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Ancient Dna Extraction From Stone Tools, Clare Super 2017 University of Montana

Ancient Dna Extraction From Stone Tools, Clare Super

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Proteins and DNA can be trapped in the microcracks on the surface of stone tools, which can then be extracted and analyzed to aid in inferring the use of the tool (Shanks et al. 2001; 2005). This nondestructive method involves the use of sonication to release DNA from the microcracks, then amplification of regions of mitochondrial DNA that are species specific. This technique was applied to stone tools from the Bridge River site in British Columbia by researchers at UMT’s Ancient and Modern Molecular Anthropology labs. Bridge River archaeologists have designated the tools as used in “food processing or ...


Fertility And Reproduction's Niche: Human Sexual Diversity, Samuel w. Austin 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Fertility And Reproduction's Niche: Human Sexual Diversity, Samuel W. Austin

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Abstract: Biologically exploring the origins and forms of human sexuality is of paramount importance. Scientific research has indicated that homosexuality was linked to reproduction, fertility, and adaptive child caring strategies, traits that seem to display cross-cultural similarities. This suggests that sexual diversity may be one of human’s earliest adaptations. While most of the previous research has been on individuals of European descent, little research on Native American populations has been completed to test whether these patterns continue in their population.

The research presented here tests the Sexually Antagonistic Hypothesis for Male Homosexuality, Fraternal Birth Order Effect, and childhood atypical ...


Use Of Vertical Enclosure Space And Species-Typical Locomotion By A Rehabilitating Spider Monkey (Ateles Fusciceps), Jake Funkhouser 2017 Central Washington University

Use Of Vertical Enclosure Space And Species-Typical Locomotion By A Rehabilitating Spider Monkey (Ateles Fusciceps), Jake Funkhouser

Undergraduate Honors Theses

With wild spider monkey populations in decline, investigations contributing to captive welfare, and successful rehabilitation and reintroduction knowledge is increasingly pressing. Quantifying and analyzing the appropriateness of naturalistic enclosure designs to foster species-typical behaviors is an effective way to address both of these needs. This study investigates enclosure space use, vertical space preference, substrate use, positional/postural modes, and interactions with human caregivers of a wild-caught, pet-trade rehabilitant Columbian black spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris, N = 1). Video data collected daily from August to October 2015 via focal animal sampling (from 08:00 to 10:00) at Alouatta Sanctuary, Panama ...


Breast Milk Macronutrient Composition And Infant Growth In Rural West Africa, Margaret Gruca 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Breast Milk Macronutrient Composition And Infant Growth In Rural West Africa, Margaret Gruca

Anthropology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Infants in The Gambia often experience intense growth faltering within the first two years of life, which is strongly related to season of birth. The combined stress of caloric deprivation and intense physical labor during the wet season is energetically taxing on mothers and has been hypothesized to contribute to the differential individual short- and long-term outcomes dependent on season of birth. This study aims to assess different environmental, socioeconomic, and anthropometric variables associated with breast milk macronutrient composition and how these variables then affect infant growth outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that breast milk is relatively buffered from ...


Healthy Aging In The North: Sociocultural Influences On Diet And Physical Activity Among Older Adults In Anchorage, Alaska, Britteny M. Howell 2017 University of Kentucky

Healthy Aging In The North: Sociocultural Influences On Diet And Physical Activity Among Older Adults In Anchorage, Alaska, Britteny M. Howell

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

Increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and related cardiovascular diseases among older adults in the United States present unique public health challenges. Cross-cultural research has shown marked variation in health across the world’s elder populations because aging is a biological process rooted in sociocultural context. The sociocultural environment contributes to complex negotiations of food and physical activity patterns for older adults. It is well established in the literature that urban residents report low levels of physical activity and have easy access to fast food outlets, which tend to be concentrated in lower-income neighborhoods. I utilize a biocultural framework, integrating nutritional ...


Changes In Male Hunting Returns, Raymond B. Hames 2016 Universit of Nebraska Lincoln

Changes In Male Hunting Returns, Raymond B. Hames

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Research on changes in male hunting among hunter-gatherers addresses two important issues in early human evolution: the nature of the family and trade-offs in mating and parenting effort as well as the development of embodied capital. In the hunter-gatherer literature, there is a debate about the function of male hunting that has implications for understanding the role males play in the evolution of the pair bond. The traditional model argues that male hunting and other economic activities are forms of male provisioning or parenting effort designed to enhance a man’s fitness through his wife’s reproduction and the survivorship ...


The Accuracy Of Tibial Nutrient Foramen Vs Midshaft Measurement Location For Sex Determination, Ashley C. Dafoe 2016 University of Wyoming

The Accuracy Of Tibial Nutrient Foramen Vs Midshaft Measurement Location For Sex Determination, Ashley C. Dafoe

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Recently, standard measurements for the Forensic Databank have been changed to measure the diameters of the tibia at the midshaft, rather than at the nutrient foramen. This change may be predicated on intra-person variation in nutrient foramen location and inaccuracy of inter-observer measurement location.

This examination assesses the accuracy of determining sex from the two measuring locations - is there a significant advantage to using measurements collected at the midshaft instead of or in addition to nutrient foramen based measurements?

Tibial measurements of 400 individuals were collected from the Robert Terry Anatomical Skeletal Collection following the standard osteometric protocols. Data were ...


Detecting Evidence Of Systemic Inflammation From Osteological Markers In The Indian Knoll Population Of Ohio County, Kentucky., Krysta Wilham 2016 University of Louisville

Detecting Evidence Of Systemic Inflammation From Osteological Markers In The Indian Knoll Population Of Ohio County, Kentucky., Krysta Wilham

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Indian Knoll is an Archaic shell midden site located in the Green River region of west-central Kentucky, and was excavated twice in the first half of the 20th century. While Indian Knoll has been the subject of frequent bioarchaeological studies, the present study presents an osteological analysis of the relationships between skeletal markers commonly associated with local inflammatory processes, and that have the potential to be used as proxies for systemic inflammation. The analysis revealed a significant positive association in the presence of periodontal disease (PD) and periosteal lesions (PL), suggesting a potential underlying hyper-inflammatory status or phenotype. These ...


A Morphometric Examination Of Cranial Vault Modification In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Central Tennessee, Gregory James Wehrman 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Morphometric Examination Of Cranial Vault Modification In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Central Tennessee, Gregory James Wehrman

Masters Theses

Cranial vault modification (CVM) is a physical manifestation of intersections between culture and biology. Cultural practices that apply pressure to the head during infancy result in significant reshaping of the skull and can be either intentional or unintentional. Occipital flattening is present among many Mississippian skeletal samples from the Middle Cumberland Region (MCR) of central Tennessee and is thought to be an unintentional result of childcare practices. Traditional methods for CVM classification have concentrated on visual assessment of location and means of flattening; however, this method is subjective. This thesis seeks to evaluate visual assessment of CVM through a morphometric ...


Sexual Determination From Frontal Sinus Analysis In A Subadult Population Using Archival Radiographic Records, Erica Crosta 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Sexual Determination From Frontal Sinus Analysis In A Subadult Population Using Archival Radiographic Records, Erica Crosta

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The goal of this study is to use the improved imaging capability of cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) to investigate the development and sexual dimorphism of the frontal sinus and surrounding supraorbital region in the subadult population of urban Southern Nevada. CBCT radiographs were obtained from the UNLV School of Dental Medicine archival dental records. Five hundred and fifty six of these radiographs were reviewed for the study. Two hundred and sixteen patients (92 males, 124 females) between the ages of 7 and 20 years were included based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Samples were categorized into 3 subadult age groups for ...


Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Development Of Upper Arm Musculoskeletal Stress Markers In Late Adolescents And Young Adults Of Archaic And Mississippian Populations Of Tennessee, Heather Marie Guzik 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Development Of Upper Arm Musculoskeletal Stress Markers In Late Adolescents And Young Adults Of Archaic And Mississippian Populations Of Tennessee, Heather Marie Guzik

Master's Theses

This study compares three methods for the evaluation of morphology of musculoskeletal attachment sites. Two methods were macroscopic and the third was microscopic, utilizing three-dimensional laser scanning and fractal analysis The morphology of 19 upper limb attachment sites was observed in 33 males aged 15 and 30+ years, dating to the Archaic and Mississippian periods from the southeastern U.S. It was hypothesized that 1) the microscopic method would identify subtler differences than the macroscopic methods; 2) enthesis development would be greater in the Mississippian population due to the increased subsistence workload, even among younger individuals; and 3) late adolescents ...


Egyptian Mummy Ct Scan Analysis And A Comparison Of Midwest Museum Practices For The Grand Rapids Public Museum, M. Kate Peterson 2016 Western Michigan University

Egyptian Mummy Ct Scan Analysis And A Comparison Of Midwest Museum Practices For The Grand Rapids Public Museum, M. Kate Peterson

Anthropology Master's Theses

To meet the partial requirements for a Master of Arts degree in Anthropology from Western Michigan University, the following internship was completed between June 2015 and September 2016. A Computed Tomography (CT) scan analysis was conducted on the Grand Rapids Public Museum’s mummy, Nakhte-Bastet-Iru. This analysis was a collaborative effort by myself and medical and museum professionals. Insight into the mummy’s life and culture was uncovered through examination and analysis of paleoradiological views of her remains. Additional research into the practices of other Midwest museums provided valuable knowledge of current trends in the dissemination and exhibition of mummy ...


Get Up, Stand Up: A Brief History Of Sedentarism And Why Movement Is Good Medicine, Tony Federico 2016 Selected Works

Get Up, Stand Up: A Brief History Of Sedentarism And Why Movement Is Good Medicine, Tony Federico

Tony Federico

Chairs first emerged as a way for high-status individuals to designate their social standing, and their use was almost exclusively the domain of the affluent class until the Industrial Revolution made affordable, mass-produced seating possible. Prior to this point, the vast majority of people sat on improvised objects such as beds, tree stumps, or benches, or simply squatted on their haunches. Social aspirations, continued technological innovations (e.g. the automobile), and a shift towards sedentary work drove the adoption of the chair until its use became ubiquitous at home, at work, at school, and at play (e.g. computer and ...


Chronological Listing Of Papers Presented At The Northeast Conference On Andean Archaeology And Ethnohistory, Richard E. Daggett, Justin Jennings, Monica Barnes, Gary Urton, Jeffrey Quilter 2016 University of Massachusetts, Amherst (retired)

Chronological Listing Of Papers Presented At The Northeast Conference On Andean Archaeology And Ethnohistory, Richard E. Daggett, Justin Jennings, Monica Barnes, Gary Urton, Jeffrey Quilter

Andean Past Special Publications

This is a chronological list of the papers presented at the Northeast Conference on Andean Archaeology and Ethnohistory from 1982 through 2016.


Working With The Remains In Cambodia: Skeletal Analysis And Human Rights After Atrocity, Julie M. Fleischman 2016 Michigan State University

Working With The Remains In Cambodia: Skeletal Analysis And Human Rights After Atrocity, Julie M. Fleischman

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This essay will discuss the research being conducted on Khmer Rouge-era human skeletal remains in Cambodia, and the implications of this work. First, the Cambodian project to conserve and analyze the remains at the Choeung Ek Genocidal Center (Choeung Ek) will be briefly discussed. This exceptional undertaking was the first complete scientific analysis of human remains from a Cambodian mass gravesite. Second, the author’s independent research at Choeung Ek and a collaborative project at another mass gravesite will be reviewed. The author’s research focuses on the traumatic injuries and demographics of the remains at Choeung Ek, while also ...


Paleoepidemiological Analysis Of Trauma In A Roman Period Population From Kellis, Egypt, Circa 50-450 Ad, Isabella A. Graham 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Paleoepidemiological Analysis Of Trauma In A Roman Period Population From Kellis, Egypt, Circa 50-450 Ad, Isabella A. Graham

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis analyzes human skeletal trauma in a large well-preserved sample (n =268) from the Roman period Kellis site in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. Prevalence was determined for both infracranial and cranial skeletal trauma. The null hypothesis tested was that there are no differences in trauma when stratified by sex and by age cohorts (i.e., 18-35, 36-50 and 51+). Despite the overall trauma prevalence being similar between the sexes when not differentiated by age, the null hypothesis was rejected. Key differences that occurred between the sexes were that males suffered greater malintent and occupational traumas, whereas osteoporosis was the ...


Bioarchaeological Sampling Strategies: Reflection On First Sampling Experience At The Templo Mayor Museum In Mexico City, Diana Karina Moreiras Reynaga 2016 Western University

Bioarchaeological Sampling Strategies: Reflection On First Sampling Experience At The Templo Mayor Museum In Mexico City, Diana Karina Moreiras Reynaga

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

Given that sampling strategies and protocols in bioarchaeology are rarely discussed in the literature, this paper is an attempt at reflecting upon the skeletal sampling process (e.g., preparation period, development of strategies and protocols, decision-making process, collaboration with those involved) as well as provide some considerations that may be useful to other junior researchers carrying out their sampling within the realm of bioarchaeology (also may be applicable to other research fields that engage in sampling specimens from museum collections). I provide the considerations about human bone and teeth as it pertains to stable isotope analysis from the literature and ...


Modeling Prehistoric Health In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Tennessee: Mississippian Populations On The Threshold Of Collapse, Christina Laiz Fojas 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Modeling Prehistoric Health In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Tennessee: Mississippian Populations On The Threshold Of Collapse, Christina Laiz Fojas

Doctoral Dissertations

This research explores differences in mortality and survivorship resulting from factors associated with the abandonment of the Middle Cumberland Region (MCR) of Tennessee during the Mississippian period (ca. 1000-1500 AD). My dissertation investigates whether individuals from the Late Mississippian period had a greater risk of death than individuals from the Early Mississippian period. Adult age-at-death estimates (n=545) were calculated using Transition Analysis, a Bayesian maximum likelihood method. Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham hazard models were utilized to reconstruct the mortality profile of the MCR as they model human adult mortality and generate robust parametric mortality profiles. Rather than recount the prevalence ...


The Evaluation And Refinement Of Nonmetric Sex And Ancestry Assessment Methods In Modern Japanese And Thai Individuals, Sean D. Tallman 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Evaluation And Refinement Of Nonmetric Sex And Ancestry Assessment Methods In Modern Japanese And Thai Individuals, Sean D. Tallman

Doctoral Dissertations

Effective biological profiles in forensic anthropology and bioarchaeology depend on the development, validation, and refinement of population-specific methods. However, most methods were developed in North America on individuals of African and European descent, and it is unlikely that such methods can generate accurate biological profiles for Asian individuals. Moreover, Native Americans have served as biological proxies for Asians due to their distantly shared genetic history, resulting in largely untested assumptions that Native Americans and Asians are homogenous and share nonmetric sexually dimorphic skeletal features and a unique suite of cranial traits that can be used in ancestry assessment.

This study ...


Effect Of Migration, Carrying Capacity, And Fecundity On The Formation Of Clinal Patterns During Range Expansions., Neha J. Angal 2016 University of Louisville

Effect Of Migration, Carrying Capacity, And Fecundity On The Formation Of Clinal Patterns During Range Expansions., Neha J. Angal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Range expansions, empirically and in simulations, lead to clinal patterns of genetic diversity. Clines are often used as spatial markers of past migrations. This study investigated the effects of migration, growth, and carrying capacities on clinal patterns during range expansions, using forward-time simulations in Nemo. Initial results show, in the absence of prior population structure, range expansions result in a loss of diversity strongly affected by migration, growth, and carrying capacity. This loss of diversity did not persist to the final generation, corresponding to 10,000 years, indicating clinal patterns are less durable than previously assumed—challenging the utility of ...


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