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Biological and Physical Anthropology Commons

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Reconsidering The Obstetrical Dilemma: Correlations Between Head And Pelvic Size, Kelsey Catrice Fox 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Reconsidering The Obstetrical Dilemma: Correlations Between Head And Pelvic Size, Kelsey Catrice Fox

LSU Master's Theses

The Obstetrical Dilemma (OD) theory has become canon in biological anthropology. The OD posits that i] dystocia results from bipedal mothers and encephalized infants, ii] contrasting selection for bipedality and obstetrics hinders locomotive efficiency, and iii] the contradicting requirement of the fetus being small enough to pass through the birth canal yet being cognitively advanced enough to cling to its mother after birth. Females, theoretically, exhibit deficient gait efficiency for the sake of successful childbirth. An obstetric advantage theory has been posited where taller individuals with a larger head size have larger pelves. If the distance between the acetabulae increases ...


Bones, Burials, And The Riddle Of Truth: Reconstructing The Past Through What Has Been Left Behind, Jelena M. Begonja 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Bones, Burials, And The Riddle Of Truth: Reconstructing The Past Through What Has Been Left Behind, Jelena M. Begonja

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mortuary archaeology is known to be the study of human remains and burials. The primary focus of this work has been to study all of the elements associated in burials to learn more about the burial practices and rituals in a group’s culture, however, there is much more potential in studying burial sites than just learning about a group’s burial rituals and practices. This thesis will demonstrate that it is indeed possible to make different inferences about the rest of people’s daily lives, and the truth, based from materials found in studying burials alone. For some groups ...


Learning From Those Who Served: Application Of Regression-Based Body Mass Estimation Methods To The Uss Oklahoma Population, Maxwell Rooney 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Learning From Those Who Served: Application Of Regression-Based Body Mass Estimation Methods To The Uss Oklahoma Population, Maxwell Rooney

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

Current methodologies in body mass estimation are lacking in accuracy when compared to the methods of sex, age, and ancestry estimation familiar to forensic anthropologists. For this reason, the practical application of body mass estimation remains underutilized, hindering the study of a potentially advantageous aspect of the biological profile.

This study highlights body mass estimation in a forensic context while taking the osteological paradox into account through the utilization of a unique population: the US military personnel killed on the USS Oklahoma during the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7, 1942. Because these individuals were similar in age (adults, age ...


137— Skulls Tell Tales: A Comparative Study Of Un-Provenienced Crania, Alice Lee 2020 SUNY Geneseo

137— Skulls Tell Tales: A Comparative Study Of Un-Provenienced Crania, Alice Lee

GREAT Day

In this study I have conducted a detailed analysis of several crania that have yet to be provenienced in the skeletal collection of the Physical Anthropology Lab. While some of these skulls have previously been matched to the correct post-cranial skeleton most of them have not and as such all were studied alone separate from any other skeletal material. The skulls were then compared analytically with a focus on any commonalities of sex, ethnicity, and age which may be present along with what determinations could actually be made with the parts of each skull that were available as some were ...


399— Rates Of Tuberculosis Mortality Rates In Urban And Rural Areas Of New York State Before The Age Of Antibiotics, Jillian DeMaria 2020 SUNY Geneseo

399— Rates Of Tuberculosis Mortality Rates In Urban And Rural Areas Of New York State Before The Age Of Antibiotics, Jillian Demaria

GREAT Day

From the late nineteenth and early twentieth century industrialization changed many aspects of American life. Mortality rates in the pre World War I era (1838 and 1930) changed due to many improvements of public health. The creation and emphasis over vaccinations, sewage systems, inspections of foods, and overall improvements in living and working conditions improved public health outcomes in all parts of America, in both rural and urban areas. As the changes occurred, tuberculosis mortality rates declined. This study explores death rates of tuberculosis in rural and urban areas, as well as the general population of Rochester, in the nineteenth ...


280— Exploring The Geographic Distribution Of Childbed Fever Deaths In Mid-19th Century Rochester, Ny, Meaghan Parks 2020 SUNY Geneseo

280— Exploring The Geographic Distribution Of Childbed Fever Deaths In Mid-19th Century Rochester, Ny, Meaghan Parks

GREAT Day

Childbed fever, formally called puerperal fever or puerperal septicemia, is an infection typically contracted by women after childbirth. Historically, childbed fever was a serious threat to maternal health. Childbed fever is caused by exposure of open wounds or abrasions, which are common after giving birth, to group A and B Streptococcal bacteria. Ignaz Semmelweis discovered that hand washing using a chlorinated solution reduced cases of childbed fever in 1847. This project reviews the instances of death from childbed fever in Rochester, New York from 1837-1860 and later from 1907-1919 and attempts to determine which areas of the city had the ...


Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, Theodore Walker 2020 Southern Methodist University

Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in biology, being honored with a Black Heritage postage stamp in 1996. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general evolutionary bioethics (distinct from special medical bioethics) by advancing a cell-biology-rooted theory of the origin and continuing evolution of ethical behavior influenced by the “law of environmental dependence.”

See especially “The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior (1941, unpublished book manuscript) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig Schnetzler Just, discovered in 2018 among the collected papers of E.E. Just at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University.

Accordingly ...


An Assessment Of The Use Of Photogrammetry In Cranial Metric And Non-Metric Studies, Amy Hair 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

An Assessment Of The Use Of Photogrammetry In Cranial Metric And Non-Metric Studies, Amy Hair

Master's Theses

Methods in biological anthropology have made tremendous leaps in recent years and with the increasing rise in technology there is no reason to suspect that this trend will be decreasing. Particularly methods in 3D digitization have not only increased but have also become more accessible in bioarchaeology. One method, photogrammetry, offers bioarcheologists a unique opportunity to easily collect and process cranial metric and non-metric data that can be used to quantify biological relatedness. While these advances are expected to continue, it is ignorant to assume that they represent a fail proof solution. A critical examination is necessary to quantify the ...


Colonialism In Perspective: A Comparative Bioarchaeological Study Of Quality Of Life Before And During Roman Conquest, Meredith M. Amato 2020 Gettysburg College

Colonialism In Perspective: A Comparative Bioarchaeological Study Of Quality Of Life Before And During Roman Conquest, Meredith M. Amato

Student Publications

This paper analyzes the current bioarchaeological data that has been gathered from populations that lived before and in the midst of the Roman Empire. Case studies are taken from multiple areas within the boundaries of the empire, including Italy itself, Britain, Gaul (what is today known as France), Spain, North Africa, and the Near East. Geography and other factors make each individual’s experience of colonialism different, and the data that can be taken from human remains shows that colonialism was an unequal system that cannot be given a single, strict definition.


The Internal, External And Extended Microbiomes Of Hominins, Robert R. Dunn, Katherine R. Amato, Elizabeth A. Archie, Mimi Arandjelovic, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Lauren M. Nichols 2020 North Carolina State University

The Internal, External And Extended Microbiomes Of Hominins, Robert R. Dunn, Katherine R. Amato, Elizabeth A. Archie, Mimi Arandjelovic, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Lauren M. Nichols

Anthropology Faculty Publications

The social structure of primates has recently been shown to influence the composition of their microbiomes. What is less clear is how primate microbiomes might in turn influence their social behavior, either in general or with particular reference to hominins. Here we use a comparative approach to understand how microbiomes of hominins have, or might have, changed since the last common ancestor (LCA) of chimpanzees and humans, roughly six million years ago. We focus on microbiomes associated with social evolution, namely those hosted or influenced by stomachs, intestines, armpits, and food fermentation. In doing so, we highlight the potential influence ...


Re-Interpreting A Complex Maya Burial At Tutu Uitz Na, Justine Marie Bye 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

Re-Interpreting A Complex Maya Burial At Tutu Uitz Na, Justine Marie Bye

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

In 2017, John Walden led an excavation of the Tutu Uitz Na intermediate elite center, found in the Maya site of Lower Dover, Belize. He and his team uncovered two burials, designated SG1-BU2 and SG1-BU3. Their initial report claims that there were three individuals, all sacrificially bound and killed within an eastern triadic shrine. In 2019, Dr. Kirsten Green-Mink and Justine Bye, both of the University of Montana, re-analyzed the Tutu Uitz Na burials and performed a comprehensive bioarchaeological analysis. SG1-BU2 was found to contain three individuals – 2 adults and 1 subadult. SG1-BU3 contained one adult, likely of high status ...


Analyzing Lower Extremity Injury Profiles Of Pedestrian Traffic Fatalities According To Vehicle Type, Jacqulyn M. Scheer 2020 Humboldt State University

Analyzing Lower Extremity Injury Profiles Of Pedestrian Traffic Fatalities According To Vehicle Type, Jacqulyn M. Scheer

Theses and projects

Skeletal trauma analysis of motor vehicle collisions has the potential to support or contradict reported collision circumstances. This project analyzed the skeletal injuries that pedestrians sustain in fatal collisions according to vehicle types (car, truck, SUV, van, bus, semi, etc.). Data were collected from reports and databases related to cases that occurred in King County, Washington. The pelvis and lower extremities of the body were analyzed for the frequency of skeletal fractures, grouped by pelvis, femora, patellae, tibiae, and fibulae skeletal groups. A Kruskal-Wallis test showed an overall no significant difference (P<0.05) in fracture quantity in skeletal regions between different vehicle groups. A multiple pairwise comparison using Dunn’s procedure also found no significant differences between vehicle type groups. A Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis showed an overall success rate of 37.29% when classifying injury profiles to vehicle type. The findings of this project can be applied to further research into the skeletal analysis of automobile versus pedestrian collisions. Low classification rates suggest that fracture frequency alone should not be used to assist in associating injuries with potential vehicle types in medicolegal investigations. Rather, the findings of this project lead the researcher to recommend that investigators and forensic practitioners move towards standardization in the quality and type of collected data—specific recommendations being the collection of actual speed and inclusion of full-body imaging in postmortem examinations to enable more detailed analyses.


Diet-Breadth Analysis In The American Southwest: Metabarcoding Method With Coprolites, Paige Nicole Plattner 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

Diet-Breadth Analysis In The American Southwest: Metabarcoding Method With Coprolites, Paige Nicole Plattner

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Molecular analysis of coprolites is proposed as new means of studying bio-archaeological remains that aids in the ability to capture diet breadth from past populations. This research utilizes the targeted PCR method, known as metabarcoding, to study dietary elements preserved in the coprolites from three greater Southwest sites. The Illumina MiSeq technology was used to sequence the samples after multiple rounds of targeted PCR using two primers (16s and 12s) proven successful for taxonomic identification with animal DNA and one primer specific to plant DNA (Rias et al 2011).

The sequencing data was then run through two different bioinformatics pipelines ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Homicide Rates Utilizing The University Of Tennessee Forensic Data Bank, Anna F. Hampton 2020 University of Montana

A Comparative Analysis Of Homicide Rates Utilizing The University Of Tennessee Forensic Data Bank, Anna F. Hampton

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Homicide has piqued the interest of society through media not only in the 21st century, but also dating back to the 1800s with crime fiction novels. Homicide holds the attention of our society with crime drama television series and has become part of American culture. With the attention that homicide receives, studies focusing on homicide are therefore important. This research utilizes the University of Tennessee Forensic Data Bank (FDB) to examine and compare homicide rates to the Global Study on Homicide conducted by the United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Variables examined include sex, ancestry, cause of ...


Alas, Poor Yorick: A Dna Analysis Of Ancestry Using Crania, Claire Hanson 2020 The University Of Montana

Alas, Poor Yorick: A Dna Analysis Of Ancestry Using Crania, Claire Hanson

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Current methods for estimating ancestry in biological profiles provided to law enforcement and forensic collections rely heavily on the use of metric and non metric methods such as FORDISC 3.1 and “trait lists.” The reliance on these methods has led to inaccurate and ambiguous ancestry estimations, as many metric and non metric methods are subjective and cannot be statistically tested for error rates. As a result, forensic collections, such as the University of Montana Forensic Collection, could potentially house remains that have been inaccurately curated. In order to test the accuracy of curation in the UMFC, DNA samples were ...


Good Governance Of The Commons Of Rapa Nui: Present And Past, Pamela A. Mischen, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt 2020 Binghamton University--SUNY

Good Governance Of The Commons Of Rapa Nui: Present And Past, Pamela A. Mischen, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt

Anthropology Datasets

Sustainable communities on Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) — whether in the past or present— require good governance of shared and common pool resources. Whether managing communal land needed for cultivation, ground water, stones for tools, fishing grounds, cultural heritage, or tourism, governance structures must balance individual interests with the common needs of the community. Much of the recent history of the island has been dominated by government structures that were imposed by Chilean authorities. Recently, however, much of the island’s cultural heritage has been turned over to local native governance. This shift has challenges due to the complex contemporary ...


The Integration Of Lidar And Legacy Datasets Provides Improved Explanations For The Spatial Patterning Of Shell Rings In The American Southeast, Dylan S. Davis, Robert Dinapoli, Matthew Sanger, Carl Lipo 2020 The Pennsylvania State University

The Integration Of Lidar And Legacy Datasets Provides Improved Explanations For The Spatial Patterning Of Shell Rings In The American Southeast, Dylan S. Davis, Robert Dinapoli, Matthew Sanger, Carl Lipo

Anthropology Datasets

Archaeologists have struggled to combine remotely sensed datasets with preexisting information for landscape-level analyses. In the American Southeast, for example, analyses of lidar data using automated feature extraction algorithms have led to the identification of over 40 potential new pre-European-contact Native American shell ring deposits in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Such datasets are vital for understanding settlement distributions, yet a comprehensive assessment requires remotely sensed and previously surveyed archaeological data. Here, we use legacy data and airborne lidar-derived information to conduct a series of point pattern analyses using spatial models that we designed to assess the factors that best explain ...


The Coping Behaviors Of Adult Children After Treatment For Parental Alienation, Anissa J. Michaud 2020 Walden University

The Coping Behaviors Of Adult Children After Treatment For Parental Alienation, Anissa J. Michaud

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

High conflict divorce and the alienation of a parent after a divorce causes minimal mental health issues and unhealthy coping skills in children. Without treatment programs that focus on PA, psychologists will continue to only treat the symptoms or rebuild the family system rather than treating the individual’s with healthy coping skills. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to compare personal experiences from adult male and females suffering with parental alienation after a parent’s high conflict divorce. Bowen’s theory of family systems was used as a theoretical approach to understand the comparisons of adult children on ...


A Snapshot Of Care: Creating Models Of Care For Individuals Included In The Terry Collection, Felicia Robyn Sparozic 2020 University of Montana

A Snapshot Of Care: Creating Models Of Care For Individuals Included In The Terry Collection, Felicia Robyn Sparozic

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Utilizing the bioarchaeology of care model, this research formulates a model of care based on ethnohistorical and skeletal markers of pathologic conditions. The index of care is the method used to create models of care, and this requires social, cultural, economic, environmental, and mortuary contexts to determine the resources required to aid a person through injury or disability. This paper investigates the impact of known medical, occupational, and morgue records that accompanied each selected individual in the skeletal collection. This additional information, beyond what is gained from skeletal analysis, generates a complex model of care. A more complex model of ...


Hippocampal Extracellular Potassium Levels And Formation Of Spatial Memory In Response To Retrodialysis Insulin Administration, Gabrielle Shames 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

Hippocampal Extracellular Potassium Levels And Formation Of Spatial Memory In Response To Retrodialysis Insulin Administration, Gabrielle Shames

Anthropology

Insulin is the most common treatment for hyperglycemia, such as that caused by type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin causes cellular uptake and storage of glucose to maintain homeostasis and also plays important roles in other systems; an important example is regulation of potassium. In the periphery, insulin administration has been shown to increase the cellular uptake of potassium via Na+/K+ ATPase, leading to hypokalemia. Research in our lab and others has shown that insulin is a key regulator of cognitive function and local metabolism within the hippocampus. To date, however, no studies have examined whether insulin ...


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