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Population Change In Times Of War: Biodistance Analysis Of Medieval And Early Modern Skeletal Populations From Adriatic Croatia, Lindsey Jo Helms Thorson 2018 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Population Change In Times Of War: Biodistance Analysis Of Medieval And Early Modern Skeletal Populations From Adriatic Croatia, Lindsey Jo Helms Thorson

Theses and Dissertations

Research by doctoral candidate Lindsey Jo Helms Thorson, under the supervision of Dr. Patricia Richards, investigated population during the Ottoman expansion into Croatian territories to determine whether migration contributed significantly to changes in the biological make-up of the population. The study focused on phenotypic trait variation, using cranial and dental metric and nonmetric data, in two skeletal samples from the Medieval (pre-Ottoman) period and two skeletal samples from the Early Modern (Ottoman) period in the central Dalmatian region of Croatia, curated at the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts – Anthropology Center. Historical narratives suggest that as the Ottoman Empire expanded ...


Missing The Point: Identifying Perishable Projectiles In The Archaeological Record From Bone Damage, Sara R. Wingert 2018 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

Missing The Point: Identifying Perishable Projectiles In The Archaeological Record From Bone Damage, Sara R. Wingert

Honors Student Research

For decades, archaeologists have used replicative studies to develop a better understanding of prehistoric technology. Many replicative studies have focused on the manufacture and use of stone projectiles, resulting in a detailed understanding of the design of hunting weapons in relation to various features of the environment and, in turn, elegant explanations for technological change over time. Yet if ethnographic accounts are any indication, lithic technology was only one (perhaps minor) part of many prehistoric technological systems. It is likely, then, that the technological changes archaeologists commonly document through their morphometric analysis of stone projectile points occurred against a backdrop ...


Understanding How Racism Physically Feels In The Moment For Young African American Women, Emma M. Burklin 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Understanding How Racism Physically Feels In The Moment For Young African American Women, Emma M. Burklin

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Reconstructing Landscape Use Patterns Using Strontium Isotope Ratios, Marian I. Hamilton 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Reconstructing Landscape Use Patterns Using Strontium Isotope Ratios, Marian I. Hamilton

Anthropology ETDs

This dissertation uses modern habitats and fauna to model the variability and predictive power of strontium isotope ratios in identifying dispersal patterns in primates and habitat preference in primate and non-primate fauna. It concludes that there are significant isotopic differences between gallery forest and xeric grassland habitats in the same area and that these differences are reflected in fauna with habitat preferences for one or the other. It also identifies the most reliable methodological approaches for identifying the philopatric and dispersing sex in primate communities. Finally, it applies this methodological recommendation to strontium isotope data from South African hominins, concluding ...


Laboratory Manual Ant 101: Introduction To Biological Anthropology, Susan L. Johnston 2018 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Laboratory Manual Ant 101: Introduction To Biological Anthropology, Susan L. Johnston

Anthropology & Sociology

No abstract provided.


Interpersonal And Ideological Kindness: A Biocultural Approach, Sally Averitt-Hubbard 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Interpersonal And Ideological Kindness: A Biocultural Approach, Sally Averitt-Hubbard

Theses and Dissertations

In accordance with Richard Dawkins’ materialist “selfish gene” theory of human behavior, altruism is a subject matter that is treated conservatively by biologists, whose understanding of the human version of altruism tends toward mutualistic and sometimes reputation-based explanations of charity, kindness, and helping. Trivers (1971) first stated that non-kin altruism could evolve if altruistic behavior is balanced between partners over time, implicating a strictly mutualistic domain for kindness. But kindness herein is defined, beyond mere mutualism or reciprocity, as “the quality of being friendly, generous, and considerate.” Further, kindness tends to have an action-oriented dimension, as in Goetz et al ...


Sacral Morphology Of Prehensile-Tailed Primates In Relation To Biomechanical Loading, Hannah Grace Showalter 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sacral Morphology Of Prehensile-Tailed Primates In Relation To Biomechanical Loading, Hannah Grace Showalter

Theses and Dissertations

The few available comparative studies of prehensile tail anatomy in primates have established that several features of the caudal vertebrae are associated with adaptation to the increased loading of the tail during prehension. Given that the caudal vertebrae are anchored to the sacrum, it stands to reason that sacral morphology should also covary with tail prehensility. Convergent evolution of prehension in ateline and cebine primates and clear variation in the use of tails among taxa raises questions not only of how sacral morphology differs between prehensile and non-prehensile taxa, but whether different prehensile-tailed taxa evolved the same solutions to the ...


Examination Of Shape Variation Of The Calcaneus, Navicular, And Talus In Homo Sapiens, Gorilla Gorilla, And Pan Troglodytes, Nicole Lynn Robinson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examination Of Shape Variation Of The Calcaneus, Navicular, And Talus In Homo Sapiens, Gorilla Gorilla, And Pan Troglodytes, Nicole Lynn Robinson

Theses and Dissertations

Analyses of morphological integration among primates commonly focus on relationships between the face, braincase and base of the skull, as well as the upper and lower dentition, and the within portions of the post-cranial skeleton. Despite the prominence of these studies, the associations between the bones of the foot and their articular surfaces have largely been ignored among primates, even though the foot demonstrates high degrees of variation and modification. This variation offers an ideal opportunity to study the relationship between morphology and locomotion. Because the talus, calcaneus and navicular act together to stabilize the foot in locomotion and form ...


A Comparison Of Craniofacial Asymmetry In Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla And Pan Troglodytes Troglodytes, Ashly Noel Romero 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Comparison Of Craniofacial Asymmetry In Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla And Pan Troglodytes Troglodytes, Ashly Noel Romero

Theses and Dissertations

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) – random deviations from bilateral symmetry in an organism’s paired features – is a good candidate for investigating developmental stability. This easily accessible measurement can be used to understand the relationship between stress and development across organisms, and growth rate plays a vital role in developmental processes. Few studies have investigated craniofacial FA in non-human primates, and those that have suggest that levels of FA are higher in slower growing species. This study examines craniofacial FA in two primate species (Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla; n=81) to elucidate the effect of growth rate on FA ...


Digital Palace Of Nestor: Assessing Mycenaean Palatial Complex Construction Of Socio-Political Status And Navigation Through Architecture, Caleb Ward 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Digital Palace Of Nestor: Assessing Mycenaean Palatial Complex Construction Of Socio-Political Status And Navigation Through Architecture, Caleb Ward

Theses and Dissertations

Because architecture necessitates the conscious planning of space, its consequences for navigation and socio-political status are equally deliberate and have indirect effects. This research combines experiential and spatial syntax techniques to gain a deeper understanding of how Mycenaeans shaped space to construct status and navigation in the Palace of Nestor at Pylos. Using a digital reconstruction of the palace ensured the most accurate experiential data by utilizing a whole, albeit virtual, version of the site. Without employing a digital reconstruction, the only experiences with the site would occur in the ruinous, actual site preventing complete experiences with how the site ...


Gender And Religion In A Shifting Social Landscape: Anglo-Saxon Mortuary Practices, Ad 600-700, Caroline Palmer 2018 Brigham Young University

Gender And Religion In A Shifting Social Landscape: Anglo-Saxon Mortuary Practices, Ad 600-700, Caroline Palmer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

My thesis examines seventh-century East Anglian mortuary practices and cross-correlates grave goods and human remains to determine whether there was an expression of the sexual division of labor during this period of social and religious change. I argue that gender roles changed as a result of adopting kingdoms and Christianity. Prior to this time period, Anglo-Saxons were primarily pagan and were buried with extensive burial goods. In addition to changes in religious and burial practices, during the Final Phase (600-700 AD) there appears to have been a division of labor that was not as dichotomous in the Migration Phase (450-600 ...


Metacarpal Ratio And Its Relation To Sexual Dimorphism In Primates With Different Mating Strategies, Emilee Hart 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Metacarpal Ratio And Its Relation To Sexual Dimorphism In Primates With Different Mating Strategies, Emilee Hart

LSU Master's Theses

The digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait in mammalian hands that is a result of levels of prenatal androgen exposure (PNAE) during limb development. Previous studies have shown that females have a higher ratio than males and that sexual dimorphism in the ratio is greater in species with polygynous mating strategies and high levels of intermale aggression compared to monogamous species with low intermale aggression. This study used metacarpals instead of phalanges to test the hypotheses that the metacarpal ratio (2Mc:4Mc) will be higher in females than males within a species and that the ratio would ...


Mortuary Patterns In West-Central Tennessee: Contextualizing Historic Field Data From Nine Mississippian Period Sites, Brooke Adele Wamsley 2018 Illinois State University

Mortuary Patterns In West-Central Tennessee: Contextualizing Historic Field Data From Nine Mississippian Period Sites, Brooke Adele Wamsley

Theses and Dissertations

Middle Mississippian is a both a cultural and temporal (1200 CE – 1400 CE) archaeological context of Midwestern North America. This cultural tradition is associated with mound building, specific art motifs, arguably stratified societies, intensive agriculture, and specific ritual/mortuary practices. Burial sites can be very valuable to archaeologists because of the purposeful interaction between the living and the deceased and reconstruct cultural elements such as social identity and group membership. While American archaeology continues to be fieldwork-focused, there are a considerable amount of cultural resources housed in museum collections that could provide data for research into pre-Columbian lifeways in North ...


Who Is Cheddar Man And What Does He Teach Us?, Meredith Bennett 2018 Duquesne University

Who Is Cheddar Man And What Does He Teach Us?, Meredith Bennett

D.U.Quark

No abstract provided.


Early Hominin Environments In Southern Africa: A Micromammalian Perspective, Jennifer Nicole Leichliter 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Early Hominin Environments In Southern Africa: A Micromammalian Perspective, Jennifer Nicole Leichliter

Anthropology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Environmental change, especially the expansion of open C4 savanna grasslands at the expense of more heavily wooded C3 habitats, is frequently cited as a driver of hominin evolution. The disappearance of the genus Australopithecus, the rise of the cranio-dentally robust Paranthropus, and the emergence of Homo have all been linked to environmental change during the period from 3 and 2 Ma. The large mammal communities which co-existed with hominins are often used to reconstruct paleoenvironments during this period, but small mammals have been relatively underutilized despite their potential to provide information about hominin ecosystems at a fine scale ...


Cranial Responses To Captivity In Lemur Catta And Propithecus Verreauxi In Natural History Museum Collections, Hannah Rachel Selvey 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Cranial Responses To Captivity In Lemur Catta And Propithecus Verreauxi In Natural History Museum Collections, Hannah Rachel Selvey

Anthropology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Captive animals demonstrate a number of differences compared to their wild counterparts, with the suite of some of the most common, and arguably deleterious, referred to collectively as domestication syndrome. Scholars have proposed a number of different variables and mechanisms for the changes, with captive diet being one of the prominent explanations. This thesis explores the effects of captivity on the skulls and mandibles of Malagasy lemurs (predominantly ring-tailed lemurs Lemur catta) using relative linear measurements and selected ratios, gathered from natural history museum collections. I predicted that captive and wild individuals would show differences in cranial measurements related to ...


Phenotypic Integration Of The Cervical Vertebrae In The Hominoidea (Primates), Catalina I. Villamil 2018 Dickinson College

Phenotypic Integration Of The Cervical Vertebrae In The Hominoidea (Primates), Catalina I. Villamil

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Phenotypic integration and modularity represent important factors influencing evolutionary change. The mammalian cervical vertebral column is particularly interesting in regards to integration and modularity because it is highly constrained to seven elements, despite widely variable morphology. Previous research has found a common pattern of integration among quadrupedal mammals, but integration patterns also evolve in response to locomotor selective pressures like those associated with hominin bipedalism. Here, I test patterns of covariation in the cervical vertebrae of three hominoid primates (Hylobates, Pan, Homo) who engage in upright postures and locomotion. Patterns of integration in the hominoid cervical vertebrae correspond generally to ...


Worldwide Distribution Of The Human Apolipoprotein E Gene - The Association Between Apoe, Subsistence, And Latitude, Tiffany S. Ho 2018 CUNY Hunter College

Worldwide Distribution Of The Human Apolipoprotein E Gene - The Association Between Apoe, Subsistence, And Latitude, Tiffany S. Ho

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The human apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) plays an important role in metabolizing lipids, regulating plasma cholesterol, and maintaining biological function. Structural differences in APOE variants impact cholesterol absorption and health risk, so that alleles serve as biomarkers for numerous cardiovascular and neurological diseases (Lai 2015). Variant differences are determined by changes in two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs429358 and rs7412. Distribution of alleles varies across populations. Allele frequencies in populations have been shown to be associated with cultural and environmental factors, including subsistence strategy and latitude (Eisenberg 2010).

This study aims to provide a cross-population, genetic association study between APOE ...


Purépecha Biohistory Project: A Differential Diagnosis On Burial 14.2 - A Possible Case Of Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy, Eli Mrak 2018 Anthropology

Purépecha Biohistory Project: A Differential Diagnosis On Burial 14.2 - A Possible Case Of Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy, Eli Mrak

Honors Theses AY 17/18

The well preserved skeletal remains of a young adult female from the pre-Hispanic city of Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico were analyzed during the Purépecha Biohistory Project in May of 2016. The bones of this individual display an array of proliferative new bone formation (PNBF) in the form of extensive periosteal reaction to the majority of the elements present. A differential diagnosis was conducted based on the types of lesions present and their distribution on the individual’s skeleton. Osseous responses similar to that observed on this individual have been credited to a variety of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease ...


Stress And Frailty In Medieval Prussia: Interpretations From Skeletal Remains At Bez?Awki, Katherine E. Gaddis 2018 Humboldt State University

Stress And Frailty In Medieval Prussia: Interpretations From Skeletal Remains At Bez?Awki, Katherine E. Gaddis

Theses and projects

Health is routinely studied in living populations using quantifiable measurements such as allostatic load and frailty. In recent years, particularly since the introduction of the osteological paradox, there has been increased interest among bioarchaeologists in how these concepts can be applied to the study of health in past populations. Although health is not directly observable in skeletal remains, assessment of frailty can be useful for understanding the implications of long-term exposures to stress on well-being and mortality. This study builds upon past research in this area by incorporating commonly observed indicators of physiological stress, such as dental disease and osteoarthritis ...


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