The Dirt On The Collins Mounds Site, 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
The Dirt On The Collins Mounds Site, Carmelita Angeles
Theses and Dissertations
Building monumental architecture has been one method used by humans to rise above an earthbound existence. In the United States, large earthen mounds were constructed from the Archaic period to the Mississippian period. The Collins Mound Site in Arkansas was recently dated to the Late Woodland period. For this study, soil samples were extracted from the northern section of the site for description and particle-size analysis. Erosion from plowing, wind, water, and gravity is the most likely process causing a decreased mound height and increased basal diameter. Mound fill likely originated near the river for two of the mounds and ...
The Evaluation And Refinement Of Nonmetric Sex And Ancestry Assessment Methods In Modern Japanese And Thai Individuals, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
The Evaluation And Refinement Of Nonmetric Sex And Ancestry Assessment Methods In Modern Japanese And Thai Individuals, Sean D. Tallman
Effective biological profiles in forensic anthropology and bioarchaeology depend on the development, validation, and refinement of population-specific methods. However, most methods were developed in North America on individuals of African and European descent, and it is unlikely that such methods can generate accurate biological profiles for Asian individuals. Moreover, Native Americans have served as biological proxies for Asians due to their distantly shared genetic history, resulting in largely untested assumptions that Native Americans and Asians are homogenous and share nonmetric sexually dimorphic skeletal features and a unique suite of cranial traits that can be used in ancestry assessment.
This study ...
Chimpanzee Accumulative Stone Throwing, 2016 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
Chimpanzee Accumulative Stone Throwing, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Ammie K. Kalan, Mimi Arandjelovic, Floris Aubert, Lucy D’Auvergne, Annemarie Goedmakers, Sorrel Jones, Laura Kehoe, Sebastien Regnaut, Alexander Tickle, Els Ton, Joost Van Schijndel, Ekwoge E. Abwe, Samuel Angedakin, Anthony Agbor, Emmanuel Ayuk Ayimisin, Emma Bailey, Mattia Bessone, Matthieu Bonnet, Gregory Brazolla, Valentine Ebua Buh, Rebecca Chancellor, Chloe Cipoletta, Heather Cohen, Katherine Corogenes, Charlotte Coupland, Bryan Curran, Tobias Deschner, Karsten Dierks, Paula Dieguez, Emmanuel Dilambaka, Orume Diotoh, Dervla Dowd, Andrew Dunn, Henk Eshuis, Rumen Fernandez, Yisa Ginath, John Hart, Daniela Hedwig, Martijn Ter Heegde, Thurston Cleveland Hicks, Inaoyom Imong, Kathryn J. Jeffery, Jessica Junker, Parag Kadam, Mohamed Kambi, Ivonne Kienast, Deo Kujirakwinja, Kevin Langergraber, Vincent Lapeyre, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Vera Leinert, Amelia Meier, Giovanna Maretti, Sergio Marrocoli, Tanyi Julius Mbi, Vianet Mihindou, Yasmin Moebius, David Morgan, Bethan Morgan, Felix Mulindahabi, Mizuki Murai, Protais Niyigabae, Emma Normand, Nicolas Ntare, Lucy Jayne Ormsby, Alex Piel, Jill Pruetz, Aaron S. Rundus, Crickette Sanz, Volker Sommer, Fiona Stewart, Nikki Tagg, Hilde Vanleeuwe, Virginie Vergnes, Jacob Willie, Roman M. Wittig, Klaus Zuberbuehler, Christophe Boesch
The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We ...
Teaching: Natural Or Cultural?, 2016 Utah State University
Teaching: Natural Or Cultural?, David F. Lancy
Sociology, Social Work and Anthropology Faculty Publications
In this chapter I argue that teaching, as we now understand the term, is historically and cross-culturally very rare. It appears to be unnecessary to transmit culture or to socialize children. Children are, on the other hand, primed by evolution to be avid observers, imitators, players and helpers—roles that reveal the profoundly autonomous and self-directed nature of culture acquisition (Lancy in press a). And yet, teaching is ubiquitous throughout the modern world—at least among the middle to upper class segment of the population. This ubiquity has led numerous scholars to argue for the universality and uniqueness of teaching ...
A History Of Violence: 3000 Years Of Interpersonal And Intergroup Conflicts From The Initial To The Early Colonial Periods In The Peruvian Central Coast. A Bioarchaeological Perspective, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
A History Of Violence: 3000 Years Of Interpersonal And Intergroup Conflicts From The Initial To The Early Colonial Periods In The Peruvian Central Coast. A Bioarchaeological Perspective, María Del Carmen Vega Dulanto
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The purpose of this study is to test research questions about the development of violence on the Peruvian central coast during the pre-Hispanic and Early Colonial times. This is the first study to provide a diachronic analysis of violence on the central coast. One null hypothesis was tested and falsified: that there are no differences in the prevalence and pattern of trauma over time on the central coast of Peru. Two complementary questions were also addressed: 1) Is there a relation between sociopolitical changes, natural catastrophes, competition for resources and violence? and 2) How did violence affect specific segments of ...
A Comparative Study Of The Glenohumeral Joint In New World Monkeys, 2016 Dickinson College
A Comparative Study Of The Glenohumeral Joint In New World Monkeys, Rachel Elizabeth Provazza
Student Honors Theses By Year
The functional use of a primate’s body greatly influences its skeletal morphology. Previous morphological studies include analyses of the glenohumeral joint as a reflection of the locomotion distinct to each Old World monkey. In addition, anthropologists examine the shoulder of hominoids to study the shift in locomotor behaviors towards bipedalism. The glenohumeral joint of hominoids, particularly those taking part in brachiation, is rounder and more globular in shape compared to other ancestral apes, indicative of a greater range in motion of the shoulder (Chan 2007a, 1; Green 2013, 253). However, little research examines the locomotion of New World monkeys ...
Population Genetic Analysis Of The Critically Endangered Black-And-White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Variegata) In Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, Amanda Mancini
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
This study sought to determine the efficacy of Ranomafana National Park (RNP) in preserving genetic diversity and gene flow in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Results indicate that RNP successfully promotes gene flow between V. variegata groups, although genetic diversity at this site is low compared to other lemur taxa.
Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, 2016 CUNY Hunter College
Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, Wren Edwards
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
Primates expend approximately 50% less energy (kcal/day) for their body size than other eutherians. Using the doubly labeled water method, I investigated total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity in Sapajus apella. S. apella TEE was similar (p=0.67) to other platyrrhines, but 54% lower than expected for body mass.
A Quantitative Genetic Analysis Of Limb Segment Morphology In Humans And Other Primates: Genetic Variance, Morphological Integration, And Linkage Analysis, 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
A Quantitative Genetic Analysis Of Limb Segment Morphology In Humans And Other Primates: Genetic Variance, Morphological Integration, And Linkage Analysis, Brannon Irene Hulsey
Limb segment lengths (and, by extension, limb proportions) are widely studied postcranial features in biological anthropology due to the seemingly consistent phenotypic patterning among human and fossil hominin groups. This patterning, widely presumed to be the result of adaptation to thermoregulatory efficiency, has led to the assumption among biological anthropologists that limb proportions in humans are phenotypically stable unless long periods of extreme environmental conditions force adaptive change. Because these traits are considered stable, they have been used to inform multiple areas of anthropological inquiry, including investigations of phylogenetic relationships and fossil species identification, locomotor behavior and the evolution of ...
A Biologically Informed Structure To Accuracy In Osteometric Reassociation, 2016 The University of Tennessee at Knoxville
A Biologically Informed Structure To Accuracy In Osteometric Reassociation, Kyle Mccormick
Commingled assemblages present a common situation in osteological analysis where discrete sets of remains are not readily apparent, thereby hindering biological profile construction and the identification process. Of the methods available for resolving commingling, osteometric reassociation is considered a reliable and relatively objective technique. Traditional osteometric sorting methodologies is a decision-making, error-mitigation approach, where possible matches are eliminated if the calculated pvalue exceeds an analyst-defined threshold. This approach implicitly assumes that all bone comparisons are equally accurate as long as the threshold is attained. This assumption, however, is not based in biological reality. This study tests a hypothetical structure of ...
The Effect Of Social And Environmental Stresses Among The Historic Arikara Native Americans, 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
The Effect Of Social And Environmental Stresses Among The Historic Arikara Native Americans, Jocelyn Diana Minsky-Rowland
The Arikara Native Americans from the Anton Rygh, Mobridge, Larson and Leavenworth sites, inhabited the Great Plains of western North America (AD 1600-1832). The Arikara experienced climatic changes, warfare, interactions with novel groups of people and disease epidemics and therefore represent an opportunity to assess differential risk of death in a stressful context. The overarching question of this project is, in the historic context of environmental and social stresses, do these environmental and social stresses (as indicated by specific skeletal markers that occur during childhood) increase the risk of death from later infectious disease or warfare related trauma experienced in ...
An Analysis Of Skeletal Trauma Patterning Of Accidental And Intentional Injury, 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
An Analysis Of Skeletal Trauma Patterning Of Accidental And Intentional Injury, Shauna Lynn Mcnulty
The ability to determine the cause of skeletal trauma – i.e. an injury produced by blunt, sharp, or ballistic forces - is critical in assessing the manner of death. The purpose of this study is to examine the patterns of injury between known accidental and intentional trauma cases while considering demographics, fracture features, and the location of injuries in individuals of varying ages, sexes, and ancestries. The current literature has identified a pattern for intentional injuries that is focused on the head, neck, and face, while accidental trauma tends to be more dispersed throughout the skeleton with more injuries found in ...
The Impact Of Mycobacterium Leprae: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Of The Paleopathological Literature, 2016 Boise State University
The Impact Of Mycobacterium Leprae: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Of The Paleopathological Literature, Mallory Alexis Schreier
Boise State University Theses and Dissertations
Leprosy, caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis, is a chronic, infectious disease that eventually causes disfiguring skin lesions, nerve damage, and muscle weakness. Even though leprosy has been nearly eliminated in many parts of the world today, it remains endemic in India, Myanmar, Nepal, Brazil, and a few African countries. Unfortunately, this infectious disease is not limited to just modern populations. In the past, leprosy spread globally and was a pervasive, degenerating disease. The literature traces leprosy back to 1550 BCE although there is possible skeletal evidence of leprosy in Rajasthan, India from 2000 BCE, suggesting it ...
Commingled Tombs And Arcgis: Analyzing The Mortuary Context And Taphonomy At Bronze Age Tell Abraq, 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Commingled Tombs And Arcgis: Analyzing The Mortuary Context And Taphonomy At Bronze Age Tell Abraq, Maryann Calleja
UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones
The use of global positioning systems (GPS) and mapping software are commonplace in today’s archaeology. Artifacts and human remains can be plotted on maps and digitized immediately on sites allowing for instant analysis. Yet, the use of GPS in some locations may not be feasible due to natural or human-made terrain features such as canopy cover, densely built urban environments, caves, or other environments where satellite access may be limited. Additionally, prior to the widespread use of GPS, field archaeologists had to rely solely upon systematic, detailed notes and sketches. Such was the case at the Bronze Age tomb ...
Examination Of Age Estimation Of The Sternal Rib Ends In The Third And Fourth Left Ribs, 2016 University of Tennessee-Knoxville
Examination Of Age Estimation Of The Sternal Rib Ends In The Third And Fourth Left Ribs, Arleigh Jones
University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects
No abstract provided.
The Efficacy Of Carpal Bones In Sex Estimation Of American Whites, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
The Efficacy Of Carpal Bones In Sex Estimation Of American Whites, Ashleigh Watson
University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects
No abstract provided.
Recreating Richard Iii: The Power Of Tudor Propaganda, 2016 East Tennessee State University
Recreating Richard Iii: The Power Of Tudor Propaganda, Heather Alexander
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Because it signified the violent transition from the Plantagenet to Tudor dynasty, the death of King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth’s Field was a monumental event. After five centuries, his skeleton was rediscovered by an archaeological team at a site, formerly the location of the Greyfriars Priory Church. The presentation uses the forensic evidence to examine the extent to which the perceived image of Richard III is the result of Tudor propaganda.
Babies And Biomedicine: Knowledge System Negotiation In The Domain Of Infant Care, 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Babies And Biomedicine: Knowledge System Negotiation In The Domain Of Infant Care, Maisie Buntin
Theses and Dissertations
In 2011, the city of Milwaukee launched a controversial public service campaign intended to minimize infant deaths by highlighting the dangers of cosleeping. In Wisconsin, about 28% of mothers bedshare with their infants, with the highest rates among women of color, averaging about 40% (Wisconsin Department of Health Services 2014). These data suggest that multiple knowledge systems might exist in the domain of infant care. This thesis proposes that Milwaukee’s current campaign is based in biomedicine, the predominant knowledge system surrounding infant care. Yet, its target demographic (cosleeping families) may not subscribe as strictly to a biomedical system of ...
A Gnawing Problem: Does Rodent Incisor Microwear Record Diet Or Habitat?, 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
A Gnawing Problem: Does Rodent Incisor Microwear Record Diet Or Habitat?, Salvatore Samuel Caporale
Theses and Dissertations
Dental microwear has been shown to reflect food preferences and habitat in extant vertebrates, and its analysis has been applied to fossil assemblages to infer paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Such reconstructions are, of course, only as good as the extant baseline used to infer relationships between wear pattern and diet/habitat. This study tests, through dental microwear texture analysis, the potential of modern rodent lower incisors to reveal those relationships, and evaluates the extent to which effects of diet and habitat can be parsed from the signal. Microwear texture profiles were created for individual lower rodent incisors (n=430) using confocal ...
Accuracy Of Cut-Mark Analysis Databases Within Forensic Anthropology, 2016 Iowa State University
Accuracy Of Cut-Mark Analysis Databases Within Forensic Anthropology, Sydney L. Dighton, Whitney E. Graves
Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium
When it comes to trauma analysis, there are multiple databases and criteria used to determine weapons. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to determine whether or not the accuracy of these databases are precise enough to definitively determine which type of weapon is used. Five different tools were used, split into two different sections. The first were weapons used in stabbings: scalpels, pocket knife, and kitchen knife. The next section of weapons were those used in the dismembering of remains: an axe and machete. It is apparent that the identification of murder weapons is a clear link to the ...