The Altruistic Self, 2017 Abilene Christian University
The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty
Dialogue & Nexus
Altruism as a purely naturalistic phenomenon self-defeats the term altogether; however, theology also makes unsubstantiated claims that some behaviors are purely selfless. I will first define various conceptual forms of altruism and then offer explanations of the term from neurological, evolutionary and psychological investigations. Despite the position that altruism can be reduced to a fantastical impossibility bearing neither the arms of science nor theology, it is also a fallacy to separate it from a religiously derived supernatural altruism that carries no implications for the realm of morality.
A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, 2017 Abilene Christian University
A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser
Dialogue & Nexus
The definition of altruism has been studied, explained, and even confused by many scholars in various fields. The term itself has been inappropriately used to describe prosocial behaviors that do not fall within the definition of altruism. An evaluation of Grant Ramsey’s taxonomy of altruism, which includes biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism, proves that it is not adequate in categorizing organism’s behaviors. A new taxonomy, with the branches of kin selection, reciprocity, and aesthetic altruism, is presented and explained to clarify the definition of altruism and alleviate confusion about how to describe prosocial behaviors. Both naming ...
Skeptics And “The White Stuff” : Promotion Of Cows’ Milk And Other Nonhuman Animal Products In The Skeptic Community As Normative Whiteness, Corey Lee Wrenn
Dietary Choice and Foods of Animal Origin
This article discusses a dairy advertising campaign featuring skeptic Derren Brown. I explore the various health claims made in the ads as well as a report Brown featured on his website that claimed consumption of cow’s milk is linked to longevity. I discuss how dairy consumption is largely linked to race and ethnicity. It is a practice enjoyed primarily by European whites as most nonwhites are lactose intolerant. Lactose intolerance is a normal biological process associated with weaning, but it is medicalized and made deviant because it is not part of the white experience. I also mention comments made ...
Volume 3 Editorial, 2017 Abilene Christian University
Volume 3 Editorial, Daniel Brannan
Dialogue & Nexus
No abstract provided.
The Anthropocene, Overview, 2017 CUNY Graduate Center
The Anthropocene, Overview, Scott W. Schwartz
Open Educational Resources
This presentation offers an overview of the developing concept of The Anthropocene -- a term coined to describe our current geological epoch, in which human impact on the planet will leave a permanent trace.
Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, 2017 College of William and Mary
Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Purpose: This project analyzes the uses of space and geography up the scales of political organization – from the village to the municipal – attempting to find the intersections where physical space meets governance using Semarang, Indonesia as my strategic case. This research employs a biocultural lens, addressing the existing gaps in literature by advancing a framework to function across disciplines and ultimately reconnecting to its practical application in urban planning and design. Such a framework is important in providing a blueprint for building a coherent and supportive structure on which to assess the human impact of design and contribute new “human-centered ...
Was Jack The Ripper A Slaughterman? Human-Animal Violence And The World’S Most Infamous Serial Killer, 2017 University of Winchester
Was Jack The Ripper A Slaughterman? Human-Animal Violence And The World’S Most Infamous Serial Killer, Andrew Knight, Katherine D. Watson
Cruelty to Animals and Human Violence
Hundreds of theories exist concerning the identity of “Jack the Ripper”. His propensity for anatomical dissection with a knife—and in particular the rapid location and removal of specific organs—led some to speculate that he must have been surgically trained. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch of one of his victims has revealed several aspects of incisional technique highly inconsistent with professional surgical training. Related discrepancies are also apparent in the language used within the only letter from Jack considered to be probably authentic. The techniques he used to dispatch his victims and retrieve their organs were, however, highly ...
How To Conduct A Mini-Ethnographic Case Study: A Guide For Novice Researchers, 2017 Walden University
How To Conduct A Mini-Ethnographic Case Study: A Guide For Novice Researchers, Patricia I. Fusch Ph.D., Gene E. Fusch, Lawrence R. Ness
The Qualitative Report
The authors present how to construct a mini-ethnographic case study design with the benefit of an ethnographic approach bounded within a case study protocol that is more feasible for a student researcher with limited time and finances. The novice researcher should choose a design that enables one to best answer the research question. Secondly, one should choose the design that assists the researcher in reaching data saturation. Finally, the novice researcher must choose the design in which one can complete the study within a reasonable time frame with minimal cost. This is particularly important for student researchers. One can blend ...
Dehumanization: A Case Study, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Dehumanization: A Case Study, Regina Varthi
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The capstone “Dehumanization” is divided into three main parts.
The first part contains a brief presentation on the UN family (or UN system), showing its role through its organizational and managerial structures. All data are derived from UN corresponding websites.
The second part, “Homelessness,” focuses on the SDG 11 of the 2030 GA Agenda. In 2014 the United Nations Human Rights Council appointed Leilani Farha Special Rapporteur on adequate housing in order to conduct research on the subject of homelessness as a violation of human rights. In her report, presented at the Human Rights Council in March 2016, Farha claims ...
Chinese Communication Studies: Three Paths Converging, 2017 Chapman University
Chinese Communication Studies: Three Paths Converging, Wenshan Jia
Communication Faculty Articles and Research
This contribution presents the possibilities for anthropological and neo-Marxist media within the hugely expanding sector of Chinese communication studies. China has sourced mostly from the American positivist tradition but is increasingly taking on board European critical thinking but it also needs to absorb some of the depth and diversity of indigenous scholarship existing in Chinese.
Jia, Lu, and Heisey (2002) presented an influential meta-analysis of every example of communication studies in China at that time. The book chapter which talks about the rise of the discipline and scholarship of Chinese communication as an academic discipline (Jia et al., 2014) summarises ...
Predation On A Monkey By Savanna Chimpanzees At Fongoli, Senegal, 2017 Institutum Studiorum Humanitatis
Predation On A Monkey By Savanna Chimpanzees At Fongoli, Senegal, M. Gašperšič, Jill D. Pruetz
Although forest-living chimpanzees commonly include vertebrate prey such as monkeys in their diet¹, savanna chimpanzees have been reported only to eat prosimians². New evidence from the recently-established Fongoli study site in Senegal suggests that chimpanzees there hunt green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus). The Fongoli community ranges over an area of at least 63 km² and based on fecal analyses, consumes a species of bushbaby found here probably Galago senegalensis.
Evidence For Leaf Swallowing Behavior By Savanna Chimpanzees In Senegal- A New Site Record, 2017 Iowa State University
Evidence For Leaf Swallowing Behavior By Savanna Chimpanzees In Senegal- A New Site Record, Jill D. Pruetz, Susannah Johnson-Fulton
Evidence of leaf swallowing, a proposed form of medicinal plant use by savanna chimpanzees was recently recorded at the Fongoli study site in southeastern Senegal. Since April 2001, the Fongoli community of chimpanzees has been studied in an effort to better understand the ecology of chimpanzees in an arid environment. The habitat can be described as a mosaic of woodland and savanna containing areas of bamboo forest and grassland and interspersed with isolated areas of gallery forest (<1% of study area) and larger areas of laterite plateau. Chimpanzees at this site have been estimated to occur at a density of 0.09 individuals per km² (1). The site lies approximately 40 km E of the Parc National du Niokolo Koba and 10 km NW of the town of Kedougou, in southeastern Senegal.
Fongoli Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Eats Banded Mongoose (Mungos Mungo), 2017 Iowa State University
Fongoli Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Eats Banded Mongoose (Mungos Mungo), Stephanie L. Bogart, Jill D. Pruetz, D. Kante
We provide the first evidence of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) preying upon a banded mongoose (Mungos mungo). A subadult female was observed consuming a banded mongoose at the Fongoli savanna chimpanzee study site, Senegal. This recording provides new data and adds a small carnivore to the list of animal prey known for the chimpanzee diet.
Use Of Caves By Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) In The Tomboronkoto Region Of Southeastern Senegal, 2017 Iowa State University
Use Of Caves By Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) In The Tomboronkoto Region Of Southeastern Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz
Indirect evidence has been found to indicate that chimpanzees in the Tomboronkoto region of southeastern Senegal use natural caves during the late dry season (May-June) for resting and eating. The Tomboronkoto region is the site of a newly-initiated research project on the ecology and behavior of savanna chimpanzees. Chimpanzees are not yet habituated at this site. Tomboronkoto (12¼72ÕN, 12¼22ÕW) is approximately 48 km SE of the Assirik site in Parc National du Niokolo Koba in Senegal. This new study site is south of the Gambia River, while the Assirik area lies north of the river. At Tomboronkoto, chimpanzees are sympatric ...
Laterality In Termite-Fishing By Fongoli Chimpanzees: Preliminary Report, 2017 University of Cambridge
Laterality In Termite-Fishing By Fongoli Chimpanzees: Preliminary Report, Paco Bertolani, Clarissa Scholes, Jill D. Pruetz, William C. Mcgrew
Many studies in both free-ranging and captive apes have shown that some forms of laterality of hand function occur in non-human primates1. However, true handedness (sensu McGrew and Marchant2), when most individuals show a skew in hand preference in the same direction across different tasks, seems to be restricted to humans. Other hominoids appear unlateralized in simpler tasks, such as reaching, picking up objects, and grooming3, but they show hand preference for more complex tasks, such as tool-using2, 4, 5 or elaborate food processing6, 7.
Laterality in termite-fishing8 has been studied only at Gombe ...
Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Prey On Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus Patas) At Fongoli, Senegal, 2017 Iowa State University
Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Prey On Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus Patas) At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, Joshua L. Marshack
Chimpanzees across Africa include some meat in their diet1. In most communities where chimpanzees have been studied over the long term, primate prey is apparently preferred over other animal prey, with red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius) comprising the most common monkey species eaten2. At Fongoli, Senegal, it is likely that chimpanzees have never had access to red colobus monkeys at this hot, dry and open site, although the range of red colobus monkeys (P.b. temminckii) in Senegal and adjacent countries in West Africa has diminished3. Fongoli chimpanzees are currently not sympatric with red colobus, although they eat vertebrate prey ...
Chimpanzees In Bandafassi Arrondissement, Southeastern Senegal: Field Surveys As A Basis For The Sustainable Community-Based Conservation, Maja Gašperšič, Jill D. Pruetz
The western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) is considered as one of the most threatened ape species, facing a dramatic decline over the last decade1,2. The latest conservation action plans classified Senegal as “an exceptionally important priority area” for chimpanzee protection, which demands immediate attention3. Chimpanzees have been expatriated from at least two African countries and IUCN estimated the Senegalese population to be almost extinct, numbering between 200 and 4004. Most apes range in small isolated communities in intense sympatry with local ethnic groups. Major threats include human encroachment, deforestation for crops, gold and iron digging, along with limited pet ...
Update On The Assirik Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Population In Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal, 2017 Iowa State University
Update On The Assirik Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Population In Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, Racine Ballahira, Waly Camara, Stacy Lindshield, Joshua L. Marshack, Anna Olson, Michel Sahdiako, Ulises Villalobos-Flores
The Assirik, Senegal chimpanzee population was studied extensively by McGrew and colleagues in the Stirling African Primate Project (SAPP) in the late 1970s1 and surveyed by the Miami Assirik Pan Project (MAPP) in 20002. These chimpanzees (thought to represent a single community3), within the Niokolo Koba National Park (or Parc National du Niokolo Koba, PNNK), remain the only protected population in the country, with most of Senegal’s chimpanzees living in unprotected areas4. In 2012, the Iowa State Assirik Primate Project (ISAPP) surveyed Assirik and outlying areas in the PNNK to assess chimpanzee density and to explore the possibility of ...
Successful Return Of A Wild Infant Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) To Its Natal Group After Capture By Poachers, Jill D. Pruetz, Dondo Kante
We report the successful return of an infant chimpanzee, aged approximately nine months, to her mother following the infant’s capture by poachers. The infant received only minor wounds in the incident, but her mother received severe wounds from hunters’ dogs during the capture. One of us (DK) was able to confiscate the infant from the hunters without incident. She was kept in fairly isolated surroundings in order to minimize disease transmission from humans, until the fate of her mother was determined. Following five days in captivity, we successfully returned the infant to her mother. The infant and mother appear ...
Lethal Aggression In Pan Is Better Explained By Adaptive Strategies Than Human Impacts, 2017 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities
Lethal Aggression In Pan Is Better Explained By Adaptive Strategies Than Human Impacts, Micahel L. Wilson, Christophe Boesch, Barbara Fruth, Takeshi Furuichi, Ian C. Gilby, Chie Hashimoto, Catherine L. Hobaiter, Gottifred Hohmann, Noriko Itoh, Kathelijne Koops, Julia N. Lloyd, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, John C. Mitani, Dues C. Mjungu, David Morgan, Martin N. Muller, Roger Mundry, Michio Nakamura, Jill D. Pruetz, Anne E. Pusey, Julia Riedel, Crickette Sanz, Anne M. Schel, Nicole Simmons, Michael Waller, David P. Watts, Francis White, Roman M. Wittig, Klaus Zuberbühler, Rcihard W. Wrangham
Observations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide valuable comparative data for understanding the significance of conspecific killing. Two kinds of hypothesis have been proposed. Lethal violence is sometimes concluded to be the result of adaptive strategies, such that killers ultimately gain fitness benefits by increasing their access to resources such as food or mates1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Alternatively, it could be a non-adaptive result of human impacts, such as habitat change or food provisioning6, 7, 8, 9. To discriminate between these hypotheses we compiled information from 18 chimpanzee communities and 4 bonobo communities studied ...