Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biological and Physical Anthropology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

784 Full-Text Articles 1,334 Authors 286,664 Downloads 98 Institutions

All Articles in Biological and Physical Anthropology

Faceted Search

784 full-text articles. Page 1 of 32.

Seasonal Variation In Physiology Challenges The Notion Of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Forest-Adapted Species, Erin G. Wessling, Tobias Deschner, Roger Mundry, Jill D. Pruetz, Roman M. Wittig, Hjalmar S. Kühl 2018 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Seasonal Variation In Physiology Challenges The Notion Of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Forest-Adapted Species, Erin G. Wessling, Tobias Deschner, Roger Mundry, Jill D. Pruetz, Roman M. Wittig, Hjalmar S. Kühl

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Savanna-mosaic habitats are thought to represent exceptional circumstances for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and owing to the virtues of their habitat as well as peripheral biogeographic location, they are often regarded as marginal to the chimpanzee ecological niche. If these habitats are marginal, then we should expect that chimpanzees living in these habitats demonstrate physiological consequences of the extremity of this environment. We therefore compared seasonal variation in physiological responses to climatic and ecological factors in chimpanzees inhabiting Fongoli, a savanna-mosaic habitat at the margins of the chimpanzee range with chimpanzees from Taï National Park, a lowland rainforest centrally located within ...


The Singing Voice During The First Two Years Of Testosterone Therapy: Working With The Trans Or Gender Queer Voice, Tessa M. Romano 2018 University of Colorado Boulder

The Singing Voice During The First Two Years Of Testosterone Therapy: Working With The Trans Or Gender Queer Voice, Tessa M. Romano

Voice and Opera Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In order to better serve singers who identify as trans men or gender queer, voice teachers must understand the vocal effects of hormone replacement therapy, specifically that of testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy is the only type of hormone replacement therapy that permanently changes the voice and eventually results in a full octave drop or more of a person’s spoken fundamental frequency. Due to such a dramatic shift, the voice change process can be turbulent.

This dissertation is designed to educate both cis gender voice teachers and trans and gender queer singers on the process of vocal change during the ...


A New Estimate For Neanderthal Energy Expenditure, Stephen J. Venner 2018 CUNY Hunter College

A New Estimate For Neanderthal Energy Expenditure, Stephen J. Venner

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study presents a new estimate for Neanderthal total energy expenditure through the use of a constrained energy model. The new estimates for Neanderthal are considered within the context of some recent analyses investigating Neanderthal life history traits, genetics, and the archaeological record.


An Investigation Of The Phylogenetic Affinities Of Sivaladapidae Within Adapoidea, Kathleen Rust 2018 CUNY Hunter College

An Investigation Of The Phylogenetic Affinities Of Sivaladapidae Within Adapoidea, Kathleen Rust

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study presents a phylogenetic analysis incorporating 82 dental characters to clarify the evolutionary relationships of Sivaladapidae within the broader context of Adapoidea. Results suggest that sivaladapids share a close evolutionary relationship with European adapoids.


Do Osteon Morphotypes Identified In The Mid-Diaphysis Of Human Femurs Indicate The Same Torsional Load History As Chimpanzees?, Bailey A G Colohan 2018 CUNY Hunter College

Do Osteon Morphotypes Identified In The Mid-Diaphysis Of Human Femurs Indicate The Same Torsional Load History As Chimpanzees?, Bailey A G Colohan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Skedros’s (2009) osteon morphotype scoring (MTS) scheme is employed to identify if humans have the same torsional load-bearing history as chimpanzees at the femoral mid-diaphysis. Humans show to have no significant difference between quadrants of this area’s MTS, congruent with what is expected in a torsional load-bearing area of bone.


A Forensic Investigation Into The Possible Origins Of Three Human Skeletons, Jefferson P. Sinnott 2018 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

A Forensic Investigation Into The Possible Origins Of Three Human Skeletons, Jefferson P. Sinnott

Forensic Science Theses

The Anthropology Department at Buffalo State has three human skeletons that have been part of the department’s collection for several years. The origin of the skeletons is currently unknown. Modern DNA techniques coupled with forensic anthropological techniques may now allow us to determine with some certainty the geographic origin of the skeletons. Ancestry, sex, age, and stature were assessed using current anthropological techniques. Afterwards, one tooth from each of the three skeletons was extracted, pulverized and DNA was isolated. Y-STR fragment size analysis of the DNA samples can provide information about the patrilineage of male individuals. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing ...


Examination Of Shape Variation Of The Calcaneus, Navicular, And Talus In Homo Sapiens, Gorilla Gorilla, And Pan Troglodytes, Nicole Lynn Robinson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examination Of Shape Variation Of The Calcaneus, Navicular, And Talus In Homo Sapiens, Gorilla Gorilla, And Pan Troglodytes, Nicole Lynn Robinson

Theses and Dissertations

Analyses of morphological integration among primates commonly focus on relationships between the face, braincase and base of the skull, as well as the upper and lower dentition, and the within portions of the post-cranial skeleton. Despite the prominence of these studies, the associations between the bones of the foot and their articular surfaces have largely been ignored among primates, even though the foot demonstrates high degrees of variation and modification. This variation offers an ideal opportunity to study the relationship between morphology and locomotion. Because the talus, calcaneus and navicular act together to stabilize the foot in locomotion and form ...


Laboratory Manual Ant 101: Introduction To Biological Anthropology, Susan L. Johnston 2018 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Laboratory Manual Ant 101: Introduction To Biological Anthropology, Susan L. Johnston

Anthropology & Sociology

No abstract provided.


Digital Palace Of Nestor: Assessing Mycenaean Palatial Complex Construction Of Socio-Political Status And Navigation Through Architecture, Caleb Ward 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Digital Palace Of Nestor: Assessing Mycenaean Palatial Complex Construction Of Socio-Political Status And Navigation Through Architecture, Caleb Ward

Theses and Dissertations

Because architecture necessitates the conscious planning of space, its consequences for navigation and socio-political status are equally deliberate and have indirect effects. This research combines experiential and spatial syntax techniques to gain a deeper understanding of how Mycenaeans shaped space to construct status and navigation in the Palace of Nestor at Pylos. Using a digital reconstruction of the palace ensured the most accurate experiential data by utilizing a whole, albeit virtual, version of the site. Without employing a digital reconstruction, the only experiences with the site would occur in the ruinous, actual site preventing complete experiences with how the site ...


Sacral Morphology Of Prehensile-Tailed Primates In Relation To Biomechanical Loading, Hannah Grace Showalter 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sacral Morphology Of Prehensile-Tailed Primates In Relation To Biomechanical Loading, Hannah Grace Showalter

Theses and Dissertations

The few available comparative studies of prehensile tail anatomy in primates have established that several features of the caudal vertebrae are associated with adaptation to the increased loading of the tail during prehension. Given that the caudal vertebrae are anchored to the sacrum, it stands to reason that sacral morphology should also covary with tail prehensility. Convergent evolution of prehension in ateline and cebine primates and clear variation in the use of tails among taxa raises questions not only of how sacral morphology differs between prehensile and non-prehensile taxa, but whether different prehensile-tailed taxa evolved the same solutions to the ...


Understanding How Racism Physically Feels In The Moment For Young African American Women, Emma M. Burklin 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Understanding How Racism Physically Feels In The Moment For Young African American Women, Emma M. Burklin

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Interpersonal And Ideological Kindness: A Biocultural Approach, Sally Averitt-Hubbard 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Interpersonal And Ideological Kindness: A Biocultural Approach, Sally Averitt-Hubbard

Theses and Dissertations

In accordance with Richard Dawkins’ materialist “selfish gene” theory of human behavior, altruism is a subject matter that is treated conservatively by biologists, whose understanding of the human version of altruism tends toward mutualistic and sometimes reputation-based explanations of charity, kindness, and helping. Trivers (1971) first stated that non-kin altruism could evolve if altruistic behavior is balanced between partners over time, implicating a strictly mutualistic domain for kindness. But kindness herein is defined, beyond mere mutualism or reciprocity, as “the quality of being friendly, generous, and considerate.” Further, kindness tends to have an action-oriented dimension, as in Goetz et al ...


A Comparison Of Craniofacial Asymmetry In Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla And Pan Troglodytes Troglodytes, Ashly Noel Romero 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Comparison Of Craniofacial Asymmetry In Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla And Pan Troglodytes Troglodytes, Ashly Noel Romero

Theses and Dissertations

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) – random deviations from bilateral symmetry in an organism’s paired features – is a good candidate for investigating developmental stability. This easily accessible measurement can be used to understand the relationship between stress and development across organisms, and growth rate plays a vital role in developmental processes. Few studies have investigated craniofacial FA in non-human primates, and those that have suggest that levels of FA are higher in slower growing species. This study examines craniofacial FA in two primate species (Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla; n=81) to elucidate the effect of growth rate on FA ...


Gender And Religion In A Shifting Social Landscape: Anglo-Saxon Mortuary Practices, Ad 600-700, Caroline Palmer 2018 Brigham Young University

Gender And Religion In A Shifting Social Landscape: Anglo-Saxon Mortuary Practices, Ad 600-700, Caroline Palmer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

My thesis examines seventh-century East Anglian mortuary practices and cross-correlates grave goods and human remains to determine whether there was an expression of the sexual division of labor during this period of social and religious change. I argue that gender roles changed as a result of adopting kingdoms and Christianity. Prior to this time period, Anglo-Saxons were primarily pagan and were buried with extensive burial goods. In addition to changes in religious and burial practices, during the Final Phase (600-700 AD) there appears to have been a division of labor that was not as dichotomous in the Migration Phase (450-600 ...


Metacarpal Ratio And Its Relation To Sexual Dimorphism In Primates With Different Mating Strategies, Emilee Hart 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Metacarpal Ratio And Its Relation To Sexual Dimorphism In Primates With Different Mating Strategies, Emilee Hart

LSU Master's Theses

The digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait in mammalian hands that is a result of levels of prenatal androgen exposure (PNAE) during limb development. Previous studies have shown that females have a higher ratio than males and that sexual dimorphism in the ratio is greater in species with polygynous mating strategies and high levels of intermale aggression compared to monogamous species with low intermale aggression. This study used metacarpals instead of phalanges to test the hypotheses that the metacarpal ratio (2Mc:4Mc) will be higher in females than males within a species and that the ratio would ...


Who Is Cheddar Man And What Does He Teach Us?, Meredith Bennett 2018 Duquesne University

Who Is Cheddar Man And What Does He Teach Us?, Meredith Bennett

D.U.Quark

No abstract provided.


Worldwide Distribution Of The Human Apolipoprotein E Gene - The Association Between Apoe, Subsistence, And Latitude, Tiffany S. Ho 2018 CUNY Hunter College

Worldwide Distribution Of The Human Apolipoprotein E Gene - The Association Between Apoe, Subsistence, And Latitude, Tiffany S. Ho

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The human apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) plays an important role in metabolizing lipids, regulating plasma cholesterol, and maintaining biological function. Structural differences in APOE variants impact cholesterol absorption and health risk, so that alleles serve as biomarkers for numerous cardiovascular and neurological diseases (Lai 2015). Variant differences are determined by changes in two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs429358 and rs7412. Distribution of alleles varies across populations. Allele frequencies in populations have been shown to be associated with cultural and environmental factors, including subsistence strategy and latitude (Eisenberg 2010).

This study aims to provide a cross-population, genetic association study between APOE ...


Purépecha Biohistory Project: A Differential Diagnosis On Burial 14.2 - A Possible Case Of Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy, Eli Mrak 2018 Anthropology

Purépecha Biohistory Project: A Differential Diagnosis On Burial 14.2 - A Possible Case Of Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy, Eli Mrak

Honors Theses AY 17/18

The well preserved skeletal remains of a young adult female from the pre-Hispanic city of Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico were analyzed during the Purépecha Biohistory Project in May of 2016. The bones of this individual display an array of proliferative new bone formation (PNBF) in the form of extensive periosteal reaction to the majority of the elements present. A differential diagnosis was conducted based on the types of lesions present and their distribution on the individual’s skeleton. Osseous responses similar to that observed on this individual have been credited to a variety of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease ...


Differential Decomposition Rates Of Non-Human Remains With The Facilitation Of Sodium Hydroxide In Dissimilar Deposition Environments, Hayley Savage 2018 University of Montana, Missoula

Differential Decomposition Rates Of Non-Human Remains With The Facilitation Of Sodium Hydroxide In Dissimilar Deposition Environments, Hayley Savage

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Dissolving bodies is a contemporary method of disposing human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. In popular media, criminals attempt to dispose of their victims by using various chemicals to dissolve the corpses. There is an immense gap in the literature pertaining to this research, so this present study aims to combat the lack of information on the topic. This research investigates the effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), generally known as lye or caustic soda, a common household chemical, on human tissues and bone by using an animal analogue (domestic pig, Sus scrofa domesticus). Four dissimilar deposition environments ...


United States-Mexico Border: Rights Of The Dead, Forensic Anthropologists, And Families Of The Victims, Diana A. Newberry 2018 Humboldt State University

United States-Mexico Border: Rights Of The Dead, Forensic Anthropologists, And Families Of The Victims, Diana A. Newberry

Theses and projects

From 1998-2018, over 6,000 migrants have been found dead after attempting to cross into the United States through its southern border; most of the deaths are due to harsh environmental conditions found through the crossing areas. Migrant remains are often found with no belongings or evidence to use to identify the deceased. Forensic anthropologists, medicolegal examiners, and non-governmental organizations such as Humane Borders, Águilas del Desierto [Eagles of the Desert], and the Colibrí Center for Human Rights have worked to recover, identify, and repatriate these remains. To understand the many facets of this process, this thesis explored the relationships ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress