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Attitude Toward Companion And Guard Dogs In Hawaii: Health And Welfare Implications, Lynn Morrison, Julie Ann Luiz Adrian, Marina Kelley, Johana Hill, Zachariah Tman, Dana-lynn Ko'omoa-Lange 2021 University of Hawaii at Hilo

Attitude Toward Companion And Guard Dogs In Hawaii: Health And Welfare Implications, Lynn Morrison, Julie Ann Luiz Adrian, Marina Kelley, Johana Hill, Zachariah Tman, Dana-Lynn Ko'omoa-Lange

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

The island of Hawaii exhibits extremes in dog welfare ranging from dogs as family members to dogs used as commodities, either as guard or hunting dogs, with many lacking appropriate care. This study offers a preliminary exploration of people’s attitudes toward companion and noncompanion dogs and the health and welfare implications for humans and dogs. Data collection included interviews and surveys conducted among 20 companion dog/human and eight guard dog/human dyads. Blood pressure (BP) was monitored during interviews to assess stress. The results of the interview data led to five themes. The first two themes describing contexts of dog welfare …


Evaluating Cranial Nonmetric Traits In Mummies From Pachacamac, Peru: The Utility Of Semi-Automated Image Segmentation In Paleoradiology, Cameron J. Beason 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Evaluating Cranial Nonmetric Traits In Mummies From Pachacamac, Peru: The Utility Of Semi-Automated Image Segmentation In Paleoradiology, Cameron J. Beason

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anthropologists employ biodistance analysis to understand past population interactions and relatedness. The objectives of this thesis are twofold: to determine whether a sample of five mummies from the pilgrimage centre, Pachacamac, on the Central Coast of Peru comprised local or non-local individuals through an analysis of cranial nonmetric traits using comparative samples from the North and Central Coasts of Peru and Chile; and to test the utility of machine-learning-based image segmentation in the image analysis software, Dragonfly, to automatically segment CT scans of the mummies such that the cranial nonmetric traits are visible. Results show that while fully automated segmentation …


Multi-Agent Scavenging Patterns In Hawai‘I: A Forensic Archaeological And Skeletal Case Study, Jennifer F. Byrnes, William Belcher 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Multi-Agent Scavenging Patterns In Hawai‘I: A Forensic Archaeological And Skeletal Case Study, Jennifer F. Byrnes, William Belcher

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Knowledge of the behavior of local fauna can aid forensic investigators in developing awareness of site formation processes. In Hawai‘i, little has been published on the effects of feral domestic pig (Sus scrofa) and feral domestic dog (Canis familiaris) scavenging and bone dispersal on field recovery and laboratory observations. In this Pacific tropical setting, the most consequential terrestrial taphonomic agents are pigs and dogs, both in terms of hard tissue modification and dispersal of remains across the landscape. In 2017, an archaeologist discovered the remains of an unidentified decedent on the island of Kauaʻi, State of Hawai‘i during a cultural …


Factors Influencing Primate Hair Microbiome Diversity, Catherine Kitrinos 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Factors Influencing Primate Hair Microbiome Diversity, Catherine Kitrinos

Masters Theses

Primate hair is both a substrate upon which essential social interactions occur and an important host-pathogen interface. As commensal microbes provide important immune functions for their hosts, understanding the microbial diversity in primate hair could provide insight into primate immunity and disease transmission. While studies of human hair and skin microbiomes show differences in microbial communities across body regions, little is known about the nonhuman primate hair microbiome. In this study, we collected hair samples (n=159) from 8 body regions across 12 nonhuman primate species housed at 3 US institutions to examine 1) the diversity and composition of the primate …


Laryngeal Vocals In Old World Locals: Air Sacs Usage In Bonobos, Chelsea Trenbeath 2021 Kennesaw State University

Laryngeal Vocals In Old World Locals: Air Sacs Usage In Bonobos, Chelsea Trenbeath

Symposium of Student Scholars

Except for humans, extant great apes have evolutionarily conserved lateral ventricular air sacs extending from laryngeal saccules. Humans are the only species of Hominidae that lack this anatomical feature attached to the primary vocal apparatus. As we are the only species that produces spoken language, this association has led to hypothesis that the loss of lateral ventricular air sacs was necessary for the evolution of spoken language. However, why these sacs are conserved in all other hominids remains unclear. Computer modeling has indicated that air sacs may increase resonance properties, but there are no data from great apes indicating which …


The Impact Radiological Mummy Database, Precious Adebola Adekoya 2021 Western University

The Impact Radiological Mummy Database, Precious Adebola Adekoya

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The IMPACT Radiological Mummy Database permits users to access X-ray and CT datasets of Egyptian mummies - thus allowing researchers to non-destructively analyze the remains and the mummification processes.

This project involved revamping and updating the IMPACT website, which serves as a landing point prior to accessing the database. The project also involved updating the Mummy information docs that are a part of a context database that give researchers background information about the mummies prior to accessing the datasets. Furthermore, screenshots of the datasets were taken and labelled accordingly to give users a preview and to facilitate ongoing research projects. …


Subadult Cortical Bone Analysis As An Indicator Of Childhood Health Status Among The Tipu Maya Population, Jaime Thomas 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Subadult Cortical Bone Analysis As An Indicator Of Childhood Health Status Among The Tipu Maya Population, Jaime Thomas

Master's Theses

This thesis explores juvenile health at the contact Maya site of Tipu in western Belize. The associated cemetery was excavated and provided a large and well-preserved population. Although Tipu has been a focus of many studies, few studies have focused on subadults and none on their cortical development, which can allow insight into access to necessary nutritional resources.

Some 108 femora belonging to individuals aged birth to 13 years with femora previously sectioned at midshaft provided the sample. External dimensions taken included diaphyseal length, circumference, medial-lateral diameter and anterior-posterior diameter. Additionally, cortical thickness was measured at four points, and 95 …


The Shortcomings Of Maize: Using Tipu To Assess Maize Consumption And Its Impact On Stature And Limb Proportions Among The Maya, Peter Mercier 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Shortcomings Of Maize: Using Tipu To Assess Maize Consumption And Its Impact On Stature And Limb Proportions Among The Maya, Peter Mercier

Master's Theses

A reliance on maize among the ancient and modern Maya has been reasoned to cause short statures and short legs compared to overall height. The goal of this study was to test this proposition using a sample of contact period Maya from the site of Tipu in western Belize. Long bone length data from 100 individuals were compared to that from two other prehistoric maize agriculturalist societies: the Schild site in Illinois and Pecos Pueblo in New Mexico.

Four hypotheses were tested: 1) Tipu would be the shortest, 2) Tipu would have the shortest femora relative to tibiae, 3) Tipu …


"When The Voices Of Children Are Heard": Evaluating The Biological Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Children In Postmedieval London., Ashley R. Ezzo 2021 University of Louisville

"When The Voices Of Children Are Heard": Evaluating The Biological Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Children In Postmedieval London., Ashley R. Ezzo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As the most vulnerable members of society, children (and their treatment) may reveal important sociocultural and socioeconomic praxes throughout human history. During the Postmedieval period, children, especially low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals, participated in the workforce. By examining the demographic distributions and paleopathological profiles of juvenile skeletal remains from high SES (St. Bride’s Crypt and Chelsea Old Church) and low SES (St. Bride’s Lower and Crossbones) Postmedieval (1700-1850 CE) London cemeteries, we can better understand how SES impacted the biological health and mortality of children. While results indicated higher mortality risk associated with low SES circumstances, most differences in pathological …


Analyzing The Consistency Of Scoring Porotic Hyperostosis From 3d Scans, Carson Rouse 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Analyzing The Consistency Of Scoring Porotic Hyperostosis From 3d Scans, Carson Rouse

Master's Theses

The use of 3D scans is becoming more and more common in the field of bioarchaeology. They alleviate the need to travel, allow for larger sample sizes, and can help preserve bones with pathologies on them which make them more fragile. Though there are major benefits with using 3D scanning of human remains, there is a lack of studies which examine whether or not traditional pathology scoring methods can be used to consistently gather the same data from these 3D scans. This project examines how consistently six researchers of varying experience levels scored porotic hyperostosis from 25 3D scans on …


Determining Dietary Niche In Primates Using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence, Theresa C. Schwartz 2021 University of Northern Colorado

Determining Dietary Niche In Primates Using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence, Theresa C. Schwartz

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Diet is a critical component of the ecology of an animal. Many dietary reconstructions involve destruction of the sample. Portable X-Ray fluorescence (pXRF), however, is a non-destructive method of gathering elemental data. This is important for research in biological anthropology and diet reconstructions because it leaves a sample intact of which there might only be few specimens. There has been a gap in dietary reconstructions using non-destructive methods like pXRF which is portable, cheaper, and as accurate as destructive methods and should therefore be implemented into research of this nature. This research attempts to validate this method by determining dietary …


Waking The Dead, Speaking To The Living: The Display Of Human Remains In Museums, Emily R. Stanton 2021 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Waking The Dead, Speaking To The Living: The Display Of Human Remains In Museums, Emily R. Stanton

Field Notes: A Journal of Collegiate Anthropology

Artifacts are immensely powerful aids in telling stories from the past, yet it is the dead persons of past eras who accrued a host of ethical and legal issues. This article discusses several perspectives on and problems with the practice of displaying human remains in museums and includes a number of case studies from select museums in the USA and Europe. As a precaution to the reader, this article also features a few images of human bodies on display in museums.


Casas Grandes Ceramics At The Milwaukee Public Museum, Samantha A. Bomkamp 2021 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Casas Grandes Ceramics At The Milwaukee Public Museum, Samantha A. Bomkamp

Field Notes: A Journal of Collegiate Anthropology

Museums across the world hold unprovenienced artifacts with valuable data left unresearched because of their lack of context. The Milwaukee Public Museum (MPM) holds one such collection of Casas Grandes vessels. The intent of this paper is to present an example of how a museum collection can be contextualized in order to be compared to others of its kind and contribute to the knowledge of a prehistoric culture. Using a coding scheme, this research will present data for: 1) type and time period for each of the Casas Grandes vessels and 2) iconography analysis on the polychromes. With Northwest Mexico …


Digging Through Space: Archaeology In The Star Wars Franchise, Karissa R. Annis 2021 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Digging Through Space: Archaeology In The Star Wars Franchise, Karissa R. Annis

Field Notes: A Journal of Collegiate Anthropology

Archaeology is a slippery topic when it comes to its public presentation in various media, especially in fictional representations in books, film, TV, and video games. Archaeologists have historically been at odds with some of these productions, and various articles have analyzed these representations before. This article analyzes archaeological representations within the genre of speculative fiction, which includes the subgenera of fantasy, science fiction, and horror. One particular case study, Star Wars, will be examined in depth to see how this representation could be perceived and what that means for archaeologists. There have been various references to archaeology within Star …


The Journey Of A Hopewell Site Artifact: Bear Canine With Inlaid Pearl At The Milwaukee Public Museum, Katrina Schmitz 2021 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

The Journey Of A Hopewell Site Artifact: Bear Canine With Inlaid Pearl At The Milwaukee Public Museum, Katrina Schmitz

Field Notes: A Journal of Collegiate Anthropology

The archaeological excavations conducted by Warren K. Moorehead at the Hopewell site of Ross County, Ohio resulted in the removal of hundreds of thousands of ancient Native American objects. Crafted during the Middle Woodland Period, these objects began a new life in the late 19th century as archaeological artifacts divided into smaller museum collections that were shipped throughout the world. Guided by Arjun Appadurai and Igor Kopytoff’s biographical approaches to museum objects, this article will follow the experiences of one of the Hopewell site artifacts, a bear tooth with an inlaid pearl. Discussed in this article is the creation, original …


Head Strong: Gendered Analysis Of Human Representations In Western And Central Continental European Iron Age Iconography, Christopher R. Allen 2021 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Head Strong: Gendered Analysis Of Human Representations In Western And Central Continental European Iron Age Iconography, Christopher R. Allen

Field Notes: A Journal of Collegiate Anthropology

This preliminary study examines potential links between gender and sex representations in Iron Age Continental European iconography. Drawing from multiple examples such as the Glauberg statue, the statue of Bourey, and the Gundestrup Cauldron, this article reviews the different anthropomorphic images in Western European Iron Age contexts to create a method for understanding the role of gender and the human head in anthropomorphic representations. This article will form a foundation for future studies.


Front Matter, Table Of Contents, Contributors, 2021 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Front Matter, Table Of Contents, Contributors

Field Notes: A Journal of Collegiate Anthropology

No abstract provided.


Dataset For Faunal Analyses Of Biry House Food Remains, Castroville, Tx, Kathryn Maupin 2021 Binghamton University

Dataset For Faunal Analyses Of Biry House Food Remains, Castroville, Tx, Kathryn Maupin

Anthropology Datasets

In 2013, Van Dyke excavated a historic residence located at 309th Paris Street in Castroville, Texas. Beginning in 1844, the house was occupied by the families that had immigrated from the Alsace region of France. Preliminary analyses of the faunal recovered from a lime slaking pit suggested that over the course of the home’s residence, family members incorporate wild taxa into their diet in addition to their traditional Alsatian foodstuffs. Expanded analyses of the faunal remains from additional features provide additional evidence that the diet of the residents slowly transitioned away from a strict Alsatian diet and eventually included …


Patterns Of Recent Natural Selection On Genetic Loci Associated With Sexually Differentiated Human Body Size And Shape Phenotypes, Audrey M. Arner, Kathleen E. Grogan, Mark Grabowski, Hugo Reyes-Centeno, George H. Perry 2021 Pennsylvania State University

Patterns Of Recent Natural Selection On Genetic Loci Associated With Sexually Differentiated Human Body Size And Shape Phenotypes, Audrey M. Arner, Kathleen E. Grogan, Mark Grabowski, Hugo Reyes-Centeno, George H. Perry

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Levels of sex differences for human body size and shape phenotypes are hypothesized to have adaptively reduced following the agricultural transition as part of an evolutionary response to relatively more equal divisions of labor and new technology adoption. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by studying genetic variants associated with five sexually differentiated human phenotypes: height, body mass, hip circumference, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. We first analyzed genome-wide association (GWAS) results for UK Biobank individuals (~194,000 females and ~167,000 males) to identify a total of 114,199 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with at least one of …


Finger Ridge-Counts Correlate With The Second To Fourth Digit Ratio [Post-Print], Richard Jantz 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Finger Ridge-Counts Correlate With The Second To Fourth Digit Ratio [Post-Print], Richard Jantz

Anthropology Publications and Other Works

Objectives

This study examines the relationship of finger ridge-counts to second to fourth digit ratio, which has not yet been definitively demonstrated. The related question of sex dimorphism in finger ridge-counts is further elucidated.

Methods

A sample of Germans, including 1134 males and 1031 females, was examined for sex dimorphism in the finger ridge-counts. Second and fourth digit lengths were measured in a sub-sample of 91 males and 100 females to compute second to fourth digit ratio. Principal component scores were obtained to investigate sex dimorphism and the correlation between ridge-counts and digit ratio. Regression and analysis of covariance were …


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