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Assessing Stress Biomarkers As Embodied Identity In Kentucky’S Green River Archaic, Anna-Marie Casserly 2022 University of Kentucky

Assessing Stress Biomarkers As Embodied Identity In Kentucky’S Green River Archaic, Anna-Marie Casserly

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

The primary goal of this bioarchaeology dissertation research is to investigate the relationship between evidence of social identity and indicators of biological stress in the Green River region of Kentucky during the Late Archaic period (5,000-3,000 BP). Utilizing a biocultural perspective, I examine the ways that aspects of identity and social organization are embodied through the experience of biological stress. This research explores how social differences influence the patterning of osteological stress markers in an Archaic population while problematizing categories of difference that are often naturalized in bioarchaeology, such as gender or age cohorts. In so doing, it contributes to …


We Can Still Feed Ourselves: Food Sovereignty, Aid, Sickness, And Health In Eastern Kentucky, Annie Koempel 2022 University of Kentucky

We Can Still Feed Ourselves: Food Sovereignty, Aid, Sickness, And Health In Eastern Kentucky, Annie Koempel

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

Over forty percent of eastern Kentucky residents are classified as obese. From a biomedical perspective, obesity is linked to a range of chronic diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure and is caused by particular lifestyle behaviors that lead to an increase in calorie consumption and decrease in calorie expenditure. However, these links – individual behavior leads to obesity which leads to chronic disease - do not take into account a wide range of personal, social, environmental, political, and economic conditions. In addition to the assumptions of what it means to become and be obese, Kentucky is regularly …


National Barriers Impeding The Implementation Of Nagpra: Suggestions From A Small Institution, Zoe Milburn 2022 Rollins College

National Barriers Impeding The Implementation Of Nagpra: Suggestions From A Small Institution, Zoe Milburn

Honors Program Theses

This thesis focuses on the impact and unrealized potentials of NAGPRA for Indigenous Americans and professional archaeologists following the first thirty years of the law’s existence. After providing some necessary background on the NAGPRA legislation and the context of the law’s passage, I examine these issues through three distinct methods. The first method focuses on a review of published Indigenous and archaeological literature to identify changes in sentiment around the law as well as to identify known hurdles within the process. The second revolves around my experience preparing a NAGPRA inventory for the Rollins College Archaeology Lab. Specifically, I reflect …


Remote Analysis Capabilities Of Digitally Rendered Models Of Human Remains: Obtaining Osteometric Data & Assessing Pathology And Taphonomic Alteration - Using Non-Human Animal Remains As An Analogue, M. Elizabeth Dyess 2022 Eastern Washington University

Remote Analysis Capabilities Of Digitally Rendered Models Of Human Remains: Obtaining Osteometric Data & Assessing Pathology And Taphonomic Alteration - Using Non-Human Animal Remains As An Analogue, M. Elizabeth Dyess

2022 Symposium

Computed tomography (CT), photogrammetry, and laser surface scanning technologies have enabled remote, noninvasive, and non-destructive analysis of skeletal human remains in various contexts. Such technologies have found applications in the disciplines of osteoarchaeology, forensic anthropology, the medical sciences, and other related fields of inquiry. This presentation will discuss the accuracy and reliability of osteometric data obtained from digitally rendered models, as well as the clarity and level of detail attained. Such qualifying standards are essential if practitioners are to reliably assess pathology and taphonomic alteration to the specimens from which the scans are modeled. The suitability of each of the …


The Interdisciplinary Study Of Genetically Modified Salmon And Their Effects On The Environment And Indigenous Communities, Victoria Fair, Kaydee Mittleider 2022 Western Washington University

The Interdisciplinary Study Of Genetically Modified Salmon And Their Effects On The Environment And Indigenous Communities, Victoria Fair, Kaydee Mittleider

WWU Honors College Senior Projects

This project is an interdisciplinary view of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), specifically GMO salmon, through a biological, anthropological, and economic lens. The interconnection of these disciplines is shown through looking at GMO salmon and aquaculture effects on the Lummi Nation and the environment, while taking a close look at the first company to be approved for GMO salmon for human consumption that occurred in 2015 and the processes that are involved for approval of GMOs. The essay, through a biological lens, will explore the importance of salmon and their role in the ecosystem. Through an anthropological lens a discussion of …


Anthropological Responses To Covid-19 In The Philippines, Gideon Lasco 2022 Ateneo de Manila University

Anthropological Responses To Covid-19 In The Philippines, Gideon Lasco

Development Studies Faculty Publications

This article reflects on the roles anthropologists have played in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines, and identifies the challenges – from the methodological to the political – they faced in fulfilling these roles. Drawing on the author's personal and professional experiences in the country, as well as on interviews with other anthropologists, this article identifies three major roles for anthropologists: conducting ethnographic research; bearing witness to the pandemic through first-person accounts; and engaging various publics. All these activities have contributed to a greater recognition of the role of the social sciences in health crises, even as anthropologists …


Exploring The Relationship Between Nutrition And Cribra Orbitalia: The Comparison Of Dietary Stable Isotope Comparisons Of Juveniles From Kuelap, Peru, Lissette S. Osorio 2022 University of Central Florida

Exploring The Relationship Between Nutrition And Cribra Orbitalia: The Comparison Of Dietary Stable Isotope Comparisons Of Juveniles From Kuelap, Peru, Lissette S. Osorio

Honors Undergraduate Theses

A juvenile’s dependency on their caregiver is significant to the overall development of nutritionally related pathological lesions. However, not all skeletal pathology is caused by nutritional stress; despite anemia being the usual inferred cause, the origin of Cribra Orbitalia (CO) – lesions on the orbital roofs of the cranium– is undetermined. The purpose of this research is to compare the reconstructed diets of juveniles with and without CO and explore connections to dietary patterns (inferred from stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen). Rib bone samples of 79 juveniles with and without CO were sampled from the Kuelap archaeological site …


A Comprehensive Forensic Case Report With The University Of Montana Forensic Anthropology Lab University Of Montana Forensic Case #167, Tyler J. Trettin 2022 University of Montana, Missoula

A Comprehensive Forensic Case Report With The University Of Montana Forensic Anthropology Lab University Of Montana Forensic Case #167, Tyler J. Trettin

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

This report consists of an inventory of the skeletal remains of case# 167, assessment of the minimum number of individuals (MNI), a biological profile if possible, and a literature review of the assessment and understanding of ballistic trauma. The skeletal remains are consistent with an MNI of one. The remains are likely from a male individual, and skeletal features are representative of a person of Caucasian ancestry. The individual is estimated to be between of 35-65 years old with an estimated stature of between 5’5” and 5’9”.


Identifying Skeletal Trauma Markers Associated With Intimate Partner Violence (Ipv), Haley K. Omeasoo 2022 The University Of Montana

Identifying Skeletal Trauma Markers Associated With Intimate Partner Violence (Ipv), Haley K. Omeasoo

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Objectives: This is a validation study of Biddle (2019), where much of the same materials are used, with the addition of new data from other databases to include more Native American and minority samples. A comparison database will also be analyzed against this data, with known cases of live individuals assaulted and assessed by health officials, some in IPV situations. All data is analyzed to discover which fracture locations are most common in IPV situations and which ethnic, sex, and age groups are most affected. Most fractures analyzed are those of the maxillofacial area, concentrating on the Zygomaticomaxillary Complex (ZMC) …


A Transition From Tradition: Employing Ta3 And Traditional Age & Sex Estimation Methods To Study Paleodemography In Umm An-Nar Arabia, Alyssa Bolster, Hannah Jeanlouis, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger 2022 Vanderbilt University

A Transition From Tradition: Employing Ta3 And Traditional Age & Sex Estimation Methods To Study Paleodemography In Umm An-Nar Arabia, Alyssa Bolster, Hannah Jeanlouis, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger

Year 2: AABA 2022 – Denver, CO

Background: Transition Analysis 3 (TA3) has enormous potential for the study of commingled skeletal material. Previous demographic analyses on commingled remains from Umm an-Nar (2700-2000 BCE) tombs Unar 1 and Unar 2 at the site of Shimal (Ras al-Khaimah, UAE) placed the majority of individuals in a generalized “adult” category using dental eruption. We hypothesized that we would identify more older adults (50+) in both tombs using TA3, and that more would be found in Unar 2, prior to the intensification of agriculture and regional aridification.

Methods: Commingled and fragmentary skeletal fragments (pubic symphyses (n=51), humeri (n=85), femora (n=194)) were …


Analyzing The Prevalence And Severity Of Cribra Orbitalia In Bronze Age Arabia, Urvi Kaul, Brittany Clark, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger 2022 University of Connecticut

Analyzing The Prevalence And Severity Of Cribra Orbitalia In Bronze Age Arabia, Urvi Kaul, Brittany Clark, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger

Year 2: AABA 2022 – Denver, CO

Background: The Umm an-Nar period (ca. 2700-2000 BCE) in southeastern Arabia was marked by the intensification of oasis agriculture and a corresponding shift to sedentism. Cribra orbitalia lesions from tombs Unar 1 and Unar 2 (Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah, UAE) were observed for rates of nonspecific stress during this period of transition. We hypothesized that due to increased reliance on agriculture beginning around 2200 BCE, Unar 1 individuals would have a higher prevalence of active cribra orbitalia.

Methods: Given the commingled and fragmentary nature of these collections, we first scored percentage of orbit present in 25% increments. Scorable orbits (defined …


Age And Inclusivity In Umm An-Nar Communal Tombs From Southeastern Arabia, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger, Christian Berends, Alyssa Bolster, Brittany Clark, Hannah Jeanlouis, Urvi Kaul, Rachael Orkin 2022 University of South Alabama

Age And Inclusivity In Umm An-Nar Communal Tombs From Southeastern Arabia, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger, Christian Berends, Alyssa Bolster, Brittany Clark, Hannah Jeanlouis, Urvi Kaul, Rachael Orkin

Year 2: AABA 2022 – Denver, CO

Umm an-Nar (2700-2000 BCE) tombs in the United Arab Emirates contained the commingled remains of hundreds of individuals interred across multiple generations. Archaeologists commonly reference tomb demographics as being inclusive of all ages, but this assumption is based on a handful of studies that rarely distinguish age categories beyond “subadult” or “adult.” An undergraduate research training program sought to examine age distributions – and thus inclusivity in tomb membership – in greater detail, with a particular focus on fetal and older adult age categories.

A combination of traditional and novel aging techniques were applied to bones from tombs Unar 1 …


Estimating Age From Fetal And Young Nonadults From Basilar Portions At Umm An-Nar Tombs From The Uae, Rachael Orkin, Christian Berends, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger 2022 Los Angeles Pierce College

Estimating Age From Fetal And Young Nonadults From Basilar Portions At Umm An-Nar Tombs From The Uae, Rachael Orkin, Christian Berends, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger

Year 2: AABA 2022 – Denver, CO

Background: The Umm an-Nar period (2700-2000 BCE) was a time of significant change in southeastern Arabia, prompted by agricultural shifts and seen in shifting social and mortuary practices. Communal tombs Unar 1 and Unar 2 from the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah (United Arab Emirates), which date to the end of the third millennium BCE, contained commingled, cremated, and fragmented skeletons, a common mortuary pattern in this period.

Methods: Unfused basilar portions of nonadult occipital bones were examined to assess tomb membership and inclusion of young individuals. Three methods were used to analyze age, and measurements taken included sagittal length and …


Preliminary Study In More Effective Utilization Of 87sr/86sr Analysis In The Field Of Forensic Anthropology, Samantha Powers 2022 University of Montana

Preliminary Study In More Effective Utilization Of 87sr/86sr Analysis In The Field Of Forensic Anthropology, Samantha Powers

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Isotopic analyses are gaining attention in the field of anthropology. The current utilization of strontium isotopes primarily focuses on residence and migration patterns of past populations extracting data from tooth enamel to indicate early-life residence This study aims to identify a skeletal feature to be set as a field standard in strontium analysis of modern remains when seeking end-of-life residence, the impact of diagenesis on modern remains, and to test the accuracy of the petrous as an alternative to tooth enamel.

The results of this research were unable to suggest such a standard but gathered helpful data to be used …


Climate Change And Human Responses, Caroline Znachko, Armando Anzellini, Katherine Parker, Christa Hicks 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Climate Change And Human Responses, Caroline Znachko, Armando Anzellini, Katherine Parker, Christa Hicks

Anthropology Publications and Other Works

The Department of Anthropology’s Visiting Lecture Research Series is an ongoing edited volume compiling research products created by (under)graduate students for the Department of Anthropology’s Visiting Lecture Program at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Each volume in the series, compiled by its own (under)graduate student editors and approved by the Department Head, includes original research products by participating (under)graduate students.

The Department of Anthropology’s Visiting Lecture Program, also known as Current Trends in Anthropology (ANTH357/550), is a symposium held annually each fall semester with a different theme for the purpose of exposing students to anthropologists from around the world and …


The Effects Humidity & Temperature Has On Dna Contamination During Storage, Samantha L. Ramey 2022 University of Montana

The Effects Humidity & Temperature Has On Dna Contamination During Storage, Samantha L. Ramey

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Studies have been conducted on DNA cross-contamination throughout the criminal investigation process in order to evaluation the possibility that DNA from one sample could potentially influence the outcome of another. However, no published studies have examined the potential for contamination during the storage of genetic evidence after samples have been taken from crime scenes or suspects. This study is a continuation of a preliminary project, which examined storage drying time in relation to cross-contamination. The current study tested temperature and humidity for the potential of cross-contamination during storage prior to extraction. Prior to storage, 50 μl of male saliva was …


Y-Chromosome Dna Extraction From Post-Cranial Skeletal Elements, Mykala D. Ward 2022 University of Montana, Missoula

Y-Chromosome Dna Extraction From Post-Cranial Skeletal Elements, Mykala D. Ward

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The use of DNA in forensic science has become an integral tool for victim and perpetrator identifications, missing person’s cases, paternity testing, etc. A major use of DNA is in the identification of unknown deceased individuals. With a reported number of individuals well over 8,000 in the United States, improved methods to accurately collect and analyze DNA from modern human bone are needed.

This project took the preliminary steps to improve DNA sampling and extraction methods by analyzing the Y-chromosome DNA yield from the two bone types. While both types are composed of the same materials, cortical bone is the …


Morphometric Ancestral Analysis Of Infraorbital Foramen And Maxillo-Facial Landmarks Of Adult North American Skulls Using X-Ray And Computed Tomography Scans, Anna-Marie Lynn David 2022 The University Of Montana

Morphometric Ancestral Analysis Of Infraorbital Foramen And Maxillo-Facial Landmarks Of Adult North American Skulls Using X-Ray And Computed Tomography Scans, Anna-Marie Lynn David

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Skeletal remains provide a variety of information about a species population and the sub populations within that species. The infraorbital foramen has previously been used to understand dietary niches, paleoecology, the nervous system, and the effect of the nervous system on other bone functions in the facial region in humans and other mammals. In medicine, the precise location of the infraorbital foramen has been studied to aid and guide maxillo-facial procedures and surgeries. In this research project, the null hypothesis states that the placement and location of the infraorbital foramen in relation to other facial landmarks were the same between …


"Bonobo" Rights For All: Using A Primatological Approach To Secure Gender Equity, Francesca V.E. Kaser 2022 Regis University

"Bonobo" Rights For All: Using A Primatological Approach To Secure Gender Equity, Francesca V.E. Kaser

Regis University Student Publications (comprehensive collection)

Western patriarchy sustains male-dominance and perpetuates gender inequity. While there have been great achievements toward gender equity, women are burdened to navigate a society that upholds male success. Equality offers individuals the same opportunities, but often falls short in delivering equal outcomes because of historic and systemic male privileges conserved by patriarchy. Equity, on the other hand, ensures that fair opportunities effect equal outcomes to rectify systemic injustices. To reconstruct women’s role in society, our closest living relatives, patriarchal chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and matriarchal bonobos (Pan paniscus), allow humans to compare the role of females in …


An Assessment Of The Neurovascular Structures Of The Trigeminal Nerve And Their Relationship To Diet In Primates, Caitlin Yoakum 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Assessment Of The Neurovascular Structures Of The Trigeminal Nerve And Their Relationship To Diet In Primates, Caitlin Yoakum

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) enters the mandible via the mental foramen, supplies nervous sensation to the mandibular teeth as it travels through the mandibular canal, and exits the mandibular foramen to send information to the brain to maintain chewing cycles and protect the teeth from damage. Although bony canals and foramina have been shown to form around soft-tissue structures, there are some examples (e.g., the hypoglossal nerve/canal) where the nervous structures do not comprise most of the canal/foramina space. It is important to know the size of nerves because it has been established that larger nerves convey more information …


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