Zooarchaeological And Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Newly Excavated Middle Pleistocene Deposits From Elandsfontein, South Africa, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Zooarchaeological And Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Newly Excavated Middle Pleistocene Deposits From Elandsfontein, South Africa, Frances L. Forrest
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Increased consumption of animal tissue is arguably one of the most important adaptive transitions in early hominin behavior. A dietary shift toward regular tool-assisted meat consumption and increased competition with the carnivore paleoguild likely helped shape many important hominin adaptations such as foraging patterns, habitat preferences, and social behaviors. Yet, the ecological and behavioral implications for increased hominin carnivory remain poorly understood. This dissertation examines the zooarchaeological and paleoenvironmental history of an important Acheulean hominin locality, Elandsfontein, South Africa (ca. 1.0 – 0.6 Ma). The goal is to begin addressing under-investigated aspects of Acheulean hominin behavioral ecology and place ...
The Accuracy Of Tibial Nutrient Foramen Vs Midshaft Measurement Location For Sex Determination, 2016 University of Wyoming
The Accuracy Of Tibial Nutrient Foramen Vs Midshaft Measurement Location For Sex Determination, Ashley C. Dafoe
Honors Theses AY 16/17
Recently, standard measurements for the Forensic Databank have been changed to measure the diameters of the tibia at the midshaft, rather than at the nutrient foramen. This change may be predicated on intra-person variation in nutrient foramen location and inaccuracy of inter-observer measurement location.
This examination assesses the accuracy of determining sex from the two measuring locations - is there a significant advantage to using measurements collected at the midshaft instead of or in addition to nutrient foramen based measurements?
Tibial measurements of 400 individuals were collected from the Robert Terry Anatomical Skeletal Collection following the standard osteometric protocols. Data were ...
Detecting Evidence Of Systemic Inflammation From Osteological Markers In The Indian Knoll Population Of Ohio County, Kentucky., Krysta Wilham
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Indian Knoll is an Archaic shell midden site located in the Green River region of west-central Kentucky, and was excavated twice in the first half of the 20th century. While Indian Knoll has been the subject of frequent bioarchaeological studies, the present study presents an osteological analysis of the relationships between skeletal markers commonly associated with local inflammatory processes, and that have the potential to be used as proxies for systemic inflammation. The analysis revealed a significant positive association in the presence of periodontal disease (PD) and periosteal lesions (PL), suggesting a potential underlying hyper-inflammatory status or phenotype. These ...
Three-Dimentional Analysis Of The Development Of Upper Arm Musculoskeletal Stress Markers In Late Adolecents And Young Adults Of Archaic And Mississippian Populations Of Tennessee, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Three-Dimentional Analysis Of The Development Of Upper Arm Musculoskeletal Stress Markers In Late Adolecents And Young Adults Of Archaic And Mississippian Populations Of Tennessee, Heather Marie Guzik
This study compares three methods for the evaluation of morphology of musculoskeletal attachment sites. Two methods were macroscopic and the third was microscopic, utilizing three-dimensional laser scanning and fractal analysis The morphology of 19 upper limb attachment sites was observed in 33 males aged 15 and 30+ years, dating to the Archaic and Mississippian periods from the southeastern U.S. It was hypothesized that 1) the microscopic method would identify subtler differences than the macroscopic methods; 2) enthesis development would be greater in the Mississippian population due to the increased subsistence workload, even among younger individuals; and 3) late adolescents ...
A Morphometric Examination Of Cranial Vault Modification In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Central Tennessee, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
A Morphometric Examination Of Cranial Vault Modification In The Middle Cumberland Region Of Central Tennessee, Gregory James Wehrman
Cranial vault modification (CVM) is a physical manifestation of intersections between culture and biology. Cultural practices that apply pressure to the head during infancy result in significant reshaping of the skull and can be either intentional or unintentional. Occipital flattening is present among many Mississippian skeletal samples from the Middle Cumberland Region (MCR) of central Tennessee and is thought to be an unintentional result of childcare practices. Traditional methods for CVM classification have concentrated on visual assessment of location and means of flattening; however, this method is subjective. This thesis seeks to evaluate visual assessment of CVM through a morphometric ...
Get Up, Stand Up: A Brief History Of Sedentarism And Why Movement Is Good Medicine, 2016 Selected Works
Get Up, Stand Up: A Brief History Of Sedentarism And Why Movement Is Good Medicine, Tony Federico
Chronological Listing Of Papers Presented At The Northeast Conference On Andean Archaeology And Ethnohistory, 2016 University of Massachusetts, Amherst (retired)
Chronological Listing Of Papers Presented At The Northeast Conference On Andean Archaeology And Ethnohistory, Richard E. Daggett, Justin Jennings, Monica Barnes, Gary Urton, Jeffrey Quilter
Andean Past Special Publications
This is a chronological list of the papers presented at the Northeast Conference on Andean Archaeology and Ethnohistory from 1982 through 2016.
Working With The Remains In Cambodia: Skeletal Analysis And Human Rights After Atrocity, 2016 Michigan State University
Working With The Remains In Cambodia: Skeletal Analysis And Human Rights After Atrocity, Julie M. Fleischman
Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal
This essay will discuss the research being conducted on Khmer Rouge-era human skeletal remains in Cambodia, and the implications of this work. First, the Cambodian project to conserve and analyze the remains at the Choeung Ek Genocidal Center (Choeung Ek) will be briefly discussed. This exceptional undertaking was the first complete scientific analysis of human remains from a Cambodian mass gravesite. Second, the author’s independent research at Choeung Ek and a collaborative project at another mass gravesite will be reviewed. The author’s research focuses on the traumatic injuries and demographics of the remains at Choeung Ek, while also ...
Paleoepidemiological Analysis Of Trauma In A Roman Period Population From Kellis, Egypt, Circa 50-450 Ad, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Paleoepidemiological Analysis Of Trauma In A Roman Period Population From Kellis, Egypt, Circa 50-450 Ad, Isabella A. Graham
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
This thesis analyzes human skeletal trauma in a large well-preserved sample (n =268) from the Roman period Kellis site in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. Prevalence was determined for both infracranial and cranial skeletal trauma. The null hypothesis tested was that there are no differences in trauma when stratified by sex and by age cohorts (i.e., 18-35, 36-50 and 51+). Despite the overall trauma prevalence being similar between the sexes when not differentiated by age, the null hypothesis was rejected. Key differences that occurred between the sexes were that males suffered greater malintent and occupational traumas, whereas osteoporosis was the ...
Bioarchaeological Sampling Strategies: Reflection On First Sampling Experience At The Templo Mayor Museum In Mexico City, Diana Karina Moreiras Reynaga
Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology
Given that sampling strategies and protocols in bioarchaeology are rarely discussed in the literature, this paper is an attempt at reflecting upon the skeletal sampling process (e.g., preparation period, development of strategies and protocols, decision-making process, collaboration with those involved) as well as provide some considerations that may be useful to other junior researchers carrying out their sampling within the realm of bioarchaeology (also may be applicable to other research fields that engage in sampling specimens from museum collections). I provide the considerations about human bone and teeth as it pertains to stable isotope analysis from the literature and ...
Effect Of Migration, Carrying Capacity, And Fecundity On The Formation Of Clinal Patterns During Range Expansions., 2016 University of Louisville
Effect Of Migration, Carrying Capacity, And Fecundity On The Formation Of Clinal Patterns During Range Expansions., Neha J. Angal
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Range expansions, empirically and in simulations, lead to clinal patterns of genetic diversity. Clines are often used as spatial markers of past migrations. This study investigated the effects of migration, growth, and carrying capacities on clinal patterns during range expansions, using forward-time simulations in Nemo. Initial results show, in the absence of prior population structure, range expansions result in a loss of diversity strongly affected by migration, growth, and carrying capacity. This loss of diversity did not persist to the final generation, corresponding to 10,000 years, indicating clinal patterns are less durable than previously assumed—challenging the utility of ...
Being With Bees: An Anthropological Study On Human-Animal Relations In Southern Beekeeping, 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi
Being With Bees: An Anthropological Study On Human-Animal Relations In Southern Beekeeping, Kori Nadine Armstrong
This thesis investigates the complex and dynamic communicative relationship between beekeepers and their managed honey bee colonies, providing insight into the relationship between bees, their stewards, and the interface between nature and culture. It also helps unravel the ways in which this interspecies relationship changes a beekeepers’ perception of what it means to be human. Data collection features extensive participant observation with 21 semi-structured interviews with Southern beekeepers.
The interrelationship between communication and interaction, as well as diverse ways in which messages and cues manifest in the bee yard are explored through olfactory, optical, touch, and mechanical modalities. Variables including ...
Teaching: Natural Or Cultural?, 2016 Utah State University
Teaching: Natural Or Cultural?, David F. Lancy
SSWA Faculty Publications
In this chapter I argue that teaching, as we now understand the term, is historically and cross-culturally very rare. It appears to be unnecessary to transmit culture or to socialize children. Children are, on the other hand, primed by evolution to be avid observers, imitators, players and helpers—roles that reveal the profoundly autonomous and self-directed nature of culture acquisition (Lancy in press a). And yet, teaching is ubiquitous throughout the modern world—at least among the middle to upper class segment of the population. This ubiquity has led numerous scholars to argue for the universality and uniqueness of teaching ...
A History Of Violence: 3000 Years Of Interpersonal And Intergroup Conflicts From The Initial To The Early Colonial Periods In The Peruvian Central Coast. A Bioarchaeological Perspective, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
A History Of Violence: 3000 Years Of Interpersonal And Intergroup Conflicts From The Initial To The Early Colonial Periods In The Peruvian Central Coast. A Bioarchaeological Perspective, María Del Carmen Vega Dulanto
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The purpose of this study is to test research questions about the development of violence on the Peruvian central coast during the pre-Hispanic and Early Colonial times. This is the first study to provide a diachronic analysis of violence on the central coast. One null hypothesis was tested and falsified: that there are no differences in the prevalence and pattern of trauma over time on the central coast of Peru. Two complementary questions were also addressed: 1) Is there a relation between sociopolitical changes, natural catastrophes, competition for resources and violence? and 2) How did violence affect specific segments of ...
A Comparative Study Of The Glenohumeral Joint In New World Monkeys, 2016 Dickinson College
A Comparative Study Of The Glenohumeral Joint In New World Monkeys, Rachel Elizabeth Provazza
Honors Theses By Year
The functional use of a primate’s body greatly influences its skeletal morphology. Previous morphological studies include analyses of the glenohumeral joint as a reflection of the locomotion distinct to each Old World monkey. In addition, anthropologists examine the shoulder of hominoids to study the shift in locomotor behaviors towards bipedalism. The glenohumeral joint of hominoids, particularly those taking part in brachiation, is rounder and more globular in shape compared to other ancestral apes, indicative of a greater range in motion of the shoulder (Chan 2007a, 1; Green 2013, 253). However, little research examines the locomotion of New World monkeys ...
Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, 2016 CUNY Hunter College
Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, Wren Edwards
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
Primates expend approximately 50% less energy (kcal/day) for their body size than other eutherians. Using the doubly labeled water method, I investigated total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity in Sapajus apella. S. apella TEE was similar (p=0.67) to other platyrrhines, but 54% lower than expected for body mass.
A Quantitative Genetic Analysis Of Limb Segment Morphology In Humans And Other Primates: Genetic Variance, Morphological Integration, And Linkage Analysis, 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
A Quantitative Genetic Analysis Of Limb Segment Morphology In Humans And Other Primates: Genetic Variance, Morphological Integration, And Linkage Analysis, Brannon Irene Hulsey
Limb segment lengths (and, by extension, limb proportions) are widely studied postcranial features in biological anthropology due to the seemingly consistent phenotypic patterning among human and fossil hominin groups. This patterning, widely presumed to be the result of adaptation to thermoregulatory efficiency, has led to the assumption among biological anthropologists that limb proportions in humans are phenotypically stable unless long periods of extreme environmental conditions force adaptive change. Because these traits are considered stable, they have been used to inform multiple areas of anthropological inquiry, including investigations of phylogenetic relationships and fossil species identification, locomotor behavior and the evolution of ...
An Analysis Of Skeletal Trauma Patterning Of Accidental And Intentional Injury, 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
An Analysis Of Skeletal Trauma Patterning Of Accidental And Intentional Injury, Shauna Lynn Mcnulty
The ability to determine the cause of skeletal trauma – i.e. an injury produced by blunt, sharp, or ballistic forces - is critical in assessing the manner of death. The purpose of this study is to examine the patterns of injury between known accidental and intentional trauma cases while considering demographics, fracture features, and the location of injuries in individuals of varying ages, sexes, and ancestries. The current literature has identified a pattern for intentional injuries that is focused on the head, neck, and face, while accidental trauma tends to be more dispersed throughout the skeleton with more injuries found in ...
Babies And Biomedicine: Knowledge System Negotiation In The Domain Of Infant Care, 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Babies And Biomedicine: Knowledge System Negotiation In The Domain Of Infant Care, Maisie Buntin
Theses and Dissertations
In 2011, the city of Milwaukee launched a controversial public service campaign intended to minimize infant deaths by highlighting the dangers of cosleeping. In Wisconsin, about 28% of mothers bedshare with their infants, with the highest rates among women of color, averaging about 40% (Wisconsin Department of Health Services 2014). These data suggest that multiple knowledge systems might exist in the domain of infant care. This thesis proposes that Milwaukee’s current campaign is based in biomedicine, the predominant knowledge system surrounding infant care. Yet, its target demographic (cosleeping families) may not subscribe as strictly to a biomedical system of ...
The Effect Of Social And Environmental Stresses Among The Historic Arikara Native Americans, 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
The Effect Of Social And Environmental Stresses Among The Historic Arikara Native Americans, Jocelyn Diana Minsky-Rowland
The Arikara Native Americans from the Anton Rygh, Mobridge, Larson and Leavenworth sites, inhabited the Great Plains of western North America (AD 1600-1832). The Arikara experienced climatic changes, warfare, interactions with novel groups of people and disease epidemics and therefore represent an opportunity to assess differential risk of death in a stressful context. The overarching question of this project is, in the historic context of environmental and social stresses, do these environmental and social stresses (as indicated by specific skeletal markers that occur during childhood) increase the risk of death from later infectious disease or warfare related trauma experienced in ...