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Genetic Impacts Of Deforestation On Mouse Lemurs, Darice Westphal 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genetic Impacts Of Deforestation On Mouse Lemurs, Darice Westphal

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The impact of deforestation on the genetic structure of mouse lemurs is poorly understood. In this project, I assess deforestation of Madagascar’s terrestrial protected regions, quantify genomic wide genetic variation in two sympatric mouse lemurs, and evaluate the role of landscape structure in genetic relatedness patterns within two sympatric mouse lemur species. Overall deforestation rates across the 98 terrestrial protected areas in Madagascar are increasing, resulting in an average annual deforestation rate of 0.68% per year, with approximately 10,600 km2 lost between 2000 and 2019. In a comparison of relatedness patterns between the sympatric gray mouse lemur (Microcebus …


Dental Health In The Aqllakuna From Farfán (Peru): A New Perspective On An Inca Female Institution (Ca. 1470-1532 A.D.) Using Micro-Ct And Histological Analysis, Émy Roberge 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Dental Health In The Aqllakuna From Farfán (Peru): A New Perspective On An Inca Female Institution (Ca. 1470-1532 A.D.) Using Micro-Ct And Histological Analysis, Émy Roberge

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research aims to explore the lifeways of an underrepresented subgroup of females while reducing the use of destructive methods in bioarchaeology. The excavation of Farfán on the North Coast of Peru revealed a rare aqlla cemetery from the Late Horizon (1470-1532 A.D.). The aqlla was an Inca religious institution where young females were sequestered to brew chicha and weave in their aqllawasi. According to ethnohistorical sources, these “Chosen Women” were expected to represent a homogenous and advantaged subset of the population. This hypothesis is assessed by comparing their dental lesions to the general population using macroscopy, micro-CT, and …


Large-Herbivore Nemabiomes: Patterns Of Parasite Diversity And Sharing, Georgia C. Titcomb, Johan Pansu, Matthew C. Hutchinson, Kaia J. Tombak, Christina B. Hansen, Christopher C. M. Baker, Tyler R. Kartzinel, Robert M. Pringle 2022 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Large-Herbivore Nemabiomes: Patterns Of Parasite Diversity And Sharing, Georgia C. Titcomb, Johan Pansu, Matthew C. Hutchinson, Kaia J. Tombak, Christina B. Hansen, Christopher C. M. Baker, Tyler R. Kartzinel, Robert M. Pringle

Publications and Research

Amidst global shifts in the distribution and abundance of wildlife and livestock, we have only a rudimentary understanding of ungulate parasite communities and parasite-sharing patterns. We used qPCR and DNA metabarcoding of fecal samples to characterize gastrointestinal nematode (Strongylida) community composition and sharing among 17 sympatric species of wild and domestic large mammalian herbivore in central Kenya. We tested a suite of hypothesis-driven predictions about the role of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness in describing parasite infections. Host species identity explained 27 – 53% of individual variation in parasite prevalence, richness, community composition and phylogenetic diversity. Host and parasite phylogenies …


Stature Estimates Of The Classic Period Maya From Chac Balam And San Juan, Ambergris Caye, Belize, Natalie Clark 2022 University of Mississippi

Stature Estimates Of The Classic Period Maya From Chac Balam And San Juan, Ambergris Caye, Belize, Natalie Clark

Honors Theses

This thesis presents updated sex and stature estimates for ancient Maya females and males who lived in San Juan and Chac Balam in northern Ambergris Caye from approximately AD 700-900.

The regression formulae used in this study reflect a closer population affinity to the Maya compared to the equations used in the original analysis by Glassman (1995). Del Angel and Cisneros’ (2004) formulae were used when estimating stature based on a complete long bone. In Steele and Bramblett (1988), Steele and McKern (1969) and Steele (1970) regression formulae were used when estimating stature based on an incomplete humerus, femur, or …


Ageism, Eldercare, And Healthcare: An Examination Of Growing Old In Costa Rica, Akshaya Vijayasankar 2022 University of Mississippi

Ageism, Eldercare, And Healthcare: An Examination Of Growing Old In Costa Rica, Akshaya Vijayasankar

Honors Theses

The world’s aging population and the Covid-19 pandemic have revealed the high level of ageism against older adults around the globe, which has resulted in an overall decreased quality of life for elders. Societies are now faced with the challenge of creating a suitable and equitable model of care to support their aging population. Despite the recent publication of the World Health Organization's Global Report on Ageism, there is still a large gap in the literature regarding ageism. This paper addresses the issues of institutional ageism in the eldercare and healthcare sector. I argue that Costa Rica serves as a …


The Abuse Of Darwinism (And Social Darwinism) For The Purposes Of Discrimination, Jessica N. Kantrowitz 2022 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

The Abuse Of Darwinism (And Social Darwinism) For The Purposes Of Discrimination, Jessica N. Kantrowitz

Honors Student Research

Throughout most of history, people have tried to justify their discrimination against other groups of people in any way they can, especially using biology and evolutionary theories as reason. When Charles Darwin published his book “On the Origin of Species”, introducing his theory of evolution and the work and experiments he did to prove this theory, it caused many to question their previous bigoted beliefs. For some, however, Darwin’s theory of evolution, which would come to be referred to simply as Darwinism, only further proved their biases, or they could, at least, make it sound like they did. Later on, …


Reconsidering Scales And The Binary In Forensic Anthropology: A Critical Analysis Of Morphoscopic Data Utilized In Sex Estimation Standards., Bailey N. Watson 2022 University of Louisville

Reconsidering Scales And The Binary In Forensic Anthropology: A Critical Analysis Of Morphoscopic Data Utilized In Sex Estimation Standards., Bailey N. Watson

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

This research explores sex estimation standards used in forensic anthropology in an effort to further the conversation about forensic anthropology's binary-focused language and methods. Discussions regarding sex estimation methodology are important in light of gender variance in the general population. Presently, there is minimal published research on the identification of gender non-conforming individuals in forensic anthropology.

Two researchers individually assigned scores to features associated with sexual dimorphism in the os coxae according to existing methods for 253 individuals, equally represented by self- reported males and females. These data were statistically analyzed for correlation and overlap between features.

Results mainly point …


Teaching Old Calipers New Tricks: Using Craniometrics For Ancestry Admixture Estimation Via Fuzzy Math, Kristi Carnahan 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Teaching Old Calipers New Tricks: Using Craniometrics For Ancestry Admixture Estimation Via Fuzzy Math, Kristi Carnahan

Master's Theses

Cranial measurements have been a cornerstone of physical anthropology since its formation as a discipline in the early 1900s. However, most other ancestry determination methods come with a significant epistemological issue: they differentiate individuals into discrete categories without accounting for the issue of admixture. Advances in data mining and analysis techniques can now be used to help resolve this issue through soft computing, also known as “fuzzy math”. This type of advanced computational math requires specialized knowledge in computer programming, statistics, and data analysis techniques unless one is using computer programs specially designed to run these analyses.

This project compiled …


Moral Distress, Burnout, And Moral Injury In Healthcare Professionals, Sophia Gibson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Moral Distress, Burnout, And Moral Injury In Healthcare Professionals, Sophia Gibson

Anthropology Undergraduate Honors Theses

For doctors and other health care professionals, experiences of care too often involve burnout and moral distress. Making both visible to begin addressing them takes up the main concern of my thesis. Burnout and moral distress swallow a life. Suddenly you aren’t going on that shopping trip with friends, you can forget about going to that movie or play. You are too tired to drag yourself out of bed, instead getting caught in a cycle of sleep and work with no time for a break or even to process what happened last shift. Who’s going to have a nice relaxing …


Reconstructing Bison And Mammoth Migration During The Late Pleistocene And Early Holocene Of Central Texas Using Strontium Isotopes, Joshua John Porter 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Reconstructing Bison And Mammoth Migration During The Late Pleistocene And Early Holocene Of Central Texas Using Strontium Isotopes, Joshua John Porter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

During the Late Pleistocene (LP; past 130,000 years), over two-thirds of large mammal (>45kg) species went extinct globally. While the role of humans is hotly debated, the effect of these extinctions is growing clearer; the extinctions resulted in widespread and lasting faunal community reorganization. However, the impact of these extinctions on dietary and migratory behavior within faunal communities is unknown. Our study examines the impact of the megafaunal extinctions on the dietary and migratory behavior of surviving Bison individuals in Texas using carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotopes. Strontium isotopes are incorporated into mammalian enamel during their tooth development and …


Investigating The Mechanics And Chemistry Of Sickle Polish Development, Justin Jared Dubois 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating The Mechanics And Chemistry Of Sickle Polish Development, Justin Jared Dubois

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This series of experiments is designed to understand the development and chemistry of sickle gloss. Sickles are common in the archaeological record and have long been studied for their eponymous “sickle gloss”. There is debate as to how this gloss is formed. Five experimental sickles containing flint and novaculite blades were used to harvest high and low moisture content rye and common fescue and associated field weeds. The differences in the development of sickle gloss were examined. High moisture content plants create thick, smooth fields of polish with undulating, billowing margins at a higher developmental speed. Low moisture content plants …


Combating Frailty: Application Of A Modified Skeletal Frailty Index In Modern Military And Civilian Populations., Emily M. Frazier 2022 University of Louisville

Combating Frailty: Application Of A Modified Skeletal Frailty Index In Modern Military And Civilian Populations., Emily M. Frazier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Conceptualizing, quantifying, and evaluating frailty in human skeletal remains is critical to understanding and interpreting physiological health and stress among past populations. While many researchers focus on frailty in bioarchaeological samples, developing models for mortality risk and individual- and population-specific indices of stress, no current methods directly address frailty in forensic contexts. This study considers the applicability of a modified index for assessing frailty in forensic anthropology by comparing distributions of 8 biomarkers of stress (linear enamel hypoplasia; periodontal disease; caries; osteoarthritis; intervertebral disc disease; rotator cuff disorder; antemortem fracture; and surgical procedure) using the original skeletal frailty index (SFI) …


Quantification Of Dental Fissures Through Occlusal Topography Analysis, Duru Erkan 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Quantification Of Dental Fissures Through Occlusal Topography Analysis, Duru Erkan

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Narrow, deep, and elaborate dental fissures are widely believed to increase the predisposition of enamel to develop carious lesions as these surfaces are thought to be ideal for cariogenic bacteria to adhere to. Therefore, dentists prescribe sealants as a preventative measure for patients with such fissures to avoid tooth decay. Yet to date, there is no objective data supporting the notion that fissure morphology actually affects caries susceptibility, nor is there a quantifiable, clinically practical method to characterize fissure patterns expected to increase risk of caries disease.

In this study, three new methods to quantitatively characterize fissure pattern in mandibular …


Musculoskeletal Markers: A Comparison Of The Influence Of Three Biological Factors On Robusticity, Megan Greene 2022 Louisiana State University

Musculoskeletal Markers: A Comparison Of The Influence Of Three Biological Factors On Robusticity, Megan Greene

LSU Master's Theses

Research suggests that musculoskeletal markers (MSMs) can provide information about the lives of deceased individuals. The majority of studies focus on single factors that influence the morphology of MSMs in pre-modern societies (i.e., medieval, hunter-gatherers, preindustrial, etc.). This study analyzes MSMs of modern skeletons of 72 females and 83 males from the United States whose ages at death range from 30 to 89 to understand the relationship between various biological factors and MSM morphology. Eight MSMs (attachments of pectoralis major, deltoid, brachialis, supinator, iliopsoas, gluteus maximus, quadriceps, and soleus) were analyzed and categorized as phases zero, one, two, or three …


A Validation Study Of Transferrin And I-Fabp As Dried Blood Spot-Based Biomarkers Of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction, Selinda Qiu 2022 University of Pennsylvania

A Validation Study Of Transferrin And I-Fabp As Dried Blood Spot-Based Biomarkers Of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction, Selinda Qiu

Anthropology Senior Theses

Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) is a subclinical condition characterized by increased intestinal permeability and impaired nutrient absorption, but current methods for assessing EED are invasive and resource intensive. Dried blood spot (DBS) biomarker sampling offers a minimally invasive method of detecting EED. We present a validation study of two DBS protocols for the measurement of transferrin, a biomarker of iron status, and I-FABP, a biomarker of intestinal permeability. Matched DBS from a fingerstick and venous whole blood samples from n=74 individuals were collected over a 3-week period. Whole blood was used to create additional DBS samples and then spun down …


Analysis Of Vertebrae Pathologies Of Grave A650 Chryssi Island, Crete, Greece, Abbey E. Bartmess, Susan Kirkpatrick Smith 2022 Kennesaw State University

Analysis Of Vertebrae Pathologies Of Grave A650 Chryssi Island, Crete, Greece, Abbey E. Bartmess, Susan Kirkpatrick Smith

Symposium of Student Scholars

This study of multiple, co-mingled adult individuals located in grave A650 on Chryssi Island, Crete, Greece, examines the prevalence of several pathologies of the vertebrae. This grave was built into a collapsed Late Minoan period house (1400-1100 B.C.E.). Grave A650, which likely dates to the 5th – 7th century C.E., shows evidence of being used over a long period of time and may have served as an ossuary. The pathologies of approximately 30 recovered vertebrae, both complete and incomplete, show signs of degenerative joint disease, spondylolisthesis, and body expansion. Researching this data aims to accomplish a comprehensive understanding of what …


Dating The Seals Of Harappa: A Radiocarbon Approach, Grace Abernathy 2022 Kennesaw State University

Dating The Seals Of Harappa: A Radiocarbon Approach, Grace Abernathy

Symposium of Student Scholars

For many years, Indus seals have puzzled archaeologists with their detailed motifs and undeciphered script. There is no pattern to the relationship between motifs and inscriptions, as each motif has been found scattered across the greater Indus region. In looking at the context of the seals and radiocarbon dating of charcoal, bone, and shell in a singular site, there may be a definitive pattern between certain motifs and the time periods they were used. This study uses contextual analysis to identify chronological patterns of seals discovered at the site of Harappa. Should any patterns arise, this research study could be …


Dismantling Binary Assumptions In Sex Estimation: Uplifting Trans And Gender Diverse Identities In Forensic Anthropology, Audrey Holbeck 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dismantling Binary Assumptions In Sex Estimation: Uplifting Trans And Gender Diverse Identities In Forensic Anthropology, Audrey Holbeck

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Forensic anthropology is a study within the field of physical anthropology that seeks to apply osteological expertise to legal and criminal situations. One of a forensic anthropologists’ most important jobs is to build a biological profile, consisting of age, biological sex, stature, and ancestry, in correspondence to an unidentified decedent. As we enter the third decade of the 21st century, instances of violence against trans and gender non-conforming individuals are unfortunately prominent, however, there has also been more awareness shed on trans activism. Trans individuals are at a higher risk of being victims of violent crime, and thus, forensic anthropologists …


Prevalence Of Dementia And Mild Cognitive Impairment In Indigenous Bolivian Forager-Horticulturalists, Margaret Gatz, Wendy J. Mack, Helena C. Chui, E. Meng Law, Giuseppe Barisano, M. Linda Sutherland, James D. Sutherland, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Raul Quispe Gutierrez, Juan Copajira Adrian, Jesus Bani Cuata, Amy R. Borenstein, Ellen E. Waters, Andrei Irimia, Christopher J. Rowan, L. Samuel Wann, Adel H. Allam, Randall C. Thompson, Michael I. Miyamoto, David E. Michalik, Daniel K. Cummings, Edmond Seabright, Angela R. Garcia, Paul L. Hooper, Thomas S. Kraft, Caleb E. Finch, Gregory S. Thomas, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C. Trumble, Michael D. Gurven, Hillard Kaplan 2022 University of Southern California

Prevalence Of Dementia And Mild Cognitive Impairment In Indigenous Bolivian Forager-Horticulturalists, Margaret Gatz, Wendy J. Mack, Helena C. Chui, E. Meng Law, Giuseppe Barisano, M. Linda Sutherland, James D. Sutherland, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Raul Quispe Gutierrez, Juan Copajira Adrian, Jesus Bani Cuata, Amy R. Borenstein, Ellen E. Waters, Andrei Irimia, Christopher J. Rowan, L. Samuel Wann, Adel H. Allam, Randall C. Thompson, Michael I. Miyamoto, David E. Michalik, Daniel K. Cummings, Edmond Seabright, Angela R. Garcia, Paul L. Hooper, Thomas S. Kraft, Caleb E. Finch, Gregory S. Thomas, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C. Trumble, Michael D. Gurven, Hillard Kaplan

ESI Publications

Introduction

We evaluated the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in indigenous Tsimane and Moseten, who lead a subsistence lifestyle.

Methods

Participants from population-based samples ≥ 60 years of age (n = 623) were assessed using adapted versions of the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, informant interview, longitudinal cognitive testing and brain computed tomography (CT) scans.

Results

Tsimane exhibited five cases of dementia (among n = 435; crude prevalence = 1.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4, 2.7); Moseten exhibited one case (among n = 169; crude prevalence = 0.6%, 95% CI: 0.0, 3.2), all age ≥ 80 years. …


The Impact Of Energetic Trade-Offs On The Developmental Trajectory And Life History Strategy Of Homo Sapiens: The Modern Human Female Phenotype, Laura Ann Hope Atkinson 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Impact Of Energetic Trade-Offs On The Developmental Trajectory And Life History Strategy Of Homo Sapiens: The Modern Human Female Phenotype, Laura Ann Hope Atkinson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study interrogates the relationship between early life environmental variability (measured through birth weight and age at menarche), and adult phenotypic outcomes in female athletes and non-athletes from the United Kingdom. Using anthropometric, and 3D body surface scan analysis, patterns of phenotypic variation were interpreted in a life history context. Significant correlations between birth weight, stature, and bi-iliac breadth were observed. Age at menarche had significant correlations with linear growth and body composition measures in both Pearson and Canonical Correlation analyses. Crural index was found to be negatively correlated with limb segment SA:Vol in opposition to the expectations of Allen’s …


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