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Biological and Physical Anthropology Commons

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Reduced Immune Investment With Energy Stress: Evidence From A Mouse Model And Human Studies, Alaina L. Schneider 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Reduced Immune Investment With Energy Stress: Evidence From A Mouse Model And Human Studies, Alaina L. Schneider

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

During periods of energy stress, animals will prioritize and allocate energy from non-essential to essential tasks. Using a mouse model and published human data, we found that during periods of energy stress, energy is allocated away from immune function, and is prioritized for physical activity usage.


Sexual Dimorphism In The Femur And Pelvis Of Cebus Apella With A Randomization Experiment Examining Sample Size In The Fossil Record, Ryan P. Schaars 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Sexual Dimorphism In The Femur And Pelvis Of Cebus Apella With A Randomization Experiment Examining Sample Size In The Fossil Record, Ryan P. Schaars

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Measures of sexual dimorphism for six skeletal traits of the femur and pelvis of Cebus apella were calculated for 18 individuals to better understand primate skeletal dimorphism. A randomization experiment was also conducted on the measures of sexual dimorphism to examine sample size in the primate fossil record.


Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ecological niche modeling investigates how climatic variables have influenced taxonomic diversity in Papio. Models performed well suggesting climatic variables influence the distribution of baboon species. Niche overlap among all possible pairs of taxa determined that species exhibited significantly different niches. The results of these models support a parapatric speciation scenario.


Who Are The Apistoi? Symbolic Boundaries And Anthropological Language In 2 Cor 6:14-7:1, Nii Addo Kobina Abrahams 2017 Missouri State University

Who Are The Apistoi? Symbolic Boundaries And Anthropological Language In 2 Cor 6:14-7:1, Nii Addo Kobina Abrahams

MSU Graduate Theses

Joseph A. Fitzmyer’s “Qumran and the Interpolated Paragraph in 2 Cor 6:14-7:1,” originally published in 1961, argued that 2 Cor 6:14-7:1 was an interpolation from an undiscovered Qumran text. Fitzmyer’s thesis was the prevailing scholarly opinion for over a decade, and while several counter-arguments have convincingly challenged Fitzmyer’s theory, scholars are still hard-pressed to explain how the passage fits into its context. Not only does 6:14-7:1 seem to lack any organic connection to the verses immediately prior or following, but it also contains unique vocabulary and what seems to be uncharacteristic ...


Geographic Information Systems (Gis) And Predictive Modeling Of Body Disposal Sites, Annemarie Catherine Gundel 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Geographic Information Systems (Gis) And Predictive Modeling Of Body Disposal Sites, Annemarie Catherine Gundel

Masters Theses

Homicide victims are often discovered by accident or located through witness testimony, both of which are unreliable methods. Moving a victim’s body from the scene of the crime to a secondary disposal site may further complicate their discovery, delaying recovery, identification, and evidence collection. Homicides are exponentially more difficult to investigate, solve, and prosecute without a body. In the medicolegal context, a body disposal site prediction model is an alternative to relying on luck or witness testimony. Predictive models were created using body disposal data collected from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME), Connecticut, to explore the ...


The Effects Of Racialization On European American Stress In The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries, Kimberly T. Wren 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Effects Of Racialization On European American Stress In The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries, Kimberly T. Wren

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores disparities in stress among European Americans (EA) and between EA and African Americans (AA) in racialized communities in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Comparisons among EA and between EA and AA are conducted to understand the biological consequences of racialization. Racialization is the process of assigning people to hierarchical categories for purposes of political, social, and economic discrimination. This dissertation investigates how racialization might have affected childhood stress using biocultural theory and facets of critical archaeology theory. Indicators of stress from skeletonized individuals in the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection, Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection, and the Robert ...


An Exploration Of The Effects Of Taphonomy On Isotope Ratios Of Human Hair, Tiffany Bivens Saul 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

An Exploration Of The Effects Of Taphonomy On Isotope Ratios Of Human Hair, Tiffany Bivens Saul

Doctoral Dissertations

Isotope analyses of human remains have been conducted with growing frequency over the past thirty years in anthropology, in both archaeological and forensic contexts. Analyses of isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and strontium from teeth, bones, and hair have provided information regarding individual diet and geographic movement during different life stages. Hair grows at a predictable rate and provides a serial recording of diet and travel history for the weeks and months just prior to death. What has not been systematically studied is whether postmortem decompositional changes to the body have an effect upon isotope ...


Estimating Postmortem Intervals Of Human Remains Recovered In Mid-Western Waterways: A Test Of Terrestrial And Aquatic Body Scoring Methods, Amanda Rose Fink 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Estimating Postmortem Intervals Of Human Remains Recovered In Mid-Western Waterways: A Test Of Terrestrial And Aquatic Body Scoring Methods, Amanda Rose Fink

Masters Theses

In attempt to determine postmortem intervals (PMI), forensic investigators often rely on observed amounts of postmortem taphonomic alterations of the human body. Research has been conducted in an attempt to understand and predict the sequence and rate of human decomposition using total body scoring methods as well as accumulated degree days (ADD) (Megyesi et al. 2005). While most research focuses on methods of decomposition scoring in terrestrial environments, Heaton et al. (2010) devised a method to aid in the prediction of PMI and postmortem submersion intervals (PMSI) in an aqueous environment. Using 73 forensic cases collected from the Hennepin County ...


Dental Microwear Textures Of Paranthropus Robustus From Kromdraai, Drimolen, And An Enlarged Sample From Swartkrans: Ecological And Intraspecific Variation, Alexandria Sachiko Peterson 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dental Microwear Textures Of Paranthropus Robustus From Kromdraai, Drimolen, And An Enlarged Sample From Swartkrans: Ecological And Intraspecific Variation, Alexandria Sachiko Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

The original microwear texture baseline for South African hominins was done by Scott et al. (2005) and concluded that Paranthropus robustus exhibited higher complexity values (Asfc) that are seen in occasional hard object feeders. Australopithecus africanus has higher anisotropy values (epLsar) consistent with consuming tough objects. This study expands upon this baseline by increasing the sample size from n = 9 for P. robustus and n = 10 for Au. africanus to n = 66 and n = 44, respectively. Additionally, this study incorporates multiple different sites and deposits. The P. robustus sample includes Drimolen, Kromdraai, and an expanded sample from Swartkrans, incorporating samples ...


Diet Of The Prehistoric Population Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) Shows Environmental Adaptation And Resilience, Catrine L. Jarmine, Thomas Larsen, Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp 2017 University of Bristol

Diet Of The Prehistoric Population Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) Shows Environmental Adaptation And Resilience, Catrine L. Jarmine, Thomas Larsen, Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Objectives: The Rapa Nui “ecocide” narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources.

Materials and methods: Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analy- ses and amino acid ...


Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse 2017 Seattle Pacific University

Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse

Honors Projects

A major portion of humans’ activity-based energy expenditure is taken up by locomotion, particularly walking. Humans can offset the energetic expenditure of walking in numerous ways, both evolutionary (such as changes in body shape) and culturally. Behaviorally, people can choose to walk in a variety of ways, including alone or with a group, carrying loads, and walking quickly or more slowly. All of these behaviors have energetic outcomes and as such can be important windows into how populations and groups adjust to different constraints. While sex differences in speed of paired walkers have been established by others, the dynamics of ...


In Situ 2017: University Of Pennsylvania Undergraduate Research Journal, Samantha Sharon Ashok, Ivana Kohut, Jessie Lu, Emma McNamara, Arielle Mae Pierson 2017 University of Pennsylvania

In Situ 2017: University Of Pennsylvania Undergraduate Research Journal, Samantha Sharon Ashok, Ivana Kohut, Jessie Lu, Emma Mcnamara, Arielle Mae Pierson

In Situ

No abstract provided.


Bivalve Stories And Snail Tales: Reconstructing The Late Archaic Environment At The Tomoka Complex, Northeast Florida, Steven R. England 2017 Eastern Kentucky University

Bivalve Stories And Snail Tales: Reconstructing The Late Archaic Environment At The Tomoka Complex, Northeast Florida, Steven R. England

Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Mollusks inhabit specific ecological niches and can be used as proxies for past environmental conditions. Changes in the composition of molluscan assemblages register changing ecological conditions and offer an opportunity to examine human responses to environmental change. This paper presents the preliminary analysis molluscan species from the Late Archaic Tomoka Complex in Northeast Florida. Changes in the species composition and frequency of mollusks coupled with the available radiometric assays are used to reconstruct the environmental conditions during the occupation of the Tomoka Complex and, importantly, the environmental conditions attending Late Archaic mortuary mound construction.


Coexistence Of Confamilial, Folivorous Indriids, Propithecus Diadema And Indri Indri, At Betampona Strict Nature Reserve, Madagascar, Lana Kerker Oliver 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Coexistence Of Confamilial, Folivorous Indriids, Propithecus Diadema And Indri Indri, At Betampona Strict Nature Reserve, Madagascar, Lana Kerker Oliver

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I examine how two confamilial and ecologically similar indriids, indri (Indri indri), and diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) maintain coexistence in Betampona Nature Reserve (BNR), an eastern lowland rainforest in Madagascar. These two species occur sympatrically throughout much of their species ranges and are similarly-sized folivorous primates. As anatomic folivores, they present an opportunity to investigate how niche differentiation and resource partitioning allow two sympatric primate species with similar feeding patterns to coexist. I examined coexistence strategies and the general behavioral ecology of each species by examining their activity patterns, dietary profiles, home range use, and daily path ...


Population Genomics Of A Baboon Hybrid Zone In Zambia, Kenneth Lyu Chiou 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Population Genomics Of A Baboon Hybrid Zone In Zambia, Kenneth Lyu Chiou

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hybridization is increasingly recognized as a common, important process shaping the evolution of organisms including humans. Across hybrid zones, the genomes of incipient species are mixed and recombined through hybridization and backcrossing, creating conditions ideal for evaluating the actions of natural selection on gene variants in novel genomic contexts. This dissertation aims to increase our understanding of hybridization using a Zambian baboon study system in which two species, Kinda baboons (Papio kindae) and grayfoot baboons (Papio griseipes), hybridize despite exhibiting pronounced differences in body size and behavior. Using genome-wide genotypic data prepared using double-digest RADseq, I scan for genomic regions ...


European Bog Bodies: From The Iron Age Peat Bog To The 21st Century, Samantha E. Brown 2017 University of Wyoming

European Bog Bodies: From The Iron Age Peat Bog To The 21st Century, Samantha E. Brown

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Well preserved bodies dating from the prehistoric era to the 19th century have been found across northwestern Europe; specifically, in the peat bogs of Ireland, Great Britain and Denmark. These discoveries were especially prevalent in the late 19th and early 20th centuries when mass peat extraction was at its height. Many of these finds have been dated to the Iron Age and have previously been attributed to patterns of ritual violence. This paper focuses on three finds from the Iron Age: Graubelle man, Tollund man, and the Weerdinge couple.

This project intends to exhibit the types of ...


Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).


The Saints Peter And Paul Parish And The Milwaukee County Poor Farm: A Comparative Osteological Analysis Between Two Historic Cemeteries In Wisconsin, David Michael Strange 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

The Saints Peter And Paul Parish And The Milwaukee County Poor Farm: A Comparative Osteological Analysis Between Two Historic Cemeteries In Wisconsin, David Michael Strange

Theses and Dissertations

The constituents of the Saints Peter and Paul Parish of Independence, Wisconsin contracted Commonwealth Heritage Group in 2015 to excavate and analyze 108 individuals located in an unmarked portion of the parish cemetery during a large church renovation project. This thesis is an osteological analysis of the excavated cemetery population, providing an estimated age, sex, and pathological profile of the individuals interred therein. In addition, a comparative analysis is conducted between subadult segments of the Ss. Peter and Paul Parish sample and the Milwaukee County Poor Farm Cemetery located in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin. The parameters of the analysis include the investigation ...


Jurisdiction, Privacy, And Ownership: Dna Technology And Field Dynamics In Conflict-Related Mass Fatalities, Stefan Schmitt, Dallas Mazoori 2017 Independent Researcher

Jurisdiction, Privacy, And Ownership: Dna Technology And Field Dynamics In Conflict-Related Mass Fatalities, Stefan Schmitt, Dallas Mazoori

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article explores the dynamics and challenges of undertaking human identifications in states experiencing armed conflict or emerging therefrom. It emphasises the integral role of the State in human identifications and the need for the legal acts of the State in identifying an individual and confirming their death to be integrated into any humanitarian response to repatriating the dead. Conflict-related mass fatalities occur in uncontrolled circumstances, making DNA-based human identifications necessary. In states lacking the necessary forensic infrastructure, the promise of expedited human identifications through outsourcing DNA work can lead to the State abdicating the necessary jurisdiction and scientific transparency ...


Investigating The Genetic Basis For Hominoid Taillessness, Samantha M. Tickey-McCrane, Holly Dunsworth, Johanna E. Wegener 2017 University of Rhode Island

Investigating The Genetic Basis For Hominoid Taillessness, Samantha M. Tickey-Mccrane, Holly Dunsworth, Johanna E. Wegener

Senior Honors Projects

Investigating the Genetic Basis for Hominoid Taillessness:

A Comparative Genetic Approach Across Ten Catarrhine Taxa

Samantha Tickey-McCrane1,2, Johanna E. Wegener2, and Holly Dunsworth1

Honors Thesis Abstract Written by Samantha Tickey-McCrane, Departments of Anthropology & Biology

Advisor: Dr. Holly Dunsworth, Department of Anthropology

How did hominoid tail loss occur? My goals are to test phylogenetic and adaptive hypotheses for tail length variation among macaques, and use those insights to reconstruct the evolution of hominoid taillessness. Further, I aim to ultimately uncover which candidate genes or pathways may be responsible for catarrhine tail loss, and what other traits may be affected by ...


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