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Natural Selection Of Immune And Metabolic Genes Associated With Health In Two Lowland Bolivian Populations, Amanda J. Lea, Angela Garcia, Jesusa Arevalo, Julien F. Ayroles, Kenneth Buetow, Steve W. Cole, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Maguin Gutierrez, Heather M. Highland, Paul L. Hooper, Anne Justice, Thomas Kraft, Kari E. North, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Benjamin C. Trumble, Michael Gurven 2022 Vanderbilt University

Natural Selection Of Immune And Metabolic Genes Associated With Health In Two Lowland Bolivian Populations, Amanda J. Lea, Angela Garcia, Jesusa Arevalo, Julien F. Ayroles, Kenneth Buetow, Steve W. Cole, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Maguin Gutierrez, Heather M. Highland, Paul L. Hooper, Anne Justice, Thomas Kraft, Kari E. North, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Benjamin C. Trumble, Michael Gurven

ESI Publications

A growing body of work has addressed human adaptations to diverse environments using genomic data, but few studies have connected putatively selected alleles to phenotypes, much less among underrepresented populations such as Amerindians. Studies of natural selection and genotype–phenotype relationships in underrepresented populations hold potential to uncover previously undescribed loci underlying evolutionarily and biomedically relevant traits. Here, we worked with the Tsimane and the Moseten, two Amerindian populations inhabiting the Bolivian lowlands. We focused most intensively on the Tsimane, because long-term anthropological work with this group has shown that they have a high burden of both macro and microparasites, as …


Menstrual Knowledge And Biosocial Aspects Among The Poumai Adolescents Of Manipur, Northeast India, P.S. Vaveine Pao, S. Yaiphaba Meitei 2022 Department of Anthropology, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal, India– 795003.

Menstrual Knowledge And Biosocial Aspects Among The Poumai Adolescents Of Manipur, Northeast India, P.S. Vaveine Pao, S. Yaiphaba Meitei

International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences

BACKGROUND Menstrual knowledge, hygiene, and perception are often neglected worldwide, especially in smaller and less developed societies, exposing adolescents to menstrual health hazards. Against the poor communication of menstrual health and hygiene, the present paper attempts to assess the attitude, knowledge, and perceptions towards menstruation among Poumai adolescents of Manipur, Northeast India. METHODS It is a cross-sectional study with data collected from 491 Poumai adolescents through a cross-sectional study using a self-structured schedule on menstrual knowledge. RESULTS The mean age of the respondents was 17.11±1.33 years. 73.12% of adolescents did not know about menstruation before attaining menarche. Most of the …


Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy McGrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng 2022 Kennesaw State University

Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy Mcgrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng

Symposium of Student Scholars

Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) via morphological analysis is difficult and often inconsistent. With next-generation sequencing (NGS), ancient host microbiomes can be subjected to metagenomic analyses for the detection of TB in silico. Suitable bioinformatic workflows are needed for reliable ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis of causative agents. This study aims to enhance available bioinformatic screening methods to create more suitable bioinformatic processes and generate insights in relation to TB.

This research utilizes publicly available NGS data accessed through the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Initial quality control steps included adapter trimming with Trim …


Utilization Of Gis In Tracking Disinterment And Movement Of Unknown Us Wwii War Dead: Foundations For A Geospatial Approach To Addressing Commingled Remains, Ella Axelrod 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Utilization Of Gis In Tracking Disinterment And Movement Of Unknown Us Wwii War Dead: Foundations For A Geospatial Approach To Addressing Commingled Remains, Ella Axelrod

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

In the aftermath of World War II, the US was faced with the monumental task of finding and identifying over 405,000 service members who did not survive the conflict (McDermott, 2005, p. 1). Of these 405,000, 81,000 remain missing and 2,498 remain unidentified in cemeteries across Europe alone (American Battle Monuments Commission, 2022). Often, these individuals were interred and disinterred multiple times, crossing the continent in the journey from loss incident or battlefield to their final resting place. Commingling, the accidental mixing of remains, is an ever-present concern in the forensic identification of individuals from mass casualty incidents (Belcher et …


Primate Olfaction: A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Cribriform Plate Morphology, Amber Cooper 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Primate Olfaction: A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Cribriform Plate Morphology, Amber Cooper

Anthropology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Decreased olfaction, or smell, is a diagnostic characteristic of primates. Despite this, olfaction remains important for diet and social behaviors in primates. To assess how morphological changes impact olfactory-based behaviors between the two major clades of primates, Strepsirrhini and Haplorrhini, this study examined the surface area of the cribriform plate, the bony interface between the brain and nasal cavity. Previous work has found several functional associations between cribriform plate morphology and species diet/ ecology, making this structure possibly more reflective of a species reliance on olfaction in its environment. Primate social structure, such as average group size, mating system, and …


Body Size Interactions With Pubic Symphysis Age-At-Death Estimation: A Critical Analysis Of Senescence Of The Pubic Symphysis Components, Elizabeth A. Ronald 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Body Size Interactions With Pubic Symphysis Age-At-Death Estimation: A Critical Analysis Of Senescence Of The Pubic Symphysis Components, Elizabeth A. Ronald

Masters Theses

Biological anthropologists struggle with accuracy and precision during age-at-death estimation when attempting to correlate biological age with chronological age, especially in older adults. Research has shown that intrinsic and extrinsic factors can cause this discrepancy. Anthropologists have recently found that body size may affect age-at-death estimation, with larger individuals being more commonly overaged and smaller individuals being underaged (Merritt, 2019; Wescott and Drew, 2015). This study elaborates on previous work in three ways. First, by applying Hartnett’s (2010) pubic symphysis phase method as the age-at-death estimation method used, which has not been assessed for body size interactions and is likely …


Intra-Skeletal Variation In Stable Isotopes Through Non-Destructive Approaches: Applications Of The Patterns Of Skeletal Remodeling To Biological Anthropology, Armando Anzellini 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Intra-Skeletal Variation In Stable Isotopes Through Non-Destructive Approaches: Applications Of The Patterns Of Skeletal Remodeling To Biological Anthropology, Armando Anzellini

Doctoral Dissertations

Stable isotope analysis is a well-established method in biological anthropology used to deliver data on residence, diet, and life history. Samples for these analyses are often collected from the diaphyses of long bones with an assumption of an expected rate of turnover between five and ten years, depending on the skeletal element. However, the biological foundations of this assumption are still uncertain, especially concerning the intra-skeletal and intra-element variation of isotopic signatures that may relate to patterns of remodeling. Exploring these gaps in intra-element isotopic variation requires fine-grained work using multiple bones from multiple individuals, but such work is limited …


Secular Change In Croatian Male Crania: 1812-1973, Ileana Ilas 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Secular Change In Croatian Male Crania: 1812-1973, Ileana Ilas

Masters Theses

The study of secular change is the study of changes that have taken place in the human body during recent centuries. Although changes that affect populations are generally understood to occur over many centuries and millennia, anthropological studies have shown that population changes have occurred in the last two centuries, over a relatively small time period comprising a mere two hundred years. Biological anthropologists in particular are interested in how the human skeleton has changed in recent history, whether in the limbs, the torso, or the cranium. Changes have been observed in all areas of the skeleton, and these changes …


A Study Comparing “Better Body Bags” Versus Standard White Body Bags To Estimate Relative Preservation Of Human Genomic And Morphological Information, Serena A. Thariath 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Study Comparing “Better Body Bags” Versus Standard White Body Bags To Estimate Relative Preservation Of Human Genomic And Morphological Information, Serena A. Thariath

Masters Theses

In disaster scenarios, identification of the dead usually is delayed until after help is given to the living. During delays in recovery and transport of deceased individuals, decomposition of soft tissues will occur at a fast rate if individuals are not refrigerated. The Better Body Bag, or BBB, was designed for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) with features such as a vacuum seal, reflective coating, and absorbent pad to help delay the onset of decomposition that could render someone unidentifiable. In this study, the BBB was tested to determine if the individuals placed within a BBB yielded …


The Conquest Of Milk: The Rise Of Lactase Persistence And The Fall Of Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers, Nicholas Mays 2022 James Madison University

The Conquest Of Milk: The Rise Of Lactase Persistence And The Fall Of Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers, Nicholas Mays

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

Over half of the global human population suffers from lactase nonpersistence, a condition marked by losing the ability to digest lactose after infancy. However, a minority of the global population, primarily located in Central and Northern Europe, has a genetic mutation that results in lactase persistence, which is the continued ability to process lactose after infancy. This interdisciplinary analysis blends archaeology, cultural anthropology, evolutionary biology, and archaeogenetics to explore the origin and rise of lactase persistence in Europe and its contribution to the end of hunter-gatherer societies in Scandinavia. Furthermore, the paper uses gene-culture coevolutionary theory to argue that lactase …


Legs And Hills, Aidan Attema 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Legs And Hills, Aidan Attema

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Relatively longer leg length is a feature of the genus Homo that is often argued to have evolved due to selective pressures from a greater reliance on endurance running. Within the genus Homo, however, Neanderthals had relatively short legs with shorter tibiae – a characteristic that has been hypothesized to be a hindrance for running yet advantageous for locomoting on sloped terrains. This thesis tests three hypotheses relating to lower limb proportions and running performance: does morphological variability correspond with a) speed on flat and uphill terrain during a workout completed by cross-country athletes, or b) athletic performance during …


Assessment Of Arm Position In Egyptian Mummies, Emily King 2022 Western University

Assessment Of Arm Position In Egyptian Mummies, Emily King

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The arm position of Egyptian mummies had not been studied in an in-depth manner. The goal of this research was to use the IMPACT Radiological Database (Nelson & Wade, 2015), a large sample size of CT scans and X-Ray images of mummies, to discuss the evolution of arm position of adult Egyptian mummies throughout time. The results from this research demonstrate that with an increase in sample size, an increase in variability also occurs. In addition, we were also able to conclude that arm position reflects long term societal trends as opposed to short/frequently changing trends. Finally, what our research …


Osteoarthritis In Early To Middle Epipalaeolithic, Aasiyah Sheri Ms 2022 Western University

Osteoarthritis In Early To Middle Epipalaeolithic, Aasiyah Sheri Ms

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The study of human remains allows insight into the past. Studying an individual's bones and any diseases or abnormalities that may present themselves allows archaeologists to construct an image of what life might have been like for the individual. How old they were when they died, the type of work they did, and their overall health are all factors that can tell us a great deal about a person.


An Analysis Of Ground Stone Celts On The Late Woodland Middle Ontario Iroquoian Dorchester Village Site (Afhg-24), Patrick J. Seddon 2022 Western University

An Analysis Of Ground Stone Celts On The Late Woodland Middle Ontario Iroquoian Dorchester Village Site (Afhg-24), Patrick J. Seddon

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A comprehensive analysis of ground stone celts on the Late Woodland Middle Ontario Iroquoian Dorchester Village Site (AfHg-24). Metric and non-metric traits of the celts were analyzed to gain a better understanding of ground stone tools and their uses. A greater understanding of site formation processes and the development of Late Woodland Iroquoian villages may be attained through the creation of typologies, and an analysis of tool metrics, manufacturing and use wear traits, non-chert detritus produced through manufacture, and intra-site spatial data.


A Bioarchaeological Investigation Of The Courtney-Anderson Cemetery, Lauren Scott 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

A Bioarchaeological Investigation Of The Courtney-Anderson Cemetery, Lauren Scott

Master's Theses

Located in Perry County, Mississippi, the Anderson Family Cemetery represents an abandoned turn-of-the-century Piney Woods cemetery. The cemetery is located on land once owned by the Courtney and Anderson families, who farmed the area until it was taken under eminent domain by the United States government in 1942. The purpose of this thesis is to present three osteobiographies created from human remains and material culture recovered from three graves excavated from within the cemetery in 2022 to explore the lifeways of rural Piney Woods families of Mississippi at the turn-of-the-century.

Among the graves explored, one did not contain evidence of …


Curvilinear Fractures In Burned Remains: An Assessment Of The Relationship Between Fracture Convexity And Fire Directionality, Kimber G. Cheek 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Curvilinear Fractures In Burned Remains: An Assessment Of The Relationship Between Fracture Convexity And Fire Directionality, Kimber G. Cheek

Masters Theses

Burned remains present a challenge for forensic anthropologists due to the variable nature of fires, the unique way fires impact remains, and the impact of heat changes on the analysis of the remains. A topic of extensive study is the fracture patterns seen in burned remains. Curvilinear fractures are one type of fracture that was originally discussed in the context of studying the preburned state of remains (Baby, 1954; Binford, 1963; Buikstra and Swegle, 1989). These fractures are thought to be created through the kinetic energy generated as muscles shrink and pull on the periosteum, fracturing the bone below (Symes …


Tracking And Estimating The Commingling Of Missing U.S. Service Personnel: A Gis And Forensic Anthropological Approach, Mason McKinney 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Tracking And Estimating The Commingling Of Missing U.S. Service Personnel: A Gis And Forensic Anthropological Approach, Mason Mckinney

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

During times of war, the remains of fallen U.S. military service members overseas are often difficult to track postmortem as they move from their recovery location to a permanent cemetery. After a recovery, remains are typically sent to multiple temporary cemeteries, morgues, and/or identification points before reaching their final resting place. Repeated disinterments and reinterments among vast numbers of remains in multiple temporary locations may lead to unintended commingling. This analysis is meant to examine the postmortem movement of multiple U.S. military members and assess their potential for commingling based on historical records and identification reports supplied by the Defense …


The Cognitive Evolution Of Homo Erectus, Emily Dzhinenko 2022 University of Northern Colorado

The Cognitive Evolution Of Homo Erectus, Emily Dzhinenko

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Evolutionary cognitive archaeology evaluates the evolution of cognitive advancements through past hominins and artefacts to understand their intellectual capabilities of planning, reasoning, memory, and problem-solving skills up until present day. I will explore cognitive evolution through a literature review of the effects on Homo erectus from their controlled exploitation of fire. Utilization of fire by H. erectus directly impacted their nutritional intake resulting in physiological changes which included increased brain sizes. Larger brains created room for expansion of the dopaminergic system allowing new cognitive abilities to adapt. Results from these adaptations included a more efficient thermoregulatory system and extraversive behaviours …


Dataset Of Antemortem Tooth Loss And Carious Lesions At Deir El-Medina, Anne Austin 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Dataset Of Antemortem Tooth Loss And Carious Lesions At Deir El-Medina, Anne Austin

UMSL Datasets

These data are from observations on antemortem tooth loss and the presence of carious lesions from the site of Deir el-Medina, Egypt. The data were collected by Anne Austin and Mélie Louys as part of the mission of the Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale at the site during the 2012-14 and 2019-20 field seasons. These data were derived from human remains found in Theban Tombs 6, 217, 290, and 298. They are estimated to date from 1550-945 BCE. These data include macroscopic observations from 32 mandibles and 44 maxillae consisting of 485 observable teeth and 1,052 observable tooth sockets. Any mandibles …


Dataset Of Antemortem Tooth Loss And Carious Lesions At Deir El-Medina, Anne Austin 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Dataset Of Antemortem Tooth Loss And Carious Lesions At Deir El-Medina, Anne Austin

History Faculty Works

These data are from observations on antemortem tooth loss and the presence of carious lesions from the site of Deir el-Medina, Egypt. The data were collected by Anne Austin and Mélie Louys as part of the mission of the Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale at the site during the 2012-14 and 2019-20 field seasons. These data were derived from human remains found in Theban Tombs 6, 217, 290, and 298. They are estimated to date from 1550-945 BCE. These data include macroscopic observations from 32 mandibles and 44 maxillae consisting of 485 observable teeth and 1,052 observable tooth sockets. Any mandibles …


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