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Biological and Physical Anthropology Commons

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Use Of Vertical Enclosure Space And Species-Typical Locomotion By A Rehabilitating Spider Monkey (Ateles Fusciceps), Jake Funkhouser 2017 Central Washington University

Use Of Vertical Enclosure Space And Species-Typical Locomotion By A Rehabilitating Spider Monkey (Ateles Fusciceps), Jake Funkhouser

Undergraduate Honors Theses

With wild spider monkey populations in decline, investigations contributing to captive welfare, and successful rehabilitation and reintroduction knowledge is increasingly pressing. Quantifying and analyzing the appropriateness of naturalistic enclosure designs to foster species-typical behaviors is an effective way to address both of these needs. This study investigates enclosure space use, vertical space preference, substrate use, positional/postural modes, and interactions with human caregivers of a wild-caught, pet-trade rehabilitant Columbian black spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris, N = 1). Video data collected daily from August to October 2015 via focal animal sampling (from 08:00 to 10:00) at Alouatta Sanctuary, Panama ...


Breast Milk Macronutrient Composition And Infant Growth In Rural West Africa, Margaret Gruca 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Breast Milk Macronutrient Composition And Infant Growth In Rural West Africa, Margaret Gruca

Anthropology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Infants in The Gambia often experience intense growth faltering within the first two years of life, which is strongly related to season of birth. The combined stress of caloric deprivation and intense physical labor during the wet season is energetically taxing on mothers and has been hypothesized to contribute to the differential individual short- and long-term outcomes dependent on season of birth. This study aims to assess different environmental, socioeconomic, and anthropometric variables associated with breast milk macronutrient composition and how these variables then affect infant growth outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that breast milk is relatively buffered from ...


Hips Don’T Lie: Implications For The Functional Morphology Of The Hip In Bioarchaeological Activity Reconstruction And The Evolution Of Hominin Locomotion, Austin B. Lawrence 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Hips Don’T Lie: Implications For The Functional Morphology Of The Hip In Bioarchaeological Activity Reconstruction And The Evolution Of Hominin Locomotion, Austin B. Lawrence

Undergraduate Honors Theses

For more than a century, the morphology of the femoral head-neck junction has been used as a tool to reconstruct activity in the archaeological record. More recently, the head-neck junction has become the focus of intense study in the clinical literature following the description of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), an injury common in athletes today. In this thesis, I present novel studies of the femoral head-neck junction and contribute to three areas of research.

First, I present a new analysis of activity in the Early Christian Period population of Kulubnarti, Nubia. In this study, I use Poirier’s facet and plaque ...


Healthy Aging In The North: Sociocultural Influences On Diet And Physical Activity Among Older Adults In Anchorage, Alaska, Britteny M. Howell 2017 University of Kentucky

Healthy Aging In The North: Sociocultural Influences On Diet And Physical Activity Among Older Adults In Anchorage, Alaska, Britteny M. Howell

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

Increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and related cardiovascular diseases among older adults in the United States present unique public health challenges. Cross-cultural research has shown marked variation in health across the world’s elder populations because aging is a biological process rooted in sociocultural context. The sociocultural environment contributes to complex negotiations of food and physical activity patterns for older adults. It is well established in the literature that urban residents report low levels of physical activity and have easy access to fast food outlets, which tend to be concentrated in lower-income neighborhoods. I utilize a biocultural framework, integrating nutritional ...


Nine Gal Tavern Faunal Analysis, Zachary T. Boyer 2017 Parkland College

Nine Gal Tavern Faunal Analysis, Zachary T. Boyer

A with Honors Projects

Over 400 pieces of bone and eggshell were collected during excavation at the Nine Gal Tavern site (11CH541) located in western Champaign County, Illinois in 1987 and 1991 by a team led by archaeologist Lenville Stelle (Stelle 2006). The majority of the remains analyzed were recovered within feature context in the immediate vicinity of the established Nine Gal Tavern structure. The purpose of this paper is to describe the identification of these faunal remains which are housed at the Anthropology Program at Parkland College. The identification of these remains was carried out as part of an Honors Project under the ...


A Comprehensive Case Report Of The University Of Montana Case 37, Cody M. Lawson 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

A Comprehensive Case Report Of The University Of Montana Case 37, Cody M. Lawson

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

In this professional paper I examine the human skeletal remains of one individual. The remains were analyzed to gain insight into the age, sex, ancestry, stature, weight, pathology, and trauma of the individual. Forensic anthropological methods were applied to UMFC 37. The remains of UMFC 37 represent a male, between the age of 40 and 60. He is likely a Caucasian. UMFC 37 is between 5 feet 6 inches and 5 feet 10 inches tall and weighs between 148 and 167 pounds.


Fertility And Reproduction's Niche: Human Sexual Diversity, Samuel w. Austin 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Fertility And Reproduction's Niche: Human Sexual Diversity, Samuel W. Austin

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Abstract: Biologically exploring the origins and forms of human sexuality is of paramount importance. Scientific research has indicated that homosexuality was linked to reproduction, fertility, and adaptive child caring strategies, traits that seem to display cross-cultural similarities. This suggests that sexual diversity may be one of human’s earliest adaptations. While most of the previous research has been on individuals of European descent, little research on Native American populations has been completed to test whether these patterns continue in their population.

The research presented here tests the Sexually Antagonistic Hypothesis for Male Homosexuality, Fraternal Birth Order Effect, and childhood atypical ...


Enrichment Use & Social Interactions In A Mixed-Species Enclosure Of Sumatran (Pongo Abelii) & Bornean Orangutans (P. Pygmaeus) & Northern White-Cheeked Gibbons (Nomascus Leucogenys), Emily Veitia 2017 Central Washington University

Enrichment Use & Social Interactions In A Mixed-Species Enclosure Of Sumatran (Pongo Abelii) & Bornean Orangutans (P. Pygmaeus) & Northern White-Cheeked Gibbons (Nomascus Leucogenys), Emily Veitia

All Master's Theses

Enrichment is an aspect of captive husbandry that has been shown to positively impact animals’ well-being and can be designed to encourage species-typical behaviors, such as foraging and arboreality. Enrichment can include housing together multiple compatible species. Orangutans are sympatric with siamangs and agile and Bornean gibbons, so several zoos house these four Asian ape species in the same enclosure, in part, as social enrichment. In my study, I observed enrichment use and social interactions in a mixed-species enclosure at the Oregon Zoo, which housed two Sumatran (Pongo abelii) and two Bornean (P. pygmaeus) orangutans with two Northern white-cheeked gibbons ...


Collective Decision Making In Tibetan Macaques: How Followers Affect The Rules And Efficiency Of Group Movement, Amanda Rowe 2017 Central Washington University

Collective Decision Making In Tibetan Macaques: How Followers Affect The Rules And Efficiency Of Group Movement, Amanda Rowe

All Master's Theses

Primate societies must undergo successful collective decision making during group movement to stay cohesive and provide the ecological and evolutionary benefits of sociality. This study investigates how a fan structure facilitates successful group movement in the YA1 group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan National Reserve in Anhui, China. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine the relative influences of sex, age, maternal kinship, dominance, and social network centrality on the number of fans (consistent followers) an individual had, and the number of group members an individual was a fan of (fandom). SEM revealed that dominant females ...


Mitochondrial-Dna Phylogenetic Information And The Reconstruction Of Human Population History: The South American Case, María Bárbara Postillone, S. Ivan Perez 2017 Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Antropológicas, Universidad Maimonides, CEBBAD, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Mitochondrial-Dna Phylogenetic Information And The Reconstruction Of Human Population History: The South American Case, María Bárbara Postillone, S. Ivan Perez

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Objectives: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are becoming increasingly important in the study of human population history. Here, we explore the differences in the amount of information of different mtDNA regions and their utility for the reconstruction of South American population history.

Material and methods: We analyzed six datasets comprising 259 mtDNA sequences from South America: Complete mtDNA, Coding, Control, hypervariable region I (HVRI), cytochrome b (cytb) plus Control, and cytb plus 12S plus 16S. The amount of information in each dataset was estimated employing several site-by-site and haplotype based statistics, distances among sequences, Neighbor-joining trees, distances among the estimated trees ...


The Effect Of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (Pcos) On The Human Skeleton, Sarah Bruckler 2017 Eastern Michigan University

The Effect Of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (Pcos) On The Human Skeleton, Sarah Bruckler

Senior Honors Theses

The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the systemic effects of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) on bone mineral density (BMD). Excessive male sex honnones, excessive insulin levels, and weight gain characterize PCOS, and are correlated to increased BMD. PCOS is also associated with symptoms and comorbid conditions, like chronic vitamin D deficiency, menstrual dysfunction, and hypothyroidism, which are all correlated with decreased BMD. Existing research on this topic reports conflicting results; some studies show a significant correlation between PCOS and increased BMD, while others suggest that no significant correlation exists. These previous studies focused on load-bearing areas of ...


Ancient Dna Extraction From Stone Tools, Clare Super 2017 University of Montana

Ancient Dna Extraction From Stone Tools, Clare Super

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Proteins and DNA can be trapped in the microcracks on the surface of stone tools, which can then be extracted and analyzed to aid in inferring the use of the tool (Shanks et al. 2001; 2005). This nondestructive method involves the use of sonication to release DNA from the microcracks, then amplification of regions of mitochondrial DNA that are species specific. This technique was applied to stone tools from the Bridge River site in British Columbia by researchers at UMT’s Ancient and Modern Molecular Anthropology labs. Bridge River archaeologists have designated the tools as used in “food processing or ...


Chimpanzees In The Island Of Gold: Impacts Of Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining On Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) In Fongoli, Senegal, Kelly Morgan Boyer Ontl 2017 Iowa State University

Chimpanzees In The Island Of Gold: Impacts Of Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining On Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) In Fongoli, Senegal, Kelly Morgan Boyer Ontl

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite its historical and global pervasiveness, little quantitative research has been conducted on artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) and terrestrial wildlife. Using an ethnoprimatological approach, this body of work evaluates the impacts of anthropogenic activity associated with ASGM on a community of savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in a complex and coupled human and natural system. Research was conducted in Senegal where the recent intensification of ASGM has increased the local human population, polluted, and degraded the environment, and threatens the habitat of critically endangered West African savanna chimpanzees. To quantify the impacts of ASGM, we analyzed 10 years ...


The Index Of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature From The Lone Star State, Robert Z. Selden Jr., C. Britt Bousman 2017 Center for Regional Heritage Research, Stephen F. Austin State University

The Index Of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature From The Lone Star State, Robert Z. Selden Jr., C. Britt Bousman

CRHR: Archaeology

Cultural resources management (CRM) reports represent a rapidly growing proportion of our knowledge associated with archaeological undertakings in the United States. Historically, these reports were printed in limited numbers and distributed to a few libraries and individuals, and few were distributed beyond the political boundaries of any given state. Libraries on the distribution list are reticent to allow patrons to check out these reports due to the fact that they have—and will only ever have—a single copy. Late in 2009, the Texas Historical Commission (THC) permitting guidelines for CRM reports were updated, requiring CRM contractors to submit a ...


Occam's Razor Vol. 7 - Full (2017), 2017 Western Washington University

Occam's Razor Vol. 7 - Full (2017)

Occam's Razor

No abstract provided.


Changes In Male Hunting Returns, Raymond B. Hames 2016 Universit of Nebraska Lincoln

Changes In Male Hunting Returns, Raymond B. Hames

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Research on changes in male hunting among hunter-gatherers addresses two important issues in early human evolution: the nature of the family and trade-offs in mating and parenting effort as well as the development of embodied capital. In the hunter-gatherer literature, there is a debate about the function of male hunting that has implications for understanding the role males play in the evolution of the pair bond. The traditional model argues that male hunting and other economic activities are forms of male provisioning or parenting effort designed to enhance a man’s fitness through his wife’s reproduction and the survivorship ...


The Accuracy Of Tibial Nutrient Foramen Vs Midshaft Measurement Location For Sex Determination, Ashley C. Dafoe 2016 University of Wyoming

The Accuracy Of Tibial Nutrient Foramen Vs Midshaft Measurement Location For Sex Determination, Ashley C. Dafoe

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Recently, standard measurements for the Forensic Databank have been changed to measure the diameters of the tibia at the midshaft, rather than at the nutrient foramen. This change may be predicated on intra-person variation in nutrient foramen location and inaccuracy of inter-observer measurement location.

This examination assesses the accuracy of determining sex from the two measuring locations - is there a significant advantage to using measurements collected at the midshaft instead of or in addition to nutrient foramen based measurements?

Tibial measurements of 400 individuals were collected from the Robert Terry Anatomical Skeletal Collection following the standard osteometric protocols. Data were ...


Sexual Determination From Frontal Sinus Analysis In A Subadult Population Using Archival Radiographic Records, Erica Crosta 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Sexual Determination From Frontal Sinus Analysis In A Subadult Population Using Archival Radiographic Records, Erica Crosta

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The goal of this study is to use the improved imaging capability of cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) to investigate the development and sexual dimorphism of the frontal sinus and surrounding supraorbital region in the subadult population of urban Southern Nevada. CBCT radiographs were obtained from the UNLV School of Dental Medicine archival dental records. Five hundred and fifty six of these radiographs were reviewed for the study. Two hundred and sixteen patients (92 males, 124 females) between the ages of 7 and 20 years were included based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Samples were categorized into 3 subadult age groups for ...


A Characterization Of Human Burial Signatures Using Spectroscopy And Lidar, Katie Ann Corcoran 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Characterization Of Human Burial Signatures Using Spectroscopy And Lidar, Katie Ann Corcoran

Doctoral Dissertations

This study is an analysis of terrestrial remote sensing data sets collected at the University of Tennessee’s Anthropology Research Facility (ARF). The objective is to characterize human burial signatures using spectroscopy and laser scanning technologies. The development of remote human burial detection methodologies depends on basic research to establish signatures that inform forensic investigations. This dissertation provides recommendations for future research on remote sensing of human burials, and for investigators who wish to apply these technologies to case work.

Data used in this study include terrestrial spectra, aerial hyperspectral imagery, satellite multispectral imagery, terrestrial light detection and ranging (LIDAR ...


A Morphometric Examination Of Cranial Vault Modification In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Central Tennessee, Gregory James Wehrman 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Morphometric Examination Of Cranial Vault Modification In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Central Tennessee, Gregory James Wehrman

Masters Theses

Cranial vault modification (CVM) is a physical manifestation of intersections between culture and biology. Cultural practices that apply pressure to the head during infancy result in significant reshaping of the skull and can be either intentional or unintentional. Occipital flattening is present among many Mississippian skeletal samples from the Middle Cumberland Region (MCR) of central Tennessee and is thought to be an unintentional result of childcare practices. Traditional methods for CVM classification have concentrated on visual assessment of location and means of flattening; however, this method is subjective. This thesis seeks to evaluate visual assessment of CVM through a morphometric ...


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