Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biological and Physical Anthropology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

747 Full-Text Articles 1257 Authors 277909 Downloads 90 Institutions

All Articles in Biological and Physical Anthropology

Faceted Search

747 full-text articles. Page 1 of 30.

Who Ate The Subfossil Lemurs? A Taphonomic And Community Study Of Raptor, Crocodylian And Carnivoran Predation Of The Extinct Quaternary Lemurs Of Madagascar., Lindsay Meador 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Who Ate The Subfossil Lemurs? A Taphonomic And Community Study Of Raptor, Crocodylian And Carnivoran Predation Of The Extinct Quaternary Lemurs Of Madagascar., Lindsay Meador

Doctoral Dissertations

Madagascar’s Quaternary predator-primate guild included seventeen species of relatively large extinct lemurs. Sharing the landscape with the lemurs, were several relatively large now-extinct predators, including three raptors (two species of Aquila and Stephanoaetus mahery), a euplerid (Cryptoprocta spelea), and a crocodile (Voay robustus). This is the first research to systematically study predator-prey relationships among these extinct animals. Here I examine the bones of the extinct lemurs at six subfossil localities (Ampasambazimba, Ankarana, Grotte d’Ankazoabo, Beloha Anavoha, Manombo Toliara, and Tsirave) for evidence of and also collected metric data on these bones. I examined 1141 specimens (crania, mandibles, humeri ...


Final Report Ca-Scl-950 Vta.Pdf, Alan M. Leventhal 2017 San Jose State University

Final Report Ca-Scl-950 Vta.Pdf, Alan M. Leventhal

Alan M. Leventhal

This report presents the results of the burial and archaeological data recovery program conducted within a portion of site CA-SCL-950 [Cashrishmini ’Awweš ’Írek ’Innutka Site], a Late Period Ancestral Muwekma Ohlone Cemetery located just east of the intersection of Alum Rock Avenue and Jackson Street, City of San Jose, Santa Clara County, California. The recovered burial was inadvertently discovered on September 7, 2016, by a Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) construction crew excavating a fire hydrant water line that was oriented from north to south under the planned platform area and roadbed for the new eastbound Bus Rapid Transit ...


Reduced Immune Investment With Energy Stress: Evidence From A Mouse Model And Human Studies, Alaina L. Schneider 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Reduced Immune Investment With Energy Stress: Evidence From A Mouse Model And Human Studies, Alaina L. Schneider

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

During periods of energy stress, animals will prioritize and allocate energy from non-essential to essential tasks. Using a mouse model and published human data, we found that during periods of energy stress, energy is allocated away from immune function, and is prioritized for physical activity usage.


Sexual Dimorphism In The Femur And Pelvis Of Cebus Apella With A Randomization Experiment Examining Sample Size In The Fossil Record, Ryan P. Schaars 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Sexual Dimorphism In The Femur And Pelvis Of Cebus Apella With A Randomization Experiment Examining Sample Size In The Fossil Record, Ryan P. Schaars

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Measures of sexual dimorphism for six skeletal traits of the femur and pelvis of Cebus apella were calculated for 18 individuals to better understand primate skeletal dimorphism. A randomization experiment was also conducted on the measures of sexual dimorphism to examine sample size in the primate fossil record.


Phylogenetic Affinities Of Homo Floresiensis Incorporating Postcranial Characters, Kristina M. Feeney 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Phylogenetic Affinities Of Homo Floresiensis Incorporating Postcranial Characters, Kristina M. Feeney

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The objective of this analysis is to generate hypotheses regarding the evolution and ancestry of Homo floresiensis. Building on the previous study by Argue et al. (2009) by including a much larger sample of postcranial data for a more integrated picture of primitive and derived features across the skeleton.


Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ecological niche modeling investigates how climatic variables have influenced taxonomic diversity in Papio. Models performed well suggesting climatic variables influence the distribution of baboon species. Niche overlap among all possible pairs of taxa determined that species exhibited significantly different niches. The results of these models support a parapatric speciation scenario.


Who Are The Apistoi? Symbolic Boundaries And Anthropological Language In 2 Cor 6:14-7:1, Nii Addo Kobina Abrahams 2017 Missouri State University

Who Are The Apistoi? Symbolic Boundaries And Anthropological Language In 2 Cor 6:14-7:1, Nii Addo Kobina Abrahams

MSU Graduate Theses

Joseph A. Fitzmyer’s “Qumran and the Interpolated Paragraph in 2 Cor 6:14-7:1,” originally published in 1961, argued that 2 Cor 6:14-7:1 was an interpolation from an undiscovered Qumran text. Fitzmyer’s thesis was the prevailing scholarly opinion for over a decade, and while several counter-arguments have convincingly challenged Fitzmyer’s theory, scholars are still hard-pressed to explain how the passage fits into its context. Not only does 6:14-7:1 seem to lack any organic connection to the verses immediately prior or following, but it also contains unique vocabulary and what seems to be uncharacteristic ...


Dental Microwear Textures Of Paranthropus Robustus From Kromdraai, Drimolen, And An Enlarged Sample From Swartkrans: Ecological And Intraspecific Variation, Alexandria Sachiko Peterson 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dental Microwear Textures Of Paranthropus Robustus From Kromdraai, Drimolen, And An Enlarged Sample From Swartkrans: Ecological And Intraspecific Variation, Alexandria Sachiko Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

The original microwear texture baseline for South African hominins was done by Scott et al. (2005) and concluded that Paranthropus robustus exhibited higher complexity values (Asfc) that are seen in occasional hard object feeders. Australopithecus africanus has higher anisotropy values (epLsar) consistent with consuming tough objects. This study expands upon this baseline by increasing the sample size from n = 9 for P. robustus and n = 10 for Au. africanus to n = 66 and n = 44, respectively. Additionally, this study incorporates multiple different sites and deposits. The P. robustus sample includes Drimolen, Kromdraai, and an expanded sample from Swartkrans, incorporating samples ...


A Penile Spine/Vibrissa Enhancer Sequence Is Missing In Modern And Extinct Humans But Is Retained In Multiple Primates With Penile Spines And Sensory Vibrissae, Philip L. Reno, Cory Y McLean, Jasmine E Hines, Terence D Capellini, Gill Bejerano, David M Kingsley 2017 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

A Penile Spine/Vibrissa Enhancer Sequence Is Missing In Modern And Extinct Humans But Is Retained In Multiple Primates With Penile Spines And Sensory Vibrissae, Philip L. Reno, Cory Y Mclean, Jasmine E Hines, Terence D Capellini, Gill Bejerano, David M Kingsley

Philip Reno

Previous studies show that humans have a large genomic deletion downstream of the Androgen Receptor gene that eliminates an ancestral mammalian regulatory enhancer that drives expression in developing penile spines and sensory vibrissae. Here we use a combination of large-scale sequence analysis and PCR amplification to demonstrate that the penile spine/vibrissa enhancer is missing in all humans surveyed and in the Neandertal and Denisovan genomes, but is present in DNA samples of chimpanzees and bonobos, as well as in multiple other great apes and primates that maintain some form of penile integumentary appendage and facial vibrissae. These results further ...


Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse 2017 Seattle Pacific University

Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse

Honors Projects

A major portion of humans’ activity-based energy expenditure is taken up by locomotion, particularly walking. Humans can offset the energetic expenditure of walking in numerous ways, both evolutionary (such as changes in body shape) and culturally. Behaviorally, people can choose to walk in a variety of ways, including alone or with a group, carrying loads, and walking quickly or more slowly. All of these behaviors have energetic outcomes and as such can be important windows into how populations and groups adjust to different constraints. While sex differences in speed of paired walkers have been established by others, the dynamics of ...


In Situ 2017: University Of Pennsylvania Undergraduate Research Journal, Samantha Sharon Ashok, Ivana Kohut, Jessie Lu, Emma McNamara, Arielle Mae Pierson 2017 University of Pennsylvania

In Situ 2017: University Of Pennsylvania Undergraduate Research Journal, Samantha Sharon Ashok, Ivana Kohut, Jessie Lu, Emma Mcnamara, Arielle Mae Pierson

In Situ

No abstract provided.


Bivalve Stories And Snail Tales: Reconstructing The Late Archaic Environment At The Tomoka Complex, Northeast Florida, Steven R. England 2017 Eastern Kentucky University

Bivalve Stories And Snail Tales: Reconstructing The Late Archaic Environment At The Tomoka Complex, Northeast Florida, Steven R. England

Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Mollusks inhabit specific ecological niches and can be used as proxies for past environmental conditions. Changes in the composition of molluscan assemblages register changing ecological conditions and offer an opportunity to examine human responses to environmental change. This paper presents the preliminary analysis molluscan species from the Late Archaic Tomoka Complex in Northeast Florida. Changes in the species composition and frequency of mollusks coupled with the available radiometric assays are used to reconstruct the environmental conditions during the occupation of the Tomoka Complex and, importantly, the environmental conditions attending Late Archaic mortuary mound construction.


European Bog Bodies: From The Iron Age Peat Bog To The 21st Century, Samantha E. Brown 2017 University of Wyoming

European Bog Bodies: From The Iron Age Peat Bog To The 21st Century, Samantha E. Brown

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Well preserved bodies dating from the prehistoric era to the 19th century have been found across northwestern Europe; specifically, in the peat bogs of Ireland, Great Britain and Denmark. These discoveries were especially prevalent in the late 19th and early 20th centuries when mass peat extraction was at its height. Many of these finds have been dated to the Iron Age and have previously been attributed to patterns of ritual violence. This paper focuses on three finds from the Iron Age: Graubelle man, Tollund man, and the Weerdinge couple.

This project intends to exhibit the types of ...


Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).


Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones 2017 College of William and Mary

Where The Sidewalk Ends: Reimagining Urban Place And Governance In Semarang, Indonesia, Emmaleah K. Jones

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Purpose: This project analyzes the uses of space and geography up the scales of political organization – from the village to the municipal – attempting to find the intersections where physical space meets governance using Semarang, Indonesia as my strategic case. This research employs a biocultural lens, addressing the existing gaps in literature by advancing a framework to function across disciplines and ultimately reconnecting to its practical application in urban planning and design. Such a framework is important in providing a blueprint for building a coherent and supportive structure on which to assess the human impact of design and contribute new “human-centered ...


Do Non-Human Primates Have Gender?, Aaron Pelchat 2017 University of Rhode Island

Do Non-Human Primates Have Gender?, Aaron Pelchat

Senior Honors Projects

As activism for trans rights and gender equality becomes ever more prevalent in the current American political discourse, so too has there been a rise in questions about gender. Are sexuality and gender linked? Aren’t there only two genders? What is the difference between gender and sex? Is there a difference? How does one DO gender? Isn’t gender just something you are born with? Helping the public understand these questions is important to transgender and gender non-conforming individuals in a time when more people are “coming out of the closet” and identifying as genders other than cisgender. As ...


Investigating The Genetic Basis For Hominoid Taillessness, Samantha M. Tickey-McCrane, Holly Dunsworth, Johanna E. Wegener 2017 University of Rhode Island

Investigating The Genetic Basis For Hominoid Taillessness, Samantha M. Tickey-Mccrane, Holly Dunsworth, Johanna E. Wegener

Senior Honors Projects

Investigating the Genetic Basis for Hominoid Taillessness:

A Comparative Genetic Approach Across Ten Catarrhine Taxa

Samantha Tickey-McCrane1,2, Johanna E. Wegener2, and Holly Dunsworth1

Honors Thesis Abstract Written by Samantha Tickey-McCrane, Departments of Anthropology & Biology

Advisor: Dr. Holly Dunsworth, Department of Anthropology

How did hominoid tail loss occur? My goals are to test phylogenetic and adaptive hypotheses for tail length variation among macaques, and use those insights to reconstruct the evolution of hominoid taillessness. Further, I aim to ultimately uncover which candidate genes or pathways may be responsible for catarrhine tail loss, and what other traits may be affected by ...


Addressing The Challenges Of Identifying Migrant Remains, Jamie C. Bazen 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Addressing The Challenges Of Identifying Migrant Remains, Jamie C. Bazen

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Saints Peter And Paul Parish And The Milwaukee County Poor Farm: A Comparative Osteological Analysis Between Two Historic Cemeteries In Wisconsin, David Michael Strange 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

The Saints Peter And Paul Parish And The Milwaukee County Poor Farm: A Comparative Osteological Analysis Between Two Historic Cemeteries In Wisconsin, David Michael Strange

Theses and Dissertations

The constituents of the Saints Peter and Paul Parish of Independence, Wisconsin contracted Commonwealth Heritage Group in 2015 to excavate and analyze 108 individuals located in an unmarked portion of the parish cemetery during a large church renovation project. This thesis is an osteological analysis of the excavated cemetery population, providing an estimated age, sex, and pathological profile of the individuals interred therein. In addition, a comparative analysis is conducted between subadult segments of the Ss. Peter and Paul Parish sample and the Milwaukee County Poor Farm Cemetery located in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin. The parameters of the analysis include the investigation ...


Jurisdiction, Privacy, And Ownership: Dna Technology And Field Dynamics In Conflict-Related Mass Fatalities, Stefan Schmitt, Dallas Mazoori 2017 Independent Researcher

Jurisdiction, Privacy, And Ownership: Dna Technology And Field Dynamics In Conflict-Related Mass Fatalities, Stefan Schmitt, Dallas Mazoori

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article explores the dynamics and challenges of undertaking human identifications in states experiencing armed conflict or emerging therefrom. It emphasises the integral role of the State in human identifications and the need for the legal acts of the State in identifying an individual and confirming their death to be integrated into any humanitarian response to repatriating the dead. Conflict-related mass fatalities occur in uncontrolled circumstances, making DNA-based human identifications necessary. In states lacking the necessary forensic infrastructure, the promise of expedited human identifications through outsourcing DNA work can lead to the State abdicating the necessary jurisdiction and scientific transparency ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress