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Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy McGrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng 2022 Kennesaw State University

Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy Mcgrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng

Symposium of Student Scholars

Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) via morphological analysis is difficult and often inconsistent. With next-generation sequencing (NGS), ancient host microbiomes can be subjected to metagenomic analyses for the detection of TB in silico. Suitable bioinformatic workflows are needed for reliable ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis of causative agents. This study aims to enhance available bioinformatic screening methods to create more suitable bioinformatic processes and generate insights in relation to TB.

This research utilizes publicly available NGS data accessed through the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Initial quality control steps included adapter trimming with Trim Galore ...


The Conquest Of Milk: The Rise Of Lactase Persistence And The Fall Of Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers, Nicholas Mays 2022 James Madison University

The Conquest Of Milk: The Rise Of Lactase Persistence And The Fall Of Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherers, Nicholas Mays

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

Over half of the global human population suffers from lactase nonpersistence, a condition marked by losing the ability to digest lactose after infancy. However, a minority of the global population, primarily located in Central and Northern Europe, has a genetic mutation that results in lactase persistence, which is the continued ability to process lactose after infancy. This interdisciplinary analysis blends archaeology, cultural anthropology, evolutionary biology, and archaeogenetics to explore the origin and rise of lactase persistence in Europe and its contribution to the end of hunter-gatherer societies in Scandinavia. Furthermore, the paper uses gene-culture coevolutionary theory to argue that lactase ...


Assessment Of Arm Position In Egyptian Mummies, Emily King 2022 Western University

Assessment Of Arm Position In Egyptian Mummies, Emily King

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The arm position of Egyptian mummies had not been studied in an in-depth manner. The goal of this research was to use the IMPACT Radiological Database (Nelson & Wade, 2015), a large sample size of CT scans and X-Ray images of mummies, to discuss the evolution of arm position of adult Egyptian mummies throughout time. The results from this research demonstrate that with an increase in sample size, an increase in variability also occurs. In addition, we were also able to conclude that arm position reflects long term societal trends as opposed to short/frequently changing trends. Finally, what our research ...


Osteoarthritis In Early To Middle Epipalaeolithic, Aasiyah Sheri Ms 2022 Western University

Osteoarthritis In Early To Middle Epipalaeolithic, Aasiyah Sheri Ms

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The study of human remains allows insight into the past. Studying an individual's bones and any diseases or abnormalities that may present themselves allows archaeologists to construct an image of what life might have been like for the individual. How old they were when they died, the type of work they did, and their overall health are all factors that can tell us a great deal about a person.


An Analysis Of Ground Stone Celts On The Late Woodland Middle Ontario Iroquoian Dorchester Village Site (Afhg-24), Patrick J. Seddon 2022 Western University

An Analysis Of Ground Stone Celts On The Late Woodland Middle Ontario Iroquoian Dorchester Village Site (Afhg-24), Patrick J. Seddon

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

A comprehensive analysis of ground stone celts on the Late Woodland Middle Ontario Iroquoian Dorchester Village Site (AfHg-24). Metric and non-metric traits of the celts were analyzed to gain a better understanding of ground stone tools and their uses. A greater understanding of site formation processes and the development of Late Woodland Iroquoian villages may be attained through the creation of typologies, and an analysis of tool metrics, manufacturing and use wear traits, non-chert detritus produced through manufacture, and intra-site spatial data.


A Bioarchaeological Investigation Of The Courtney-Anderson Cemetery, Lauren Scott 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

A Bioarchaeological Investigation Of The Courtney-Anderson Cemetery, Lauren Scott

Master's Theses

Located in Perry County, Mississippi, the Anderson Family Cemetery represents an abandoned turn-of-the-century Piney Woods cemetery. The cemetery is located on land once owned by the Courtney and Anderson families, who farmed the area until it was taken under eminent domain by the United States government in 1942. The purpose of this thesis is to present three osteobiographies created from human remains and material culture recovered from three graves excavated from within the cemetery in 2022 to explore the lifeways of rural Piney Woods families of Mississippi at the turn-of-the-century.

Among the graves explored, one did not contain evidence of ...


Curvilinear Fractures In Burned Remains: An Assessment Of The Relationship Between Fracture Convexity And Fire Directionality, Kimber G. Cheek 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Curvilinear Fractures In Burned Remains: An Assessment Of The Relationship Between Fracture Convexity And Fire Directionality, Kimber G. Cheek

Masters Theses

Burned remains present a challenge for forensic anthropologists due to the variable nature of fires, the unique way fires impact remains, and the impact of heat changes on the analysis of the remains. A topic of extensive study is the fracture patterns seen in burned remains. Curvilinear fractures are one type of fracture that was originally discussed in the context of studying the preburned state of remains (Baby, 1954; Binford, 1963; Buikstra and Swegle, 1989). These fractures are thought to be created through the kinetic energy generated as muscles shrink and pull on the periosteum, fracturing the bone below (Symes ...


Tracking And Estimating The Commingling Of Missing U.S. Service Personnel: A Gis And Forensic Anthropological Approach, Mason McKinney 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Tracking And Estimating The Commingling Of Missing U.S. Service Personnel: A Gis And Forensic Anthropological Approach, Mason Mckinney

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

During times of war, the remains of fallen U.S. military service members overseas are often difficult to track postmortem as they move from their recovery location to a permanent cemetery. After a recovery, remains are typically sent to multiple temporary cemeteries, morgues, and/or identification points before reaching their final resting place. Repeated disinterments and reinterments among vast numbers of remains in multiple temporary locations may lead to unintended commingling. This analysis is meant to examine the postmortem movement of multiple U.S. military members and assess their potential for commingling based on historical records and identification reports supplied ...


The Cognitive Evolution Of Homo Erectus, Emily Dzhinenko 2022 University of Northern Colorado

The Cognitive Evolution Of Homo Erectus, Emily Dzhinenko

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Evolutionary cognitive archaeology evaluates the evolution of cognitive advancements through past hominins and artefacts to understand their intellectual capabilities of planning, reasoning, memory, and problem-solving skills up until present day. I will explore cognitive evolution through a literature review of the effects on Homo erectus from their controlled exploitation of fire. Utilization of fire by H. erectus directly impacted their nutritional intake resulting in physiological changes which included increased brain sizes. Larger brains created room for expansion of the dopaminergic system allowing new cognitive abilities to adapt. Results from these adaptations included a more efficient thermoregulatory system and extraversive behaviours ...


Dataset Of Antemortem Tooth Loss And Carious Lesions At Deir El-Medina, Anne Austin 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Dataset Of Antemortem Tooth Loss And Carious Lesions At Deir El-Medina, Anne Austin

UMSL Datasets

These data are from observations on antemortem tooth loss and the presence of carious lesions from the site of Deir el-Medina, Egypt. The data were collected by Anne Austin and Mélie Louys as part of the mission of the Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale at the site during the 2012-14 and 2019-20 field seasons. These data were derived from human remains found in Theban Tombs 6, 217, 290, and 298. They are estimated to date from 1550-945 BCE. These data include macroscopic observations from 32 mandibles and 44 maxillae consisting of 485 observable teeth and 1,052 observable tooth sockets ...


Dataset Of Antemortem Tooth Loss And Carious Lesions At Deir El-Medina, Anne Austin 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Dataset Of Antemortem Tooth Loss And Carious Lesions At Deir El-Medina, Anne Austin

History Faculty Works

These data are from observations on antemortem tooth loss and the presence of carious lesions from the site of Deir el-Medina, Egypt. The data were collected by Anne Austin and Mélie Louys as part of the mission of the Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale at the site during the 2012-14 and 2019-20 field seasons. These data were derived from human remains found in Theban Tombs 6, 217, 290, and 298. They are estimated to date from 1550-945 BCE. These data include macroscopic observations from 32 mandibles and 44 maxillae consisting of 485 observable teeth and 1,052 observable tooth sockets ...


Genetic Impacts Of Deforestation On Mouse Lemurs, Darice Westphal 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genetic Impacts Of Deforestation On Mouse Lemurs, Darice Westphal

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The impact of deforestation on the genetic structure of mouse lemurs is poorly understood. In this project, I assess deforestation of Madagascar’s terrestrial protected regions, quantify genomic wide genetic variation in two sympatric mouse lemurs, and evaluate the role of landscape structure in genetic relatedness patterns within two sympatric mouse lemur species. Overall deforestation rates across the 98 terrestrial protected areas in Madagascar are increasing, resulting in an average annual deforestation rate of 0.68% per year, with approximately 10,600 km2 lost between 2000 and 2019. In a comparison of relatedness patterns between the sympatric gray mouse ...


Dental Health In The Aqllakuna From Farfán (Peru): A New Perspective On An Inca Female Institution (Ca. 1470-1532 A.D.) Using Micro-Ct And Histological Analysis, Émy Roberge 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Dental Health In The Aqllakuna From Farfán (Peru): A New Perspective On An Inca Female Institution (Ca. 1470-1532 A.D.) Using Micro-Ct And Histological Analysis, Émy Roberge

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research aims to explore the lifeways of an underrepresented subgroup of females while reducing the use of destructive methods in bioarchaeology. The excavation of Farfán on the North Coast of Peru revealed a rare aqlla cemetery from the Late Horizon (1470-1532 A.D.). The aqlla was an Inca religious institution where young females were sequestered to brew chicha and weave in their aqllawasi. According to ethnohistorical sources, these “Chosen Women” were expected to represent a homogenous and advantaged subset of the population. This hypothesis is assessed by comparing their dental lesions to the general population using macroscopy, micro-CT, and ...


Stature Estimates Of The Classic Period Maya From Chac Balam And San Juan, Ambergris Caye, Belize, Natalie Clark 2022 University of Mississippi

Stature Estimates Of The Classic Period Maya From Chac Balam And San Juan, Ambergris Caye, Belize, Natalie Clark

Honors Theses

This thesis presents updated sex and stature estimates for ancient Maya females and males who lived in San Juan and Chac Balam in northern Ambergris Caye from approximately AD 700-900.

The regression formulae used in this study reflect a closer population affinity to the Maya compared to the equations used in the original analysis by Glassman (1995). Del Angel and Cisneros’ (2004) formulae were used when estimating stature based on a complete long bone. In Steele and Bramblett (1988), Steele and McKern (1969) and Steele (1970) regression formulae were used when estimating stature based on an incomplete humerus, femur, or ...


Ageism, Eldercare, And Healthcare: An Examination Of Growing Old In Costa Rica, Akshaya Vijayasankar 2022 University of Mississippi

Ageism, Eldercare, And Healthcare: An Examination Of Growing Old In Costa Rica, Akshaya Vijayasankar

Honors Theses

The world’s aging population and the Covid-19 pandemic have revealed the high level of ageism against older adults around the globe, which has resulted in an overall decreased quality of life for elders. Societies are now faced with the challenge of creating a suitable and equitable model of care to support their aging population. Despite the recent publication of the World Health Organization's Global Report on Ageism, there is still a large gap in the literature regarding ageism. This paper addresses the issues of institutional ageism in the eldercare and healthcare sector. I argue that Costa Rica serves ...


The Abuse Of Darwinism (And Social Darwinism) For The Purposes Of Discrimination, Jessica N. Kantrowitz 2022 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

The Abuse Of Darwinism (And Social Darwinism) For The Purposes Of Discrimination, Jessica N. Kantrowitz

Honors Student Research

Throughout most of history, people have tried to justify their discrimination against other groups of people in any way they can, especially using biology and evolutionary theories as reason. When Charles Darwin published his book “On the Origin of Species”, introducing his theory of evolution and the work and experiments he did to prove this theory, it caused many to question their previous bigoted beliefs. For some, however, Darwin’s theory of evolution, which would come to be referred to simply as Darwinism, only further proved their biases, or they could, at least, make it sound like they did. Later ...


Teaching Old Calipers New Tricks: Using Craniometrics For Ancestry Admixture Estimation Via Fuzzy Math, Kristi Carnahan 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Teaching Old Calipers New Tricks: Using Craniometrics For Ancestry Admixture Estimation Via Fuzzy Math, Kristi Carnahan

Master's Theses

Cranial measurements have been a cornerstone of physical anthropology since its formation as a discipline in the early 1900s. However, most other ancestry determination methods come with a significant epistemological issue: they differentiate individuals into discrete categories without accounting for the issue of admixture. Advances in data mining and analysis techniques can now be used to help resolve this issue through soft computing, also known as “fuzzy math”. This type of advanced computational math requires specialized knowledge in computer programming, statistics, and data analysis techniques unless one is using computer programs specially designed to run these analyses.

This project compiled ...


Moral Distress, Burnout, And Moral Injury In Healthcare Professionals, Sophia Gibson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Moral Distress, Burnout, And Moral Injury In Healthcare Professionals, Sophia Gibson

Anthropology Undergraduate Honors Theses

For doctors and other health care professionals, experiences of care too often involve burnout and moral distress. Making both visible to begin addressing them takes up the main concern of my thesis. Burnout and moral distress swallow a life. Suddenly you aren’t going on that shopping trip with friends, you can forget about going to that movie or play. You are too tired to drag yourself out of bed, instead getting caught in a cycle of sleep and work with no time for a break or even to process what happened last shift. Who’s going to have a ...


Investigating The Mechanics And Chemistry Of Sickle Polish Development, Justin Jared Dubois 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating The Mechanics And Chemistry Of Sickle Polish Development, Justin Jared Dubois

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This series of experiments is designed to understand the development and chemistry of sickle gloss. Sickles are common in the archaeological record and have long been studied for their eponymous “sickle gloss”. There is debate as to how this gloss is formed. Five experimental sickles containing flint and novaculite blades were used to harvest high and low moisture content rye and common fescue and associated field weeds. The differences in the development of sickle gloss were examined. High moisture content plants create thick, smooth fields of polish with undulating, billowing margins at a higher developmental speed. Low moisture content plants ...


Reconstructing Bison And Mammoth Migration During The Late Pleistocene And Early Holocene Of Central Texas Using Strontium Isotopes, Joshua John Porter 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Reconstructing Bison And Mammoth Migration During The Late Pleistocene And Early Holocene Of Central Texas Using Strontium Isotopes, Joshua John Porter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

During the Late Pleistocene (LP; past 130,000 years), over two-thirds of large mammal (>45kg) species went extinct globally. While the role of humans is hotly debated, the effect of these extinctions is growing clearer; the extinctions resulted in widespread and lasting faunal community reorganization. However, the impact of these extinctions on dietary and migratory behavior within faunal communities is unknown. Our study examines the impact of the megafaunal extinctions on the dietary and migratory behavior of surviving Bison individuals in Texas using carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotopes. Strontium isotopes are incorporated into mammalian enamel during their tooth development and ...


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