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Biological and Physical Anthropology Commons

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A Comparative Study Of The Glenohumeral Joint In New World Monkeys, Rachel Elizabeth Provazza 2016 Dickinson College

A Comparative Study Of The Glenohumeral Joint In New World Monkeys, Rachel Elizabeth Provazza

Student Honors Theses By Year

The functional use of a primate’s body greatly influences its skeletal morphology. Previous morphological studies include analyses of the glenohumeral joint as a reflection of the locomotion distinct to each Old World monkey. In addition, anthropologists examine the shoulder of hominoids to study the shift in locomotor behaviors towards bipedalism. The glenohumeral joint of hominoids, particularly those taking part in brachiation, is rounder and more globular in shape compared to other ancestral apes, indicative of a greater range in motion of the shoulder (Chan 2007a, 1; Green 2013, 253). However, little research examines the locomotion of New World monkeys ...


Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, Wren Edwards 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, Wren Edwards

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Primates expend approximately 50% less energy (kcal/day) for their body size than other eutherians. Using the doubly labeled water method, I investigated total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity in Sapajus apella. S. apella TEE was similar (p=0.67) to other platyrrhines, but 54% lower than expected for body mass.


Babies And Biomedicine: Knowledge System Negotiation In The Domain Of Infant Care, Maisie Buntin 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Babies And Biomedicine: Knowledge System Negotiation In The Domain Of Infant Care, Maisie Buntin

Theses and Dissertations

In 2011, the city of Milwaukee launched a controversial public service campaign intended to minimize infant deaths by highlighting the dangers of cosleeping. In Wisconsin, about 28% of mothers bedshare with their infants, with the highest rates among women of color, averaging about 40% (Wisconsin Department of Health Services 2014). These data suggest that multiple knowledge systems might exist in the domain of infant care. This thesis proposes that Milwaukee’s current campaign is based in biomedicine, the predominant knowledge system surrounding infant care. Yet, its target demographic (cosleeping families) may not subscribe as strictly to a biomedical system of ...


A Quantitative Genetic Analysis Of Limb Segment Morphology In Humans And Other Primates: Genetic Variance, Morphological Integration, And Linkage Analysis, Brannon Irene Hulsey 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

A Quantitative Genetic Analysis Of Limb Segment Morphology In Humans And Other Primates: Genetic Variance, Morphological Integration, And Linkage Analysis, Brannon Irene Hulsey

Doctoral Dissertations

Limb segment lengths (and, by extension, limb proportions) are widely studied postcranial features in biological anthropology due to the seemingly consistent phenotypic patterning among human and fossil hominin groups. This patterning, widely presumed to be the result of adaptation to thermoregulatory efficiency, has led to the assumption among biological anthropologists that limb proportions in humans are phenotypically stable unless long periods of extreme environmental conditions force adaptive change. Because these traits are considered stable, they have been used to inform multiple areas of anthropological inquiry, including investigations of phylogenetic relationships and fossil species identification, locomotor behavior and the evolution of ...


A Biologically Informed Structure To Accuracy In Osteometric Reassociation, Kyle Mccormick 2016 The University of Tennessee at Knoxville

A Biologically Informed Structure To Accuracy In Osteometric Reassociation, Kyle Mccormick

Doctoral Dissertations

Commingled assemblages present a common situation in osteological analysis where discrete sets of remains are not readily apparent, thereby hindering biological profile construction and the identification process. Of the methods available for resolving commingling, osteometric reassociation is considered a reliable and relatively objective technique. Traditional osteometric sorting methodologies is a decision-making, error-mitigation approach, where possible matches are eliminated if the calculated pvalue exceeds an analyst-defined threshold. This approach implicitly assumes that all bone comparisons are equally accurate as long as the threshold is attained. This assumption, however, is not based in biological reality. This study tests a hypothetical structure of ...


The Effect Of Social And Environmental Stresses Among The Historic Arikara Native Americans, Jocelyn Diana Minsky-Rowland 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

The Effect Of Social And Environmental Stresses Among The Historic Arikara Native Americans, Jocelyn Diana Minsky-Rowland

Doctoral Dissertations

The Arikara Native Americans from the Anton Rygh, Mobridge, Larson and Leavenworth sites, inhabited the Great Plains of western North America (AD 1600-1832). The Arikara experienced climatic changes, warfare, interactions with novel groups of people and disease epidemics and therefore represent an opportunity to assess differential risk of death in a stressful context. The overarching question of this project is, in the historic context of environmental and social stresses, do these environmental and social stresses (as indicated by specific skeletal markers that occur during childhood) increase the risk of death from later infectious disease or warfare related trauma experienced in ...


Examination Of Age Estimation Of The Sternal Rib Ends In The Third And Fourth Left Ribs, Arleigh Jones 2016 University of Tennessee-Knoxville

Examination Of Age Estimation Of The Sternal Rib Ends In The Third And Fourth Left Ribs, Arleigh Jones

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Efficacy Of Carpal Bones In Sex Estimation Of American Whites, Ashleigh Watson 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Efficacy Of Carpal Bones In Sex Estimation Of American Whites, Ashleigh Watson

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Mycobacterium Leprae: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Of The Paleopathological Literature, Mallory Alexis Schreier 2016 Boise State University

The Impact Of Mycobacterium Leprae: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Of The Paleopathological Literature, Mallory Alexis Schreier

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Leprosy, caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis, is a chronic, infectious disease that eventually causes disfiguring skin lesions, nerve damage, and muscle weakness. Even though leprosy has been nearly eliminated in many parts of the world today, it remains endemic in India, Myanmar, Nepal, Brazil, and a few African countries. Unfortunately, this infectious disease is not limited to just modern populations. In the past, leprosy spread globally and was a pervasive, degenerating disease. The literature traces leprosy back to 1550 BCE although there is possible skeletal evidence of leprosy in Rajasthan, India from 2000 BCE, suggesting it ...


An Analysis Of Skeletal Trauma Patterning Of Accidental And Intentional Injury, Shauna Lynn McNulty 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

An Analysis Of Skeletal Trauma Patterning Of Accidental And Intentional Injury, Shauna Lynn Mcnulty

Doctoral Dissertations

The ability to determine the cause of skeletal trauma – i.e. an injury produced by blunt, sharp, or ballistic forces - is critical in assessing the manner of death. The purpose of this study is to examine the patterns of injury between known accidental and intentional trauma cases while considering demographics, fracture features, and the location of injuries in individuals of varying ages, sexes, and ancestries. The current literature has identified a pattern for intentional injuries that is focused on the head, neck, and face, while accidental trauma tends to be more dispersed throughout the skeleton with more injuries found in ...


A Gnawing Problem: Does Rodent Incisor Microwear Record Diet Or Habitat?, Salvatore Samuel Caporale 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Gnawing Problem: Does Rodent Incisor Microwear Record Diet Or Habitat?, Salvatore Samuel Caporale

Theses and Dissertations

Dental microwear has been shown to reflect food preferences and habitat in extant vertebrates, and its analysis has been applied to fossil assemblages to infer paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Such reconstructions are, of course, only as good as the extant baseline used to infer relationships between wear pattern and diet/habitat. This study tests, through dental microwear texture analysis, the potential of modern rodent lower incisors to reveal those relationships, and evaluates the extent to which effects of diet and habitat can be parsed from the signal. Microwear texture profiles were created for individual lower rodent incisors (n=430) using confocal ...


Recreating Richard Iii: The Power Of Tudor Propaganda, Heather Alexander 2016 East Tennessee State University

Recreating Richard Iii: The Power Of Tudor Propaganda, Heather Alexander

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Because it signified the violent transition from the Plantagenet to Tudor dynasty, the death of King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth’s Field was a monumental event. After five centuries, his skeleton was rediscovered by an archaeological team at a site, formerly the location of the Greyfriars Priory Church. The presentation uses the forensic evidence to examine the extent to which the perceived image of Richard III is the result of Tudor propaganda.


Commingled Tombs And Arcgis: Analyzing The Mortuary Context And Taphonomy At Bronze Age Tell Abraq, Maryann Calleja 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Commingled Tombs And Arcgis: Analyzing The Mortuary Context And Taphonomy At Bronze Age Tell Abraq, Maryann Calleja

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The use of global positioning systems (GPS) and mapping software are commonplace in today’s archaeology. Artifacts and human remains can be plotted on maps and digitized immediately on sites allowing for instant analysis. Yet, the use of GPS in some locations may not be feasible due to natural or human-made terrain features such as canopy cover, densely built urban environments, caves, or other environments where satellite access may be limited. Additionally, prior to the widespread use of GPS, field archaeologists had to rely solely upon systematic, detailed notes and sketches. Such was the case at the Bronze Age tomb ...


Using Science Communication And Informal Education To Become An Informational Portal To The Public, Karri D. Folks 2016 Iowa State University

Using Science Communication And Informal Education To Become An Informational Portal To The Public, Karri D. Folks

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

Effective communication with the public is a key component of research outreach. As graduate students, our curriculums usually require some form of public outreach. You are expected to demonstrate the broader impacts of your research through multi-generational education; however training for this type of communication is usually not provided. Reiman Gardens (Ames, IA) provides outreach development and training to Iowa State graduate students, scientists, engineers, researchers, and other science-based professionals through their Portal to the Public Science Communication Fellowship. The fellowship provides training on how to effectively communicate your research to diverse audiences and enhance science communication skills. Each fellow ...


Accuracy Of Cut-Mark Analysis Databases Within Forensic Anthropology, Sydney L. Dighton, Whitney E. Graves 2016 Iowa State University

Accuracy Of Cut-Mark Analysis Databases Within Forensic Anthropology, Sydney L. Dighton, Whitney E. Graves

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

When it comes to trauma analysis, there are multiple databases and criteria used to determine weapons. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to determine whether or not the accuracy of these databases are precise enough to definitively determine which type of weapon is used. Five different tools were used, split into two different sections. The first were weapons used in stabbings: scalpels, pocket knife, and kitchen knife. The next section of weapons were those used in the dismembering of remains: an axe and machete. It is apparent that the identification of murder weapons is a clear link to the ...


Can The Presence And Proportion Of Bacterial Communities Be Used To Estimate Post-Mortem Interval? A Critical Analysis, Alexa L. Golemo 2016 Iowa State University

Can The Presence And Proportion Of Bacterial Communities Be Used To Estimate Post-Mortem Interval? A Critical Analysis, Alexa L. Golemo

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

The use of bacterial communities to estimate post-mortem interval is a relatively new concept in the field of forensic anthropology, but one that shows great promise. Research has shown a correlation between the presence and proportion of bacterial communities within the microbiome of a deceased vertebrate and the post-mortem interval of that individual. Methodologies include analyzing and comparing relative abundance of different taxa during decomposition, as well as comparing the microbiome of the decomposing vertebrate to the surrounding soil during different phases of decomposition in skeletonized remains. However, this method of estimating time since death must undergo much more in-depth ...


A Critical Review Of The Identification Of Mass Disaster Remains Through The Use Of Genomic Analysis, Katherine R. Slimak 2016 Iowa State University

A Critical Review Of The Identification Of Mass Disaster Remains Through The Use Of Genomic Analysis, Katherine R. Slimak

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

Identification of a single complete set of bones can be considerably challenging given the condition of the bones; however, identifying tens to hundreds of different bones, how many complete sets are present, and to whom they belong is a complete different story. Throughout the world today there are many mass disasters that take the lives of hundreds and even thousands of people, leaving remains behind that are fragmented, heavily impacted by the incident and environment, or completely obliterated. Mass disaster remains can be identified through techniques in genomic analysis that use extracted DNA from remains that have potential to be ...


Iowa City Pathologies, Danielle M. Airola 2016 Iowa State University

Iowa City Pathologies, Danielle M. Airola

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

This study is focused on the pathologies and skeletal abnormalities present among specimens from the Iowa City Collection, narrowed down to four individuals in particular. It compares abnormalities observed on the bones themselves with the written record from the inventory of this collection, identifying which pathology is most common among the specimens, why those pathologies leave their marks in bony tissue, and speculates about the possible origin of this collection before it was loaned to Iowa State from the University of Iowa to become part of the teaching collection for classes in skeletal biology and forensic anthropology.


The New Generation Of Forensic Facial Reconstruction, Celeste R. Moreno 2016 Iowa State University

The New Generation Of Forensic Facial Reconstruction, Celeste R. Moreno

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

Forensic facial reconstruction is an impressive and unique blend of scientific and artistic skill sets that for many years was based primarily on non-digital or traditional methods such as pencil sketches and clay models. With the recent advancements in 2D digital art software as well as 3D digital art software, forensic artists have a new set of tools to take advantage of. Some artists have focused on using primarily digital reconstruction techniques. These artists and their new techniques are a part of the new generation of forensic facial reconstruction. This is a discussion of how cutting edge technology can increase ...


Native Americans: The Fight For Race, Class And Equality In The Field Of Anthropology, Cheryl A. Sanders 2016 Iowa State University

Native Americans: The Fight For Race, Class And Equality In The Field Of Anthropology, Cheryl A. Sanders

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

Native Americans have endured racial typology, robbery for pseudo-science, declared a dying race as they became the trophy items for emerging museums all over the country. Because of such actions the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) was created to safeguard any remains and protect any burials of Native American descent. My research is set out to reveal that the field of physical anthropology is always changing and how this history affects forensic anthropology in practice. This project will focus on the history of eugenics and Social Darwinism, as these outdated concepts led to the establishment of NAGPRA ...


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