Uniquely Human? A Reply To Zoon Politikon: The Evolutionary Origins Of Human Political Systems, 2017 Iowa State University
Uniquely Human? A Reply To Zoon Politikon: The Evolutionary Origins Of Human Political Systems, Jill D. Pruetz
The authors outline the evolutionary origins of a sociopolitical human niche that is largely dependent on material culture, events such as control of fire and cooking and the consequences of these developments (biological as well as cultural). They use a phylogenetic perspective to anchor their premise, so that their hypothesis is based on the available data on nonhuman primate behavior. However, detractors may find their scenario—which includes, in addition to those traits listed above, active sharing, cooperative hunting and breeding, lethal weapons and bipedal running—as another “just so” story in paleoanthropology. Beginning with the section on the control ...
Ethoarchaeology And Elementary Technology Of Unhabituated Wild Chimpanzees At Assirik, Senegal, West Africa, 2017 Miami University - Oxford
Ethoarchaeology And Elementary Technology Of Unhabituated Wild Chimpanzees At Assirik, Senegal, West Africa, W.C. Mcgrew, P.J. Baldwin, L.F. Marchant, Jill D. Pruetz, S.E. Scott, C.E.G. Tutin
Like other wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the savanna-dwelling apes of Assirik, Senegal, West Africa, make and use tools and so have an elementary technology. Unlike their more famous counterparts elsewhere in Africa, these apes are not observable at close range. Instead, they are amenable to etho-archaeological study, in which the indirect data of artifacts, remnants, and fecal contents add to the sparse behavioral data. These open-country hominoids show 15 behavioral patterns that appear to be material culture, in the minimal sense of socially learned behavioral diversity. These can be divided into subsistence (N = 7), social (5) and maintenance (3) activities ...
New Range Record For The Lesser Spot-Nosed Guenon (Cercopithecus Petaurista) In Southeastern Senegal, 2017 Iowa State University
New Range Record For The Lesser Spot-Nosed Guenon (Cercopithecus Petaurista) In Southeastern Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, A. Socha, D. Kante
The lesser spot-nosed guenon (Cercopithecus petaurista Schreber 1774) was known to range, historically, in the southwestern or Casamance region of Senegal (Dupuy 1971); its status in that country has been questionable in more recent times1 (Figure 1). The recent sightings of a lesser spot-nosed guenon in southeastern Senegal (12º39’N, 12º13’W) to be reported here appear to be the first record for this species in the Kedougou (formerly, Tambacounda) region. The guenon was seen by researchers at the Fongoli study site where chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) have been observed continuously since April 2001. Although Guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio ...
Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Behavioral Responses To Stresses Associated With Living In A Savanna-Mosaic Environment: Implications For Hominin Adaptations To Open Habitats, 2017 Iowa State University
Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Behavioral Responses To Stresses Associated With Living In A Savanna-Mosaic Environment: Implications For Hominin Adaptations To Open Habitats, Jill D. Pruetz, Paco Bertolani
Anthropologists have long been interested in the behavioral ecology of nonhuman primates living in savannas given what we know of early hominin environments. As expected, chimpanzees in the Fongoli community in southeastern Sénégal show a unique suite of behavioral adaptations to stresses associated with their savanna habitat. While Fongoli chimpanzees are species-typical in certain regards, such as including ripe fruit in the diet during all months of the year, they also adjust their behavior to the particular stresses of this dry, hot and open environment. These behaviors include using caves as shelters during the dry season, soaking in pools of ...
Chimpanzee Accumulative Stone Throwing, 2017 Max Planck Institute
Chimpanzee Accumulative Stone Throwing, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Ammie K. Kalan, Mimi Arandjelovic, Floris Aubert, Lucy D'Auvergne, Annemarie Goedmakers, Sorrel Jones, Laura Kehoe, Sebastien Regnaut, Alexander Tickle, Els Ton, Joost Van Schijndel, Ekwoge E. Abwe, Samuel Angedakin, Anthony Agbor, Emmanuel Ayuk Ayimisin, Emma Bailey, Mattia Besone, Matthieu Bonnet, Gregory Brazolla, Walentine Ebua Buh, Rebecca Chancellor, Chloe Cipoletta, Heather Cohen, Katherine Corogenes, Charlotte Coupland, Bryan Curran, Tobias Deschner, Karsten Dierks, Paula Dieguez, Emmanuel Dilambaka, Orume Diotoh, Dervla Dowd, Andrew Dunn, Henk Eshuis, Rumen Fernandez, Yisa Ginath, John Hart, Daniella Hedwig, Martjin Ter Heegde, Thurston Cleveland Hicks, Inaoyom Imong, Kathryn J. Jeffrey, Jessica Junker, Parag Kadam, Mohamed Kambi, Ivonne Kienast, Deo Kujirakwinja, Kevin Langergraber, Vincent Lapeyre, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Vera Leinert, Amelia Meier, Giovanna Maretti, Sergio Marrocoli, Tanyi Julius Mbi, Vianet Mihindou, Yasmin Moebius, David Morgan, Bethan Morgan, Felix Mulindahabi, Mizuki Murai, Protais Niyigabae, Emma Normand, Nicholas Ntare, Lucy Jayne Ormsby, Alex Piel, Jill D. Pruetz, Aaron Rundus, Crickette Sanz, Volker Sommer, Fiona Stewart, Nikki Tagg, Hildi Vanleeuwe, Virginie Vergnes, Jacob Willie, Roman M. Wittig, Klaus Zuberbuehle, Christophe Boesch
The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We ...
New Evidence On The Tool-Assisted Hunting Exhibited By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) In A Savannah Habitat At Fongoli, Sénégal, Jill D. Pruetz, P. Bertolani, K. Boyer Ontl, Stacy Marie Lindshield, Mack C. Shelley, E.G. Wessling
For anthropologists, meat eating by primates like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) warrants examination given the emphasis on hunting in human evolutionary history. As referential models, apes provide insight into the evolution of hominin hunting, given their phylogenetic relatedness and challenges reconstructing extinct hominin behaviour from palaeoanthropological evidence. Among chimpanzees, adult males are usually the main hunters, capturing vertebrate prey by hand. Savannah chimpanzees (P. t. verus) at Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known nonhuman population that systematically hunts vertebrate prey with tools, making them an important source for hypotheses of early hominin behaviour based on analogy. Here, we test the hypothesis ...
Occam's Razor Vol. 7 - Full (2017), 2017 Western Washington University
Occam's Razor Vol. 7 - Full (2017)
No abstract provided.
Traditional Medicine Use In Chamorro Cué, Gral. E. Aquino, San Pedro, Paraguay, 2017 Michigan Technological University
Traditional Medicine Use In Chamorro Cué, Gral. E. Aquino, San Pedro, Paraguay, Noah Goyke
Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports
Rural Paraguay presents great opportunities for investigation into the subtle differences in the use of medicinal plants across seasons and the urban versus rural dichotomy in a rapidly globalizing society. One of the most interesting opportunities is comparing a rural population to the population of an urban center that has be the destination of local migration from the rural communities surveyed. This study investigates the seasonal differences and difference between urban and rural residents in the type of medication used to treat thirteen different common ailments and the source of medicinal plants used to treat those ailments. Interviews performed in ...
Use Of Vertical Enclosure Space And Species-Typical Locomotion By A Rehabilitating Spider Monkey (Ateles Fusciceps), 2017 Central Washington University
Use Of Vertical Enclosure Space And Species-Typical Locomotion By A Rehabilitating Spider Monkey (Ateles Fusciceps), Jake Funkhouser
Undergraduate Honors Theses
With wild spider monkey populations in decline, investigations contributing to captive welfare, and successful rehabilitation and reintroduction knowledge is increasingly pressing. Quantifying and analyzing the appropriateness of naturalistic enclosure designs to foster species-typical behaviors is an effective way to address both of these needs. This study investigates enclosure space use, vertical space preference, substrate use, positional/postural modes, and interactions with human caregivers of a wild-caught, pet-trade rehabilitant Columbian black spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris, N = 1). Video data collected daily from August to October 2015 via focal animal sampling (from 08:00 to 10:00) at Alouatta Sanctuary, Panama ...
The Index Of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature From The Lone Star State, 2017 Center for Regional Heritage Research, Stephen F. Austin State University
The Index Of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature From The Lone Star State, Robert Z. Selden Jr., C. Britt Bousman
Cultural resources management (CRM) reports represent a rapidly growing proportion of our knowledge associated with archaeological undertakings in the United States. Historically, these reports were printed in limited numbers and distributed to a few libraries and individuals, and few were distributed beyond the political boundaries of any given state. Libraries on the distribution list are reticent to allow patrons to check out these reports due to the fact that they have—and will only ever have—a single copy. Late in 2009, the Texas Historical Commission (THC) permitting guidelines for CRM reports were updated, requiring CRM contractors to submit a ...
Healthy Aging In The North: Sociocultural Influences On Diet And Physical Activity Among Older Adults In Anchorage, Alaska, Britteny M. Howell
Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology
Increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and related cardiovascular diseases among older adults in the United States present unique public health challenges. Cross-cultural research has shown marked variation in health across the world’s elder populations because aging is a biological process rooted in sociocultural context. The sociocultural environment contributes to complex negotiations of food and physical activity patterns for older adults. It is well established in the literature that urban residents report low levels of physical activity and have easy access to fast food outlets, which tend to be concentrated in lower-income neighborhoods. I utilize a biocultural framework, integrating nutritional ...
Nine Gal Tavern Faunal Analysis, 2017 Parkland College
Nine Gal Tavern Faunal Analysis, Zachary T. Boyer
A with Honors Projects
Over 400 pieces of bone and eggshell were collected during excavation at the Nine Gal Tavern site (11CH541) located in western Champaign County, Illinois in 1987 and 1991 by a team led by archaeologist Lenville Stelle (Stelle 2006). The majority of the remains analyzed were recovered within feature context in the immediate vicinity of the established Nine Gal Tavern structure. The purpose of this paper is to describe the identification of these faunal remains which are housed at the Anthropology Program at Parkland College. The identification of these remains was carried out as part of an Honors Project under the ...
Effects Of Terrain On Reconstructions Of Mobility In Past Populations, 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst
Effects Of Terrain On Reconstructions Of Mobility In Past Populations, Erin M. Whittey
Femoral and tibial diaphyseal geometry has frequently been used to evaluate mobility and other patterns of physical activity in past populations. The high antero-posterior (A-P) to medio-lateral (M-L) bending rigidity ratio (IX/IY) typical of many hunter-gatherer femora, for instance, may reflect mechanical loads associated with long distance travel. The possible confounding effect of physical terrain on lower limb diaphyseal morphology is rarely evaluated. This study investigated the possible effect of terrain on lower limb shape ratios (IX/IY) and bending and torsional strength (ZP) in adult skeletons from Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia ...
The Effects Of Industrialization And Urbanization On Growth And Development: A Comparison Of Boys And Girls From Three Industrial European Skeletal Collections, 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst
The Effects Of Industrialization And Urbanization On Growth And Development: A Comparison Of Boys And Girls From Three Industrial European Skeletal Collections, Sarah Reedy
Exposure to poor environments, malnutrition, and labor during childhood can lead to stunted height and increased mortality. Studies of skeletal samples from Industrial Era Europe show height is stunted when compared to Medieval samples, suggesting harsher conditions. While poor conditions can negatively impact all children, boys may be particularly disadvantaged, because girls can reserve nutritional components buffering them during times of stress. This study examines the environmental effects on growth in three Industrial European skeletal samples. Juveniles (0-18 years) from varied SES backgrounds were used to test three hypotheses.
H1) Industrial Era children will exhibit shorter femora relative to a ...
Fertility And Reproduction's Niche: Human Sexual Diversity, 2017 University of Montana, Missoula
Fertility And Reproduction's Niche: Human Sexual Diversity, Samuel W. Austin
Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers
Abstract: Biologically exploring the origins and forms of human sexuality is of paramount importance. Scientific research has indicated that homosexuality was linked to reproduction, fertility, and adaptive child caring strategies, traits that seem to display cross-cultural similarities. This suggests that sexual diversity may be one of human’s earliest adaptations. While most of the previous research has been on individuals of European descent, little research on Native American populations has been completed to test whether these patterns continue in their population.
The research presented here tests the Sexually Antagonistic Hypothesis for Male Homosexuality, Fraternal Birth Order Effect, and childhood atypical ...
A Stylistic Analysis Using Multivariate Statistics Of Oneota Pottery From The Upper Mississippi, Blue Earth, And St. Croix River Valleys, 2017 Minnesota State University, Mankato
A Stylistic Analysis Using Multivariate Statistics Of Oneota Pottery From The Upper Mississippi, Blue Earth, And St. Croix River Valleys, Michelle Neumann
All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects
Pottery is one of the most abundant artifact types recovered from late pre-contact habitations sites in the upper Midwest. As a material with inherent plasticity, pottery reflects changes in people's preferences and traditions in aspects of its form and design quickly through time and space. Analyzing different facets of pottery has the ability to provide extensive information about people in the past: their resource utilization, technology, traditions, economic exchange, regional interaction, ideology, and or group identity. Yet, a significant challenge in pottery analysis is deriving comprehensive and testable conclusions in terms of types and styles that reflect patterned cultural ...
Ancient Dna Extraction From Stone Tools, 2017 University of Montana
Ancient Dna Extraction From Stone Tools, Clare Super
Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers
Proteins and DNA can be trapped in the microcracks on the surface of stone tools, which can then be extracted and analyzed to aid in inferring the use of the tool (Shanks et al. 2001; 2005). This nondestructive method involves the use of sonication to release DNA from the microcracks, then amplification of regions of mitochondrial DNA that are species specific. This technique was applied to stone tools from the Bridge River site in British Columbia by researchers at UMT’s Ancient and Modern Molecular Anthropology labs. Bridge River archaeologists have designated the tools as used in “food processing or ...
A Comprehensive Case Report Of The University Of Montana Case 37, 2017 University of Montana, Missoula
A Comprehensive Case Report Of The University Of Montana Case 37, Cody M. Lawson
Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers
In this professional paper I examine the human skeletal remains of one individual. The remains were analyzed to gain insight into the age, sex, ancestry, stature, weight, pathology, and trauma of the individual. Forensic anthropological methods were applied to UMFC 37. The remains of UMFC 37 represent a male, between the age of 40 and 60. He is likely a Caucasian. UMFC 37 is between 5 feet 6 inches and 5 feet 10 inches tall and weighs between 148 and 167 pounds.
The Effect Of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (Pcos) On The Human Skeleton, 2017 Eastern Michigan University
The Effect Of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (Pcos) On The Human Skeleton, Sarah Bruckler
Senior Honors Theses
The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the systemic effects of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) on bone mineral density (BMD). Excessive male sex honnones, excessive insulin levels, and weight gain characterize PCOS, and are correlated to increased BMD. PCOS is also associated with symptoms and comorbid conditions, like chronic vitamin D deficiency, menstrual dysfunction, and hypothyroidism, which are all correlated with decreased BMD. Existing research on this topic reports conflicting results; some studies show a significant correlation between PCOS and increased BMD, while others suggest that no significant correlation exists. These previous studies focused on load-bearing areas of ...
Who Are The Apistoi? Symbolic Boundaries And Anthropological Language In 2 Cor 6:14-7:1, 2017 Missouri State University
Who Are The Apistoi? Symbolic Boundaries And Anthropological Language In 2 Cor 6:14-7:1, Nii Addo Kobina Abrahams
MSU Graduate Theses
Joseph A. Fitzmyer’s “Qumran and the Interpolated Paragraph in 2 Cor 6:14-7:1,” originally published in 1961, argued that 2 Cor 6:14-7:1 was an interpolation from an undiscovered Qumran text. Fitzmyer’s thesis was the prevailing scholarly opinion for over a decade, and while several counter-arguments have convincingly challenged Fitzmyer’s theory, scholars are still hard-pressed to explain how the passage fits into its context. Not only does 6:14-7:1 seem to lack any organic connection to the verses immediately prior or following, but it also contains unique vocabulary and what seems to be uncharacteristic ...