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The Effects Of Common Methods Of Soft Tissue Removal On Skeletal Remains: A Comparative Analysis, Emily Silverman 2018 University of Montana

The Effects Of Common Methods Of Soft Tissue Removal On Skeletal Remains: A Comparative Analysis, Emily Silverman

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The removal of soft tissue from skeletal remains is a process familiar to a wide array of scientific fields and the methods used to perform it are likewise numerous yet inconsistent. In forensic investigations and crime labs across the country, there lacks a standardization for this process. This lack of standardization pairs with a distinct lack of literature on the potential benefits and risks associated with each method as well as basic information on the proper amount of additives, temperatures, or time estimations. In a forensic context, human remains may be the only evidence available, which makes any damage or ...


Mitochondrial Dna Analysis Of Mazahua And Otomi Indigenous Populations From Estado De Mexico Suggests A Distant Common Ancestry, Angelica González-Oliver, Ernesto Garfias-Morales, D G. Smith, Mirsha Quinto-Sánchez 2018 Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México

Mitochondrial Dna Analysis Of Mazahua And Otomi Indigenous Populations From Estado De Mexico Suggests A Distant Common Ancestry, Angelica GonzáLez-Oliver, Ernesto Garfias-Morales, D G. Smith, Mirsha Quinto-Sánchez

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The indigenous Mazahua and Otomi have inhabited the same localities in Estado de Mexico since pre-Columbian times. Their languages, Mazahua and Otomi, belong to the Otomanguean linguistic family, and, while they share cultural traditions and a regional history that suggest close genetic relationships and common ancestry, the historical records concerning their origin are confusing. To understand the biological relationships between Mazahua and Otomi we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic variation. We identified the mtDNA haplogroups by restriction fragment length polymorphism typing and sequenced the hypervariable region I of the mtDNA control region in 141 Mazahua and 100 Otomi. These ...


Evaluating Nubian Population Structure From Cranial Nonmetric Traits: Gene Flow, Genetic Drift, And Population History Of The Nubian Nile Valle, Kanya Godde, Richard L. Jantz 2018 Sociology/Anthropology, University of La Verne, La Verne, CA

Evaluating Nubian Population Structure From Cranial Nonmetric Traits: Gene Flow, Genetic Drift, And Population History Of The Nubian Nile Valle, Kanya Godde, Richard L. Jantz

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Paleolithic archaeological and skeletal remains from the Nile Valley have yielded a complex picture of life along the river. Sociocultural and sociopolitical events during this timeframe shaped population structure, while gene flow and genetic drift further developed it. In this paper, we take a population genetics approach to modeling Nubian biological relationships in an effort to describe how an accumulation of events formed Nubian population structure. A variety of Nubian samples were utilized, spanning the Mesolithic-Christian time periods, and geographically, from just above the first through the third cataracts. Population genetics statistics were employed to estimate and depict biological affinities ...


Reconstructing The Vocal Capabilities Of Homo Heidelbergensis, A Close Human Ancestor, Austin Blake Stanley 2018 University of Central Florida

Reconstructing The Vocal Capabilities Of Homo Heidelbergensis, A Close Human Ancestor, Austin Blake Stanley

Honors in the Major Theses

The discovery of 5,500 Homo heidelbergensis fossil specimens at the Sima de los Huesos archaeological site in Spain has opened up the opportunity for research to be conducted on the vocal capabilities of this species. Previous research has revealed that the range of vowel sounds an individual can produce, known as the vowel space, is directly affected by the dimensions of the vocal tract. The vowel spaces of two hominins, Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis, have been reconstructed through previous research. However, the vowel space of Homo heidelbergensis has not yet been reconstructed. In this research, I aim to ...


"Back" To The Future: An Evaluation Of Morphological Integration In Kyphosis, Kristyna L. Ceuninck 2018 University of Central Florida

"Back" To The Future: An Evaluation Of Morphological Integration In Kyphosis, Kristyna L. Ceuninck

Honors in the Major Theses

Morphological integration refers to the interdependence of two or more phenotypic structures. The morphological integration concept is based on the fact that parts of complex organisms do not vary randomly and instead display degrees of non-independence that are thought to occur from shared genetic or developmental origins, and/or functional demands. Integrated traits may develop, evolve, and be inherited together. One instance of morphological integration can be found between the vertebral column and the skull. Due to the position of the skull resting atop of the vertebral column, posture may influence skull development and overall craniofacial morphology. Morphological integration within ...


A Theoretical Consideration: Understanding Primate Polyspecific Associations Through Current Literature Of Primate Predation And Communication, Kaelyn Melinne Dobson 2018 Iowa State University

A Theoretical Consideration: Understanding Primate Polyspecific Associations Through Current Literature Of Primate Predation And Communication, Kaelyn Melinne Dobson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Primates are a unique taxon of organisms found to have complex communication, behavior, sociality and in turn, life histories. One of the areas of primate study with relatively little current knowledge is regarding natural polyspecific interactions in which two different species interact in a mutualistic or commensalistic relation suggested to be due to predation threats or foraging benefits. While polyspecific associations have been identified in a wide array of organisms including primate species, the causes are not always clear. Causes are suggested to include reducing predation threats and the ability to communicate information, particularly about predators. This paper will review ...


Influence Of Human Disturbance On Western Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Nesting Behavior In A Savanna Mosaic Habitat, Southeastern Senegal, Kristine Micheletti 2018 Iowa State University

Influence Of Human Disturbance On Western Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Nesting Behavior In A Savanna Mosaic Habitat, Southeastern Senegal, Kristine Micheletti

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The human population continues to grow worldwide at an alarming rate, and, with this growth, comes expansion into new areas. These expansions can come with actions, like logging, mining, and agriculture that are harmful to the environment and the species inhabiting it. The critically endangered West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) is one primate species affected by such human actions. In the Kedougou region of southeastern Senegal, artisanal small-scale gold mining has become a way of life and has accelerated rapidly in the last few years. I conducted research at the Bantan site, which is located a few kilometers south ...


Variation Of Tool Mark Characteristics In Frozen Bone As It Relates To Dismemberment, Elena Hughes 2018 University of Montana

Variation Of Tool Mark Characteristics In Frozen Bone As It Relates To Dismemberment, Elena Hughes

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The act of dismembering a body leaves identifiable marks on the bone. These marks, whether they be from knives, saws, axes, or any other tool, can help provide law enforcement with information about the type of tool they should be looking for. While there has been considerable research done on the marks left by different types of weapons, a factor that has not been examined is the differences in tool marks based on the condition of the body at the time of dismemberment. This study will initiate this new avenue of research by analyzing the differences seen in tool mark ...


Pig Trauma Models: A Civilian Perspective On Ar-15 Post-Cranial Skeletal Trauma, Lauren M. Kenney 2018 University of Montana, Missoula

Pig Trauma Models: A Civilian Perspective On Ar-15 Post-Cranial Skeletal Trauma, Lauren M. Kenney

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

In the last decade, our country has seen an unprecedented wave of terror that has been punctuated by increasing events of gun-related violence. Consequently, the use of firearms against civilians or upon targets containing civilians has inevitably had a direct impact on the health of the individuals affected, and in many cases these events have concluded with mass number fatalities. The driving force for this research falls to the lack of available literature regarding traumatic skeletal injuries associated with high-velocity firearms outside of realm of the military. The effects of these types of weapons on civilians, which result from their ...


The Battle Of The Little Bighorn Gunshot Trauma Analysis: Suicide Prevalence Among The Soldiers Of The 7th Cavalry, Genevieve M. Mielke 2018 University of Montana

The Battle Of The Little Bighorn Gunshot Trauma Analysis: Suicide Prevalence Among The Soldiers Of The 7th Cavalry, Genevieve M. Mielke

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

No abstract provided.


This Is Just A Phase : The Impact Of Population Structure On Haplotype Phasing And Linkage Disequilibrium Measures At Functional Genetic Sites., Roxanne Kaaren Leiter 2017 University of Louisville

This Is Just A Phase : The Impact Of Population Structure On Haplotype Phasing And Linkage Disequilibrium Measures At Functional Genetic Sites., Roxanne Kaaren Leiter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The block-like structure of the human genome has been the subject of many scientific papers and is of practical significance in large-scale genome-wide association studies. How stringent haplotype block boundaries are within and between populations has been the subject of ongoing debate within human population genetics. This thesis will contribute to the description of universal and population-specific haplotype blocks at functional sites, namely across the IL-10 gene family (including IL-10, IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24), which is involved in a number of immune system processes, and MAPKAP-K2, an adjacent and functionally significant kinase gene. Beyond the description of blocks across these ...


The Influence Of Hierarchy Steepness On Cooperation: A Comparison Between Captive Japanese Macaques And Black-Handed Spider Monkeys, Sean Ryan Draxler 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

The Influence Of Hierarchy Steepness On Cooperation: A Comparison Between Captive Japanese Macaques And Black-Handed Spider Monkeys, Sean Ryan Draxler

Theses and Dissertations

Non-human primates often live in social groups that form hierarchies, which can be either egalitarian or despotic. Despotic non-human primate groups are characterized by the ability of dominant members to frequently win dyadic conflicts against subordinates, and egalitarian primate groups are characterized by an unclear ranking of dominance. Non-human primates will often cooperate with each other within their social groups. Cooperation can be defined as the sharing of food, grooming, and formation of alliances. In a comparative study between bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), it was suggested that hierarchy steepness is a good predictor of sharing between unrelated ...


Our Land Is Not Just Soil: Knowing, Feeling, And Doing Environmental Activism In The Arkansas Ozarks, Ramey Arlen Moore 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Our Land Is Not Just Soil: Knowing, Feeling, And Doing Environmental Activism In The Arkansas Ozarks, Ramey Arlen Moore

Theses and Dissertations

The Ozarks is a holey place, an ancient plateau formed from ancient rocks and the sediment of millions of years of living things. The Ozarks is also, from another perspective a place made from a mesh of overlapping lines, lines of migration, lines of living things, lines of water movement over and through the land. This dissertation engages with the practice of conservation and environmentalism as it is performed and lived by Ozarkers and Arkansawyers, natives and transplants. Based on more than a year of ethnographic fieldwork conducted with the Buffalo River Watershed Alliance, Save the Ozarks, Arkansas Master Naturalists ...


Violence In The Canyons: The Human Cost Of Raiding And Warfare In Northeastern Arizona (Ad 300-~1300), Caryn Elizabeth Tegtmeyer 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Violence In The Canyons: The Human Cost Of Raiding And Warfare In Northeastern Arizona (Ad 300-~1300), Caryn Elizabeth Tegtmeyer

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Canyon de Chelly sits on the Northeastern border of the Kayenta region in Arizona. Because of the position in which they sit, those who lived there likely lived a unique experience when compared to the rest of the Kayenta cultural tradition, of which they are considered a part. By examining the skeletal remains of the canyon occupants, this study is able to reconstruct the demographic profile (age and sex), aspects of health (pathology, stature), analysis of trauma, and aspects of labor (robusticity and entheses) to create the first, modern, complete skeletal analysis of remains recovered from Canyon de Chelly. This ...


Genetic Differentiation In A Sample From Northern Mexico City Detected By Hla System Analysis: Impact In The Study Of Population Immunogenetics, Eva D. Juárez Cortés, Miguel A. Contreras Sieck, Agustín J. Arriaga Perea, Rosa M. Macías Medrano, Anaí Balbuena Jaime, Paola Everardo Martínez, Joaquín Zúñiga, Víctor Acuña Alonzo, Julio Granados, Rodrigo Barquera 2017 Laboratorio de Histocompatibilidad, Banco Central de Sangre, Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico

Genetic Differentiation In A Sample From Northern Mexico City Detected By Hla System Analysis: Impact In The Study Of Population Immunogenetics, Eva D. JuáRez CortéS, Miguel A. Contreras Sieck, AgustíN J. Arriaga Perea, Rosa M. MacíAs Medrano, Anaí Balbuena Jaime, Paola Everardo MartíNez, JoaquíN ZúÑIga, VíCtor AcuñA Alonzo, Julio Granados, Rodrigo Barquera

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The major histocompatibility complex is directly involved in the immune response and thus the genes coding for its proteins are useful markers for the study of genetic diversity, susceptibility to disease (autoimmunity and infections), transplant medicine, and pharmacogenetics, among others. The polymorphism of the system also allows researchers to use it as a proxy for population genetics analysis, such as genetic admixture and genetic structure. In order to determine the immunogenetic characteristics of a sample from the northern part of Mexico City and to use them to analyze the genetic differentiation from other admixed populations, including those from previous studies ...


Chaco Canyon Dig Unearths Ethical Concerns, Katrina G. Claw, Dorothy Lippert, Jessica Bardill, Anna Cordova, Keolu Fox, Joseph M. Yracheta, Alyssa C. Bader, Deborah A. Bolnick, Ripan S. Malhi, Kimberly TallBear, Nanibaa' A. Garrison 2017 University of Washington

Chaco Canyon Dig Unearths Ethical Concerns, Katrina G. Claw, Dorothy Lippert, Jessica Bardill, Anna Cordova, Keolu Fox, Joseph M. Yracheta, Alyssa C. Bader, Deborah A. Bolnick, Ripan S. Malhi, Kimberly Tallbear, Nanibaa' A. Garrison

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The field of paleogenomics (the study of ancient genomes) is rapidly advancing with more robust methods of isolating ancient DNA and increasing access to next-generation DNA sequencing technology. As these studies progress, many important ethical issues have emerged that should be considered when ancient Native American remains, whom we refer to as ancestors, are used in research. We highlight a recent article by Kennett et al. (2017), “Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty,” that brings several ethical issues to light that should be addressed in paleogenomics research (Kennett et al. 2017). The study helps elucidate the matrilineal relationships in ancient ...


Evolution, Function And Deconstructing Histories: A New Generation Of Anthropological Genetics, Omer Gokcumen 2017 State University of New York at Buffalo

Evolution, Function And Deconstructing Histories: A New Generation Of Anthropological Genetics, Omer Gokcumen

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Introduction to the Special Issue, mainly based on contributions by the speakers in the 2016 AAAG symposium, “Ancient alleles in modern populations: Ancient structure, introgression, and variation-maintaining adaptive forces.”


Leveraging Multiple Populations Across Time Helps Define Accurate Models Of Human Evolution: A Reanalysis Of The Lactase Persistence Adaptation, Chenling Xu Antelope, Davide Marnetto, Fergal Casey, Emilia Huerta-Sanchez 2017 University of California, Berkeley

Leveraging Multiple Populations Across Time Helps Define Accurate Models Of Human Evolution: A Reanalysis Of The Lactase Persistence Adaptation, Chenling Xu Antelope, Davide Marnetto, Fergal Casey, Emilia Huerta-Sanchez

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Access to a geographically diverse set of modern human samples from the present time and from ancient remains, combined with archaic hominin samples, provides an unprecedented level of resolution to study both human history and adaptation. The amount and quality of ancient human data continues to improve, and enables tracking the trajectory of genetic variation over time. These data have the potential to help us redefine or generate new hypotheses of how human evolution occurred, and revise previous conjectures. In this review, we argue that leveraging all these data will help us better detail adaptive histories in humans. As a ...


Scaling Relationships Between Cranial Morphological Features And Cranial Capacity In Modern Humans, Jacob Jesch 2017 Louisiana State University

Scaling Relationships Between Cranial Morphological Features And Cranial Capacity In Modern Humans, Jacob Jesch

LSU Master's Theses

Certain cranial morphologies referred to here as “cranial predictor features” are known to allometrically scale with body mass at statistically significant levels. Brain size likewise is known to scale with body mass, with brain-to-body-mass ratio being expressed numerically via the encephalization quotient. The study at hand aims to demonstrate whether brain size via its skeletal proxy of cranial capacity also scales with cranial predictor features. Correlation analysis was employed on two samples of contemporary male and female modern humans, respectively, in order to determine the statistical significance and degree of association between cranial predictor features and cranial capacity, as well ...


Evaluating Causes Of Error In Landmark-Based Data Collection Using Scanners, Brian M. Shearer, Siobhan B. Cooke, Lauren B. Halenar, Samantha L. Reber, Jeannette E. Plummer, Eric Delson, Melissa Tallman 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Evaluating Causes Of Error In Landmark-Based Data Collection Using Scanners, Brian M. Shearer, Siobhan B. Cooke, Lauren B. Halenar, Samantha L. Reber, Jeannette E. Plummer, Eric Delson, Melissa Tallman

Publications and Research

In this study, we assess the precision, accuracy, and repeatability of craniodental landmarks (Types I, II, and III, plus curves of semilandmarks) on a single macaque cranium digitally reconstructed with three different surface scanners and a microCT scanner. Nine researchers with varying degrees of osteological and geometric morphometric knowledge landmarked ten iterations of each scan (40 total) to test the effects of scan quality, researcher experience, and landmark type on levels of intra- and interobserver error. Two researchers additionally landmarked ten specimens from seven different macaque species using the same landmark protocol to test the effects of the previously listed ...


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