Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Environmental Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

38,898 Full-Text Articles 51,532 Authors 12,111,179 Downloads 320 Institutions

All Articles in Environmental Sciences

Faceted Search

38,898 full-text articles. Page 923 of 927.

Reproductive Biology Of Male Brown Treesnakes (Boiga Irregularis) On Guam, Tom Mathies, John A. Cruz, Valentine A. Lance, Julie A. Savidge 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Reproductive Biology Of Male Brown Treesnakes (Boiga Irregularis) On Guam, Tom Mathies, John A. Cruz, Valentine A. Lance, Julie A. Savidge

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reproductive biology of males in the Guam population of the Brown Treesnake, Boiga irregularis, was investigated through monthly examinations of the urogenital system organs and plasma testosterone levels. All males examined during the 12 consecutive months of the study were spermatogenic and had sperm in the ductus epididymis and ductus deferens. No evidence of testicular recrudescence or regression was observed. Testis mass did not vary among months. Epithelial height of the kidney sexual segment was the only feature examined that varied significantly among months, with lowest heights observed in May through July. Despite this variation, the sexual segment in all ...


Fine-Scale Genetic And Social Structuring In A Central Appalachian White-Tailed Deer Herd, Brad F. Miller, Randy W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, Benjamin R. Laseter, W. Mark Ford, Karl V. Miller 2010 University of Georgia, Athens

Fine-Scale Genetic And Social Structuring In A Central Appalachian White-Tailed Deer Herd, Brad F. Miller, Randy W. Deyoung, Tyler A. Campbell, Benjamin R. Laseter, W. Mark Ford, Karl V. Miller

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Spatial genetic structure in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been examined at regional scales, but genetic markers with the resolution to detect fine-scale patterns have appeared only recently. We used a panel of microsatellite DNA markers, radiotelemetry data, and visual observations of marked deer to study fine-scale social and genetic structure in a high-density population of white-tailed deer (12–20 deer/km2). We collected genetic data on 229 adult females, 102 of which were assigned to 28 social groups. Our results were consistent with the conceptual model of white-tailed deer social structure, where philopatric females form social groups composed ...


Test Of Localized Management For Reducing Deer Browsing In Forest Regeneration Areas, Brad F. Miller, Tyler A. Campbell, Ben Laseter, W. Mark Ford, Karl Miller 2010 Arkansas Game and Fish Commission

Test Of Localized Management For Reducing Deer Browsing In Forest Regeneration Areas, Brad F. Miller, Tyler A. Campbell, Ben Laseter, W. Mark Ford, Karl Miller

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browsing in forest regeneration sites can affect current and future stand structure and species composition. Removal of deer social units (localized management) has been proposed as a strategy to alleviate deer overbrowsing in forest systems. We conducted an experimental localized removal in a high-density deer population in the central Appalachians of West Virginia, USA, during winter 2002. We removed 51 deer within a 1.1-km2 area that encompassed 2 forest regeneration sites (14 ha). During the summer following removal, we detected decreases in distance from the removal area in 8 of 30 (26.7%) adult ...


Applying Geographic Information Systems To Support Strategic Environmental Assessment: Opportunities And Limitations In The Context Of Irish Land-Use Plans, Ainhoa Gonzalez, Alan Gilmer, Ronan Foley, John Sweeney, John Fry 2010 Technological University Dublin

Applying Geographic Information Systems To Support Strategic Environmental Assessment: Opportunities And Limitations In The Context Of Irish Land-Use Plans, Ainhoa Gonzalez, Alan Gilmer, Ronan Foley, John Sweeney, John Fry

Articles

The strengthening of spatial database infrastructures, further promoted by the INSPIRE Directive adopted in 2007, has led to an increased use of spatial data in planning and decision-making. Given that land-use plans are intrinsically spatial, such evidence and approaches can significantly benefit plan-making. A spatial framework could especially support the specific Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) aspects of the plan-making process. Spatial tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are particularly well-placed to support the environmental integration sought in SEA by providing evidence through the spatial assessment of multiple environmental datasets. Moreover, GIS bring the opportunity to augment conventional assessment techniques ...


Potential Economic Damage From Introduction Of Brown Tree Snakes, Boiga Irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), To The Islands Of Hawai‘I, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Steven S. Shwiff 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Potential Economic Damage From Introduction Of Brown Tree Snakes, Boiga Irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae), To The Islands Of Hawai‘I, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Steven S. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) has caused ecological and economic damage to Guam, and the snake has the potential to colonize other islands in the Pacific Ocean. This study quantifies the potential economic damage if the snake were translocated, established in the state of Hawaii, and causing damage at levels similar to those on Guam. Damages modeled included costs of medical treatments due to snakebites, snake-caused power outages, and decreased tourism resulting from effects of the snake. Damage caused by presence of the Brown Tree Snake on Guam was used as a guide to estimate potential economic damage to ...


The Versatility Of Graded Acoustic Measures In Classification Of Predation Threats By The Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus Bicolor: Exploring A Mixed Framework For Threat Communication, Kathryn E. Sieving, Stacia A. Hetrick, Michael L. Avery 2010 Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida

The Versatility Of Graded Acoustic Measures In Classification Of Predation Threats By The Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus Bicolor: Exploring A Mixed Framework For Threat Communication, Kathryn E. Sieving, Stacia A. Hetrick, Michael L. Avery

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Many mammal and bird species respond to predator encounters with alarm vocalizations that generate risk-appropriate responses in listeners. Two conceptual frameworks are typically applied to the information encoded in alarm calls and to associated anti-predator behaviors. ‘Functionally referential’ alarm systems encode nominal classes or categories of risk in distinct call types that refer to distinct predation-risk situations. ‘Risk-based’ alarms encode graded or ranked threat-levels by varying the production patterns of the same call types as the urgency of predation threat changes. Recent work suggests that viewing alarm-response interactions as either referential or risk-based may oversimplify how animals use information in ...


Polyurea Elastomer Protects Utility Pole Crossarms From Damage By Pileated Woodpeckers, Shelagh Tupper, William Andelt, John Cummings, Charles Weisner, Richard Harness 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Polyurea Elastomer Protects Utility Pole Crossarms From Damage By Pileated Woodpeckers, Shelagh Tupper, William Andelt, John Cummings, Charles Weisner, Richard Harness

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Woodpeckers cause severe damage to utility poles and crossarms, resulting in substantial economic losses to utility companies. We evaluated effectiveness of a polyurea elastomer coating material for reducing damage by captive pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) to utility pole crossarms. Because woodpeckers inflicted essentially no damage to the fully coated crossarms, we infer that the coating material holds substantial promise for protecting utility pole crossarms. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate the coating under field conditions.


Evaluation Of Christmas Bird Counts And Landscape Factors As Indicators Of Local Blackbird And European Starling Winter Roosts, Matthew Strassburg, George M. Linz, William Bleier 2010 Department of Biological Sciences, North Dakota State University

Evaluation Of Christmas Bird Counts And Landscape Factors As Indicators Of Local Blackbird And European Starling Winter Roosts, Matthew Strassburg, George M. Linz, William Bleier

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Red-winged blackbirds (RWBL) and common grackles (COGR) are the two most abundant blackbird species on the continent; Brewer's blackbirds (BRBL) are a much less common, but closely related species, and along with European starlings (EUST), they are two of the most common groups of birds in North America, with combined populations that reach into the several hundreds of millions and make up a significant portion of the avian population (Yasukawa and Searcy 1995). Although the most common bird on the continent, certain regions have seen declines in RWBL for a number of decades. In Ohio and North Dakota, this ...


Increased Risk Of Chronic Wasting Disease In Rocky Mountain Elk Associated With Decreased Magnesium And Increased Manganese In Brain Tissue, Stephen N. White, Katherine I. O’Rourke, Thomas Gidlewski, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michelle R. Mousel, Gregory E. Phillips, Terry R. Spraker 2010 USDA-ARS Animal Disease Unit

Increased Risk Of Chronic Wasting Disease In Rocky Mountain Elk Associated With Decreased Magnesium And Increased Manganese In Brain Tissue, Stephen N. White, Katherine I. O’Rourke, Thomas Gidlewski, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michelle R. Mousel, Gregory E. Phillips, Terry R. Spraker

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of Rocky Mountain elk in North America. Recent studies suggest that tissue and blood mineral levels may be valuable in assessing TSE infection in sheep and cattle. The objectives of this study were to examine baseline levels of copper, manganese, magnesium, zinc, selenium, and molybdenum in the brains of Rocky Mountain elk with differing prion genotypes and to assess the association of mineral levels with CWD infection. Elk with leucine at prion position 132 had significantly lower magnesium levels than elk with 2 copies of methionine. Chronic wasting disease-positive elk ...


In Memory William B. Jackson 1926-2010, Michael W. Fall 2010 Human-Wildlife Interactions

In Memory William B. Jackson 1926-2010, Michael W. Fall

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

DR. WILLIAM B. JACKSON of Chicago, Illinois, passed away July 15, 2010. He was a scientist, teacher, husband, father, grandfather, and friend. Over the years, he served as an advisor and mentor to many people who found their way to his classes or offices at Bowling Green State University (BGSU).

He was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, September 10, 1926, and spent many hours collecting insects and watching birds, becoming president of his high school nature club and an Eagle Scout. He earned B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Wisconsin, and his Sc.D. in vertebrate ecology ...


Contraceptive Efficacy Of A Novel Intrauterine Device (Iud) In White-Tailed Deer, Karl D. Malcolm, Timothy R. Van Deelen, David Drake, Darrel J. Kesler, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2010 University of Wisconsin, Madison, Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology

Contraceptive Efficacy Of A Novel Intrauterine Device (Iud) In White-Tailed Deer, Karl D. Malcolm, Timothy R. Van Deelen, David Drake, Darrel J. Kesler, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pose risks to property, health, and safety of human beings. Public concerns about lethal management can impair efforts to address these issues, particularly in urban settings. Several techniques developed for reducing reproductive output of deer have limited utility because they require repeated dosing to achieve permanent effect and face uncertain regulatory approval for use beyond experimentation. From 10 August 2006 through 30 December 2007, we evaluated the contraceptive efficacy of copper-containing intrauterine devices (IUDs) implanted trans-cervically in white-tailed deer at the E.S. George Reserve in Pinckney, Michigan. Intrauterine devices were implanted before (n = 9 ...


Antibodies To Influenza And West Nile Viruses In Horses In Mexico, M. A. Loroño-Pino, J. A. Farfan-Ale, J. E. Garcia-Rejon, M. Lin, E. Rosado-Paredes, F. I. Puerto, A. Bates, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, B. J. Blitvich 2010 Laboratorio de Arbovirologia, Centro de Investigaciones Regionales ‘Dr Hideyo Noguchi’, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, CP 97000, Mexico

Antibodies To Influenza And West Nile Viruses In Horses In Mexico, M. A. Loroño-Pino, J. A. Farfan-Ale, J. E. Garcia-Rejon, M. Lin, E. Rosado-Paredes, F. I. Puerto, A. Bates, J. J. Root, A. B. Franklin, H. J. Sullivan, B. J. Blitvich

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

INFLUENZA A virus (IAV) (family Orthomyxoviridae) is a highly infectious respiratory pathogen of birds and mammals, including human beings and horses (Palese and Shaw 2007). The virus is classified into different subtypes based on the antigenic properties of the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins. Sixteen HA subtypes (H1 to H16) and nine NA subtypes (N1 to N9) have been identified (Fouchier and others 2005). Two subtypes, H3N8 and H7N7, have been isolated from horses. The H7N7 subtype was first isolated from a horse in Czechoslovakia in 1956 (Prague/56) (Sovinova and others 1958), and the H3N8 subtype was first ...


Evaluation Of Feral Swine- Specific Feeder Systems, David B. Long, Tyler A. Campbell, Giovanna Massei 2010 United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Florida Field Station

Evaluation Of Feral Swine- Specific Feeder Systems, David B. Long, Tyler A. Campbell, Giovanna Massei

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine (Sus scrofa) have been introduced across many portions of the globe, including rangeland ecosystems of the United States. Feral swine populations are expanding because of their adaptability, high reproductive potential, and because they are (accidentally and intentionally) released by humans. Today, feral swine are the most abundant exotic ungulate in the United States.

Rangeland ecosystems are impacted by feral swine primarily through soil disturbance caused by rooting activities. Within these systems, natural disturbances (e.g., burrowing, grazing by native animals, and periodic fire) generally increase or maintain species diversity. However, rooting by feral swine often occurs at intensities ...


Acetaminophen As An Oral Toxicant For Nile Monitor Lizards (Varanus Niloticus) And Burmese Pythons (Python Molurus Bivittatus), Richard E. Mauldin, Peter J. Savarie 2010 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Acetaminophen As An Oral Toxicant For Nile Monitor Lizards (Varanus Niloticus) And Burmese Pythons (Python Molurus Bivittatus), Richard E. Mauldin, Peter J. Savarie

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Invasive species are a growing global problem. Biological invasions can result in numerous harmful impacts on local ecologies, and non-native herpetofauna are frequently ignored. Nile monitor lizards (Varanus niloticus) and Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus, recently reassessed as Python bivittatus bivittatus), have become established in southern Florida. Both are large, semi-aquatic predators that pose serious threats to a variety of threatened and endangered species, as well as to the unique ecology of the area.

Aims. Acetaminophen (CAS#103-90-2), a lethal oral toxicant for the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, was investigated as a possible toxicant in juvenile ...


Seeking A Second Opinion: Uncertainty In Disease Ecology, Brett T. McClintock, James D. Nichols, Larissa L. Bailey, Darryl I. MacKenzie, William. L. Kendall, Alan B. Franklin 2010 USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

Seeking A Second Opinion: Uncertainty In Disease Ecology, Brett T. Mcclintock, James D. Nichols, Larissa L. Bailey, Darryl I. Mackenzie, William. L. Kendall, Alan B. Franklin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Analytical methods accounting for imperfect detection are often used to facilitate reliable inference in population and community ecology. We contend that similar approaches are needed in disease ecology because these complicated systems are inherently difficult to observe without error. For example, wildlife disease studies often designate individuals, populations, or spatial units to states (e.g., susceptible, infected, post-infected), but the uncertainty associated with these state assignments remains largely ignored or unaccounted for. We demonstrate how recent developments incorporating observation error through repeated sampling extend quite naturally to hierarchical spatial models of disease effects, prevalence, and dynamics in natural systems. A ...


A Silent Enzootic Of An Orthopoxvirus In Ghana, West Africa: Evidence For Multi-Species Involvement In The Absence Of Widespread Human Disease, Mary G. Reynolds, Darin S. Carroll, Victoria A. Olson, Christine Hughes, Jack Galley, Anna Likos, Joel M. Montgomery, Richard Suu-Ire, Mubarak O. Kwasi, J. Jeffrey Root, Zach Braden, Jason Abel, Cody Clemmons, Russell Regnery, Kevin Karem, Inger K. Damon 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

A Silent Enzootic Of An Orthopoxvirus In Ghana, West Africa: Evidence For Multi-Species Involvement In The Absence Of Widespread Human Disease, Mary G. Reynolds, Darin S. Carroll, Victoria A. Olson, Christine Hughes, Jack Galley, Anna Likos, Joel M. Montgomery, Richard Suu-Ire, Mubarak O. Kwasi, J. Jeffrey Root, Zach Braden, Jason Abel, Cody Clemmons, Russell Regnery, Kevin Karem, Inger K. Damon

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Human monkeypox has never been reported in Ghana, but rodents captured in forested areas of southern Ghana were the source of the monkeypox virus introduced into the United States in 2003. Subsequent to the outbreak in the United States, 204 animals were collected from two commercial trapping sites in Ghana. Animal tissues were examined for the presence of orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and sera were assayed for antibodies against OPXV. Animals from five genera (Cricetomys , Graphiurus , Funiscirus, and Heliosciurus ) had antibodies against OPXV, and three genera (Cricetomys , Graphiurus , and Xerus) had evidence of OPXV DNA ...


Experimental Infection Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) With West Nile Virus, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole M. Nemeth, Thomas Gidlewski, Terry R. Spraker, Alan B. Franklin 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Experimental Infection Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) With West Nile Virus, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole M. Nemeth, Thomas Gidlewski, Terry R. Spraker, Alan B. Franklin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

To characterize the responses of raccoons to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we subcutaneously exposed them to WNV. Moderately high viremia titers (≤ 104.6 plaque forming units [PFU]/mL of serum) were noted in select individuals; however, peak viremia titers were variable and viremia was detectable in some individuals as late as 10 days post-inoculation (DPI). In addition, fecal shedding was prolonged in some animals (e.g., between 6 and 13 DPI in one individual), with up to105.0 PFU/fecal swab detected. West Nile virus was not detected in tissues collected on 10 or 16 DPI, and ...


Response Of Captive Skunks To Microencapsulated Tetracycline, Brandon S. Schmit, Thomas M. Primus, Jerome C. Hurley, Dennis J. Kohler, Shawna F. Graves 2010 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Response Of Captive Skunks To Microencapsulated Tetracycline, Brandon S. Schmit, Thomas M. Primus, Jerome C. Hurley, Dennis J. Kohler, Shawna F. Graves

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

A captive striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) study was conducted between February and June 2004 at the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. The main objective was to determine the percentage of adult striped skunks that were marked after consuming placebo oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits containing 100 mg of an experimental microencapsulated (coated microparticle) tetracycline hydrochloride biomarker. Biomarkers were identified in the canine teeth and mandibles of five of five skunks that consumed an ORV bait. A second objective was to determine if the microencapsulated ...


Mite-Filled Cyst On A Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus Ater) In Florida, Usa, Marilyn G. Spalding, James W. Mertins, Matthew J. Reetz, Kandy L. Keacher, Michael L. Avery, Ellis C. Greiner 2010 University of Florida

Mite-Filled Cyst On A Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus Ater) In Florida, Usa, Marilyn G. Spalding, James W. Mertins, Matthew J. Reetz, Kandy L. Keacher, Michael L. Avery, Ellis C. Greiner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

A large, partly pedunculated mass on the scapular area of a wild-caught captive Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) consisted of a multiloculated keratin cyst inhabited by a new species of harpirhynchid mite (Harpirhynchus quasimodo). The mass did not interfere with flight or behavior. This is the first record of such an infestation of cowbirds in Florida.


Foot-And-Mouth Disease In Feral Swine: Susceptibility And Transmission, F. Mohamed, S. Swafford, H. Petrowski, A. Bracht, B. S. Schmit, A. Fabian, J. M. Pacheco, E. Hartwig, M. Berninger, C. Carrillo, G. Mayr, K. Moran, D. Kavanaugh, H. Leibrecht, W. White, S. Metwally 2010 USDA, APHIS

Foot-And-Mouth Disease In Feral Swine: Susceptibility And Transmission, F. Mohamed, S. Swafford, H. Petrowski, A. Bracht, B. S. Schmit, A. Fabian, J. M. Pacheco, E. Hartwig, M. Berninger, C. Carrillo, G. Mayr, K. Moran, D. Kavanaugh, H. Leibrecht, W. White, S. Metwally

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in feral swine are limited, and data for clinical manifestations and disease transmissibility are lacking. In this report, feral and domestic swine were experimentally infected with FMDV (A24-Cruzeiro), and susceptibility and virus transmission were studied. Feral swine were proved to be highly susceptible to A-24 Cruzeiro FMD virus by intradermal inoculation and by contact with infected domestic and feral swine. Typical clinical signs in feral swine included transient fever, lameness and vesicular lesions in the coronary bands, heel bulbs, tip of the tongue and snout. Domestic swine exhibited clinical signs of the disease within ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress