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Baby M Turns 30: The Law And Policy Of Surrogate Motherhood, Eric A. Feldman 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Baby M Turns 30: The Law And Policy Of Surrogate Motherhood, Eric A. Feldman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article marks the 30th anniversary of the Supreme Court of New Jersey’s Baby M decision by offering a critical analysis of surrogacy policy in the United States. Despite fundamental changes in both science and society since the case was decided, state courts and legislatures remain bitterly divided on the legality of surrogacy. In arguing for a more uniform, permissive legal posture toward surrogacy, the article addresses five central debates in the surrogacy literature.

First, should the legal system accommodate those seeking conception through surrogacy, or should it prohibit such arrangements? Second, if surrogacy is permitted, what steps can ...


Variation Of Tool Mark Characteristics In Frozen Bone As It Relates To Dismemberment, Elena Hughes 2018 University of Montana

Variation Of Tool Mark Characteristics In Frozen Bone As It Relates To Dismemberment, Elena Hughes

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The act of dismembering a body leaves identifiable marks on the bone. These marks, whether they be from knives, saws, axes, or any other tool, can help provide law enforcement with information about the type of tool they should be looking for. While there has been considerable research done on the marks left by different types of weapons, a factor that has not been examined is the differences in tool marks based on the condition of the body at the time of dismemberment. This study will initiate this new avenue of research by analyzing the differences seen in tool mark ...


The Effects Of Common Methods Of Soft Tissue Removal On Skeletal Remains: A Comparative Analysis, Emily Silverman 2018 University of Montana

The Effects Of Common Methods Of Soft Tissue Removal On Skeletal Remains: A Comparative Analysis, Emily Silverman

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The removal of soft tissue from skeletal remains is a process familiar to a wide array of scientific fields and the methods used to perform it are likewise numerous yet inconsistent. In forensic investigations and crime labs across the country, there lacks a standardization for this process. This lack of standardization pairs with a distinct lack of literature on the potential benefits and risks associated with each method as well as basic information on the proper amount of additives, temperatures, or time estimations. In a forensic context, human remains may be the only evidence available, which makes any damage or ...


Sniffing Out Decomposition: Investigating The Reliability Of Human Remains Detection Dogs, Kristen Marie Nawn 2018 Humboldt State University

Sniffing Out Decomposition: Investigating The Reliability Of Human Remains Detection Dogs, Kristen Marie Nawn

Theses and projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of trained Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs in the field. HRD dogs are trained to locate deceased individuals, typically in conjunction with law enforcement agencies, by using their enhanced olfactory systems to detect scents that humans cannot. Limited research has been conducted on both the strengths and weaknesses of these dogs and their abilities to locate human remains. This study focused on one North Carolina based organization that trains HRD dogs. Data were collected by distributing surveys and by observing regularly scheduled training exercises conducted by the organization. The collected ...


Reconstructing The Vocal Capabilities Of Homo Heidelbergensis, A Close Human Ancestor, Austin Blake Stanley 2018 University of Central Florida

Reconstructing The Vocal Capabilities Of Homo Heidelbergensis, A Close Human Ancestor, Austin Blake Stanley

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The discovery of 5,500 Homo heidelbergensis fossil specimens at the Sima de los Huesos archaeological site in Spain has opened up the opportunity for research to be conducted on the vocal capabilities of this species. Previous research has revealed that the range of vowel sounds an individual can produce, known as the vowel space, is directly affected by the dimensions of the vocal tract. The vowel spaces of two hominins, Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis, have been reconstructed through previous research. However, the vowel space of Homo heidelbergensis has not yet been reconstructed. In this research, I aim to ...


Feeding The Children: A Paleodietary Reconstruction Of Juveniles From Kuelap, Peru, Marley Denierio 2018 University of Central Florida

Feeding The Children: A Paleodietary Reconstruction Of Juveniles From Kuelap, Peru, Marley Denierio

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Before reaching adulthood, every individual experiences a period of dependency, the juvenile period, during which they rely on the older, more experienced members of their society for their security, subsistence and care. This juvenile period is an important stage of life for human physical and physiological development. In bioarchaeology, there has been limited research conducted on juveniles, particularly, the development of their own social identity and influences. The research method of stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope analysis is used to reconstruct the paleodiet of juveniles to determine their dietary composition. Specifically, this research is focused on Kuelap, located ...


"Back" To The Future: An Evaluation Of Morphological Integration In Kyphosis, Kristyna L. Ceuninck 2018 University of Central Florida

"Back" To The Future: An Evaluation Of Morphological Integration In Kyphosis, Kristyna L. Ceuninck

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Morphological integration refers to the interdependence of two or more phenotypic structures. The morphological integration concept is based on the fact that parts of complex organisms do not vary randomly and instead display degrees of non-independence that are thought to occur from shared genetic or developmental origins, and/or functional demands. Integrated traits may develop, evolve, and be inherited together. One instance of morphological integration can be found between the vertebral column and the skull. Due to the position of the skull resting atop of the vertebral column, posture may influence skull development and overall craniofacial morphology. Morphological integration within ...


The Battle Of The Little Bighorn Gunshot Trauma Analysis: Suicide Prevalence Among The Soldiers Of The 7th Cavalry, Genevieve M. Mielke 2018 University of Montana

The Battle Of The Little Bighorn Gunshot Trauma Analysis: Suicide Prevalence Among The Soldiers Of The 7th Cavalry, Genevieve M. Mielke

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Common Methods Of Soft Tissue Removal On Skeletal Remains: A Comparative Analysis, Emily Silverman 2018 University of Montana

The Effects Of Common Methods Of Soft Tissue Removal On Skeletal Remains: A Comparative Analysis, Emily Silverman

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The removal of soft tissue from skeletal remains is a process familiar to a wide array of scientific fields and the methods used to perform it are likewise numerous yet inconsistent. In forensic investigations and crime labs across the country, there lacks a standardization for this process. This lack of standardization pairs with a distinct lack of literature on the potential benefits and risks associated with each method as well as basic information on the proper amount of additives, temperatures, or time estimations. In a forensic context, human remains may be the only evidence available, which makes any damage or ...


Respect The Land - It’S Like Part Of Us: A Traditional Use Study Of Inland Dena’Ina Ties To The Chulitna River & Sixmile Lake Basins, Lake Clark National Park And Preserve, Douglas Deur, Karen Evanoff, Jamie Hebert 2018 Portland State University

Respect The Land - It’S Like Part Of Us: A Traditional Use Study Of Inland Dena’Ina Ties To The Chulitna River & Sixmile Lake Basins, Lake Clark National Park And Preserve, Douglas Deur, Karen Evanoff, Jamie Hebert

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

For countless generations, Lake Clark has been home to the inland Dena’ina people. This unique and vast fresh-water lake complex sits at the intersection of sprawling tundra, taiga, and jagged cordillera, dotted with villages. Here, village life has been sustained by herds of caribou, shorelines populated by moose and beaver, vast runs of salmon ascending from Bristol Bay, and other natural assets. But the area’s uniqueness extends beyond its abundant natural resources. Also unique is the National Park Service (NPS) unit that has occupied the region known as Lake Clark National Park and Preserve (LACL) in recent decades ...


Handedness And The Oldowan Tool Industry: Is Preferential Right-Handedness A Relic From Our Evolutionary Past?, Jessica Dymon 2018 James Madison University

Handedness And The Oldowan Tool Industry: Is Preferential Right-Handedness A Relic From Our Evolutionary Past?, Jessica Dymon

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Although there is literature on psychological, anthropological, and biological reasons for global preferential right-handedness, there has yet to be literature studying the connection among these three disciplines. The goal of this pilot study is to shed light on the correlation of handedness and Oldowan tool manufacturing in order to provide direction for future study. By taking a cross-disciplinary perspective on evolutionary advantages, genetics, and brain lateralization, it is believed researchers may be able to understand why 90% of the human population is preferentially right-handed. This study concludes that there is a correlation between handedness and toolmaking efficiency, and that further ...


Testosterone And The Adult Male, Alex Straftis 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Testosterone And The Adult Male, Alex Straftis

Calvert Undergraduate Research Awards

Abstract

In the last 15 years, prescription testosterone sales have increased almost threefold. Testosterone is a powerful hormone, which has both physiological and behavioral effects on the adult male. These effects vary over a man’s life course and social ecology. In a natural setting, testosterone reaches a peak during early adulthood, declines gradually over midlife, and has exponential drops after the age of 70. Increasing testosterone, through testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), past early adulthood, is an evolutionary novel circumstance for an adult male. To gauge these effects, and the motivations that initiated them, this study conducted a preliminary text ...


Evolution Of The Modern Baboon (Papio Hamadryas): A Reassessment Of The African Plio-Pleistocene Record, Christopher C. Gilbert, Stephen R. Frost, Kelsey D. Pugh, Monya Anderson, Eric Delson 2018 CUNY Hunter College

Evolution Of The Modern Baboon (Papio Hamadryas): A Reassessment Of The African Plio-Pleistocene Record, Christopher C. Gilbert, Stephen R. Frost, Kelsey D. Pugh, Monya Anderson, Eric Delson

Publications and Research

Baboons ( Papio hamadryas) are among the most successful extant primates, with a minimum of six distinctive forms throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. However, their presence in the fossil record is unclear. Three early fossil taxa are generally recognized, all from South Africa: Papio izodi , Papio robinsoni and Papio angusticeps. Because of their derived appearance, P. angusticeps and P. robinsoni have sometimes been considered subspecies of P. hamadryas and have been used as biochronological markers for the Plio- Pleistocene hominin sites where they are found.

We reexamined fossil Papio forms from across Africa with an emphasis on their distinguishing features and distribution. We ...


Biocultural Polymorphic Fields, Receptive Agency And Symbiotic Evolution Beyond The Anthropocentric Wave, Romand Coles 2018 Australian Catholic University

Biocultural Polymorphic Fields, Receptive Agency And Symbiotic Evolution Beyond The Anthropocentric Wave, Romand Coles

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

I sketch aspects of Samantha Frost’s writing that I find most intriguing and discuss directions in my work that resonate with them, elaborating possible connections between her reflections on subatomic through intercellular fields, and mine on the intercorporeal sensual relations among organisms—particularly those between humans and nonhumans. I read the human sensual field, or clearing, as trafficking and teaming with the affective energies and perceptual fields of myriad other beings and suggest a theory of symbiotic selection that accounts for the emergence of extravagant receptivity. This pulls toward political ecological practices and institutions that foster receptive agency with ...


Influence Of Human Disturbance On Western Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Nesting Behavior In A Savanna Mosaic Habitat, Southeastern Senegal, Kristine Micheletti 2018 Iowa State University

Influence Of Human Disturbance On Western Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Nesting Behavior In A Savanna Mosaic Habitat, Southeastern Senegal, Kristine Micheletti

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The human population continues to grow worldwide at an alarming rate, and, with this growth, comes expansion into new areas. These expansions can come with actions, like logging, mining, and agriculture that are harmful to the environment and the species inhabiting it. The critically endangered West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) is one primate species affected by such human actions. In the Kedougou region of southeastern Senegal, artisanal small-scale gold mining has become a way of life and has accelerated rapidly in the last few years. I conducted research at the Bantan site, which is located a few kilometers south ...


Mattress Fires And Their Effect On The Destruction And Distribution Of Remains In A House-Fire Setting, Nicole Heide Winders Schwalbach 2018 Iowa State University

Mattress Fires And Their Effect On The Destruction And Distribution Of Remains In A House-Fire Setting, Nicole Heide Winders Schwalbach

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forensically, burned and cremated remains are encountered on a fairly regular basis; owing their presence to both the relatively high fire death rate in the United States, and the continued (and mistaken) belief that human remains can be rendered unidentifiable or completely destroyed through burning. In many cases it is necessary to recover and identify remains from residential fires, with the goal being to identify the deceased and to determine the sequence of events leading up to and during the fire.

This research addresses the very specific scenario of fire fatalities that involve bed-settings with regards to how (and if ...


Chimpanzees As Ecosystem Service Providers: Seed Dispersal Of An Economically Important Plant Resource At Fongoli, Senegal, William Aguado 2018 Iowa State University

Chimpanzees As Ecosystem Service Providers: Seed Dispersal Of An Economically Important Plant Resource At Fongoli, Senegal, William Aguado

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vertebrate-mediated seed dispersal is a vital mutualistic interaction in tropical ecosystems that is beginning to be recognized for its role in sustaining populations of plant resources on which people rely for food, medicine and other materials. Some studies have demonstrated that avian seed dispersers provide such ecosystem services whereas other taxa, such as primates, have received little attention in this regard despite their known importance as seed dispersers. Frugivorous primates are currently presumed to sustain forest resources utilized by people, but this hypothesis remains untested. To test this, I examined the effectiveness of critically endangered western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus ...


Mitochondrial Dna Analysis Of Mazahua And Otomi Indigenous Populations From Estado De Mexico Suggests A Distant Common Ancestry, Angelica González-Oliver, Ernesto Garfias-Morales, D G. Smith, Mirsha Quinto-Sánchez 2018 Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México

Mitochondrial Dna Analysis Of Mazahua And Otomi Indigenous Populations From Estado De Mexico Suggests A Distant Common Ancestry, Angelica GonzáLez-Oliver, Ernesto Garfias-Morales, D G. Smith, Mirsha Quinto-Sánchez

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The indigenous Mazahua and Otomi have inhabited the same localities in Estado de Mexico since pre-Columbian times. Their languages, Mazahua and Otomi, belong to the Otomanguean linguistic family, and, while they share cultural traditions and a regional history that suggest close genetic relationships and common ancestry, the historical records concerning their origin are confusing. To understand the biological relationships between Mazahua and Otomi we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic variation. We identified the mtDNA haplogroups by restriction fragment length polymorphism typing and sequenced the hypervariable region I of the mtDNA control region in 141 Mazahua and 100 Otomi. These ...


Evaluating Nubian Population Structure From Cranial Nonmetric Traits: Gene Flow, Genetic Drift, And Population History Of The Nubian Nile Valle, Kanya Godde, Richard L. Jantz 2018 Sociology/Anthropology, University of La Verne, La Verne, CA

Evaluating Nubian Population Structure From Cranial Nonmetric Traits: Gene Flow, Genetic Drift, And Population History Of The Nubian Nile Valle, Kanya Godde, Richard L. Jantz

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Paleolithic archaeological and skeletal remains from the Nile Valley have yielded a complex picture of life along the river. Sociocultural and sociopolitical events during this timeframe shaped population structure, while gene flow and genetic drift further developed it. In this paper, we take a population genetics approach to modeling Nubian biological relationships in an effort to describe how an accumulation of events formed Nubian population structure. A variety of Nubian samples were utilized, spanning the Mesolithic-Christian time periods, and geographically, from just above the first through the third cataracts. Population genetics statistics were employed to estimate and depict biological affinities ...


Who Ate The Subfossil Lemurs? A Taphonomic And Community Study Of Raptor, Crocodylian And Carnivoran Predation Of The Extinct Quaternary Lemurs Of Madagascar., Lindsay Meador 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Who Ate The Subfossil Lemurs? A Taphonomic And Community Study Of Raptor, Crocodylian And Carnivoran Predation Of The Extinct Quaternary Lemurs Of Madagascar., Lindsay Meador

Doctoral Dissertations

Madagascar’s Quaternary predator-primate guild included seventeen species of relatively large extinct lemurs. Sharing the landscape with the lemurs, were several relatively large now-extinct predators, including three raptors (two species of Aquila and Stephanoaetus mahery), a euplerid (Cryptoprocta spelea), and a crocodile (Voay robustus). This is the first research to systematically study predator-prey relationships among these extinct animals. Here I examine the bones of the extinct lemurs at six subfossil localities (Ampasambazimba, Ankarana, Grotte d’Ankazoabo, Beloha Anavoha, Manombo Toliara, and Tsirave) for evidence of and also collected metric data on these bones. I examined 1141 specimens (crania, mandibles, humeri ...


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