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Assessing The Precision Of Cranial And Mandibular Morphoscopic Traits From 3d Surface Scans, Sarah Thomas Schwing 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Assessing The Precision Of Cranial And Mandibular Morphoscopic Traits From 3d Surface Scans, Sarah Thomas Schwing

Masters Theses

Virtual anthropological (VA) methods have been successfully used to capture metric data in the form of standard caliper measurements as well as volumetric data from various human skeletal elements. Virtual anthropological investigations of morphoscopic traits have increased over the past two decades, however, greater attention has been paid to investigations of metric data and to the use of CT technologies. Few studies have focused on morphoscopic data and fewer have employed 3D surface scans in data collection. Morphoscopic VA studies largely pertain to age estimation using the os coxa; fewer pertain to sex estimation and, to the author’s knowledge, no …


The Genetic Links Between Archaic And Modern Humans, Maria J. Orellana Rosales 2021 Southern Maine Community College

The Genetic Links Between Archaic And Modern Humans, Maria J. Orellana Rosales

Thinking Matters Symposium

Our modern physiology is the mixture of many archaic humans that once roamed our planet. The evidence of these archaic humans is still present in our DNA. This poster reviews how our understanding of ancient human genetics has drastically changed due to advances in molecular genetics. Neanderthal and Denisovan remains have been sequenced for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Neanderthal and Denisovan genetic ancestry have been identified by genomic studies in modern human populations across Eurasia and Pacific Island regions. Studies have shown a gene flow of 4±1% from Neanderthals to present-day Eurasians. Whereas, Papuan and Melanesian individuals share 4±0.7% more …


The Role Of Culture In Sustainable Communities: The Case Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Pamela A. Mischen, Carl P. Lipo 2021 Binghamton University--SUNY

The Role Of Culture In Sustainable Communities: The Case Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Pamela A. Mischen, Carl P. Lipo

Anthropology Datasets

We explore how the combination of cultural heritage and present-day cultural affili- ations influences the construction of the concept of sustainability at the scale of the community using the case study of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile). We argue that overlapping affiliations—expressed through administrative culture, organizational culture, and professional culture—influence the views held by governance leaders. Furthermore, the role of cultural heritage must be considered in efforts to change and perpetuate sustainability-related behaviors within a community. Using archeo- logical and historical evidence from the pre-contact and historical record of Rapa Nui, we discuss how cultural heritage evolved endogenously in response …


Sampling Strategy For The Genetic Analysis Of Human Remains From Tepe Hissar, Payton F. Puerzer 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Sampling Strategy For The Genetic Analysis Of Human Remains From Tepe Hissar, Payton F. Puerzer

Anthropology Senior Theses

Genetic testing has become a critical tool for the examination of ancient human remains. Earlier methods relied exclusively on observations and measurements. DNA analysis can date skeletal remains using radiocarbon dating, identify the sex of the individual, and determine the mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups can be further used to understand kinship, burial practices, and other information about the civilization. For this study, I created a sampling strategy for the genetic analysis of a collection of 397 skeletons excavated during the 1930’s from an Iranian Bronze Age site called Tepe Hissar. DNA analysis can be cost …


Dental Disparities: A Quantitative & Regional Analysis Of Male Oral Health In The United States, Hannah Merritt, Gordon Rakita 2021 University of North Florida

Dental Disparities: A Quantitative & Regional Analysis Of Male Oral Health In The United States, Hannah Merritt, Gordon Rakita

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Project of Merit Winner

Multiple factors contribute to the oral health of male individuals in the United States, including economic, regional, and gender disparities. My study compares health care coverage and poverty rates to indicators of oral health status and dental care access such as percentage of tooth lost, number of dental visits, and oral health services at federally qualified health centers. This oral health data is drawn from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention across all fifty states in the year 2018 and from the United States Census. By examining this data, I will be able to answer …


Embodied Injustices: Covid-19, Race, And Epigenetics, Maria Encinosa 2021 University of North Florida

Embodied Injustices: Covid-19, Race, And Epigenetics, Maria Encinosa

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Digital Projects Showcase Exhibitor Award Although historical and even modern accounts of race assume significant biological differences between racial groups, race has little biological meaning. Nonetheless, the social construct of race has real consequences. Racial identity defines boundaries of community and impacts the experiences of individuals, including how people live and die during a pandemic. COVID-19 has disproportionately affected minority communities in the United States, triggering many explanations for racial disparities in health. Through an analysis of sources spanning from popular media to traditional academic journals, I analyze the potential for epigenetic research to serve as a missing link that …


The Bioarchaeology Of The Lake St. Agnes Mound (16av26) Site: Exploring Diet From Fragmentary Remains, Kenneth Tremblay 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Bioarchaeology Of The Lake St. Agnes Mound (16av26) Site: Exploring Diet From Fragmentary Remains, Kenneth Tremblay

LSU Master's Theses

The Lake St. Agnes Mound (16AV26) site, located in central Louisiana, is composed of two, temporally distinct burial components; one, a Coles Creek period component, at the base of the mound (~780-880 CE), and the other, a Plaquemine subperiod component, at its apex (~1400 CE). These burials, though heavily fragmented, commingled, and representing small sample sizes, are valuable for studying the transition to agriculture in the Lower Mississippi River Valley. It is now clear that for the Coles Creek period, maize was likely only a ceremonial crop rather than a staple food source (Kidder, 1993; Listi, 2011). The reliance on …


Using The Seventh Rib Length And Depth Measurements As A Method To Estimate Ancestry And Sex In Adults, Alexandria M. Amaki 2021 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Using The Seventh Rib Length And Depth Measurements As A Method To Estimate Ancestry And Sex In Adults, Alexandria M. Amaki

LSU Master's Theses

This study tested the correlation of dimensions of the left seventh rib (L7) to ancestry and sex in adult humans. The first hypothesis, based on Bergmann’s theory, is that Black (African-American) individuals will have smaller L7 dimensions than White individuals (Americans of primarily European descent). The second hypothesis is that males, due to sexual dimorphism, will have larger ribs than females. 299 individuals from the Hamann-Todd Skeletal Collection were used in the study, approximately evenly distributed among sex and ancestry groups. Five variables were examined, including three measurements (length, width, and width point), and two calculations (area and ratio). A …


Was Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Subject To Sexual Selection Pressures? A Life Course Approach, Carolyn R. Hodges-Simeon, Graham Albert, George B. Richardson, Timothy S. McHale, Seth M. Weinberg, Michael Gurven, Steven J.C. Gaulin 2021 Boston University

Was Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Subject To Sexual Selection Pressures? A Life Course Approach, Carolyn R. Hodges-Simeon, Graham Albert, George B. Richardson, Timothy S. Mchale, Seth M. Weinberg, Michael Gurven, Steven J.C. Gaulin

Anthropology and Museum Studies Faculty Scholarship

Sexual selection researchers have traditionally focused on adult sex differences; however, the schedule and pattern of sex-specific ontogeny can provide insights unobtainable from an exclusive focus on adults. Recently, it has been debated whether facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR; bi-zygomatic breadth divided by midface height) is a human secondary sexual characteristic (SSC). Here, we review current evidence, then address this debate using ontogenetic evidence, which has been under-explored in fWHR research. Facial measurements were collected from 3D surface images of males and females aged 3 to 40 (Study 1; US European-descent, n = 2449), and from 2D photographs of males and …


Health Disparities Between Women And Men In Medieval Europe: A Bioarcheological Study Of Gender Roles, Ella Uren 2021 Northern Michigan University

Health Disparities Between Women And Men In Medieval Europe: A Bioarcheological Study Of Gender Roles, Ella Uren

Conspectus Borealis

No abstract provided.


Social Stratification & Mummification In Ancient Egypt: The Inevitability Of Variability In The Post-New Kingdom Mummification Program, Andrew Arsenault 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Social Stratification & Mummification In Ancient Egypt: The Inevitability Of Variability In The Post-New Kingdom Mummification Program, Andrew Arsenault

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study examined the connection between social status and mummification in post-New Kingdom Egypt using a sample of sixty-one (n=61) adult non-royal Egyptian human mummies archived in the IMPACT radiological database. The purpose of this research was two-fold. First, as they have been uncritically accepted by both the academic community and popular literature, the validity of Classical mummification accounts offered by Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus was assessed. Second, four features of mummification with status connotations (arm position, amulets, cranial resin, estimated stature) were tested using exploratory data analysis in search of any potential connections with each other or specific time …


Very Low Prevalence And Incidence Of Atrial Fibrillation Among Bolivian Forager-Farmers, Christopher J. Rowan, Michael A. Eskander, Edmond Seabright, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Edhitt Cortez Linares, Raul Quispe Gutierrez, Juan Copajira Adrian, Daniel Cummings, Bret Beheim, Kirsten Tolstrup, Abinash Achrekar, Thomas Kraft, David E. Michalik, Michael I. Miyamoto, Adel H. Allam, L. Samuel Wann, Jagat Narula, Benjamin C. Trumble, Jonathan Stieglitz, Randall C. Thompson, Gregory S. Thomas, Hillard S. Kaplan, Michael D. Gurven 2021 Renown Institute for Heart and Vascular Health

Very Low Prevalence And Incidence Of Atrial Fibrillation Among Bolivian Forager-Farmers, Christopher J. Rowan, Michael A. Eskander, Edmond Seabright, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Edhitt Cortez Linares, Raul Quispe Gutierrez, Juan Copajira Adrian, Daniel Cummings, Bret Beheim, Kirsten Tolstrup, Abinash Achrekar, Thomas Kraft, David E. Michalik, Michael I. Miyamoto, Adel H. Allam, L. Samuel Wann, Jagat Narula, Benjamin C. Trumble, Jonathan Stieglitz, Randall C. Thompson, Gregory S. Thomas, Hillard S. Kaplan, Michael D. Gurven

ESI Publications

Background: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in post-industrialized populations. Older age, hypertension, obesity, chronic inflammation, and diabetes are significant atrial fibrillation risk factors, suggesting that modern urban environments may promote atrial fibrillation.

Objective: Here we assess atrial fibrillation prevalence and incidence among tropical horticulturalists of the Bolivian Amazon with high levels of physical activity, a lean diet, and minimal coronary atherosclerosis, but also high infectious disease burden and associated inflammation.

Methods: Between 2005–2019, 1314 Tsimane aged 40–94 years (52% female) and 534 Moseten Amerindians aged 40–89 years (50% female) underwent resting 12-lead electrocardiograms to assess atrial fibrillation prevalence. …


Ancient Egyptian Subadult Mummies: Unwrapping Childhood In The Ancient Past, Jillian A. Graves 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Ancient Egyptian Subadult Mummies: Unwrapping Childhood In The Ancient Past, Jillian A. Graves

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study documents the analysis of 21 subadult Ancient Egyptian mummies, spanning from the New Kingdom to the Roman Period, held on the Internet Mummy Picture Archiving and Communication Technology (IMPACT) database (Nelson & Wade, 2015), as well as a single first-hand osteobiographical analysis (Appendix A). The primary objective of this research is to determine if subadult Ancient Egyptian mummies were treated differently than their adult counterparts, paying specific attention to the potential for marked life history stages within subadulthood, as well as any temporal trends that may be observed. It was previously suggested that head positioning in the Graeco/Roman …


Lessons From Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) For Governance In Conditions Of Environmental Uncertainty, Carl P. Lipo, Pamela A. Mischen, Terry L. Hunt 2021 Binghamton University--SUNY

Lessons From Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) For Governance In Conditions Of Environmental Uncertainty, Carl P. Lipo, Pamela A. Mischen, Terry L. Hunt

Anthropology Datasets

No abstract provided.


Ant-3700 - Introduction To Anthropology, Igor Pashkovskiy 2021 CUNY Kingsborough Community College

Ant-3700 - Introduction To Anthropology, Igor Pashkovskiy

Open Educational Resources

Movement away from the textbook model has potential to foster equitable access to course materials as well as reduce textbook costs for students. As such, transition to a zero cost/OER classroom included the curation of open access scholarly literature to cover the four-field approach presently taught in introductory anthropology courses.


Colobinae Evolution: Using Gis To Map The Distribution Of Leaf Monkeys Across Southeast Asia Over Time, Marie Vergamini, Christina McGrath, Lisa M. Day 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Colobinae Evolution: Using Gis To Map The Distribution Of Leaf Monkeys Across Southeast Asia Over Time, Marie Vergamini, Christina Mcgrath, Lisa M. Day

Graduate Research Posters

The Colobinae, or leaf monkeys, are distributed geographically across Africa and Asia. Colobinae are specialized arborealists and leaf eaters with sacculated stomachs, sheering teeth, reduced thumbs, and very mobile shoulders. Colobinae diverged ~10.9 million year ago (Ma) from the Cercopithecidae in Africa, and Asian colobines appear in the fossil record in the late Miocene ~8.5 Ma. However, an incomplete fossil record means little is known about the evolutionary pressures that led to Asian colobine migration and diversification. Here, we use recent fossil discoveries and geospatial information to develop hypotheses about how geographic barriers played direct roles in Asian colobine evolution. …


West Mesa Murders Informational Website, Olivia Jackman, Lauren Hunter 2021 University of New Hampshire

West Mesa Murders Informational Website, Olivia Jackman, Lauren Hunter

Spectrum

No abstract provided.


Considerations For Post-Processing Parameters In Mixed-Method 3d Analyses: A Mesolithic Mandibular Case Study, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Lauren N. Butaric, Kersten Bergstrom, Dennis Van Gerven 2021 Heritage Research Center, Stephen F. Austin State University

Considerations For Post-Processing Parameters In Mixed-Method 3d Analyses: A Mesolithic Mandibular Case Study, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Lauren N. Butaric, Kersten Bergstrom, Dennis Van Gerven

CRHR: Archaeology

The production of three-dimensional (3D) digital meshes of surface and computed tomographic (CT) data has become widespread in morphometric analyses of anthropological and archaeological data. Given that processing methods are not standardized, this leaves questions regarding the comparability of processed and digitally curated 3D datasets. The goal of this study was to identify those processing parameters that result in the most consistent fit between CT-derived meshes and a 3D surface model of the same human mandible. Eight meshes, each using unique thresholding and smoothing parameters, were compared to assess whole-object deviations, deviations along curves, and deviations between specific anatomical features …


Biocultural Evidence Of Precise Manual Activities In An Early Holocene Individual Of The High-Altitude Peruvian Andes, Fotios Alexandros Karakostis, Hugo Reyes-Centeno, Michael Franken, Gerhard Hotz, Kurt Rademaker, Katerina Harvati 2021 University of Tübingen, Germany

Biocultural Evidence Of Precise Manual Activities In An Early Holocene Individual Of The High-Altitude Peruvian Andes, Fotios Alexandros Karakostis, Hugo Reyes-Centeno, Michael Franken, Gerhard Hotz, Kurt Rademaker, Katerina Harvati

Anthropology Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES: Cuncaicha, a rockshelter site in the southern Peruvian Andes, has yielded archaeological evidence for human occupation at high elevation (4,480 masl) during the Terminal Pleistocene (12,500–11,200 cal BP), Early Holocene (9,500–9,000 cal BP), and later periods. One of the excavated human burials (Feature 15‐06), corresponding to a middle‐aged female dated to ~8,500 cal BP, exhibits skeletal osteoarthritic lesions previously proposed to reflect habitual loading and specialized crafting labor. Three small tools found in association with this burial are hypothesized to be associated with precise manual dexterity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we tested this functional hypothesis through the application of …


Documenting Outdoor Simulated Scenes With Photogrammetry: Methods For Improving Dappled Lighting Conditions, Caroline Jasiak 2021 University of Central Florida

Documenting Outdoor Simulated Scenes With Photogrammetry: Methods For Improving Dappled Lighting Conditions, Caroline Jasiak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

The primary goal of a forensic archaeologist is to reconstruct the context of scenes involving skeletal remains using recording and mapping methods. However, the outdoor locations of most forensic archaeology scenes can result in difficulties when recording and mapping scenes. While close-range photogrammetry (CRP) has been considered for documenting context of forensic sciences, this method lacks a sufficient procedural basis to guide data recording when encountering problematic environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to test how light correction tools, a sheet and artificial lights, could improve harsh lighting conditions. Photographs were taken of controlled scenes with skeletal remains …


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