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Variation In Rhesus Macaque (Macaca Mulatta) Vocalizations: Social And Biological Influences, Emma A. McNamara 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Variation In Rhesus Macaque (Macaca Mulatta) Vocalizations: Social And Biological Influences, Emma A. Mcnamara

Anthropology Senior Theses

Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely studied nonhuman primate. While some work has been done on both vocal communication and the role of the neuropeptides, oxytocin, and vasopressin in the behavior of these highly social primates, key questions remain unanswered. In this study, seven rhesus macaques (four adult females and three adult males) were given a dose of either saline (control), oxytocin, or vasopressin. After being given this treatment, they were placed in close proximity to a conspecific who had not received any such treatment and the two monkeys were allowed to interact for five minutes. A variety ...


The History Of Race In Anthropology: Paul Broca And The Question Of Human Hybridity, Samantha S. Ashok 2017 University of Pennsylvania

The History Of Race In Anthropology: Paul Broca And The Question Of Human Hybridity, Samantha S. Ashok

Anthropology Senior Theses

Paul Broca (1824-1880) was a French physician and anthropologist whose belief in the polygenesis of human origins was inextricably linked to the question of human hybridity. His studies on hybridity began in 1857 after he observed leporids, the crossing of a hare and a rabbit. He applied his methods of analyzing these animal hybrids to mixed-race individuals, a task he believed would prove polygenism. His studies laid the basis for French anthropology and led to the founding of the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, the world’s first anthropological society. Broca’s background in mathematics led him to expand upon ...


Comparison Between Genetic And Morphological Sex Of The Cranium, Elizabeth V. Pierce 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Comparison Between Genetic And Morphological Sex Of The Cranium, Elizabeth V. Pierce

Anthropology Senior Theses

Morphological methods are relied upon to determine the sex of skeletal remains of both archaeological and forensic significance. The characteristics commonly examined in these morphological methods have a large margin of error, especially when it comes to partial or fragmentary cranial remains. The case could be made from this morphological study that sex attributed to fragmented remains where not more than one commonly scored trait is available for examination should not be considered as being fully reliable. In this study, I examined 20 crania from a collection from Tepe Hissar to compare morphological sex and genetic sex. Overall, the mastoid ...


Feeding Ecology Of Savanna Chimpanzees At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz 2017 Iowa State University

Feeding Ecology Of Savanna Chimpanzees At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz

Jill Pruetz

Chimpanzees are commonly known as ripe fruit specialists (Goodall, 1968, 1986; Hladik, 1977, 1977, 1979; Nishida, 1990; Matsumoto-Oda & Hayashi, 1997; Tutin et al., 1997; Wrangham et al., 1998; Newton-Fisher, 1999; Balcomb et al., 2000; Basabose, 2002), and this dietary emphasis is thought to be a major factor influencing their fission-fusion social organization (Wrangham, 1979; Sugiyama & Koman, 1992; Wrangham, 2000; NewtonFisher et al., 2000; Mitani et al., 2002; Lehmann & Boesch, 2004). In order to maximize their utilization of ripe fruit resources, which are generally described as patchy and variable in size (e.g., Ghiglieri, 1984 ), chimpanzee subgroups or parties fluctuate in size and individual make-up in response to resources. Presence of estrous females also influences the size and composition of chimpanzee parties, and this effect has been found to equate with food availability at some sites or even to surpass it (Goodall, 1986; Sakura, 1994; Boesch, 1996; Newton-Fisher et al., 2000; Anderson et al., 2002; Mitani et al., 2002).


Variations Of Age Of Suture Closure Between Males And Females, Martin Bach 2017 Georgia State University

Variations Of Age Of Suture Closure Between Males And Females, Martin Bach

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Guide To The Lyle Hubbard Slide Collection, Linfield College Archives 2017 Linfield College

Guide To The Lyle Hubbard Slide Collection, Linfield College Archives

Linfield College Archives Finding Aids

This collection is a digital representation of several thousand 35-millimeter color slides used to document, characterize, and teach about forensics and physical anthropology field work. The slides were taken by Linfield College alumnus Lyle Hubbard and document his travels outside of Oregon, as well as projects at the University of Oregon, Portland Community College, Washington State University, the Oregon Bureau of Land Management, and the University of Tennessee.


Ant 4930 Research In Physician Interaction, Roberta Baer 2017 University of South Florida

Ant 4930 Research In Physician Interaction, Roberta Baer

Service-Learning Syllabi

No abstract provided.


Claiming The Indomitable Wave: Masculinities, Sexualities, And The Realm Of Surfing In Costa Rica, Joseph C. Recupero 2017 Gettysburg College

Claiming The Indomitable Wave: Masculinities, Sexualities, And The Realm Of Surfing In Costa Rica, Joseph C. Recupero

Student Publications

Examining the relationship between masculinity, sexuality, and the sport of surfing in the context of Costa Rica. Questions the nature of emergent counter identities in the hyper-masculine realm of the surfing subculture and the ways in which the emergence of counter identities changes the nature of the subculture. Focuses on the anthropology of sport, the anthropology of sexuality, and theories of territoriality.


Planted Trees As Corridors For Primates At El Zota Biological Field Station, Costa Rica, Jerimiah Luckett, Elizabeth Danforth, Kim Linsenbardt, Jill D. Pruetz 2017 Franklin College

Planted Trees As Corridors For Primates At El Zota Biological Field Station, Costa Rica, Jerimiah Luckett, Elizabeth Danforth, Kim Linsenbardt, Jill D. Pruetz

Jill Pruetz

We conducted a study at the privately owned El Zota Biological Field Station in Costa Rica to assess the effects of forest management techniques on primate ecology and behavior. While many conservation-oriented studies note the need for “corridors” to promote dispersal between isolated habitat fragments, few studies provide quantitative information on their use by primates. From July to August 2002, we studied the three primate species that occur at the El Zota Biological Field Station in Costa Rica — Cebus capucinus, Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata — to compare their use of planted versus naturally forested areas. We collected approximately 25 hours of ...


Zooarchaeological And Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Newly Excavated Middle Pleistocene Deposits From Elandsfontein, South Africa, Frances L. Forrest 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Zooarchaeological And Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Newly Excavated Middle Pleistocene Deposits From Elandsfontein, South Africa, Frances L. Forrest

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Increased consumption of animal tissue is arguably one of the most important adaptive transitions in early hominin behavior. A dietary shift toward regular tool-assisted meat consumption and increased competition with the carnivore paleoguild likely helped shape many important hominin adaptations such as foraging patterns, habitat preferences, and social behaviors. Yet, the ecological and behavioral implications for increased hominin carnivory remain poorly understood. This dissertation examines the zooarchaeological and paleoenvironmental history of an important Acheulean hominin locality, Elandsfontein, South Africa (ca. 1.0 – 0.6 Ma). The goal is to begin addressing under-investigated aspects of Acheulean hominin behavioral ecology and place ...


Predation On A Monkey By Savanna Chimpanzees At Fongoli, Senegal, M. Gašperšič, Jill D. Pruetz 2017 Institutum Studiorum Humanitatis

Predation On A Monkey By Savanna Chimpanzees At Fongoli, Senegal, M. Gašperšič, Jill D. Pruetz

Jill Pruetz

Although forest-living chimpanzees commonly include vertebrate prey such as monkeys in their diet¹, savanna chimpanzees have been reported only to eat prosimians². New evidence from the recently-established Fongoli study site in Senegal suggests that chimpanzees there hunt green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus). The Fongoli community ranges over an area of at least 63 km² and based on fecal analyses, consumes a species of bushbaby found here probably Galago senegalensis.


Evidence For Leaf Swallowing Behavior By Savanna Chimpanzees In Senegal- A New Site Record, Jill D. Pruetz, Susannah Johnson-Fulton 2017 Iowa State University

Evidence For Leaf Swallowing Behavior By Savanna Chimpanzees In Senegal- A New Site Record, Jill D. Pruetz, Susannah Johnson-Fulton

Jill Pruetz

Evidence of leaf swallowing, a proposed form of medicinal plant use by savanna chimpanzees was recently recorded at the Fongoli study site in southeastern Senegal. Since April 2001, the Fongoli community of chimpanzees has been studied in an effort to better understand the ecology of chimpanzees in an arid environment. The habitat can be described as a mosaic of woodland and savanna containing areas of bamboo forest and grassland and interspersed with isolated areas of gallery forest (<1% of study area) and larger areas of laterite plateau. Chimpanzees at this site have been estimated to occur at a density of 0.09 individuals per km² (1). The site lies approximately 40 km E of the Parc National du Niokolo Koba and 10 km NW of the town of Kedougou, in southeastern Senegal.


Fongoli Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Eats Banded Mongoose (Mungos Mungo), Stephanie L. Bogart, Jill D. Pruetz, D. Kante 2017 Iowa State University

Fongoli Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Eats Banded Mongoose (Mungos Mungo), Stephanie L. Bogart, Jill D. Pruetz, D. Kante

Jill Pruetz

We provide the first evidence of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) preying upon a banded mongoose (Mungos mungo). A subadult female was observed consuming a banded mongoose at the Fongoli savanna chimpanzee study site, Senegal. This recording provides new data and adds a small carnivore to the list of animal prey known for the chimpanzee diet.


Use Of Caves By Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) In The Tomboronkoto Region Of Southeastern Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz 2017 Iowa State University

Use Of Caves By Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) In The Tomboronkoto Region Of Southeastern Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz

Jill Pruetz

Indirect evidence has been found to indicate that chimpanzees in the Tomboronkoto region of southeastern Senegal use natural caves during the late dry season (May-June) for resting and eating. The Tomboronkoto region is the site of a newly-initiated research project on the ecology and behavior of savanna chimpanzees. Chimpanzees are not yet habituated at this site. Tomboronkoto (12¼72ÕN, 12¼22ÕW) is approximately 48 km SE of the Assirik site in Parc National du Niokolo Koba in Senegal. This new study site is south of the Gambia River, while the Assirik area lies north of the river. At Tomboronkoto, chimpanzees are sympatric ...


Laterality In Termite-Fishing By Fongoli Chimpanzees: Preliminary Report, Paco Bertolani, Clarissa Scholes, Jill D. Pruetz, William C. McGrew 2017 University of Cambridge

Laterality In Termite-Fishing By Fongoli Chimpanzees: Preliminary Report, Paco Bertolani, Clarissa Scholes, Jill D. Pruetz, William C. Mcgrew

Jill Pruetz

Many studies in both free-ranging and captive apes have shown that some forms of laterality of hand function occur in non-human primates1. However, true handedness (sensu McGrew and Marchant2), when most individuals show a skew in hand preference in the same direction across different tasks, seems to be restricted to humans. Other hominoids appear unlateralized in simpler tasks, such as reaching, picking up objects, and grooming3, but they show hand preference for more complex tasks, such as tool-using2, 4, 5 or elaborate food processing6, 7.

Laterality in termite-fishing8 has been studied only at Gombe ...


Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Prey On Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus Patas) At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, Joshua L. Marshack 2017 Iowa State University

Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Prey On Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus Patas) At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, Joshua L. Marshack

Jill Pruetz

Chimpanzees across Africa include some meat in their diet1. In most communities where chimpanzees have been studied over the long term, primate prey is apparently preferred over other animal prey, with red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius) comprising the most common monkey species eaten2. At Fongoli, Senegal, it is likely that chimpanzees have never had access to red colobus monkeys at this hot, dry and open site, although the range of red colobus monkeys (P.b. temminckii) in Senegal and adjacent countries in West Africa has diminished3. Fongoli chimpanzees are currently not sympatric with red colobus, although they eat vertebrate prey ...


Chimpanzees In Bandafassi Arrondissement, Southeastern Senegal: Field Surveys As A Basis For The Sustainable Community-Based Conservation, Maja Gašperšič, Jill D. Pruetz 2017 University of Ljubljana

Chimpanzees In Bandafassi Arrondissement, Southeastern Senegal: Field Surveys As A Basis For The Sustainable Community-Based Conservation, Maja Gašperšič, Jill D. Pruetz

Jill Pruetz

The western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) is considered as one of the most threatened ape species, facing a dramatic decline over the last decade1,2. The latest conservation action plans classified Senegal as “an exceptionally important priority area” for chimpanzee protection, which demands immediate attention3. Chimpanzees have been expatriated from at least two African countries and IUCN estimated the Senegalese population to be almost extinct, numbering between 200 and 4004. Most apes range in small isolated communities in intense sympatry with local ethnic groups. Major threats include human encroachment, deforestation for crops, gold and iron digging, along with limited pet ...


Update On The Assirik Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Population In Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, Racine Ballahira, Waly Camara, Stacy Lindshield, Joshua L. Marshack, Anna Olson, Michel Sahdiako, Ulises Villalobos-Flores 2017 Iowa State University

Update On The Assirik Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Population In Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, Racine Ballahira, Waly Camara, Stacy Lindshield, Joshua L. Marshack, Anna Olson, Michel Sahdiako, Ulises Villalobos-Flores

Jill Pruetz

The Assirik, Senegal chimpanzee population was studied extensively by McGrew and colleagues in the Stirling African Primate Project (SAPP) in the late 1970s1 and surveyed by the Miami Assirik Pan Project (MAPP) in 20002. These chimpanzees (thought to represent a single community3), within the Niokolo Koba National Park (or Parc National du Niokolo Koba, PNNK), remain the only protected population in the country, with most of Senegal’s chimpanzees living in unprotected areas4. In 2012, the Iowa State Assirik Primate Project (ISAPP) surveyed Assirik and outlying areas in the PNNK to assess chimpanzee density and to explore the possibility of ...


Successful Return Of A Wild Infant Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) To Its Natal Group After Capture By Poachers, Jill D. Pruetz, Dondo Kante 2017 Iowa State University

Successful Return Of A Wild Infant Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) To Its Natal Group After Capture By Poachers, Jill D. Pruetz, Dondo Kante

Jill Pruetz

We report the successful return of an infant chimpanzee, aged approximately nine months, to her mother following the infant’s capture by poachers. The infant received only minor wounds in the incident, but her mother received severe wounds from hunters’ dogs during the capture. One of us (DK) was able to confiscate the infant from the hunters without incident. She was kept in fairly isolated surroundings in order to minimize disease transmission from humans, until the fate of her mother was determined. Following five days in captivity, we successfully returned the infant to her mother. The infant and mother appear ...


Lethal Aggression In Pan Is Better Explained By Adaptive Strategies Than Human Impacts, Micahel L. Wilson, Christophe Boesch, Barbara Fruth, Takeshi Furuichi, Ian C. Gilby, Chie Hashimoto, Catherine L. Hobaiter, Gottifred Hohmann, Noriko Itoh, Kathelijne Koops, Julia N. Lloyd, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, John C. Mitani, Dues C. Mjungu, David Morgan, Martin N. Muller, Roger Mundry, Michio Nakamura, Jill D. Pruetz, Anne E. Pusey, Julia Riedel, Crickette Sanz, Anne M. Schel, Nicole Simmons, Michael Waller, David P. Watts, Francis White, Roman M. Wittig, Klaus Zuberbühler, Rcihard W. Wrangham 2017 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Lethal Aggression In Pan Is Better Explained By Adaptive Strategies Than Human Impacts, Micahel L. Wilson, Christophe Boesch, Barbara Fruth, Takeshi Furuichi, Ian C. Gilby, Chie Hashimoto, Catherine L. Hobaiter, Gottifred Hohmann, Noriko Itoh, Kathelijne Koops, Julia N. Lloyd, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, John C. Mitani, Dues C. Mjungu, David Morgan, Martin N. Muller, Roger Mundry, Michio Nakamura, Jill D. Pruetz, Anne E. Pusey, Julia Riedel, Crickette Sanz, Anne M. Schel, Nicole Simmons, Michael Waller, David P. Watts, Francis White, Roman M. Wittig, Klaus Zuberbühler, Rcihard W. Wrangham

Jill Pruetz

Observations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide valuable comparative data for understanding the significance of conspecific killing. Two kinds of hypothesis have been proposed. Lethal violence is sometimes concluded to be the result of adaptive strategies, such that killers ultimately gain fitness benefits by increasing their access to resources such as food or mates1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Alternatively, it could be a non-adaptive result of human impacts, such as habitat change or food provisioning6, 7, 8, 9. To discriminate between these hypotheses we compiled information from 18 chimpanzee communities and 4 bonobo communities studied ...


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