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Biological and Physical Anthropology Commons

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Thinking Computationally About Forensics: Anthropological Perspectives On Advancements In Technologies, Data, And Algorithms, Bridget F.B. Algee-Hewitt, Jieun Kim, Cris E. Hughes 2018 Stanford University

Thinking Computationally About Forensics: Anthropological Perspectives On Advancements In Technologies, Data, And Algorithms, Bridget F.B. Algee-Hewitt, Jieun Kim, Cris E. Hughes

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

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New Approaches To Juvenile Age Estimation In Forensics: Application Of Transition Analysis Via The Shackelford Et Al. Method To A Diverse Modern Subadult Sample, Kelly R. Kamnikar, Nicholas P. Herrmann, Amber M. Plemons 2018 Michigan State University

New Approaches To Juvenile Age Estimation In Forensics: Application Of Transition Analysis Via The Shackelford Et Al. Method To A Diverse Modern Subadult Sample, Kelly R. Kamnikar, Nicholas P. Herrmann, Amber M. Plemons

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Dental development is one of the most widely utilized and accurate methods available for estimating age in subadult skeletal remains. The timing of tooth growth and development is regulated by genetics and less affected by external factors, allowing reliable estimates of chronological age. Traditional methodology focuses on comparing tooth developmental scores to corresponding age charts. Using the Moorrees, Fanning, and Hunt (MFH) developmental scores, Shackelford and colleagues embed the dental development method in a statistical framework based on transition analysis. They generated numerical parameters underlining each “stage” and age-at-death distribution and applied them to fossil hominins and Neanderthals with limited ...


Who Needs Data? I’Ve Got Experience!, Dawnie Wolfe Steadman 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Who Needs Data? I’Ve Got Experience!, Dawnie Wolfe Steadman

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

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Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (1922–2018), Joaquim Fort 2018 Complex Systems Laboratory, University of Girona, Catalonia, Spain

Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (1922–2018), Joaquim Fort

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza passed away on August 31st, 2018.


Keep Calm And Carry On: Infant Carrying Practices And Motor Development, Mariah Clanton, Alyssa Crittenden 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Keep Calm And Carry On: Infant Carrying Practices And Motor Development, Mariah Clanton, Alyssa Crittenden

AANAPISI Poster Presentations

Increasingly, infants in the post-industrialized west are being diagnosed with conditions such as plagiocephaly or torticollis – which are postural deformities that can be corrected with positioning behavior. While a handful of studies have cursorily explored infant carrying practices, here I provide the first comprehensive cross-cultural literature review that aims to make connections between infant transport style and the timing of infant development in the emergence of sitting, crawling, and walking .Such a synthesis is important, not only in terms of contributing to cross-cultural research, but also for parents in the cultural west to aid in the better understanding of how ...


The Upright Battle: Morphological Trends Of The Bipedal Pelvis, Nicole M. Webb 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Upright Battle: Morphological Trends Of The Bipedal Pelvis, Nicole M. Webb

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The shift to bipedal locomotion is a distinguishing feature of the human lineage that required substantial remodeling of the postcranium in hominins. The pelvis, due to its important functional role as a stabilizing and weight-bearing structure, has undergone one of the most drastic transformations in the skeleton to accommodate obligate bipedalism, thus making it a valuable region for studying locomotor behavior within the fossil record. Although bipedalism occurs in several mammalian groups, it is rare within primates and the ability to utilize a striding gait with an erect, or orthograde, posture remains unique to hominins. Orthograde posture in this context ...


Allomaternal Care By Conspecifics Impacts Activity Budgets Of Colobus Guereza Mothers, Dominique L. Raboin 2018 CUNY Hunter College

Allomaternal Care By Conspecifics Impacts Activity Budgets Of Colobus Guereza Mothers, Dominique L. Raboin

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

In primate societies, caring for infants involves nursing, protection, provisioning, and carrying - all energetically taxing states for mothers. The cost of holding and carrying clinging infants often constrains mothers from moving and traveling, potentially reducing their food and energy intake. Alternatively, when an infant is physically separated from their mother they are at risk of predation from birds of prey or other large mammals. This requires a high level of vigilance from mothers, often further deterring them from acquiring the food and energy that they need. Allomaternal care (AMC) is hypothesized to provide mothers with a way to safely detach ...


Growing Up In Tell El-Amarna: An Examination Of Growth And Non-Specific Stress Indicators In New Kingdom Children., Ashley Elizabeth Shidner 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Growing Up In Tell El-Amarna: An Examination Of Growth And Non-Specific Stress Indicators In New Kingdom Children., Ashley Elizabeth Shidner

Theses and Dissertations

The health status of the subadult skeletal remains from the South Tombs Cemetery at Tell el-Amarna were assessed by examining fluctuations in childhood growth and rates of skeletal indicators of physiological stress within a biocultural framework. The long bone standardization method outlined by Goode et al. (1993) was used to compare the South Tombs cemetery’s cross-sectional growth data to subadult samples from other cemeteries during which major social, political, and economic changes were taking place. The comparative subadult samples included the HK43 cemetery from Hierakonpolis (Egypt), the African American Cemetery from Cedar Grove (Arkansas), and the St. Martin’s ...


Seasonal Variation In Physiology Challenges The Notion Of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Forest-Adapted Species, Erin G. Wessling, Tobias Deschner, Roger Mundry, Jill D. Pruetz, Roman M. Wittig, Hjalmar S. Kühl 2018 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Seasonal Variation In Physiology Challenges The Notion Of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Forest-Adapted Species, Erin G. Wessling, Tobias Deschner, Roger Mundry, Jill D. Pruetz, Roman M. Wittig, Hjalmar S. Kühl

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Savanna-mosaic habitats are thought to represent exceptional circumstances for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and owing to the virtues of their habitat as well as peripheral biogeographic location, they are often regarded as marginal to the chimpanzee ecological niche. If these habitats are marginal, then we should expect that chimpanzees living in these habitats demonstrate physiological consequences of the extremity of this environment. We therefore compared seasonal variation in physiological responses to climatic and ecological factors in chimpanzees inhabiting Fongoli, a savanna-mosaic habitat at the margins of the chimpanzee range with chimpanzees from Taï National Park, a lowland rainforest centrally located within ...


The Singing Voice During The First Two Years Of Testosterone Therapy: Working With The Trans Or Gender Queer Voice, Tessa M. Romano 2018 University of Colorado Boulder

The Singing Voice During The First Two Years Of Testosterone Therapy: Working With The Trans Or Gender Queer Voice, Tessa M. Romano

Voice and Opera Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In order to better serve singers who identify as trans men or gender queer, voice teachers must understand the vocal effects of hormone replacement therapy, specifically that of testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy is the only type of hormone replacement therapy that permanently changes the voice and eventually results in a full octave drop or more of a person’s spoken fundamental frequency. Due to such a dramatic shift, the voice change process can be turbulent.

This dissertation is designed to educate both cis gender voice teachers and trans and gender queer singers on the process of vocal change during the ...


A New Estimate For Neanderthal Energy Expenditure, Stephen J. Venner 2018 CUNY Hunter College

A New Estimate For Neanderthal Energy Expenditure, Stephen J. Venner

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study presents a new estimate for Neanderthal total energy expenditure through the use of a constrained energy model. The new estimates for Neanderthal are considered within the context of some recent analyses investigating Neanderthal life history traits, genetics, and the archaeological record.


An Investigation Of The Phylogenetic Affinities Of Sivaladapidae Within Adapoidea, Kathleen Rust 2018 CUNY Hunter College

An Investigation Of The Phylogenetic Affinities Of Sivaladapidae Within Adapoidea, Kathleen Rust

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study presents a phylogenetic analysis incorporating 82 dental characters to clarify the evolutionary relationships of Sivaladapidae within the broader context of Adapoidea. Results suggest that sivaladapids share a close evolutionary relationship with European adapoids.


Do Osteon Morphotypes Identified In The Mid-Diaphysis Of Human Femurs Indicate The Same Torsional Load History As Chimpanzees?, Bailey A G Colohan 2018 CUNY Hunter College

Do Osteon Morphotypes Identified In The Mid-Diaphysis Of Human Femurs Indicate The Same Torsional Load History As Chimpanzees?, Bailey A G Colohan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Skedros’s (2009) osteon morphotype scoring (MTS) scheme is employed to identify if humans have the same torsional load-bearing history as chimpanzees at the femoral mid-diaphysis. Humans show to have no significant difference between quadrants of this area’s MTS, congruent with what is expected in a torsional load-bearing area of bone.


Reconstructing Landscape Use Patterns Using Strontium Isotope Ratios, Marian I. Hamilton 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Reconstructing Landscape Use Patterns Using Strontium Isotope Ratios, Marian I. Hamilton

Anthropology ETDs

This dissertation uses modern habitats and fauna to model the variability and predictive power of strontium isotope ratios in identifying dispersal patterns in primates and habitat preference in primate and non-primate fauna. It concludes that there are significant isotopic differences between gallery forest and xeric grassland habitats in the same area and that these differences are reflected in fauna with habitat preferences for one or the other. It also identifies the most reliable methodological approaches for identifying the philopatric and dispersing sex in primate communities. Finally, it applies this methodological recommendation to strontium isotope data from South African hominins, concluding ...


A Forensic Investigation Into The Possible Origins Of Three Human Skeletons, Jefferson P. Sinnott 2018 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

A Forensic Investigation Into The Possible Origins Of Three Human Skeletons, Jefferson P. Sinnott

Forensic Science Theses

The Anthropology Department at Buffalo State has three human skeletons that have been part of the department’s collection for several years. The origin of the skeletons is currently unknown. Modern DNA techniques coupled with forensic anthropological techniques may now allow us to determine with some certainty the geographic origin of the skeletons. Ancestry, sex, age, and stature were assessed using current anthropological techniques. Afterwards, one tooth from each of the three skeletons was extracted, pulverized and DNA was isolated. Y-STR fragment size analysis of the DNA samples can provide information about the patrilineage of male individuals. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing ...


A Comparison Of Craniofacial Asymmetry In Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla And Pan Troglodytes Troglodytes, Ashly Noel Romero 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Comparison Of Craniofacial Asymmetry In Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla And Pan Troglodytes Troglodytes, Ashly Noel Romero

Theses and Dissertations

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) – random deviations from bilateral symmetry in an organism’s paired features – is a good candidate for investigating developmental stability. This easily accessible measurement can be used to understand the relationship between stress and development across organisms, and growth rate plays a vital role in developmental processes. Few studies have investigated craniofacial FA in non-human primates, and those that have suggest that levels of FA are higher in slower growing species. This study examines craniofacial FA in two primate species (Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla; n=81) to elucidate the effect of growth rate on FA ...


Examination Of Shape Variation Of The Calcaneus, Navicular, And Talus In Homo Sapiens, Gorilla Gorilla, And Pan Troglodytes, Nicole Lynn Robinson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examination Of Shape Variation Of The Calcaneus, Navicular, And Talus In Homo Sapiens, Gorilla Gorilla, And Pan Troglodytes, Nicole Lynn Robinson

Theses and Dissertations

Analyses of morphological integration among primates commonly focus on relationships between the face, braincase and base of the skull, as well as the upper and lower dentition, and the within portions of the post-cranial skeleton. Despite the prominence of these studies, the associations between the bones of the foot and their articular surfaces have largely been ignored among primates, even though the foot demonstrates high degrees of variation and modification. This variation offers an ideal opportunity to study the relationship between morphology and locomotion. Because the talus, calcaneus and navicular act together to stabilize the foot in locomotion and form ...


Laboratory Manual Ant 101: Introduction To Biological Anthropology, Susan L. Johnston 2018 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Laboratory Manual Ant 101: Introduction To Biological Anthropology, Susan L. Johnston

Anthropology & Sociology

No abstract provided.


Sacral Morphology Of Prehensile-Tailed Primates In Relation To Biomechanical Loading, Hannah Grace Showalter 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sacral Morphology Of Prehensile-Tailed Primates In Relation To Biomechanical Loading, Hannah Grace Showalter

Theses and Dissertations

The few available comparative studies of prehensile tail anatomy in primates have established that several features of the caudal vertebrae are associated with adaptation to the increased loading of the tail during prehension. Given that the caudal vertebrae are anchored to the sacrum, it stands to reason that sacral morphology should also covary with tail prehensility. Convergent evolution of prehension in ateline and cebine primates and clear variation in the use of tails among taxa raises questions not only of how sacral morphology differs between prehensile and non-prehensile taxa, but whether different prehensile-tailed taxa evolved the same solutions to the ...


Interpersonal And Ideological Kindness: A Biocultural Approach, Sally Averitt-Hubbard 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Interpersonal And Ideological Kindness: A Biocultural Approach, Sally Averitt-Hubbard

Theses and Dissertations

In accordance with Richard Dawkins’ materialist “selfish gene” theory of human behavior, altruism is a subject matter that is treated conservatively by biologists, whose understanding of the human version of altruism tends toward mutualistic and sometimes reputation-based explanations of charity, kindness, and helping. Trivers (1971) first stated that non-kin altruism could evolve if altruistic behavior is balanced between partners over time, implicating a strictly mutualistic domain for kindness. But kindness herein is defined, beyond mere mutualism or reciprocity, as “the quality of being friendly, generous, and considerate.” Further, kindness tends to have an action-oriented dimension, as in Goetz et al ...


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