Detecting Evidence Of Systemic Inflammation From Osteological Markers In The Indian Knoll Population Of Ohio County, Kentucky., Krysta Wilham
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Indian Knoll is an Archaic shell midden site located in the Green River region of west-central Kentucky, and was excavated twice in the first half of the 20th century. While Indian Knoll has been the subject of frequent bioarchaeological studies, the present study presents an osteological analysis of the relationships between skeletal markers commonly associated with local inflammatory processes, and that have the potential to be used as proxies for systemic inflammation. The analysis revealed a significant positive association in the presence of periodontal disease (PD) and periosteal lesions (PL), suggesting a potential underlying hyper-inflammatory status or phenotype. These ...
Understanding Population-Specific Age Estimation Using Multivariate Cumulative Probit Regression For Asian Skeletal Samples, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Understanding Population-Specific Age Estimation Using Multivariate Cumulative Probit Regression For Asian Skeletal Samples, Ji Eun Kim
For many years, the field of anthropology has encouraged anthropologists to assume that population variation exists in skeletal aging although interpretations of population specificity in skeletal aging have been inconsistent. This project investigates age progressive changes in modern East and Southeast Asian populations, and attempts to quantify the magnitude of differences or similarities in skeletal aging between different Asian groups as a first step to develop a more inclusive age estimation method for Asian populations. Specifically, this study explores the utility of currently available age estimation methods for Asian populations, asks whether a population-specific aging method should be region-specific (Thai ...
Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Development Of Upper Arm Musculoskeletal Stress Markers In Late Adolescents And Young Adults Of Archaic And Mississippian Populations Of Tennessee, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Development Of Upper Arm Musculoskeletal Stress Markers In Late Adolescents And Young Adults Of Archaic And Mississippian Populations Of Tennessee, Heather Marie Guzik
This study compares three methods for the evaluation of morphology of musculoskeletal attachment sites. Two methods were macroscopic and the third was microscopic, utilizing three-dimensional laser scanning and fractal analysis The morphology of 19 upper limb attachment sites was observed in 33 males aged 15 and 30+ years, dating to the Archaic and Mississippian periods from the southeastern U.S. It was hypothesized that 1) the microscopic method would identify subtler differences than the macroscopic methods; 2) enthesis development would be greater in the Mississippian population due to the increased subsistence workload, even among younger individuals; and 3) late adolescents ...
Egyptian Mummy Ct Scan Analysis And A Comparison Of Midwest Museum Practices For The Grand Rapids Public Museum, 2016 Western Michigan University
Egyptian Mummy Ct Scan Analysis And A Comparison Of Midwest Museum Practices For The Grand Rapids Public Museum, M. Kate Peterson
Anthropology Master's Theses
To meet the partial requirements for a Master of Arts degree in Anthropology from Western Michigan University, the following internship was completed between June 2015 and September 2016. A Computed Tomography (CT) scan analysis was conducted on the Grand Rapids Public Museum’s mummy, Nakhte-Bastet-Iru. This analysis was a collaborative effort by myself and medical and museum professionals. Insight into the mummy’s life and culture was uncovered through examination and analysis of paleoradiological views of her remains. Additional research into the practices of other Midwest museums provided valuable knowledge of current trends in the dissemination and exhibition of mummy ...
Chronological Listing Of Papers Presented At The Northeast Conference On Andean Archaeology And Ethnohistory, 2016 University of Massachusetts, Amherst (retired)
Chronological Listing Of Papers Presented At The Northeast Conference On Andean Archaeology And Ethnohistory, Richard E. Daggett, Justin Jennings, Monica Barnes, Gary Urton, Jeffrey Quilter
Andean Past Special Publications
This is a chronological list of the papers presented at the Northeast Conference on Andean Archaeology and Ethnohistory from 1982 through 2016.
Working With The Remains In Cambodia: Skeletal Analysis And Human Rights After Atrocity, 2016 Michigan State University
Working With The Remains In Cambodia: Skeletal Analysis And Human Rights After Atrocity, Julie M. Fleischman
Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal
This essay will discuss the research being conducted on Khmer Rouge-era human skeletal remains in Cambodia, and the implications of this work. First, the Cambodian project to conserve and analyze the remains at the Choeung Ek Genocidal Center (Choeung Ek) will be briefly discussed. This exceptional undertaking was the first complete scientific analysis of human remains from a Cambodian mass gravesite. Second, the author’s independent research at Choeung Ek and a collaborative project at another mass gravesite will be reviewed. The author’s research focuses on the traumatic injuries and demographics of the remains at Choeung Ek, while also ...
Paleoepidemiological Analysis Of Trauma In A Roman Period Population From Kellis, Egypt, Circa 50-450 Ad, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Paleoepidemiological Analysis Of Trauma In A Roman Period Population From Kellis, Egypt, Circa 50-450 Ad, Isabella A. Graham
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
This thesis analyzes human skeletal trauma in a large well-preserved sample (n =268) from the Roman period Kellis site in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. Prevalence was determined for both infracranial and cranial skeletal trauma. The null hypothesis tested was that there are no differences in trauma when stratified by sex and by age cohorts (i.e., 18-35, 36-50 and 51+). Despite the overall trauma prevalence being similar between the sexes when not differentiated by age, the null hypothesis was rejected. Key differences that occurred between the sexes were that males suffered greater malintent and occupational traumas, whereas osteoporosis was the ...
Bioarchaeological Sampling Strategies: Reflection On First Sampling Experience At The Templo Mayor Museum In Mexico City, Diana Karina Moreiras Reynaga
Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology
Given that sampling strategies and protocols in bioarchaeology are rarely discussed in the literature, this paper is an attempt at reflecting upon the skeletal sampling process (e.g., preparation period, development of strategies and protocols, decision-making process, collaboration with those involved) as well as provide some considerations that may be useful to other junior researchers carrying out their sampling within the realm of bioarchaeology (also may be applicable to other research fields that engage in sampling specimens from museum collections). I provide the considerations about human bone and teeth as it pertains to stable isotope analysis from the literature and ...
Modeling Prehistoric Health In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Tennessee: Mississippian Populations On The Threshold Of Collapse, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Modeling Prehistoric Health In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Tennessee: Mississippian Populations On The Threshold Of Collapse, Christina Laiz Fojas
This research explores differences in mortality and survivorship resulting from factors associated with the abandonment of the Middle Cumberland Region (MCR) of Tennessee during the Mississippian period (ca. 1000-1500 AD). My dissertation investigates whether individuals from the Late Mississippian period had a greater risk of death than individuals from the Early Mississippian period. Adult age-at-death estimates (n=545) were calculated using Transition Analysis, a Bayesian maximum likelihood method. Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham hazard models were utilized to reconstruct the mortality profile of the MCR as they model human adult mortality and generate robust parametric mortality profiles. Rather than recount the prevalence ...
The Evaluation And Refinement Of Nonmetric Sex And Ancestry Assessment Methods In Modern Japanese And Thai Individuals, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
The Evaluation And Refinement Of Nonmetric Sex And Ancestry Assessment Methods In Modern Japanese And Thai Individuals, Sean D. Tallman
Effective biological profiles in forensic anthropology and bioarchaeology depend on the development, validation, and refinement of population-specific methods. However, most methods were developed in North America on individuals of African and European descent, and it is unlikely that such methods can generate accurate biological profiles for Asian individuals. Moreover, Native Americans have served as biological proxies for Asians due to their distantly shared genetic history, resulting in largely untested assumptions that Native Americans and Asians are homogenous and share nonmetric sexually dimorphic skeletal features and a unique suite of cranial traits that can be used in ancestry assessment.
This study ...
Being With Bees: An Anthropological Study On Human-Animal Relations In Southern Beekeeping, 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi
Being With Bees: An Anthropological Study On Human-Animal Relations In Southern Beekeeping, Kori Nadine Armstrong
This thesis investigates the complex and dynamic communicative relationship between beekeepers and their managed honey bee colonies, providing insight into the relationship between bees, their stewards, and the interface between nature and culture. It also helps unravel the ways in which this interspecies relationship changes a beekeepers’ perception of what it means to be human. Data collection features extensive participant observation with 21 semi-structured interviews with Southern beekeepers.
The interrelationship between communication and interaction, as well as diverse ways in which messages and cues manifest in the bee yard are explored through olfactory, optical, touch, and mechanical modalities. Variables including ...
Effect Of Migration, Carrying Capacity, And Fecundity On The Formation Of Clinal Patterns During Range Expansions., 2016 University of Louisville
Effect Of Migration, Carrying Capacity, And Fecundity On The Formation Of Clinal Patterns During Range Expansions., Neha J. Angal
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Range expansions, empirically and in simulations, lead to clinal patterns of genetic diversity. Clines are often used as spatial markers of past migrations. This study investigated the effects of migration, growth, and carrying capacities on clinal patterns during range expansions, using forward-time simulations in Nemo. Initial results show, in the absence of prior population structure, range expansions result in a loss of diversity strongly affected by migration, growth, and carrying capacity. This loss of diversity did not persist to the final generation, corresponding to 10,000 years, indicating clinal patterns are less durable than previously assumed—challenging the utility of ...
The Dirt On The Collins Mounds Site, 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
The Dirt On The Collins Mounds Site, Carmelita Angeles
Theses and Dissertations
Building monumental architecture has been one method used by humans to rise above an earthbound existence. In the United States, large earthen mounds were constructed from the Archaic period to the Mississippian period. The Collins Mound Site in Arkansas was recently dated to the Late Woodland period. For this study, soil samples were extracted from the northern section of the site for description and particle-size analysis. Erosion from plowing, wind, water, and gravity is the most likely process causing a decreased mound height and increased basal diameter. Mound fill likely originated near the river for two of the mounds and ...
Chimpanzee Accumulative Stone Throwing, 2016 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
Chimpanzee Accumulative Stone Throwing, Hjalmar S. Kühl, Ammie K. Kalan, Mimi Arandjelovic, Floris Aubert, Lucy D’Auvergne, Annemarie Goedmakers, Sorrel Jones, Laura Kehoe, Sebastien Regnaut, Alexander Tickle, Els Ton, Joost Van Schijndel, Ekwoge E. Abwe, Samuel Angedakin, Anthony Agbor, Emmanuel Ayuk Ayimisin, Emma Bailey, Mattia Bessone, Matthieu Bonnet, Gregory Brazolla, Valentine Ebua Buh, Rebecca Chancellor, Chloe Cipoletta, Heather Cohen, Katherine Corogenes, Charlotte Coupland, Bryan Curran, Tobias Deschner, Karsten Dierks, Paula Dieguez, Emmanuel Dilambaka, Orume Diotoh, Dervla Dowd, Andrew Dunn, Henk Eshuis, Rumen Fernandez, Yisa Ginath, John Hart, Daniela Hedwig, Martijn Ter Heegde, Thurston Cleveland Hicks, Inaoyom Imong, Kathryn J. Jeffery, Jessica Junker, Parag Kadam, Mohamed Kambi, Ivonne Kienast, Deo Kujirakwinja, Kevin Langergraber, Vincent Lapeyre, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Vera Leinert, Amelia Meier, Giovanna Maretti, Sergio Marrocoli, Tanyi Julius Mbi, Vianet Mihindou, Yasmin Moebius, David Morgan, Bethan Morgan, Felix Mulindahabi, Mizuki Murai, Protais Niyigabae, Emma Normand, Nicolas Ntare, Lucy Jayne Ormsby, Alex Piel, Jill Pruetz, Aaron S. Rundus, Crickette Sanz, Volker Sommer, Fiona Stewart, Nikki Tagg, Hilde Vanleeuwe, Virginie Vergnes, Jacob Willie, Roman M. Wittig, Klaus Zuberbuehler, Christophe Boesch
The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We ...
Teaching: Natural Or Cultural?, 2016 Utah State University
Teaching: Natural Or Cultural?, David F. Lancy
Sociology, Social Work and Anthropology Faculty Publications
In this chapter I argue that teaching, as we now understand the term, is historically and cross-culturally very rare. It appears to be unnecessary to transmit culture or to socialize children. Children are, on the other hand, primed by evolution to be avid observers, imitators, players and helpers—roles that reveal the profoundly autonomous and self-directed nature of culture acquisition (Lancy in press a). And yet, teaching is ubiquitous throughout the modern world—at least among the middle to upper class segment of the population. This ubiquity has led numerous scholars to argue for the universality and uniqueness of teaching ...
A History Of Violence: 3000 Years Of Interpersonal And Intergroup Conflicts From The Initial To The Early Colonial Periods In The Peruvian Central Coast. A Bioarchaeological Perspective, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
A History Of Violence: 3000 Years Of Interpersonal And Intergroup Conflicts From The Initial To The Early Colonial Periods In The Peruvian Central Coast. A Bioarchaeological Perspective, María Del Carmen Vega Dulanto
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The purpose of this study is to test research questions about the development of violence on the Peruvian central coast during the pre-Hispanic and Early Colonial times. This is the first study to provide a diachronic analysis of violence on the central coast. One null hypothesis was tested and falsified: that there are no differences in the prevalence and pattern of trauma over time on the central coast of Peru. Two complementary questions were also addressed: 1) Is there a relation between sociopolitical changes, natural catastrophes, competition for resources and violence? and 2) How did violence affect specific segments of ...
A Comparative Study Of The Glenohumeral Joint In New World Monkeys, 2016 Dickinson College
A Comparative Study Of The Glenohumeral Joint In New World Monkeys, Rachel Elizabeth Provazza
Student Honors Theses By Year
The functional use of a primate’s body greatly influences its skeletal morphology. Previous morphological studies include analyses of the glenohumeral joint as a reflection of the locomotion distinct to each Old World monkey. In addition, anthropologists examine the shoulder of hominoids to study the shift in locomotor behaviors towards bipedalism. The glenohumeral joint of hominoids, particularly those taking part in brachiation, is rounder and more globular in shape compared to other ancestral apes, indicative of a greater range in motion of the shoulder (Chan 2007a, 1; Green 2013, 253). However, little research examines the locomotion of New World monkeys ...
Population Genetic Analysis Of The Critically Endangered Black-And-White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Variegata) In Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, Amanda Mancini
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
This study sought to determine the efficacy of Ranomafana National Park (RNP) in preserving genetic diversity and gene flow in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Results indicate that RNP successfully promotes gene flow between V. variegata groups, although genetic diversity at this site is low compared to other lemur taxa.
Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, 2016 CUNY Hunter College
Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, Wren Edwards
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
Primates expend approximately 50% less energy (kcal/day) for their body size than other eutherians. Using the doubly labeled water method, I investigated total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity in Sapajus apella. S. apella TEE was similar (p=0.67) to other platyrrhines, but 54% lower than expected for body mass.
A Quantitative Genetic Analysis Of Craniofacial Variation In Baboons, 2016 Washington University in St. Louis
A Quantitative Genetic Analysis Of Craniofacial Variation In Baboons, Jessica Lynn Joganic
Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations
This dissertation is an explication of baboon craniofacial variation and its genetic basis. Intraspecific variation is the result of input from and complex interactions among genetic information, functional demands, and developmental processes. The relative effect of each of these on craniofacial variation, as well as the degree of inter-trait covariance, determines whether traits can respond to selection and what that response might look like. Using a sample of pedigreed baboons, I quantify craniofacial variation to address specific questions regarding the distribution and magnitude of phenotypic, genetic, and environmental variation patterns. In addition, I identify regions of the genome containing genetic ...