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Oil And Canvas Art: Recovery And Analysis Of Unidentified Remains Recovered 2004, Dan Magelinski 2021 University of New Hampshire

Oil And Canvas Art: Recovery And Analysis Of Unidentified Remains Recovered 2004, Dan Magelinski

Spectrum

No abstract provided.


Materializing And Embodying Sex And Gender: Interpreting Gender And Sex Variance In Iron Age Pre-Roman And Roman Britain Mortuary Contexts, Morgan Martin 2021 University of New Hampshire

Materializing And Embodying Sex And Gender: Interpreting Gender And Sex Variance In Iron Age Pre-Roman And Roman Britain Mortuary Contexts, Morgan Martin

Spectrum

No abstract provided.


Dietary Variation Of Social Elites Within A Late Horizon Cemetery (A.D. 1470-1532) At Túcume, Peru: Stable Carbon And Nitrogen Isotopic Analysis Of Huaca Las Abejas., Dylan Smith 2021 University of Central Florida

Dietary Variation Of Social Elites Within A Late Horizon Cemetery (A.D. 1470-1532) At Túcume, Peru: Stable Carbon And Nitrogen Isotopic Analysis Of Huaca Las Abejas., Dylan Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Food choices can create and maintain group membership, also distinguishing groups based on dietary preferences and the perceived social value of foods. The food behaviors of social elites within complex societies are often governed by differential access and cultural factors determining the menu within a regional ecology. This study employs bioarchaeological and stable isotopic analyses to investigate the evidence for dietary variation of social elites within the Late Horizon (A.D. 1470–1532) cemetery of Huaca Las Abejas at Túcume using stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes. Paired teeth (early life diet) and bones (later life diet) were sampled from 23 individuals to …


The Role Of Forensic Anthropological Techniques In Identifying America's War Dead From Past Conflicts, William Belcher, Calvin Y. Shiroma, Lesley A. Chesson, Gregory E. Berg, Miranda Jans 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Role Of Forensic Anthropological Techniques In Identifying America's War Dead From Past Conflicts, William Belcher, Calvin Y. Shiroma, Lesley A. Chesson, Gregory E. Berg, Miranda Jans

Anthropology Faculty Publications

The Scientific Analysis Directorate of the U.S. Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency (DPAA) is a unique entity within the U.S. Government. This agency currently houses the world's largest, accredited skeletal identification laboratory in the world, in terms of the size of the scientific staff, global mission, and number of annual identifications. Traditional forensic anthropology is used for the formation of a biological profile (biological sex, stature, population affinity/ancestry, and age) as well as trauma and pathologies that may be compared with historical records and personnel files. Since World War II, various scientists associated with DoD have conducted …


Forensic Implications For The Diagenetic Alteration Of The Stable Isotopic Composition Of Pig Ribs Following Exposure To Aqueous Conditions., Erin Martin 2021 University of Central Florida

Forensic Implications For The Diagenetic Alteration Of The Stable Isotopic Composition Of Pig Ribs Following Exposure To Aqueous Conditions., Erin Martin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

This research involves the examination of the contribution of stable isotope analysis to the forensic anthropological objective of human identification. Oxygen isotopes, which vary in water in a predictable manner according to climatological and geographical factors, can be used to determine the region of origin of an unidentified individual following isotopic analysis of human skeletal remains. However, stable oxygen isotopes from human remains recovered from various aqueous environments may be altered by diagenetic processes that occur following deposition. The focus of this research is to determine potential diagenetic changes in the oxygen isotopic value (d18O) of Sus scrofa (domestic pig) …


Understanding The Dietary Behavior Of A 7th - 8th Century Avar Community From Jagodnjak, Croatia Using Stable Isotope Analysis Of Bone Collagen, Marlon Koci 2021 University of Central Florida

Understanding The Dietary Behavior Of A 7th - 8th Century Avar Community From Jagodnjak, Croatia Using Stable Isotope Analysis Of Bone Collagen, Marlon Koci

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

The dietary behavior of past communities is influenced by several factors such as environmental sources, social and economic organization, individual preferences, and physiological needs. Every society has its characteristics and understanding the dietary choices of its individuals expands the knowledge about its lifestyle. Applying biochemical tracers, we can explore the food choices of an Early Medieval Avar community. The Jagodnjak cemetery (n=35) in Croatia is dated to the 7–8th century. Historical and archaeological records are currently limited for Avar populations. Jagodnjak is a transitory community from a period where different historical events shaped the community's way of life. The research …


Bioarchaeological And Mortuary Patterns At Holtun, Guatemala: Integrating A Comparative Osteobiographic Approach, Horvey Palacios 2021 University of Central Florida

Bioarchaeological And Mortuary Patterns At Holtun, Guatemala: Integrating A Comparative Osteobiographic Approach, Horvey Palacios

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Bioarchaeological analysis can help identify patterns of mortuary ritual and social experience of ancient Maya peoples. However, there is limited bioarchaeological and mortuary evidence for the relationship between the development of social complexity and social experience. Particularly, how is social organization reflected in patterns of burial practice and skeletal markers of stress. This thesis uses osteobiographies to contextualize the mortuary and biological profiles of 20 individuals interred at the Maya site of Holtun, Guatemala to examine bioarchaeological variation during the Preclassic (800 B.C. – 250 A.D.) and Late Classic (550 A.D. – 900 A.D.) periods. This work highlights the integration …


Mni And Sex Estimation In Two Umm An-Nar Tombs From The Uae, Jaime M. Ullinger, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Chaylee Arellano, Quentin Burke, Victoria Calvin, Charlie Downey, Rachel Heil, Alyssa McGrath, Silvio Ernesto Mirabal Torres, Jeremy Simmons 2021 Quinnipiac University

Mni And Sex Estimation In Two Umm An-Nar Tombs From The Uae, Jaime M. Ullinger, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Chaylee Arellano, Quentin Burke, Victoria Calvin, Charlie Downey, Rachel Heil, Alyssa Mcgrath, Silvio Ernesto Mirabal Torres, Jeremy Simmons

Year 1: AAPA 2021 – virtual

Commingled tombs are often overlooked in bioarchaeological studies because of the difficult nature of analysis, despite their prevalence across the ancient world. Tombs Unar 1 (U1) and Unar 2 (U2), located in the United Arab Emirates, date to the Umm an-Nar period (2700-2000 BCE), when people witnessed shifts in mortuary practices likely reflective of broader changes in subsistence and social organization. A collaborative project that trains undergraduates in anthropological research has examined tomb membership for U1 and U2 by estimating MNI and sex. Despite early descriptions of U1 and U2 holding similar numbers of individuals, this project found that MNI …


Counting Chins To Count People: Determining Mni For Umm An-Nar Tombs From Mandibular Fragments, Chaylee Arellano, Quentin Burke, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger 2021 Louisiana State University

Counting Chins To Count People: Determining Mni For Umm An-Nar Tombs From Mandibular Fragments, Chaylee Arellano, Quentin Burke, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger

Year 1: AAPA 2021 – virtual

Background: The Umm an-Nar period (2700-2000 BCE) was a time of rapid transformation within the Oman Peninsula, characterized by changes in mortuary practices, agriculture, and settlement. Located in the United Arab Emirates, Unar 1 (2400-2200 BCE) and Unar 2 (2300-2100 BCE) are two large Umm an-Nar tombs that held commingled, fragmented remains, posing a challenge in determining the minimum number of individuals (MNI). Based on the larger size of Unar 2, we hypothesized that the number of interred individuals would increase over time.

Methods: MNI was calculated using the zonation and landmark methods for the mandible. MNI and tomb size …


Sex Estimation For Early Bronze Age Arabian Tombs Using The Temporal Bone, Victoria Calvin, Jeremy Simmons, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger 2021 University of South Alabama

Sex Estimation For Early Bronze Age Arabian Tombs Using The Temporal Bone, Victoria Calvin, Jeremy Simmons, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger

Year 1: AAPA 2021 – virtual

Background: The Umm an-Nar period (2700-2000 BCE) in the United Arab Emirates was marked by the appearance of settlements, oasis agriculture, and fortification towers, suggesting increasing stratification. Conversely, mortuary practices indicate equality based on commingling of community members. Based on other tombs in the region, it was hypothesized that sex ratios would not differ between tombs Unar 1 (U1; 2400-2200 BCE) and Unar 2 (U2; 2300-2100 BCE).

Methods: Sex was estimated using robusticity of the mastoid process and the lateral angle of the internal auditory meatus for the temporal bone. As cremation was part of the mortuary ritual and could …


An Examination Of Sex Distributions In Umm An-Nar Tombs From Bronze Age Arabia Using The Distal Humerus, Charles Downey, Silvio Ernesto Mirabal Torres, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger 2021 Albion College

An Examination Of Sex Distributions In Umm An-Nar Tombs From Bronze Age Arabia Using The Distal Humerus, Charles Downey, Silvio Ernesto Mirabal Torres, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger

Year 1: AAPA 2021 – virtual

Background: Umm an-Nar (2700-2000 BCE) communal tombs from southeastern Arabia contain human skeletal remains characterized by extensive commingling and variable degrees of burning. Because of this, few bioarchaeological studies have been conducted examining the proportions of males to females in these monumental tombs. We hypothesized that increased social stratification in the late Umm an-Nar period would lead to a higher number of males interred in Umm an-Nar tombs over time.

Methods: To estimate sex, we measured four features of the distal humeri from tombs Unar 1 (2400-2200 BCE) and Unar 2 (2300-2100 BCE). Heat-induced changes to bone from cremation were …


A Tali Of Two Tombs: Calculating Mni And Bone Calcination In Commingled Remains From Two Bronze Age Tombs In The Uae, Alyssa McGrath, Rachel Heil, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger 2021 University of Notre Dame

A Tali Of Two Tombs: Calculating Mni And Bone Calcination In Commingled Remains From Two Bronze Age Tombs In The Uae, Alyssa Mcgrath, Rachel Heil, Lesley A. Gregoricka, Jaime M. Ullinger

Year 1: AAPA 2021 – virtual

Background: The Umm an-Nar period (2700-2000 BCE) is known for its dichotomy between the rise in social hierarchy during life, seen in the construction of monumental towers and emergence of oasis agriculture, and equal treatment in death, seen in the commingling of all community members within monumental tombs. Umm an-Nar tombs Unar 1 (2400-2200 BCE) and Unar 2 (2300-2100 BCE) were part of the Shimal Necropolis in the United Arab Emirates. Archaeologists initially hypothesized that these tombs each contained 400+ people, but these estimates were not based on bioarchaeological methods.

Methods: Using the talus, the landmark and zonation methods were …


The Effects Of Heavy Metal Contamination In Soil On Dna Degradation After Decomposition, Samantha Hofland 2021 University of Montana, Missoula

The Effects Of Heavy Metal Contamination In Soil On Dna Degradation After Decomposition, Samantha Hofland

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The application of DNA is an ever-expanding field of research with many implications in the field of forensic investigation. Research into DNA obtained from soil is ongoing and suggests a new avenue in forensic investigation. This research seeks to understand the effects of heavy metal on the preservation of DNA within soil after decomposition of remains. Using pigs as a proxy for human remains, the effects of heavy metal contamination on the microbial environment and endogenous pig DNA was observed. This gave broad insight into the effect of surface burial and Western Montana; summer climate has on DNA degradation.


Reading The Bones: A Taphonomic Investigation Of Archaeofaunal Remains Recovered From Site 48pa551, Northwest Wyoming, Morgan H. Thurman 2021 University of Montana

Reading The Bones: A Taphonomic Investigation Of Archaeofaunal Remains Recovered From Site 48pa551, Northwest Wyoming, Morgan H. Thurman

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

This is a preliminary taphonomy study of archaeofaunal remains found at site 48PA551, more commonly known as the Dead Indian Creek Site. 48PA551 is a well-known and commonly cited example of a McKean Complex occupation dating to between 3,800 and 4,800 B.P. The University of Montana held a field school at the site conducting small test excavations under the supervision of Dr. Anna Marie Prentiss in 2018. In the course of this testing a highly fragmentary bone bed consisting mostly of mammalian bone, cervids largely, was discovered eroding into the nearby creek. Ten 50 x 50 cm quadrants were excavated …


Identifying Biomarkers Of Alzheimer's Disease From The Dakhleh Oasis Kellis 2 Cemetery Using Icp-Ms, Emily Barron 2021 University of Central Florida

Identifying Biomarkers Of Alzheimer's Disease From The Dakhleh Oasis Kellis 2 Cemetery Using Icp-Ms, Emily Barron

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Alzheimer's disease is a prevalent disease that affects roughly 5.4 million individuals each year (Fisher et al., 2018). Understanding the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease within the bioarchaeological record can help anthropologists gain an understanding of a population's health while also understanding the potential social ramifications. Trace element analysis is a valuable tool that allows bioarchaeologists to gain insight into individuals' health and development within the context of the past. In bioarchaeological studies, hair analysis has been used to map the nutritional status and migration patterns of individuals of past peoples, with recent studies focusing on disease prevalence. Analysis of hair …


Ecological And Anthropogenic Influences On A Sentinel Species' Gut Microbiome, Carson E. Black 2021 Central Washington University

Ecological And Anthropogenic Influences On A Sentinel Species' Gut Microbiome, Carson E. Black

All Master's Theses

Central and South American primates face augmented challenges due to increased rates of forest fragmentation. Among these challenges are implications on the nonhuman primate gut microbiome. Wild Argentine black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) are listed as “least concern” with a population that is decreasing. Despite their propensity to occupy habitats with varying degrees of degradation and disturbance, they are not immune from the stressors that forest fragmentation places on them. Their increased exposure to humans and livestock leaves them vulnerable to cross-species transmission of emerging infectious diseases and pathogens. Therefore, their role as sentinels of ecosystems, …


In The Eyes Of The Beholder: Cribra Orbitalia, Status, And Burial Practice In Late Bronze And Iron Age Iranian Subadults, Stacey O'neill Espenlaub 2021 University of Pennsylvania

In The Eyes Of The Beholder: Cribra Orbitalia, Status, And Burial Practice In Late Bronze And Iron Age Iranian Subadults, Stacey O'Neill Espenlaub

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This project considers the status and health experiences of subadults in Late Bronze-Iron II northwestern Iran (1450 – 800 B.C.E.) using osteological and archaeological analysis. It investigates how wealth, status, and health interact with the rise of fortified citadels during ca. 1450 – 1000 B.C.E. and the beginning of urbanization and imperial conflict ca. 1000 – 800 B.C.E. First, I analyze subadult skeletal remains, focusing on cribra orbitalia, a stress marker that has been linked with a wide array of causes, including anemia, malaria, and parasite infection. Second, I consider the wider context of where these subadults were buried and …


Playing With Relatives: Genetic Kinship And Play Behavior In Juvenile Tibetan Macaques, Riley Derby 2021 Central Washington University

Playing With Relatives: Genetic Kinship And Play Behavior In Juvenile Tibetan Macaques, Riley Derby

All Master's Theses

This thesis is composed of a journal-ready article and an accompanying appendix containing data and figures. In this thesis, I statistically analyzed the relationship between player age, player sex, genetic kinship and social play duration in juvenile Tibetan macaques.

Chapter I provides a general introduction and addresses current and past literature on the behavior, ecology and play among macaque genera and Tibetan macaques within this study. I review the fitness benefits of play behavior and the influence of kin selection on macaque social life. Additionally, I review the existing literature on Tibetan macaque play and how the current study will …


African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson 2020 American Museum of Natural History

African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson

Publications and Research

We define 17 African land mammal ages, or AFLMAs, covering the Cenozoic record of the Afro-arabian continent, the planet’s second largest land mass. While fossiliferous deposits are absent on the eroded plateau of the continent’s interior, almost 800 fossil genera from over 350 locations have now been identified in coastal deposits, karst caves, and in the Neogene rift valleys. Given a well-developed geochronologic framework, together with continuing revision to the fossil record—both stimulated by the story of human evolution in Africa—and also to compensate for the variation in fossil ecosystems across such great distances, the AFLMAs are biochronological units defined …


Grandmotherhood In Ukraine: Behavioral Variation And Evolutionary Implications, Sofiya Shreyer 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Grandmotherhood In Ukraine: Behavioral Variation And Evolutionary Implications, Sofiya Shreyer

Masters Theses

Grandmothers are known to increase the health and well-being of their grandchildren in many different populations. However, grandmothers may vary in their contributions based on their relatedness to their grandchildren. In some populations, maternal grandmothers decrease the risk of mortality and increase the health of their grandchildren more than paternal grandmothers. Grandmaternal influence also sometimes varies based on the gender of the grandchild. The behavioral mechanisms of grandmaternal investment are not well understood and have not been explored in the heavily intergenerational context of Eastern Europe. This study examines the behavioral variation of sixty-two Ukrainian grandmothers through interviews and a …


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