that (1) the documented order in which Russian morphosyntactic …


An Introductory Overview Of The Koyukon (Athabaskan) Verb, Jonathan K. Vincent 2020 Portland State University

An Introductory Overview Of The Koyukon (Athabaskan) Verb, Jonathan K. Vincent

University Honors Theses

The Athabaskan languages of western North America are notorious for exhibiting highly complex verbal morphology. Koyukon, a language spoken along the Yukon River in Alaska, and a member of the Northern branch of the Athabaskan family, is one such example. This overview seeks to introduce students and language practitioners to the theoretical fundamentals of Koyukon's verbal morphology, including the parts that constitute the discontinuous verbal base, or 'verb theme,' as well as the inflectional and derivational processes under which a verb theme may go in order to render morphologically complex surface forms with richly engineered meaning. These principles are amply …


Cross-Language Morphological Activation: The Case Of Arabic-English Bilinguals, Anas Alkhofi 2020 University of New Mexico

Cross-Language Morphological Activation: The Case Of Arabic-English Bilinguals, Anas Alkhofi

Language, Literacy, and Sociocultural Studies ETDs

The role of morphology in bilingual lexical access is an under-investigated topic. Due to the overrepresentation of concatenative-based languages which inherently cannot adequately isolate effects of morphology from those of orthography and semantics, morphological processing had been relegated to a secondary role in lexical access. The present research utilized Arabic, a non-concatenative Semitic language, to investigate the role of morphology in bilingual language processing. Two experiments using translation recognition and masked lexical decision were conducted with Arabic-English bilinguals to answer two research questions: 1) Does (Arabic) morphology mediate cross-language activation? and 2) Is Arabic-English cross-language morphological activation task-dependent? Mixed effects …


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