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The Vehicle Routing Problem With Simultaneous Pickup And Delivery And Occasional Drivers, Vincent F. YU, Grace ALOINA, Panca JODIAWAN, Aldy GUNAWAN, Tsung-C. HUANG 2023 Singapore Management University

The Vehicle Routing Problem With Simultaneous Pickup And Delivery And Occasional Drivers, Vincent F. Yu, Grace Aloina, Panca Jodiawan, Aldy Gunawan, Tsung-C. Huang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

This research addresses the Vehicle Routing Problem with Simultaneous Pickup and Delivery and Occasional Drivers (VRPSPDOD), which is inspired from the importance of addressing product returns and the emerging notion of involving available crowds to perform pickup and delivery activities in exchange for some compensation. At the depot, a set of regular vehicles is available to deliver and/or pick up customers’ goods. A set of occasional drivers, each defined by their origin, destination, and flexibility, is also able to help serve the customers. The objective of VRPSPDOD is to minimize the total traveling cost of operating regular vehicles and ...


Online Hyperparameter Optimization For Class-Incremental Learning, Yaoyao LIU, Yingying LI, Bernt SCHIELE, Qianru SUN 2023 Singapore Management University

Online Hyperparameter Optimization For Class-Incremental Learning, Yaoyao Liu, Yingying Li, Bernt Schiele, Qianru Sun

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Class-incremental learning (CIL) aims to train a classification model while the number of classes increases phase-by-phase. An inherent challenge of CIL is the stability-plasticity tradeoff, i.e., CIL models should keep stable to retain old knowledge and keep plastic to absorb new knowledge. However, none of the existing CIL models can achieve the optimal tradeoff in different data-receiving settings—where typically the training-from-half (TFH) setting needs more stability, but the training-from-scratch (TFS) needs more plasticity. To this end, we design an online learning method that can adaptively optimize the tradeoff without knowing the setting as a priori. Specifically, we first ...


Observing Human Mobility Internationally During Covid-19, Shane Allcroft, Mohammed Metwaly, Zachery Berg, Isha Ghodgaonkar, Fischer Bordwell, XinXin Zhao, Xinglei Liu, Jiahao Xu, Subhankar Chakraborty, Vishnu Banna, Akhil Chinnakotla, Abhinav Goel, Caleb Tung, Gore Kao, Wei Zakharov, David A. Shoham, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yung-Hsiang Lu 2023 Purdue University

Observing Human Mobility Internationally During Covid-19, Shane Allcroft, Mohammed Metwaly, Zachery Berg, Isha Ghodgaonkar, Fischer Bordwell, Xinxin Zhao, Xinglei Liu, Jiahao Xu, Subhankar Chakraborty, Vishnu Banna, Akhil Chinnakotla, Abhinav Goel, Caleb Tung, Gore Kao, Wei Zakharov, David A. Shoham, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yung-Hsiang Lu

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article analyzes visual data captured from five countries and three U.S. states to evaluate the effectiveness of lockdown policies for reducing the spread of COVID-19. The main challenge is the scale: nearly six million images are analyzed to observe how people respond to the policy changes.


The Interaction Of Normalisation And Clustering In Sub-Domain Definition For Multi-Source Transfer Learning Based Time Series Anomaly Detection, Matthew Nicholson, Rahul Agrahari, Clare Conran, Haythem Assem, John D. Kelleher 2022 ADAPT Centre, Trinity College Dublin

The Interaction Of Normalisation And Clustering In Sub-Domain Definition For Multi-Source Transfer Learning Based Time Series Anomaly Detection, Matthew Nicholson, Rahul Agrahari, Clare Conran, Haythem Assem, John D. Kelleher

Articles

This paper examines how data normalisation and clustering interact in the definition of sub-domains within multi-source transfer learning systems for time series anomaly detection. The paper introduces a distinction between (i) clustering as a primary/direct method for anomaly detection, and (ii) clustering as a method for identifying sub-domains within the source or target datasets. Reporting the results of three sets of experiments, we find that normalisation after feature extraction and before clustering results in the best performance for anomaly detection. Interestingly, we find that in the multi-source transfer learning scenario clustering on the target dataset and identifying subdomains in ...


Context-Aware Collaborative Neuro-Symbolic Inference In Internet Of Battlefield Things, Tarek Abdelzaher, Nathaniel D. Bastian, Susmit Jha, Lance Kaplan, Mani Srivastava, Venugopal Veeravalli 2022 Army Cyber Institute, U.S. Military Academy

Context-Aware Collaborative Neuro-Symbolic Inference In Internet Of Battlefield Things, Tarek Abdelzaher, Nathaniel D. Bastian, Susmit Jha, Lance Kaplan, Mani Srivastava, Venugopal Veeravalli

ACI Journal Articles

IoBTs must feature collaborative, context-aware, multi-modal fusion for real-time, robust decision-making in adversarial environments. The integration of machine learning (ML) models into IoBTs has been successful at solving these problems at a small scale (e.g., AiTR), but state-of-the-art ML models grow exponentially with increasing temporal and spatial scale of modeled phenomena, and can thus become brittle, untrustworthy, and vulnerable when interpreting large-scale tactical edge data. To address this challenge, we need to develop principles and methodologies for uncertainty-quantified neuro-symbolic ML, where learning and inference exploit symbolic knowledge and reasoning, in addition to, multi-modal and multi-vantage sensor data. The approach ...


A Logistic Regression And Linear Programming Approach For Multi-Skill Staffing Optimization In Call Centers, Thuy Anh TA, Tien MAI, Fabian BASTIN, Pierre l'ECUYER 2022 Singapore Management University

A Logistic Regression And Linear Programming Approach For Multi-Skill Staffing Optimization In Call Centers, Thuy Anh Ta, Tien Mai, Fabian Bastin, Pierre L'Ecuyer

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

We study a staffing optimization problem in multi-skill call centers. The objective is to minimize the total cost of agents under some quality of service (QoS) constraints. The key challenge lies in the fact that the QoS functions have no closed-form and need to be approximated by simulation. In this paper we propose a new way to approximate the QoS functions by logistic functions and design a new algorithm that combines logistic regression, cut generations and logistic-based local search to efficiently find good staffing solutions. We report computational results using examples up to 65 call types and 89 agent groups ...


Scalable Distributional Robustness In A Class Of Non Convex Optimization With Guarantees, Avinandan BOSE, Arunesh SINHA, Tien MAI 2022 Singapore Management University

Scalable Distributional Robustness In A Class Of Non Convex Optimization With Guarantees, Avinandan Bose, Arunesh Sinha, Tien Mai

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Distributionally robust optimization (DRO) has shown lot of promise in providing robustness in learning as well as sample based optimization problems. We endeavor to provide DRO solutions for a class of sum of fractionals, non-convex optimization which is used for decision making in prominent areas such as facility location and security games. In contrast to previous work, we find it more tractable to optimize the equivalent variance regularized form of DRO rather than the minimax form. We transform the variance regularized form to a mixed-integer second order cone program (MISOCP), which, while guaranteeing near global optimality, does not scale enough ...


Dronlomaly: Runtime Detection Of Anomalous Drone Behaviors Via Log Analysis And Deep Learning, Lwin Khin SHAR, Wei MINN, Nguyen Binh Duong TA, Lingxiao JIANG, Daniel Wai Kiat LIM, Wai Kiat David LIM 2022 Singapore Management University

Dronlomaly: Runtime Detection Of Anomalous Drone Behaviors Via Log Analysis And Deep Learning, Lwin Khin Shar, Wei Minn, Nguyen Binh Duong Ta, Lingxiao Jiang, Daniel Wai Kiat Lim, Wai Kiat David Lim

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Drones are increasingly popular and getting used in a variety of missions such as area surveillance, pipeline inspection, cinematography, etc. While the drone is conducting a mission, anomalies such as sensor fault, actuator fault, configuration errors, bugs in controller program, remote cyber- attack, etc., may affect the drone’s physical stability and cause serious safety violations such as crashing into the public. During a flight mission, drones typically log flight status and state units such as GPS coordinates, actuator outputs, accelerator readings, gyroscopic readings, etc. These log data may reflect the above-mentioned anomalies. In this paper, we propose a novel ...


Interventional Training For Out-Of-Distribution Natural Language Understanding, Sicheng YU, Jing JIANG, Hao ZHANG, Yulei NIU, Qianru SUN, Lidong BING 2022 Singapore Management University

Interventional Training For Out-Of-Distribution Natural Language Understanding, Sicheng Yu, Jing Jiang, Hao Zhang, Yulei Niu, Qianru Sun, Lidong Bing

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Out-of-distribution (OOD) settings are used to measure a model’s performance when the distribution of the test data is different from that of the training data. NLU models are known to suffer in OOD settings (Utama et al., 2020b). We study this issue from the perspective of causality, which sees confounding bias as the reason for models to learn spurious correlations. While a common solution is to perform intervention, existing methods handle only known and single confounder, but in many NLU tasks the confounders can be both unknown and multifactorial. In this paper, we propose a novel interventional training method ...


Cold Calls To Enhance Class Participation And Student Engagement, M. THULASIDAS, Aldy GUNAWAN 2022 Singapore Management University

Cold Calls To Enhance Class Participation And Student Engagement, M. Thulasidas, Aldy Gunawan

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

The question whether cold calls increase student engagement in the classroom has not been conclusively answered in the literature. This study describes the automated system to implement unbiased, randomized cold calling by posing a question, allowing all students to think first and then calling on a particular student to respond. Since we already have a measure of the level of student engagement as the self-reported classparticipation entries from the students, its correlation to cold calling is also further studied. The results show that there is a statistically significant increase in the class participation reported, and therefore in student engagement, in ...


Physics-Informed Neural Networks For Informed Vaccine Distribution In Heterogeneously Mixed Populations, Alvan Arulandu, Padmanabhan Seshaiyer 2022 George Mason University

Physics-Informed Neural Networks For Informed Vaccine Distribution In Heterogeneously Mixed Populations, Alvan Arulandu, Padmanabhan Seshaiyer

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


An Empirical Study Of Artifacts And Security Risks In The Pre-Trained Model Supply Chain, Wenxin Jiang, Nicholas Synovic, Rohan Sethi, Aryan Indarapu, Matt Hyattt, Taylor R. Schorlemmer, George K. Thiruvathukal, James C. Davis 2022 Purdue University

An Empirical Study Of Artifacts And Security Risks In The Pre-Trained Model Supply Chain, Wenxin Jiang, Nicholas Synovic, Rohan Sethi, Aryan Indarapu, Matt Hyattt, Taylor R. Schorlemmer, George K. Thiruvathukal, James C. Davis

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Deep neural networks achieve state-of-the-art performance on many tasks, but require increasingly complex architectures and costly training procedures. Engineers can reduce costs by reusing a pre-trained model (PTM) and fine-tuning it for their own tasks. To facilitate software reuse, engineers collaborate around model hubs, collections of PTMs and datasets organized by problem domain. Although model hubs are now comparable in popularity and size to other software ecosystems, the associated PTM supply chain has not yet been examined from a software engineering perspective.

We present an empirical study of artifacts and security features in 8 model hubs. We indicate the potential ...


Tree-Based Unidirectional Neural Networks For Low-Power Computer Vision, Abhinav Goel, Caleb Tung, Nick Eliopoulos, Amy Wang, Jamie C. Davis, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yung-Hisang Lu 2022 Purdue University

Tree-Based Unidirectional Neural Networks For Low-Power Computer Vision, Abhinav Goel, Caleb Tung, Nick Eliopoulos, Amy Wang, Jamie C. Davis, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yung-Hisang Lu

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article describes the novel Tree-based Unidirectional Neural Network (TRUNK) architecture. This architecture improves computer vision efficiency by using a hierarchy of multiple shallow Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), instead of a single very deep CNN. We demonstrate this architecture’s versatility in performing different computer vision tasks efficiently on embedded devices. Across various computer vision tasks, the TRUNK architecture consumes 65% less energy and requires 50% less memory than representative low-power CNN architectures, e.g., MobileNet v2, when deployed on the NVIDIA Jetson Nano.


A Scientometric Review Of Artificial Intelligence In Tourism (2000-2021), Rujun Wang, Yu Mu, Ying Huang 2022 Sichuan Agricultural University

A Scientometric Review Of Artificial Intelligence In Tourism (2000-2021), Rujun Wang, Yu Mu, Ying Huang

University of South Florida (USF) M3 Publishing

With the increase in the combination of artificial intelligence and the service industry, many applications of artificial intelligence in tourism have been gradually spawned. However, most of the existing research focuses on the algorithms and models of artificial intelligence, and few scholars have systematically reviewed the intersection of tourism and artificial intelligence, this study is based on scientometric, reviewing and sorting out 2689 relevant literature published in 2000-2021, and achieving the three purposes of status carding, hot spot snooping and trend prediction. First, through the participating locations, institutions and authors of collaborative networks, the main sources of AI-related research in ...


Hydrological Drought Forecasting Using A Deep Transformer Model, Amobichukwu C. Amanambu, Joann Mossa, Yin-Hsuen Chen 2022 University of Florida

Hydrological Drought Forecasting Using A Deep Transformer Model, Amobichukwu C. Amanambu, Joann Mossa, Yin-Hsuen Chen

University Administration Publications

Hydrological drought forecasting is essential for effective water resource management planning. Innovations in computer science and artificial intelligence (AI) have been incorporated into Earth science research domains to improve predictive performance for water resource planning and disaster management. Forecasting of future hydrological drought can assist with mitigation strategies for various stakeholders. This study uses the transformer deep learning model to forecast hydrological drought, with a benchmark comparison with the long short-term memory (LSTM) model. These models were applied to the Apalachicola River, Florida, with two gauging stations located at Chattahoochee and Blountstown. Daily stage-height data from the period 1928–2022 ...


Off-Policy Evaluation For Action-Dependent Non-Stationary Environments, Yash Chandak, Shiv Shankar, Nathaniel D. Bastian, Bruno Castro da Silva, Emma Brunskill, Philip Thomas 2022 Army Cyber Institute, U.S. Military Academy

Off-Policy Evaluation For Action-Dependent Non-Stationary Environments, Yash Chandak, Shiv Shankar, Nathaniel D. Bastian, Bruno Castro Da Silva, Emma Brunskill, Philip Thomas

ACI Journal Articles

Methods for sequential decision-making are often built upon a foundational assumption that the underlying decision process is stationary. This limits the application of such methods because real-world problems are often subject to changes due to external factors (passive non-stationarity), changes induced by interactions with the system itself (active non-stationarity), or both (hybrid non-stationarity). In this work, we take the first steps towards the fundamental challenge of on-policy and off-policy evaluation amidst structured changes due to active, passive, or hybrid non-stationarity. Towards this goal, we make a higher-order stationarity assumption such that non-stationarity results in changes over time, but the way ...


In The Face Of The Robot, David J. Gunkel 2022 Northern Illinois University

In The Face Of The Robot, David J. Gunkel

communication +1

“Robot” designates something that does not quite fit the standard way of organizing beings into the mutually exclusive categories of “person” or “thing.” The figure of the robot interrupts this fundamental organizing schema, resisting efforts at both reification and personification. Consequently, what is seen reflected in the face or faceplate of the robot is the fact that the existing moral and legal ontology—the way that we make sense of and organize our world—is already broken or at least straining against its own limitations. What is needed in response to this robot uprising is a significantly reformulated moral and ...


The Eu's Capacity To Lead The Transatlantic Alliance In Ai Regulation, Varun Roy, Vignesh Sreedhar 2022 Georgia Institute of Technology

The Eu's Capacity To Lead The Transatlantic Alliance In Ai Regulation, Varun Roy, Vignesh Sreedhar

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

In the face of Chinese advances in AI in terms of technological prowess and influence, there has been a call for collaboration between the EU and the US to create a foundation for AI governance based on shared democratic beliefs. This paper maps out the EU, US, and Chinese approaches to AI development and regulation as we analyze the capacity of the US and EU to establish international standards for AI regulation through channels such as the TTC. As the EU rolled out a proportionate and risk-based approach to ensure stricter regulation for high-risk AI technologies, it laid the foundation ...


Answer Similarity Grouping And Diversification In Question Answering Systems, Lakshmi Nair Vikraman 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Answer Similarity Grouping And Diversification In Question Answering Systems, Lakshmi Nair Vikraman

Doctoral Dissertations

The rise in popularity of mobile and voice search has led to a shift in IR from document to passage retrieval for non-factoid questions. Various datasets such as MSMarco, as well as efficient retrieval models have been developed to identify single best answer passages for this task. However, such models do not specifically address questions which could have multiple or alternative answers. In this dissertation, we focus on this new research area that involves studying answer passage relationships and how this could be applied to passage retrieval tasks.

We first create a high quality dataset for the answer passage similarity ...


Approximate Bayesian Deep Learning For Resource-Constrained Environments, Meet Prakash Vadera 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Approximate Bayesian Deep Learning For Resource-Constrained Environments, Meet Prakash Vadera

Doctoral Dissertations

Deep learning models have shown promising results in areas including computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition, and more. However, existing point estimation-based training methods for these models may result in predictive uncertainties that are not well calibrated, including the occurrence of confident errors. Approximate Bayesian inference methods can help address these issues in a principled way by accounting for uncertainty in model parameters. However, these methods are computationally expensive both when computing approximations to the parameter posterior and when using an approximate parameter posterior to make predictions. They can also require significantly more storage than point-estimated models.

In this ...


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