Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biological and Physical Anthropology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

737 Full-Text Articles 1248 Authors 264462 Downloads 89 Institutions

All Articles in Biological and Physical Anthropology

Faceted Search

737 full-text articles. Page 6 of 30.

English And Lexigram Comprehension Of Language-Trained Bonobos, Andrea Rabinowitz 2016 Iowa State University

English And Lexigram Comprehension Of Language-Trained Bonobos, Andrea Rabinowitz

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

If language and cognition are intrinsically linked, it follows that studying the linguistic processes of great apes will heighten our knowledge of the evolution of human language and thought, a primary focus of anthropological research. The present study expanded upon ongoing research of bonobos (Pan paniscus) raised in a language-enriched environment at the Ape Cognition and Conservation Initiative. While Kanzi’s linguistic and cognitive capabilities have been well documented in early life, this project evaluated a current vocabulary of English and symbolic lexigrams. A series of three computerized match-to-sample tasks tested his ability to match a picture to spoken English ...


Questions On The Divergence Of Rhinopithecus Bieti, Melissa Reed 2016 Georgia State University

Questions On The Divergence Of Rhinopithecus Bieti, Melissa Reed

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


"Comparing The Behavioral Effects Of Selected Enrichment Techniques Among Hylobates Lar At The Blank Park Zoo", Hannah Thomae 2016 Iowa State University

"Comparing The Behavioral Effects Of Selected Enrichment Techniques Among Hylobates Lar At The Blank Park Zoo", Hannah Thomae

Honors Projects and Posters

Zoos all around the world have recently started to implement enrichment into their exhibits. Enrichment has been found to decrease stereotypic behaviors and alleviate stress in captive animals. The Blank Park Zoo in Des Moines, Iowa is one zoo that has implemented enrichment into several of their exhibits, including the Lar gibbon, also known as the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). As Hylobates lar is an endangered species, it is important to find enrichment activities that mentally and physically stimulate them to maintain their health. Previous research has found that primates prefer pliable items to non-pliable ones. We hypothesized that both ...


Procrastination, Motivation, & Flow, Reginald Desrosiers 2016 Andrews University

Procrastination, Motivation, & Flow, Reginald Desrosiers

Honors Theses

No Abstract.


Chimpanzee Accumulative Stone Throwing, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Ammie K. Kalan, Mimi Arandjelovic, Floris Aubert, Lucy D’Auvergne, Annemarie Goedmakers, Sorrel Jones, Laura Kehoe, Sebastien Regnaut, Alexander Tickle, Els Ton, Joost van Schijndel, Ekwoge E. Abwe, Samuel Angedakin, Anthony Agbor, Emmanuel Ayuk Ayimisin, Emma Bailey, Mattia Bessone, Matthieu Bonnet, Gregory Brazolla, Valentine Ebua Buh, Rebecca Chancellor, Chloe Cipoletta, Heather Cohen, Katherine Corogenes, Charlotte Coupland, Bryan Curran, Tobias Deschner, Karsten Dierks, Paula Dieguez, Emmanuel Dilambaka, Orume Diotoh, Dervla Dowd, Andrew Dunn, Henk Eshuis, Rumen Fernandez, Yisa Ginath, John Hart, Daniela Hedwig, Martijn Ter Heegde, Thurston Cleveland Hicks, Inaoyom Imong, Kathryn J. Jeffery, Jessica Junker, Parag Kadam, Mohamed Kambi, Ivonne Kienast, Deo Kujirakwinja, Kevin Langergraber, Vincent Lapeyre, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Vera Leinert, Amelia Meier, Giovanna Maretti, Sergio Marrocoli, Tanyi Julius Mbi, Vianet Mihindou, Yasmin Moebius, David Morgan, Bethan Morgan, Felix Mulindahabi, Mizuki Murai, Protais Niyigabae, Emma Normand, Nicolas Ntare, Lucy Jayne Ormsby, Alex Piel, Jill Pruetz, Aaron S. Rundus, Crickette Sanz, Volker Sommer, Fiona Stewart, Nikki Tagg, Hilde Vanleeuwe, Virginie Vergnes, Jacob Willie, Roman M. Wittig, Klaus Zuberbuehler, Christophe Boesch 2016 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Chimpanzee Accumulative Stone Throwing, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Ammie K. Kalan, Mimi Arandjelovic, Floris Aubert, Lucy D’Auvergne, Annemarie Goedmakers, Sorrel Jones, Laura Kehoe, Sebastien Regnaut, Alexander Tickle, Els Ton, Joost Van Schijndel, Ekwoge E. Abwe, Samuel Angedakin, Anthony Agbor, Emmanuel Ayuk Ayimisin, Emma Bailey, Mattia Bessone, Matthieu Bonnet, Gregory Brazolla, Valentine Ebua Buh, Rebecca Chancellor, Chloe Cipoletta, Heather Cohen, Katherine Corogenes, Charlotte Coupland, Bryan Curran, Tobias Deschner, Karsten Dierks, Paula Dieguez, Emmanuel Dilambaka, Orume Diotoh, Dervla Dowd, Andrew Dunn, Henk Eshuis, Rumen Fernandez, Yisa Ginath, John Hart, Daniela Hedwig, Martijn Ter Heegde, Thurston Cleveland Hicks, Inaoyom Imong, Kathryn J. Jeffery, Jessica Junker, Parag Kadam, Mohamed Kambi, Ivonne Kienast, Deo Kujirakwinja, Kevin Langergraber, Vincent Lapeyre, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Vera Leinert, Amelia Meier, Giovanna Maretti, Sergio Marrocoli, Tanyi Julius Mbi, Vianet Mihindou, Yasmin Moebius, David Morgan, Bethan Morgan, Felix Mulindahabi, Mizuki Murai, Protais Niyigabae, Emma Normand, Nicolas Ntare, Lucy Jayne Ormsby, Alex Piel, Jill Pruetz, Aaron S. Rundus, Crickette Sanz, Volker Sommer, Fiona Stewart, Nikki Tagg, Hilde Vanleeuwe, Virginie Vergnes, Jacob Willie, Roman M. Wittig, Klaus Zuberbuehler, Christophe Boesch

Anthropology & Sociology

The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We ...


Anthrofest 2016, Antonia Diener, Megan Bridges, Eileen Wang, Zhenia Bemko, Benjamin Reynolds, Alexandria Mitchem, Ashley Terry, Ivana Kohut, Kelly Bridges 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Anthrofest 2016, Antonia Diener, Megan Bridges, Eileen Wang, Zhenia Bemko, Benjamin Reynolds, Alexandria Mitchem, Ashley Terry, Ivana Kohut, Kelly Bridges

Anthrofest

The University of Pennsylvania anthropology annual undergraduate research conference known as ANTHROFEST brings together undergraduates involved in research across all concentrations in anthropology, as well as faculty and the broader undergraduate and graduate community. Each year, select students present and discuss their original research to the community at Penn. The conference is open to the public.


Reconstructing The Dietary Signal Of The Primate Taxon Cercopithecoides Williamsi From The Plio-Pleistocene Caves Of South Africa, William G. Anderson, Frank L. Williams 2016 Georgia State University

Reconstructing The Dietary Signal Of The Primate Taxon Cercopithecoides Williamsi From The Plio-Pleistocene Caves Of South Africa, William G. Anderson, Frank L. Williams

DISCOVERY: Georgia State Honors College Undergraduate Research Journal

The taxon known as Cercopithecoides williamsi has been reconstructed as a terrestrial primate folivore from its dental morphology and heavy dental microwear. It was recovered at a number of Plio-Pleistocene caves in South Africa, including Makapansgat, Sterkfontein Member 4, Sterkfontein West Pit and Bolt’s Farm. For the purposes of corroborating or contradicting previous dietary reconstructions, six specimens of Cercopithecoides williamsi were examined and compared with the extant primate taxa Papio ursinus (n = 5), Papio cynocephalus (n = 5) and Colobus polykomos (n = 5) to provide a frame of reference, using low-magnification stereomicroscopy in conjunction with an ocular reticle (0.04 ...


A Three-Step Method For Teaching The Principles Of Evolution To Non-Biology Major Undergraduates, Cameron M. Smith 2016 Portland State University

A Three-Step Method For Teaching The Principles Of Evolution To Non-Biology Major Undergraduates, Cameron M. Smith

Cameron Smith

A method for teaching the principles of evolution in a 50-minute lecture for undergraduate non-biology majors is described. The method “unpacks” evolution into three observable, factual occurrences: replication (R, reproduction), variation (V, differences between parent and offspring and siblings), and selection (S, nonrandom differential survival of offspring). This method has been particularly effective in demonstrating to students that evolution is the factual, unintended consequence of three independent phenomena (R, V, S).


What Anthropologists Should Know About The New Evolutionary Synthesis, Cameron M. Smith, Julia Cleverly Ruppell 2016 Portland State University

What Anthropologists Should Know About The New Evolutionary Synthesis, Cameron M. Smith, Julia Cleverly Ruppell

Cameron Smith

Discoveries of modern biology are forcing a re-evaluation of even the central pillars of neo- Darwinian evolution. Anthropologists study the processes and results of biological and biocultural evolution, so they must be aware of the scope and nature of these changes in biology. We introduce these changes, comment briefly on how will influence anthropology, and suggest numerous readings to introduce anthropologists to the significance and substance of the new evolutionary synthesis.


Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams 2016 University of South Florida

Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams

William D. Kearns, PhD

Ambulation is defined by duration, distance traversed, number and size of directional changes and the interval separating successive movement episodes; more complex measures of ambulation can be created by aggregating these features. This review article of published findings defines random changes in direction during movement as “movement path tortuosity”, and relates tortuosity to the understanding of cognitive impairments of persons of all ages. Path tortuosity is quantified by subjecting tracking data to fractal analysis, specifically Fractal Dimension (Fractal D), which ranges from a value of 1 when the movement path is perfectly straight to a value of 2 when the ...


A List Of Racialized Black Dolls: 1850-1940, Anthony F. Martin 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A List Of Racialized Black Dolls: 1850-1940, Anthony F. Martin

African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter

Between 1850 and 1940 Black racialized dolls made in Europe and the northern United States saturated the marketplace with the peak years in the 1920s. These dolls were advertised with pejorative names and descriptions that typed cast African Americans as domestics and labors on mythical antebellum landscapes assisted White children in shaping Black people as inferior to Whites. Data mining doll encyclopedias, websites, and catalogs, I have compiled a list of Black racialized dolls. Additionally, I have provided advertisements of positive imagine Black dolls from The Crisis and The Negro World that provided a counterweight to the stereotyped dolls.


Terracotta Pipes With Triangular Engravings, Flavia Zorzi, Daniel G. Schávelzon 2016 Conicet, Centro de Arqueología Urbana (FADU-UBA), Instituto de Arqueología (FFyL, UBA)

Terracotta Pipes With Triangular Engravings, Flavia Zorzi, Daniel G. Schávelzon

African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter

The discovery of two smoking pipes from seventeenth-century contexts in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is used to suggest the presence in colonial times of a new set of stylistic norms derived from African traditions that are expressed at a regional scale not only in smoking pipes, but in a variety of items of material culture. These terracotta pipes, recovered at Bolívar 373 and the Liniers House sites, are characterized by their particular geometric decorative pattern, achieved by engravings and incisions. Similar specimens were found elsewhere in Buenos Aires, as well as in Cayastá (province of Santa Fe, Argentina) and Brazil.


Limiting The Impact Of Destructive Analytical Techniques Through Sequential Microspatial Sampling Of The Enamel From Single Teeth, Alexis E. Dolphin, Mathew A. Teeter, Christine D. White, Fred J. Longstaffe 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Limiting The Impact Of Destructive Analytical Techniques Through Sequential Microspatial Sampling Of The Enamel From Single Teeth, Alexis E. Dolphin, Mathew A. Teeter, Christine D. White, Fred J. Longstaffe

Earth Sciences Publications

A fundamental research concern within contemporary bioarchaeology is the sensitive balance between the preservation of human remains and the use of destructive techniques to collect information. Here we describe one example of how multiple microspatial destructive/semi-destructive techniques may be carried out in sequence using only the enamel of a single tooth. With careful planning of both sample preparation strategies and sequencing of sampling methods, it is possible to produce multiple datasets, and yet to retain material for future analyses.

In this case, enamel from the teeth of 27 individuals who lived during the early medieval period (AD 1170-1198) in ...


Introducción A La Antropología Biológica, Lorena Madrigal, Rolando González-José 2016 University of South Florida

Introducción A La Antropología Biológica, Lorena Madrigal, Rolando González-José

Introducción a la Antropología Biológica

No abstract provided.


Play In Immature Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana): Location, Use Of Play Signals, And Play Bout Termination At Mt. Huangshan, China, Kaitlin R. Wright 2016 Central Washington University

Play In Immature Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana): Location, Use Of Play Signals, And Play Bout Termination At Mt. Huangshan, China, Kaitlin R. Wright

All Master's Theses

In this study, I examined the relationship between play behaviors, play location, the frequency of selected play signals, and play bout termination in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) during immature social play. I gathered video data at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys, Mt. Huangshan, China, and focused on 21 juvenile and infant macaques (zero to five years of age). I used an all occurrence sampling method to score play behaviors and play signals with an ethogram. I hypothesized that play groups would use play signals in functionally appropriate ways based on the location of the play bout, the number of ...


Reaction To Stimulus Figures In Chimpanzee Drawings, Alexandra Bobrinskoy Casti 2016 Central Washington University

Reaction To Stimulus Figures In Chimpanzee Drawings, Alexandra Bobrinskoy Casti

All Master's Theses

Seven captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) produced drawings at the University of Oklahoma between November 1971 and November 1972. Chimpanzees drew on sheets of paper that were either blank or had a stimulus. The stimulus was located in the center or offset from the center. These drawings were scanned and digitized. Analysis tested whether chimpanzee mark placement was contingent on the location of stimulus figures. Centroid locations significantly changed between stimulus type for all drawing categories and among participants for free choice and central figure drawings. Participants drew in the empty space opposite offset figure drawings. Findings support previous studies that ...


Chimpanzee Accumulative Stone Throwing, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Ammie K. Kalan, Mimi Arandjelovic, Floris Aubert, Lucy D'Auvergne, Annemarie Goedmakers, Sorrel Jones, Laura Kehoe, Sebastien Regnaut, Alexander Tickle, Els Ton, Joost van Schijndel, Ekwoge E. Abwe, Samuel Angedakin, Anthony Agbor, Emmanuel Ayuk Ayimisin, Emma Bailey, Mattia Besone, Matthieu Bonnet, Gregory Brazolla, Walentine Ebua Buh, Rebecca Chancellor, Chloe Cipoletta, Heather Cohen, Katherine Corogenes, Charlotte Coupland, Bryan Curran, Tobias Deschner, Karsten Dierks, Paula Dieguez, Emmanuel Dilambaka, Orume Diotoh, Dervla Dowd, Andrew Dunn, Henk Eshuis, Rumen Fernandez, Yisa Ginath, John Hart, Daniella Hedwig, Martjin Ter Heegde, Thurston Cleveland Hicks, Inaoyom Imong, Kathryn J. Jeffrey, Jessica Junker, Parag Kadam, Mohamed Kambi, Ivonne Kienast, Deo Kujirakwinja, Kevin Langergraber, Vincent Lapeyre, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Vera Leinert, Amelia Meier, Giovanna Maretti, Sergio Marrocoli, Tanyi Julius Mbi, Vianet Mihindou, Yasmin Moebius, David Morgan, Bethan Morgan, Felix Mulindahabi, Mizuki Murai, Protais Niyigabae, Emma Normand, Nicholas Ntare, Lucy Jayne Ormsby, Alex Piel, Jill D. Pruetz, Aaron Rundus, Crickette Sanz, Volker Sommer, Fiona Stewart, Nikki Tagg, Hildi Vanleeuwe, Virginie Vergnes, Jacob Willie, Roman M. Wittig, Klaus Zuberbuehle, Christophe Boesch 2016 Max Planck Institute

Chimpanzee Accumulative Stone Throwing, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Ammie K. Kalan, Mimi Arandjelovic, Floris Aubert, Lucy D'Auvergne, Annemarie Goedmakers, Sorrel Jones, Laura Kehoe, Sebastien Regnaut, Alexander Tickle, Els Ton, Joost Van Schijndel, Ekwoge E. Abwe, Samuel Angedakin, Anthony Agbor, Emmanuel Ayuk Ayimisin, Emma Bailey, Mattia Besone, Matthieu Bonnet, Gregory Brazolla, Walentine Ebua Buh, Rebecca Chancellor, Chloe Cipoletta, Heather Cohen, Katherine Corogenes, Charlotte Coupland, Bryan Curran, Tobias Deschner, Karsten Dierks, Paula Dieguez, Emmanuel Dilambaka, Orume Diotoh, Dervla Dowd, Andrew Dunn, Henk Eshuis, Rumen Fernandez, Yisa Ginath, John Hart, Daniella Hedwig, Martjin Ter Heegde, Thurston Cleveland Hicks, Inaoyom Imong, Kathryn J. Jeffrey, Jessica Junker, Parag Kadam, Mohamed Kambi, Ivonne Kienast, Deo Kujirakwinja, Kevin Langergraber, Vincent Lapeyre, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Vera Leinert, Amelia Meier, Giovanna Maretti, Sergio Marrocoli, Tanyi Julius Mbi, Vianet Mihindou, Yasmin Moebius, David Morgan, Bethan Morgan, Felix Mulindahabi, Mizuki Murai, Protais Niyigabae, Emma Normand, Nicholas Ntare, Lucy Jayne Ormsby, Alex Piel, Jill D. Pruetz, Aaron Rundus, Crickette Sanz, Volker Sommer, Fiona Stewart, Nikki Tagg, Hildi Vanleeuwe, Virginie Vergnes, Jacob Willie, Roman M. Wittig, Klaus Zuberbuehle, Christophe Boesch

Anthropology Publications

The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We ...


Occam's Razor Vol. 6 - Full (2016), 2016 Western Washington University

Occam's Razor Vol. 6 - Full (2016)

Occam's Razor

No abstract provided.


Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Cause To Treatment, Tavleen Aulakh 2016 Western Washington University

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Cause To Treatment, Tavleen Aulakh

Occam's Razor

Imagine two individuals, both suffering from severe liver damage. With excess fat molecules concentrated in the hepatic cells, their livers are inflamed and scarred. These deteriorating livers are also supplementing the development of chronic obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hyperlipidemia. While one of these individuals is a middle-aged male with a long history of alcohol addiction and abuse, the other is only thirteen years old and has never consumed alcohol. This adolescent is suffering from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).


Adaptability In A Bhutanese Refugee Community: Navigating Integration And The Impacts On Nutritional Health After U.S. Resettlement, Chris Grosh 2016 University of Kentucky

Adaptability In A Bhutanese Refugee Community: Navigating Integration And The Impacts On Nutritional Health After U.S. Resettlement, Chris Grosh

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

Increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and related metabolic diseases documented among refugee communities across the United States necessitate greater attention to how processes of integration impact refugee health. These nutritional health trends (e.g., increasing rates of obesity) suggest potential disconnects between refugees' past environments and their conditions after re-settlement, which may contribute to adverse changes in energy balance (diet and exercise). While Bhutanese refugees were among the largest refugee groups entering the US during the five years leading up to this research, very few studies have examined how they have responded to integration and the impact of this transition ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress