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Who Ate The Subfossil Lemurs? A Taphonomic And Community Study Of Raptor, Crocodylian And Carnivoran Predation Of The Extinct Quaternary Lemurs Of Madagascar., Lindsay Meador 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Who Ate The Subfossil Lemurs? A Taphonomic And Community Study Of Raptor, Crocodylian And Carnivoran Predation Of The Extinct Quaternary Lemurs Of Madagascar., Lindsay Meador

Doctoral Dissertations

Madagascar’s Quaternary predator-primate guild included seventeen species of relatively large extinct lemurs. Sharing the landscape with the lemurs, were several relatively large now-extinct predators, including three raptors (two species of Aquila and Stephanoaetus mahery), a euplerid (Cryptoprocta spelea), and a crocodile (Voay robustus). This is the first research to systematically study predator-prey relationships among these extinct animals. Here I examine the bones of the extinct lemurs at six subfossil localities (Ampasambazimba, Ankarana, Grotte d’Ankazoabo, Beloha Anavoha, Manombo Toliara, and Tsirave) for evidence of and also collected metric data on these bones. I examined 1141 specimens (crania, mandibles, humeri ...


Genetic Differentiation In A Sample From Northern Mexico City Detected By Hla System Analysis: Impact In The Study Of Population Immunogenetics, Eva D. Juárez Cortés, Miguel A. Contreras Sieck, Agustín J. Arriaga Perea, Rosa M. Macías Medrano, Anaí Balbuena Jaime, Paola Everardo Martínez, Joaquín Zúñiga, Víctor Acuña Alonzo, Julio Granados, Rodrigo Barquera 2017 Laboratorio de Histocompatibilidad, Banco Central de Sangre, Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico

Genetic Differentiation In A Sample From Northern Mexico City Detected By Hla System Analysis: Impact In The Study Of Population Immunogenetics, Eva D. JuáRez CortéS, Miguel A. Contreras Sieck, AgustíN J. Arriaga Perea, Rosa M. MacíAs Medrano, Anaí Balbuena Jaime, Paola Everardo MartíNez, JoaquíN ZúÑIga, VíCtor AcuñA Alonzo, Julio Granados, Rodrigo Barquera

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The major histocompatibility complex is directly involved in the immune response and thus the genes coding for its proteins are useful markers for the study of genetic diversity, susceptibility to disease (autoimmunity and infections), transplant medicine, and pharmacogenetics, among others. The polymorphism of the system also allows researchers to use it as a proxy for population genetics analysis, such as genetic admixture and genetic structure. In order to determine the immunogenetic characteristics of a sample from the northern part of Mexico City and to use them to analyze the genetic differentiation from other admixed populations, including those from previous studies ...


Chaco Canyon Dig Unearths Ethical Concerns, Katrina G. Claw, Dorothy Lippert, Jessica Bardill, Anna Cordova, Keolu Fox, Joseph M. Yracheta, Alyssa C. Bader, Deborah A. Bolnick, Ripan S. Malhi, Kimberly TallBear, Nanibaa' A. Garrison 2017 University of Washington

Chaco Canyon Dig Unearths Ethical Concerns, Katrina G. Claw, Dorothy Lippert, Jessica Bardill, Anna Cordova, Keolu Fox, Joseph M. Yracheta, Alyssa C. Bader, Deborah A. Bolnick, Ripan S. Malhi, Kimberly Tallbear, Nanibaa' A. Garrison

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The field of paleogenomics (the study of ancient genomes) is rapidly advancing with more robust methods of isolating ancient DNA and increasing access to next-generation DNA sequencing technology. As these studies progress, many important ethical issues have emerged that should be considered when ancient Native American remains, whom we refer to as ancestors, are used in research. We highlight a recent article by Kennett et al. (2017), “Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty,” that brings several ethical issues to light that should be addressed in paleogenomics research (Kennett et al. 2017). The study helps elucidate the matrilineal relationships in ancient ...


Leveraging Multiple Populations Across Time Helps Define Accurate Models Of Human Evolution: A Reanalysis Of The Lactase Persistence Adaptation, Chenling Xu Antelope, Davide Marnetto, Fergal Casey, Emilia Huerta-Sanchez 2017 University of California, Berkeley

Leveraging Multiple Populations Across Time Helps Define Accurate Models Of Human Evolution: A Reanalysis Of The Lactase Persistence Adaptation, Chenling Xu Antelope, Davide Marnetto, Fergal Casey, Emilia Huerta-Sanchez

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Access to a geographically diverse set of modern human samples from the present time and from ancient remains, combined with archaic hominin samples, provides an unprecedented level of resolution to study both human history and adaptation. The amount and quality of ancient human data continues to improve, and enables tracking the trajectory of genetic variation over time. These data have the potential to help us redefine or generate new hypotheses of how human evolution occurred, and revise previous conjectures. In this review, we argue that leveraging all these data will help us better detail adaptive histories in humans. As a ...


Evolution, Function And Deconstructing Histories: A New Generation Of Anthropological Genetics, Omer Gokcumen 2017 State University of New York at Buffalo

Evolution, Function And Deconstructing Histories: A New Generation Of Anthropological Genetics, Omer Gokcumen

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Introduction to the Special Issue, mainly based on contributions by the speakers in the 2016 AAAG symposium, “Ancient alleles in modern populations: Ancient structure, introgression, and variation-maintaining adaptive forces.”


The Human First Metatarsal In Bioarchaeological Research: New Insights Into Human Variation And Bone Health Research From Kellis 2, Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt (50-450ce), Mathew A. Teeter 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Human First Metatarsal In Bioarchaeological Research: New Insights Into Human Variation And Bone Health Research From Kellis 2, Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt (50-450ce), Mathew A. Teeter

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Objectives: This research tests the efficacy of using the human first metatarsal (MT1) in bioarchaeological research, specifically to investigate human variation (nonmetric traits and sexual dimorphism) and skeletal health (Osteo-Volumetric Density and µCT analysis) in antiquity. To date, this bone has had limited applications in bioarchaeology.

Materials and Methods: This study used human remains from the Kellis 2 (K2) cemetery, located in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt (50-450CE). Specifically, 377 MT1s, representing 212 individuals were used to investigate human variation and osteo-volumetric density (OVD) in the K2 skeletal population. Additionally, skeletal health was further assessed in a female sub-sample (n=44 ...


Trees For The Primates: A Community-Based Assessment Of Crowned Lemur (Eulemur Coronatus) Habitat Preferences And Conservation In Northern Madagascar, Fernando Mario Mercado Malabet 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Trees For The Primates: A Community-Based Assessment Of Crowned Lemur (Eulemur Coronatus) Habitat Preferences And Conservation In Northern Madagascar, Fernando Mario Mercado Malabet

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As a result of the continuous loss of forest habitats in Madagascar, forest fragments that exhibit a high degree of degradation and are strongly embedded on the livelihood needs of rural Malagasy people are increasingly being considered as the focus of conservation management operations. This new type of protected areas, based on the IUCN’s Category V management model for conservation action, promises a social-ecologically balanced method of environmental intervention that seeks to protect ecological communities while promoting sustainable socioeconomic systems. However, due to the poor ecological quality and immense level of anthropogenic influence in the type of forests that ...


Final Report Ca-Scl-950 Vta.Pdf, Alan M. Leventhal 2017 San Jose State University

Final Report Ca-Scl-950 Vta.Pdf, Alan M. Leventhal

Alan M. Leventhal

This report presents the results of the burial and archaeological data recovery program conducted within a portion of site CA-SCL-950 [Cashrishmini ’Awweš ’Írek ’Innutka Site], a Late Period Ancestral Muwekma Ohlone Cemetery located just east of the intersection of Alum Rock Avenue and Jackson Street, City of San Jose, Santa Clara County, California. The recovered burial was inadvertently discovered on September 7, 2016, by a Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) construction crew excavating a fire hydrant water line that was oriented from north to south under the planned platform area and roadbed for the new eastbound Bus Rapid Transit ...


Reduced Immune Investment With Energy Stress: Evidence From A Mouse Model And Human Studies, Alaina L. Schneider 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Reduced Immune Investment With Energy Stress: Evidence From A Mouse Model And Human Studies, Alaina L. Schneider

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

During periods of energy stress, animals will prioritize and allocate energy from non-essential to essential tasks. Using a mouse model and published human data, we found that during periods of energy stress, energy is allocated away from immune function, and is prioritized for physical activity usage.


Sexual Dimorphism In The Femur And Pelvis Of Cebus Apella With A Randomization Experiment Examining Sample Size In The Fossil Record, Ryan P. Schaars 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Sexual Dimorphism In The Femur And Pelvis Of Cebus Apella With A Randomization Experiment Examining Sample Size In The Fossil Record, Ryan P. Schaars

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Measures of sexual dimorphism for six skeletal traits of the femur and pelvis of Cebus apella were calculated for 18 individuals to better understand primate skeletal dimorphism. A randomization experiment was also conducted on the measures of sexual dimorphism to examine sample size in the primate fossil record.


Phylogenetic Affinities Of Homo Floresiensis Incorporating Postcranial Characters, Kristina M. Feeney 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Phylogenetic Affinities Of Homo Floresiensis Incorporating Postcranial Characters, Kristina M. Feeney

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The objective of this analysis is to generate hypotheses regarding the evolution and ancestry of Homo floresiensis. Building on the previous study by Argue et al. (2009) by including a much larger sample of postcranial data for a more integrated picture of primitive and derived features across the skeleton.


Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ecological niche modeling investigates how climatic variables have influenced taxonomic diversity in Papio. Models performed well suggesting climatic variables influence the distribution of baboon species. Niche overlap among all possible pairs of taxa determined that species exhibited significantly different niches. The results of these models support a parapatric speciation scenario.


Who Are The Apistoi? Symbolic Boundaries And Anthropological Language In 2 Cor 6:14-7:1, Nii Addo Kobina Abrahams 2017 Missouri State University

Who Are The Apistoi? Symbolic Boundaries And Anthropological Language In 2 Cor 6:14-7:1, Nii Addo Kobina Abrahams

MSU Graduate Theses

Joseph A. Fitzmyer’s “Qumran and the Interpolated Paragraph in 2 Cor 6:14-7:1,” originally published in 1961, argued that 2 Cor 6:14-7:1 was an interpolation from an undiscovered Qumran text. Fitzmyer’s thesis was the prevailing scholarly opinion for over a decade, and while several counter-arguments have convincingly challenged Fitzmyer’s theory, scholars are still hard-pressed to explain how the passage fits into its context. Not only does 6:14-7:1 seem to lack any organic connection to the verses immediately prior or following, but it also contains unique vocabulary and what seems to be uncharacteristic ...


Dental Microwear Textures Of Paranthropus Robustus From Kromdraai, Drimolen, And An Enlarged Sample From Swartkrans: Ecological And Intraspecific Variation, Alexandria Sachiko Peterson 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dental Microwear Textures Of Paranthropus Robustus From Kromdraai, Drimolen, And An Enlarged Sample From Swartkrans: Ecological And Intraspecific Variation, Alexandria Sachiko Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

The original microwear texture baseline for South African hominins was done by Scott et al. (2005) and concluded that Paranthropus robustus exhibited higher complexity values (Asfc) that are seen in occasional hard object feeders. Australopithecus africanus has higher anisotropy values (epLsar) consistent with consuming tough objects. This study expands upon this baseline by increasing the sample size from n = 9 for P. robustus and n = 10 for Au. africanus to n = 66 and n = 44, respectively. Additionally, this study incorporates multiple different sites and deposits. The P. robustus sample includes Drimolen, Kromdraai, and an expanded sample from Swartkrans, incorporating samples ...


A Penile Spine/Vibrissa Enhancer Sequence Is Missing In Modern And Extinct Humans But Is Retained In Multiple Primates With Penile Spines And Sensory Vibrissae, Philip L. Reno, Cory Y McLean, Jasmine E Hines, Terence D Capellini, Gill Bejerano, David M Kingsley 2017 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

A Penile Spine/Vibrissa Enhancer Sequence Is Missing In Modern And Extinct Humans But Is Retained In Multiple Primates With Penile Spines And Sensory Vibrissae, Philip L. Reno, Cory Y Mclean, Jasmine E Hines, Terence D Capellini, Gill Bejerano, David M Kingsley

Philip Reno

Previous studies show that humans have a large genomic deletion downstream of the Androgen Receptor gene that eliminates an ancestral mammalian regulatory enhancer that drives expression in developing penile spines and sensory vibrissae. Here we use a combination of large-scale sequence analysis and PCR amplification to demonstrate that the penile spine/vibrissa enhancer is missing in all humans surveyed and in the Neandertal and Denisovan genomes, but is present in DNA samples of chimpanzees and bonobos, as well as in multiple other great apes and primates that maintain some form of penile integumentary appendage and facial vibrissae. These results further ...


Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse 2017 Seattle Pacific University

Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse

Honors Projects

A major portion of humans’ activity-based energy expenditure is taken up by locomotion, particularly walking. Humans can offset the energetic expenditure of walking in numerous ways, both evolutionary (such as changes in body shape) and culturally. Behaviorally, people can choose to walk in a variety of ways, including alone or with a group, carrying loads, and walking quickly or more slowly. All of these behaviors have energetic outcomes and as such can be important windows into how populations and groups adjust to different constraints. While sex differences in speed of paired walkers have been established by others, the dynamics of ...


In Situ 2017: University Of Pennsylvania Undergraduate Research Journal, Samantha Sharon Ashok, Ivana Kohut, Jessie Lu, Emma McNamara, Arielle Mae Pierson 2017 University of Pennsylvania

In Situ 2017: University Of Pennsylvania Undergraduate Research Journal, Samantha Sharon Ashok, Ivana Kohut, Jessie Lu, Emma Mcnamara, Arielle Mae Pierson

In Situ

No abstract provided.


Bivalve Stories And Snail Tales: Reconstructing The Late Archaic Environment At The Tomoka Complex, Northeast Florida, Steven R. England 2017 Eastern Kentucky University

Bivalve Stories And Snail Tales: Reconstructing The Late Archaic Environment At The Tomoka Complex, Northeast Florida, Steven R. England

Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Mollusks inhabit specific ecological niches and can be used as proxies for past environmental conditions. Changes in the composition of molluscan assemblages register changing ecological conditions and offer an opportunity to examine human responses to environmental change. This paper presents the preliminary analysis molluscan species from the Late Archaic Tomoka Complex in Northeast Florida. Changes in the species composition and frequency of mollusks coupled with the available radiometric assays are used to reconstruct the environmental conditions during the occupation of the Tomoka Complex and, importantly, the environmental conditions attending Late Archaic mortuary mound construction.


European Bog Bodies: From The Iron Age Peat Bog To The 21st Century, Samantha E. Brown 2017 University of Wyoming

European Bog Bodies: From The Iron Age Peat Bog To The 21st Century, Samantha E. Brown

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Well preserved bodies dating from the prehistoric era to the 19th century have been found across northwestern Europe; specifically, in the peat bogs of Ireland, Great Britain and Denmark. These discoveries were especially prevalent in the late 19th and early 20th centuries when mass peat extraction was at its height. Many of these finds have been dated to the Iron Age and have previously been attributed to patterns of ritual violence. This paper focuses on three finds from the Iron Age: Graubelle man, Tollund man, and the Weerdinge couple.

This project intends to exhibit the types of ...


Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).


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