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Articles 1 - 30 of 747

Full-Text Articles in Biological and Physical Anthropology

Who Ate The Subfossil Lemurs? A Taphonomic And Community Study Of Raptor, Crocodylian And Carnivoran Predation Of The Extinct Quaternary Lemurs Of Madagascar., Lindsay Meador Jan 2018

Who Ate The Subfossil Lemurs? A Taphonomic And Community Study Of Raptor, Crocodylian And Carnivoran Predation Of The Extinct Quaternary Lemurs Of Madagascar., Lindsay Meador

Doctoral Dissertations

Madagascar’s Quaternary predator-primate guild included seventeen species of relatively large extinct lemurs. Sharing the landscape with the lemurs, were several relatively large now-extinct predators, including three raptors (two species of Aquila and Stephanoaetus mahery), a euplerid (Cryptoprocta spelea), and a crocodile (Voay robustus). This is the first research to systematically study predator-prey relationships among these extinct animals. Here I examine the bones of the extinct lemurs at six subfossil localities (Ampasambazimba, Ankarana, Grotte d’Ankazoabo, Beloha Anavoha, Manombo Toliara, and Tsirave) for evidence of and also collected metric data on these bones. I examined 1141 specimens (crania, mandibles, humeri ...


Final Report Ca-Scl-950 Vta.Pdf, Alan M. Leventhal Aug 2017

Final Report Ca-Scl-950 Vta.Pdf, Alan M. Leventhal

Alan M. Leventhal

This report presents the results of the burial and archaeological data recovery program conducted within a portion of site CA-SCL-950 [Cashrishmini ’Awweš ’Írek ’Innutka Site], a Late Period Ancestral Muwekma Ohlone Cemetery located just east of the intersection of Alum Rock Avenue and Jackson Street, City of San Jose, Santa Clara County, California. The recovered burial was inadvertently discovered on September 7, 2016, by a Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) construction crew excavating a fire hydrant water line that was oriented from north to south under the planned platform area and roadbed for the new eastbound Bus Rapid Transit ...


Reduced Immune Investment With Energy Stress: Evidence From A Mouse Model And Human Studies, Alaina L. Schneider Aug 2017

Reduced Immune Investment With Energy Stress: Evidence From A Mouse Model And Human Studies, Alaina L. Schneider

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

During periods of energy stress, animals will prioritize and allocate energy from non-essential to essential tasks. Using a mouse model and published human data, we found that during periods of energy stress, energy is allocated away from immune function, and is prioritized for physical activity usage.


Sexual Dimorphism In The Femur And Pelvis Of Cebus Apella With A Randomization Experiment Examining Sample Size In The Fossil Record, Ryan P. Schaars Aug 2017

Sexual Dimorphism In The Femur And Pelvis Of Cebus Apella With A Randomization Experiment Examining Sample Size In The Fossil Record, Ryan P. Schaars

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Measures of sexual dimorphism for six skeletal traits of the femur and pelvis of Cebus apella were calculated for 18 individuals to better understand primate skeletal dimorphism. A randomization experiment was also conducted on the measures of sexual dimorphism to examine sample size in the primate fossil record.


Phylogenetic Affinities Of Homo Floresiensis Incorporating Postcranial Characters, Kristina M. Feeney Aug 2017

Phylogenetic Affinities Of Homo Floresiensis Incorporating Postcranial Characters, Kristina M. Feeney

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The objective of this analysis is to generate hypotheses regarding the evolution and ancestry of Homo floresiensis. Building on the previous study by Argue et al. (2009) by including a much larger sample of postcranial data for a more integrated picture of primitive and derived features across the skeleton.


Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs Aug 2017

Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ecological niche modeling investigates how climatic variables have influenced taxonomic diversity in Papio. Models performed well suggesting climatic variables influence the distribution of baboon species. Niche overlap among all possible pairs of taxa determined that species exhibited significantly different niches. The results of these models support a parapatric speciation scenario.


Who Are The Apistoi? Symbolic Boundaries And Anthropological Language In 2 Cor 6:14-7:1, Nii Addo Kobina Abrahams Aug 2017

Who Are The Apistoi? Symbolic Boundaries And Anthropological Language In 2 Cor 6:14-7:1, Nii Addo Kobina Abrahams

MSU Graduate Theses

Joseph A. Fitzmyer’s “Qumran and the Interpolated Paragraph in 2 Cor 6:14-7:1,” originally published in 1961, argued that 2 Cor 6:14-7:1 was an interpolation from an undiscovered Qumran text. Fitzmyer’s thesis was the prevailing scholarly opinion for over a decade, and while several counter-arguments have convincingly challenged Fitzmyer’s theory, scholars are still hard-pressed to explain how the passage fits into its context. Not only does 6:14-7:1 seem to lack any organic connection to the verses immediately prior or following, but it also contains unique vocabulary and what seems to be uncharacteristic ...


Dental Microwear Textures Of Paranthropus Robustus From Kromdraai, Drimolen, And An Enlarged Sample From Swartkrans: Ecological And Intraspecific Variation, Alexandria Sachiko Peterson Aug 2017

Dental Microwear Textures Of Paranthropus Robustus From Kromdraai, Drimolen, And An Enlarged Sample From Swartkrans: Ecological And Intraspecific Variation, Alexandria Sachiko Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

The original microwear texture baseline for South African hominins was done by Scott et al. (2005) and concluded that Paranthropus robustus exhibited higher complexity values (Asfc) that are seen in occasional hard object feeders. Australopithecus africanus has higher anisotropy values (epLsar) consistent with consuming tough objects. This study expands upon this baseline by increasing the sample size from n = 9 for P. robustus and n = 10 for Au. africanus to n = 66 and n = 44, respectively. Additionally, this study incorporates multiple different sites and deposits. The P. robustus sample includes Drimolen, Kromdraai, and an expanded sample from Swartkrans, incorporating samples ...


A Penile Spine/Vibrissa Enhancer Sequence Is Missing In Modern And Extinct Humans But Is Retained In Multiple Primates With Penile Spines And Sensory Vibrissae, Philip L. Reno, Cory Y Mclean, Jasmine E Hines, Terence D Capellini, Gill Bejerano, David M Kingsley Jul 2017

A Penile Spine/Vibrissa Enhancer Sequence Is Missing In Modern And Extinct Humans But Is Retained In Multiple Primates With Penile Spines And Sensory Vibrissae, Philip L. Reno, Cory Y Mclean, Jasmine E Hines, Terence D Capellini, Gill Bejerano, David M Kingsley

Philip Reno

Previous studies show that humans have a large genomic deletion downstream of the Androgen Receptor gene that eliminates an ancestral mammalian regulatory enhancer that drives expression in developing penile spines and sensory vibrissae. Here we use a combination of large-scale sequence analysis and PCR amplification to demonstrate that the penile spine/vibrissa enhancer is missing in all humans surveyed and in the Neandertal and Denisovan genomes, but is present in DNA samples of chimpanzees and bonobos, as well as in multiple other great apes and primates that maintain some form of penile integumentary appendage and facial vibrissae. These results further ...


Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse Jun 2017

Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse

Honors Projects

A major portion of humans’ activity-based energy expenditure is taken up by locomotion, particularly walking. Humans can offset the energetic expenditure of walking in numerous ways, both evolutionary (such as changes in body shape) and culturally. Behaviorally, people can choose to walk in a variety of ways, including alone or with a group, carrying loads, and walking quickly or more slowly. All of these behaviors have energetic outcomes and as such can be important windows into how populations and groups adjust to different constraints. While sex differences in speed of paired walkers have been established by others, the dynamics of ...


In Situ 2017: University Of Pennsylvania Undergraduate Research Journal, Samantha Sharon Ashok, Ivana Kohut, Jessie Lu, Emma Mcnamara, Arielle Mae Pierson May 2017

In Situ 2017: University Of Pennsylvania Undergraduate Research Journal, Samantha Sharon Ashok, Ivana Kohut, Jessie Lu, Emma Mcnamara, Arielle Mae Pierson

In Situ

No abstract provided.


Bivalve Stories And Snail Tales: Reconstructing The Late Archaic Environment At The Tomoka Complex, Northeast Florida, Steven R. England May 2017

Bivalve Stories And Snail Tales: Reconstructing The Late Archaic Environment At The Tomoka Complex, Northeast Florida, Steven R. England

Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Mollusks inhabit specific ecological niches and can be used as proxies for past environmental conditions. Changes in the composition of molluscan assemblages register changing ecological conditions and offer an opportunity to examine human responses to environmental change. This paper presents the preliminary analysis molluscan species from the Late Archaic Tomoka Complex in Northeast Florida. Changes in the species composition and frequency of mollusks coupled with the available radiometric assays are used to reconstruct the environmental conditions during the occupation of the Tomoka Complex and, importantly, the environmental conditions attending Late Archaic mortuary mound construction.


European Bog Bodies: From The Iron Age Peat Bog To The 21st Century, Samantha E. Brown May 2017

European Bog Bodies: From The Iron Age Peat Bog To The 21st Century, Samantha E. Brown

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Well preserved bodies dating from the prehistoric era to the 19th century have been found across northwestern Europe; specifically, in the peat bogs of Ireland, Great Britain and Denmark. These discoveries were especially prevalent in the late 19th and early 20th centuries when mass peat extraction was at its height. Many of these finds have been dated to the Iron Age and have previously been attributed to patterns of ritual violence. This paper focuses on three finds from the Iron Age: Graubelle man, Tollund man, and the Weerdinge couple.

This project intends to exhibit the types of ...


Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell May 2017

Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).


Do Non-Human Primates Have Gender?, Aaron Pelchat May 2017

Do Non-Human Primates Have Gender?, Aaron Pelchat

Senior Honors Projects

As activism for trans rights and gender equality becomes ever more prevalent in the current American political discourse, so too has there been a rise in questions about gender. Are sexuality and gender linked? Aren’t there only two genders? What is the difference between gender and sex? Is there a difference? How does one DO gender? Isn’t gender just something you are born with? Helping the public understand these questions is important to transgender and gender non-conforming individuals in a time when more people are “coming out of the closet” and identifying as genders other than cisgender. As ...


Investigating The Genetic Basis For Hominoid Taillessness, Samantha M. Tickey-Mccrane, Holly Dunsworth, Johanna E. Wegener May 2017

Investigating The Genetic Basis For Hominoid Taillessness, Samantha M. Tickey-Mccrane, Holly Dunsworth, Johanna E. Wegener

Senior Honors Projects

Investigating the Genetic Basis for Hominoid Taillessness:

A Comparative Genetic Approach Across Ten Catarrhine Taxa

Samantha Tickey-McCrane1,2, Johanna E. Wegener2, and Holly Dunsworth1

Honors Thesis Abstract Written by Samantha Tickey-McCrane, Departments of Anthropology & Biology

Advisor: Dr. Holly Dunsworth, Department of Anthropology

How did hominoid tail loss occur? My goals are to test phylogenetic and adaptive hypotheses for tail length variation among macaques, and use those insights to reconstruct the evolution of hominoid taillessness. Further, I aim to ultimately uncover which candidate genes or pathways may be responsible for catarrhine tail loss, and what other traits may be affected by ...


Addressing The Challenges Of Identifying Migrant Remains, Jamie C. Bazen May 2017

Addressing The Challenges Of Identifying Migrant Remains, Jamie C. Bazen

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Saints Peter And Paul Parish And The Milwaukee County Poor Farm: A Comparative Osteological Analysis Between Two Historic Cemeteries In Wisconsin, David Michael Strange May 2017

The Saints Peter And Paul Parish And The Milwaukee County Poor Farm: A Comparative Osteological Analysis Between Two Historic Cemeteries In Wisconsin, David Michael Strange

Theses and Dissertations

The constituents of the Saints Peter and Paul Parish of Independence, Wisconsin contracted Commonwealth Heritage Group in 2015 to excavate and analyze 108 individuals located in an unmarked portion of the parish cemetery during a large church renovation project. This thesis is an osteological analysis of the excavated cemetery population, providing an estimated age, sex, and pathological profile of the individuals interred therein. In addition, a comparative analysis is conducted between subadult segments of the Ss. Peter and Paul Parish sample and the Milwaukee County Poor Farm Cemetery located in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin. The parameters of the analysis include the investigation ...


Jurisdiction, Privacy, And Ownership: Dna Technology And Field Dynamics In Conflict-Related Mass Fatalities, Stefan Schmitt, Dallas Mazoori May 2017

Jurisdiction, Privacy, And Ownership: Dna Technology And Field Dynamics In Conflict-Related Mass Fatalities, Stefan Schmitt, Dallas Mazoori

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article explores the dynamics and challenges of undertaking human identifications in states experiencing armed conflict or emerging therefrom. It emphasises the integral role of the State in human identifications and the need for the legal acts of the State in identifying an individual and confirming their death to be integrated into any humanitarian response to repatriating the dead. Conflict-related mass fatalities occur in uncontrolled circumstances, making DNA-based human identifications necessary. In states lacking the necessary forensic infrastructure, the promise of expedited human identifications through outsourcing DNA work can lead to the State abdicating the necessary jurisdiction and scientific transparency ...


Rock Art Management And Landscape Change: Mixed Field Assessment Techniques For Cultural Stone Decay, Kaelin M. Groom May 2017

Rock Art Management And Landscape Change: Mixed Field Assessment Techniques For Cultural Stone Decay, Kaelin M. Groom

Theses and Dissertations

As tourism continues to grow as one of the world’s most ubiquitous markets, the development and promotion of non-invasive techniques for cultural stone decay analysis and landscape change are vital to establishing conditional base-lines to best aid cultural heritage management (CRM) efficacy. Using rock art as a medium, this dissertation presents three independent case studies employing the Rock Art Stability Index (RASI) and repeat photography to explore the merits of mixed rapid field assessment techniques in relation to CRM and heritage tourism. While rock art is only one example of irreplaceable world heritage resources, examining how they decay and ...


Activity Patterns And Division Of Labor At A Southeastern Tennessee Late Mississippian Site: Toqua, Dustin Lloyd May 2017

Activity Patterns And Division Of Labor At A Southeastern Tennessee Late Mississippian Site: Toqua, Dustin Lloyd

Theses and Dissertations

Entheseal changes (EC), formally musculoskeletal stress markers, are the recordation of osteophytic change at an enthesis (any muscular origin or insertion). Study of EC is valuable in decoding past life activities, social dynamics, and health through the quantification of reactive osseous changes at entheses. The current study assesses EC to ascertain activity patterns at the Late Mississippian Dallas Phase (~1300-1550 AD) site of Toqua, aboriginally located in the lower Little Tennessee River Valley of East Tennessee. Toqua was a multiple mound, palisaded settlement of maize-intensive agriculturalists. The subsistence strategy may have required intense and possibly specialized labor of the upper ...


Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones May 2017

Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Purpose: This project analyzes the uses of space and geography up the scales of political organization – from the village to the municipal – attempting to find the intersections where physical space meets governance using Semarang, Indonesia as my strategic case. This research employs a biocultural lens, addressing the existing gaps in literature by advancing a framework to function across disciplines and ultimately reconnecting to its practical application in urban planning and design. Such a framework is important in providing a blueprint for building a coherent and supportive structure on which to assess the human impact of design and contribute new “human-centered ...


Mantled Howler Monkey (Aouatta Palliata Palliata) Positional Behaviors In Relation To Substrate Diameter And Angle Of Incline, Cole Clawson Apr 2017

Mantled Howler Monkey (Aouatta Palliata Palliata) Positional Behaviors In Relation To Substrate Diameter And Angle Of Incline, Cole Clawson

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

My research question was if substrate diameter and angle of incline, in relation to most often the trunk of a tree, would affect positional behaviors of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). In pursuing this research question I wanted to understand more the effects of diet, specifically low quality diet, on primate locomotor and postural behaviors and how this might impact primate behaviors according to what foods are available. To test my research question, I collected observational data from adult howler monkeys, to see how they influenced locomotive patterns. I divided the substrates, in this study being tree branches, into 4 ...


The Diet And Subsistence Methods Of The Maya: Their Health And Cultural Consequences From The Pre-Classic Era To Today, Rachel E. Watson Apr 2017

The Diet And Subsistence Methods Of The Maya: Their Health And Cultural Consequences From The Pre-Classic Era To Today, Rachel E. Watson

Honors Undergraduate

The Maya, a once great civilization, seemingly vanished without an obvious reason, before the Spanish landed in the region. Some say that their downfall was a result of famine and inadequate nutrition. Surprisingly, most of the archaeological evidence surrounding the Classic Maya diet and subsistence methods indicates that they both adequately sustained the population to the point where there has been practically no change over hundreds of years. Change did not occur to the Maya diet or the classic subsistence methods until the late twentieth century when the tourism industry exploded in the area of the former Maya empire. The ...


Variation In Rhesus Macaque (Macaca Mulatta) Vocalizations: Social And Biological Influences, Emma A. Mcnamara Apr 2017

Variation In Rhesus Macaque (Macaca Mulatta) Vocalizations: Social And Biological Influences, Emma A. Mcnamara

Anthropology Senior Theses

Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely studied nonhuman primate. While some work has been done on both vocal communication and the role of the neuropeptides, oxytocin, and vasopressin in the behavior of these highly social primates, key questions remain unanswered. In this study, seven rhesus macaques (four adult females and three adult males) were given a dose of either saline (control), oxytocin, or vasopressin. After being given this treatment, they were placed in close proximity to a conspecific who had not received any such treatment and the two monkeys were allowed to interact for five minutes. A variety ...


The History Of Race In Anthropology: Paul Broca And The Question Of Human Hybridity, Samantha S. Ashok Apr 2017

The History Of Race In Anthropology: Paul Broca And The Question Of Human Hybridity, Samantha S. Ashok

Anthropology Senior Theses

Paul Broca (1824-1880) was a French physician and anthropologist whose belief in the polygenesis of human origins was inextricably linked to the question of human hybridity. His studies on hybridity began in 1857 after he observed leporids, the crossing of a hare and a rabbit. He applied his methods of analyzing these animal hybrids to mixed-race individuals, a task he believed would prove polygenism. His studies laid the basis for French anthropology and led to the founding of the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, the world’s first anthropological society. Broca’s background in mathematics led him to expand upon ...


Comparison Between Genetic And Morphological Sex Of The Cranium, Elizabeth V. Pierce Apr 2017

Comparison Between Genetic And Morphological Sex Of The Cranium, Elizabeth V. Pierce

Anthropology Senior Theses

Morphological methods are relied upon to determine the sex of skeletal remains of both archaeological and forensic significance. The characteristics commonly examined in these morphological methods have a large margin of error, especially when it comes to partial or fragmentary cranial remains. The case could be made from this morphological study that sex attributed to fragmented remains where not more than one commonly scored trait is available for examination should not be considered as being fully reliable. In this study, I examined 20 crania from a collection from Tepe Hissar to compare morphological sex and genetic sex. Overall, the mastoid ...


Feeding Ecology Of Savanna Chimpanzees At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz Apr 2017

Feeding Ecology Of Savanna Chimpanzees At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz

Jill Pruetz

Chimpanzees are commonly known as ripe fruit specialists (Goodall, 1968, 1986; Hladik, 1977, 1977, 1979; Nishida, 1990; Matsumoto-Oda & Hayashi, 1997; Tutin et al., 1997; Wrangham et al., 1998; Newton-Fisher, 1999; Balcomb et al., 2000; Basabose, 2002), and this dietary emphasis is thought to be a major factor influencing their fission-fusion social organization (Wrangham, 1979; Sugiyama & Koman, 1992; Wrangham, 2000; NewtonFisher et al., 2000; Mitani et al., 2002; Lehmann & Boesch, 2004). In order to maximize their utilization of ripe fruit resources, which are generally described as patchy and variable in size (e.g., Ghiglieri, 1984 ), chimpanzee subgroups or parties fluctuate in size and individual make-up in response to resources. Presence of estrous females also influences the size and composition of chimpanzee parties, and this effect has been found to equate with food availability at some sites or even to surpass it (Goodall, 1986; Sakura, 1994; Boesch, 1996; Newton-Fisher et al., 2000; Anderson et al., 2002; Mitani et al., 2002).


Variations Of Age Of Suture Closure Between Males And Females, Martin Bach Apr 2017

Variations Of Age Of Suture Closure Between Males And Females, Martin Bach

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Guide To The Lyle Hubbard Slide Collection, Linfield College Archives Apr 2017

Guide To The Lyle Hubbard Slide Collection, Linfield College Archives

Linfield College Archives Finding Aids

This collection is a digital representation of several thousand 35-millimeter color slides used to document, characterize, and teach about forensics and physical anthropology field work. The slides were taken by Linfield College alumnus Lyle Hubbard and document his travels outside of Oregon, as well as projects at the University of Oregon, Portland Community College, Washington State University, the Oregon Bureau of Land Management, and the University of Tennessee.