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Articles 1 - 30 of 3581

Full-Text Articles in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

The Vehicle Routing Problem With Simultaneous Pickup And Delivery And Occasional Drivers, Vincent F. Yu, Grace Aloina, Panca Jodiawan, Aldy Gunawan, Tsung-C. Huang Mar 2023

The Vehicle Routing Problem With Simultaneous Pickup And Delivery And Occasional Drivers, Vincent F. Yu, Grace Aloina, Panca Jodiawan, Aldy Gunawan, Tsung-C. Huang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

This research addresses the Vehicle Routing Problem with Simultaneous Pickup and Delivery and Occasional Drivers (VRPSPDOD), which is inspired from the importance of addressing product returns and the emerging notion of involving available crowds to perform pickup and delivery activities in exchange for some compensation. At the depot, a set of regular vehicles is available to deliver and/or pick up customers’ goods. A set of occasional drivers, each defined by their origin, destination, and flexibility, is also able to help serve the customers. The objective of VRPSPDOD is to minimize the total traveling cost of operating regular vehicles and total …


Safe Delivery Of Critical Services In Areas With Volatile Security Situation Via A Stackelberg Game Approach, Tien Mai, Arunesh Sinha Feb 2023

Safe Delivery Of Critical Services In Areas With Volatile Security Situation Via A Stackelberg Game Approach, Tien Mai, Arunesh Sinha

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Vaccine delivery in under-resourced locations with security risks is not just challenging but also life threatening. The COVID pandemic and the need to vaccinate added even more urgency to this issue. Motivated by this problem, we propose a general framework to set-up limited temporary (vaccination) centers that balance physical security and desired (vaccine) service coverage with limited resources. We set-up the problem as a Stackelberg game between the centers operator (defender) and an adversary, where the set of centers is not fixed a priori but is part of the decision output. This results in a mixed combinatorial and continuous optimization …


A Fair Incentive Scheme For Community Health Workers, Avinandan Bose, Tracey Li, Arunesh Sinha, Tien Mai Feb 2023

A Fair Incentive Scheme For Community Health Workers, Avinandan Bose, Tracey Li, Arunesh Sinha, Tien Mai

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Community health workers (CHWs) play a crucial role in the last mile delivery of essential health services to under-served populations in low-income countries. Many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide training and support to enable CHWs to deliver health services to their communities, with no charge to the recipients of the services. This includes monetary compensation for the work that CHWs perform, which is broken down into a series of well-defined tasks. In this work, we partner with a NGO D-Tree International to design a fair monetary compensation scheme for tasks performed by CHWs in the semi-autonomous region of Zanzibar in Tanzania, …


Online Hyperparameter Optimization For Class-Incremental Learning, Yaoyao Liu, Yingying Li, Bernt Schiele, Qianru Sun Feb 2023

Online Hyperparameter Optimization For Class-Incremental Learning, Yaoyao Liu, Yingying Li, Bernt Schiele, Qianru Sun

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Class-incremental learning (CIL) aims to train a classification model while the number of classes increases phase-by-phase. An inherent challenge of CIL is the stability-plasticity tradeoff, i.e., CIL models should keep stable to retain old knowledge and keep plastic to absorb new knowledge. However, none of the existing CIL models can achieve the optimal tradeoff in different data-receiving settings—where typically the training-from-half (TFH) setting needs more stability, but the training-from-scratch (TFS) needs more plasticity. To this end, we design an online learning method that can adaptively optimize the tradeoff without knowing the setting as a priori. Specifically, we first introduce the …


Towards Carbon Neutrality: Prediction Of Wave Energy Based On Improved Gru In Maritime Transportation, Zhihan Lv, Nana Wang, Ranran Lou, Yajun Tian, Mohsen Guizani Feb 2023

Towards Carbon Neutrality: Prediction Of Wave Energy Based On Improved Gru In Maritime Transportation, Zhihan Lv, Nana Wang, Ranran Lou, Yajun Tian, Mohsen Guizani

Machine Learning Faculty Publications

Efficient use of renewable energy is one of the critical measures to achieve carbon neutrality. Countries have introduced policies to put carbon neutrality on the agenda to achieve relatively zero emissions of greenhouse gases and to cope with the crisis brought about by global warming. This work analyzes the wave energy with high energy density and wide distribution based on understanding of various renewable energy sources. This study provides a wave energy prediction model for energy harvesting. At the same time, the Gated Recurrent Unit network (GRU), Bayesian optimization algorithm, and attention mechanism are introduced to improve the model's performance. …


Observing Human Mobility Internationally During Covid-19, Shane Allcroft, Mohammed Metwaly, Zachery Berg, Isha Ghodgaonkar, Fischer Bordwell, Xinxin Zhao, Xinglei Liu, Jiahao Xu, Subhankar Chakraborty, Vishnu Banna, Akhil Chinnakotla, Abhinav Goel, Caleb Tung, Gore Kao, Wei Zakharov, David A. Shoham, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yung-Hsiang Lu Jan 2023

Observing Human Mobility Internationally During Covid-19, Shane Allcroft, Mohammed Metwaly, Zachery Berg, Isha Ghodgaonkar, Fischer Bordwell, Xinxin Zhao, Xinglei Liu, Jiahao Xu, Subhankar Chakraborty, Vishnu Banna, Akhil Chinnakotla, Abhinav Goel, Caleb Tung, Gore Kao, Wei Zakharov, David A. Shoham, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yung-Hsiang Lu

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article analyzes visual data captured from five countries and three U.S. states to evaluate the effectiveness of lockdown policies for reducing the spread of COVID-19. The main challenge is the scale: nearly six million images are analyzed to observe how people respond to the policy changes.


Research@Smu: Sustainable Living, Singapore Management University Jan 2023

Research@Smu: Sustainable Living, Singapore Management University

Research Collection Office of Research & Tech Transfer

Sustainable Living is one of the three key priorities of the SMU 2025 Strategy, and the University is committed to develop it into an area of cross-disciplinary strength. The articles in this booklet highlight impactful sustainability research accomplishments at SMU, which spans five broad pillars: Sustainable Business Operations; Sustainable Finance and Impact Assessment; Sustainable Ageing and Wellness; Sustainable Urban Infrastructure; and Sustainable Agro-business and Food Consumption.

Contents:

Sustainable Business Operations

  • Managing the Load on Loading Bays
  • Going the Last-mile
  • Feeding a Growing World
  • Pooling the Benefits of Sharing a Ride

Sustainable Finance and Impact Assessment

  • When Going Green Becomes a …


Dynamic Function Learning Through Control Of Ensemble Systems, Wei Zhang, Vignesh Narayanan, Jr-Shin Li Jan 2023

Dynamic Function Learning Through Control Of Ensemble Systems, Wei Zhang, Vignesh Narayanan, Jr-Shin Li

Publications

Learning tasks involving function approximation are preva- lent in numerous domains of science and engineering. The underlying idea is to design a learning algorithm that gener- ates a sequence of functions converging to the desired target function with arbitrary accuracy by using the available data samples. In this paper, we present a novel interpretation of iterative function learning through the lens of ensemble dy- namical systems, with an emphasis on establishing the equiv- alence between convergence of function learning algorithms and asymptotic behavior of ensemble systems. In particular, given a set of observation data in a function learning task, we …


Neighborhood Retail Amenities And Taxi Trip Behavior: A Natural Experiment In Singapore, Kwan Ok Lee, Shih-Fen Cheng Jan 2023

Neighborhood Retail Amenities And Taxi Trip Behavior: A Natural Experiment In Singapore, Kwan Ok Lee, Shih-Fen Cheng

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

While a small change in land use planning in existing neighborhoods may significantly reduce private vehicle trips, we do not have a great understanding of the magnitude of the project- and shock-based causal change in travel behaviors, especially for the retail purpose. We analyze the impact of newly developed malls on the retail trip behavior of nearby residents for shopping, dining or services. Using the difference-in-differences approach and big data from a major taxi company in Singapore, we find that households residing within 800 m from a new mall are significantly less likely to take taxis to other retail destinations …


Self-Omics: A Self-Supervised Learning Framework For Multi-Omics Cancer Data, Sayed Hashim, Karthik Nandakumar, Mohammad Yaqub Jan 2023

Self-Omics: A Self-Supervised Learning Framework For Multi-Omics Cancer Data, Sayed Hashim, Karthik Nandakumar, Mohammad Yaqub

Computer Vision Faculty Publications

We have gained access to vast amounts of multi-omics data thanks to Next Generation Sequencing. However, it is challenging to analyse this data due to its high dimensionality and much of it not being annotated. Lack of annotated data is a significant problem in machine learning, and Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) methods are typically used to deal with limited labelled data. However, there is a lack of studies that use SSL methods to exploit inter-omics relationships on unlabelled multi-omics data. In this work, we develop a novel and efficient pre-training paradigm that consists of various SSL components, including but not limited …


Towards Parking Lot Occupancy Assessment Using Aerial Imagery And Computer Vision, John Jewell Dec 2022

Towards Parking Lot Occupancy Assessment Using Aerial Imagery And Computer Vision, John Jewell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advances in Computer Vision and Aerial Imaging have enabled countless downstream applications. To this end, aerial imagery could be leveraged to analyze the usage of parking lots. This would enable retail centres to allocate space better and eliminate the parking oversupply problem. With this use case in mind, the proposed research introduces a novel framework for parking lot occupancy assessments. The framework consists of a pipeline of components that map a sequence of image sets spanning a parking lot at different time intervals to a parking lot turnover heatmap that encodes the frequency each parking stall was used. The pipeline …


Folk Theories, Recommender Systems, And Human-Centered Explainable Artificial Intelligence (Hcxai), Michael Ridley Dec 2022

Folk Theories, Recommender Systems, And Human-Centered Explainable Artificial Intelligence (Hcxai), Michael Ridley

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study uses folk theories to enhance human-centered “explainable AI” (HCXAI). The complexity and opacity of machine learning has compelled the need for explainability. Consumer services like Amazon, Facebook, TikTok, and Spotify have resulted in machine learning becoming ubiquitous in the everyday lives of the non-expert, lay public. The following research questions inform this study: What are the folk theories of users that explain how a recommender system works? Is there a relationship between the folk theories of users and the principles of HCXAI that would facilitate the development of more transparent and explainable recommender systems? Using the Spotify music …


Assessing Wood Failure In Plywood By Deep Learning/Semantic Segmentation, Ramon Ferreira Oliveira Dec 2022

Assessing Wood Failure In Plywood By Deep Learning/Semantic Segmentation, Ramon Ferreira Oliveira

Theses and Dissertations

The current method for estimating wood failure is highly subjective. Various techniques have been proposed to improve the current protocol, but none have succeeded. This research aims to use deep learning/semantic segmentation using SegNet architecture to estimate wood failure in four types of three-ply plywood from mechanical shear strength specimens. We trained and tested our approach on custom and commercial plywood with bio-based and phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. Shear specimens were prepared and tested. Photographs of 255 shear bonded areas were taken. Forty photographs were used to solicit visual estimates from five human evaluators, and the remaining photographs were used to train …


Explainable Ai Helps Bridge The Ai Skills Gap: Evidence From A Large Bank, Selina Carter, Jonathan Hersh Dec 2022

Explainable Ai Helps Bridge The Ai Skills Gap: Evidence From A Large Bank, Selina Carter, Jonathan Hersh

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

Advances in machine learning have created an “AI skills gap” both across and within firms. As AI becomes embedded in firm processes, it is unknown how this will impact the digital divide between workers with and without AI skills. In this paper we ask whether managers trust AI to predict consequential events, what manager characteristics are associated with increasing trust in AI predictions, and whether explainable AI (XAI) affects users’ trust in AI predictions. Partnering with a large bank, we generated AI predictions for whether a loan will be late in its final disbursement. We embedded these predictions into a …


Payload-Byte: A Tool For Extracting And Labeling Packet Capture Files Of Modern Network Intrusion Detection Datasets, Yasir Farrukh, Irfan Khan, Syed Wali, David A. Bierbrauer, John Pavlik, Nathaniel D. Bastian Dec 2022

Payload-Byte: A Tool For Extracting And Labeling Packet Capture Files Of Modern Network Intrusion Detection Datasets, Yasir Farrukh, Irfan Khan, Syed Wali, David A. Bierbrauer, John Pavlik, Nathaniel D. Bastian

ACI Journal Articles

Adapting modern approaches for network intrusion detection is becoming critical, given the rapid technological advancement and adversarial attack rates. Therefore, packet-based methods utilizing payload data are gaining much popularity due to their effectiveness in detecting certain attacks. However, packet-based approaches suffer from a lack of standardization, resulting in incomparability and reproducibility issues. Unlike flow-based datasets, no standard labeled dataset exists, forcing researchers to follow bespoke labeling pipelines for individual approaches. Without a standardized baseline, proposed approaches cannot be compared and evaluated with each other. One cannot gauge whether the proposed approach is a methodological advancement or is just being benefited …


Actively Guided Cansats For Assisting Localization And Mapping In Unstructured And Unknown Environments, Cary Chun, M. Hassan Tanveer Dec 2022

Actively Guided Cansats For Assisting Localization And Mapping In Unstructured And Unknown Environments, Cary Chun, M. Hassan Tanveer

Symposium of Student Scholars

When navigating in unknown and unstructured environments, Unmanned Arial Vehicles (UAVs) can struggle when attempting to preform Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) operations. Particularly challenging circumstance arise when an UAV may need to land or otherwise navigate through treacherous environments. As the primary UAV may be too large and unwieldly to safely investigate in these types of situations, this research effort proposes the use of actively guided CanSats for assisting in localization and mapping of unstructured environments. A complex UAV could carry multiple of these SLAM capable CanSats, and when additional mapping and localization capabilities where required, the CanSat would …


The Interaction Of Normalisation And Clustering In Sub-Domain Definition For Multi-Source Transfer Learning Based Time Series Anomaly Detection, Matthew Nicholson, Rahul Agrahari, Clare Conran, Haythem Assem, John D. Kelleher Dec 2022

The Interaction Of Normalisation And Clustering In Sub-Domain Definition For Multi-Source Transfer Learning Based Time Series Anomaly Detection, Matthew Nicholson, Rahul Agrahari, Clare Conran, Haythem Assem, John D. Kelleher

Articles

This paper examines how data normalisation and clustering interact in the definition of sub-domains within multi-source transfer learning systems for time series anomaly detection. The paper introduces a distinction between (i) clustering as a primary/direct method for anomaly detection, and (ii) clustering as a method for identifying sub-domains within the source or target datasets. Reporting the results of three sets of experiments, we find that normalisation after feature extraction and before clustering results in the best performance for anomaly detection. Interestingly, we find that in the multi-source transfer learning scenario clustering on the target dataset and identifying subdomains in the …


Artificial Intelligence In The Medical Field: Medical Review Sentiment Analysis, Nicholas Podlesak Dec 2022

Artificial Intelligence In The Medical Field: Medical Review Sentiment Analysis, Nicholas Podlesak

Honors Capstones

In this research project, natural language processing techniques’ ability to accurately classify medical text was measured to reinforce the relevance of artificial intelligence in the medical field. Sentiment analyses (analyses to determine whether the text was positive or negative) were performed on the prescription drug reviews in an open-source dataset using four different models: lexical, a neural network, a support vector machine, and a logistic regression model. Each model’s effectiveness was gauged by its ability to correctly classify unlabeled drug reviews (i.e., a percentage representing accuracy). The machine learning models were able to accurately classify the text, while the lexical …


Context-Aware Collaborative Neuro-Symbolic Inference In Internet Of Battlefield Things, Tarek Abdelzaher, Nathaniel D. Bastian, Susmit Jha, Lance Kaplan, Mani Srivastava, Venugopal Veeravalli Dec 2022

Context-Aware Collaborative Neuro-Symbolic Inference In Internet Of Battlefield Things, Tarek Abdelzaher, Nathaniel D. Bastian, Susmit Jha, Lance Kaplan, Mani Srivastava, Venugopal Veeravalli

ACI Journal Articles

IoBTs must feature collaborative, context-aware, multi-modal fusion for real-time, robust decision-making in adversarial environments. The integration of machine learning (ML) models into IoBTs has been successful at solving these problems at a small scale (e.g., AiTR), but state-of-the-art ML models grow exponentially with increasing temporal and spatial scale of modeled phenomena, and can thus become brittle, untrustworthy, and vulnerable when interpreting large-scale tactical edge data. To address this challenge, we need to develop principles and methodologies for uncertainty-quantified neuro-symbolic ML, where learning and inference exploit symbolic knowledge and reasoning, in addition to, multi-modal and multi-vantage sensor data. The approach features …


Wordmuse, John M. Nelson Dec 2022

Wordmuse, John M. Nelson

Computer Science and Software Engineering

Wordmuse is an application that allows users to enter a song and a list of keywords to create a new song. Built on Spotify's API, this project showcases the fusion of music composition and artificial intelligence. This paper also discusses the motivation, design, and creation of Wordmuse.


A Unified Dialogue User Simulator For Few-Shot Data Augmentation, Dazhen Wan, Zheng Zhang, Qi Zhu, Lizi Liao, Minlie Huang Dec 2022

A Unified Dialogue User Simulator For Few-Shot Data Augmentation, Dazhen Wan, Zheng Zhang, Qi Zhu, Lizi Liao, Minlie Huang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Pre-trained language models have shown superior performance in task-oriented dialogues. However, existing datasets are on limited scales, which cannot support large-scale pre-training. Fortunately, various data augmentation methods have been developed to augment largescale task-oriented dialogue corpora. However, they heavily rely on annotated data in the target domain, which require a tremendous amount of data collection and human labeling work. In this paper, we build a unified dialogue user simulation model by pre-training on several publicly available datasets. The model can then be tuned on a target domain with fewshot data. The experiments on a target dataset across multiple domains show …


A Logistic Regression And Linear Programming Approach For Multi-Skill Staffing Optimization In Call Centers, Thuy Anh Ta, Tien Mai, Fabian Bastin, Pierre L'Ecuyer Dec 2022

A Logistic Regression And Linear Programming Approach For Multi-Skill Staffing Optimization In Call Centers, Thuy Anh Ta, Tien Mai, Fabian Bastin, Pierre L'Ecuyer

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

We study a staffing optimization problem in multi-skill call centers. The objective is to minimize the total cost of agents under some quality of service (QoS) constraints. The key challenge lies in the fact that the QoS functions have no closed-form and need to be approximated by simulation. In this paper we propose a new way to approximate the QoS functions by logistic functions and design a new algorithm that combines logistic regression, cut generations and logistic-based local search to efficiently find good staffing solutions. We report computational results using examples up to 65 call types and 89 agent groups …


Scalable Distributional Robustness In A Class Of Non Convex Optimization With Guarantees, Avinandan Bose, Arunesh Sinha, Tien Mai Dec 2022

Scalable Distributional Robustness In A Class Of Non Convex Optimization With Guarantees, Avinandan Bose, Arunesh Sinha, Tien Mai

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Distributionally robust optimization (DRO) has shown lot of promise in providing robustness in learning as well as sample based optimization problems. We endeavor to provide DRO solutions for a class of sum of fractionals, non-convex optimization which is used for decision making in prominent areas such as facility location and security games. In contrast to previous work, we find it more tractable to optimize the equivalent variance regularized form of DRO rather than the minimax form. We transform the variance regularized form to a mixed-integer second order cone program (MISOCP), which, while guaranteeing near global optimality, does not scale enough …


Dronlomaly: Runtime Detection Of Anomalous Drone Behaviors Via Log Analysis And Deep Learning, Lwin Khin Shar, Wei Minn, Nguyen Binh Duong Ta, Lingxiao Jiang, Daniel Wai Kiat Lim, Wai Kiat David Lim Dec 2022

Dronlomaly: Runtime Detection Of Anomalous Drone Behaviors Via Log Analysis And Deep Learning, Lwin Khin Shar, Wei Minn, Nguyen Binh Duong Ta, Lingxiao Jiang, Daniel Wai Kiat Lim, Wai Kiat David Lim

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Drones are increasingly popular and getting used in a variety of missions such as area surveillance, pipeline inspection, cinematography, etc. While the drone is conducting a mission, anomalies such as sensor fault, actuator fault, configuration errors, bugs in controller program, remote cyber- attack, etc., may affect the drone’s physical stability and cause serious safety violations such as crashing into the public. During a flight mission, drones typically log flight status and state units such as GPS coordinates, actuator outputs, accelerator readings, gyroscopic readings, etc. These log data may reflect the above-mentioned anomalies. In this paper, we propose a novel, deep …


Conversation Disentanglement With Bi-Level Contrastive Learning, Chengyu Huang, Hao Fei, Lizi Liao, Lizi Liao Dec 2022

Conversation Disentanglement With Bi-Level Contrastive Learning, Chengyu Huang, Hao Fei, Lizi Liao, Lizi Liao

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Conversation disentanglement aims to group utterances into detached sessions, which is a fundamental task in processing multi-party conversations. Existing methods have two main drawbacks. First, they overemphasize pairwise utterance relations but pay inadequate attention to the utterance-to-context relation modeling. Second, a huge amount of human annotated data is required for training, which is expensive to obtain in practice. To address these issues, we propose a general disentangle model based on bi-level contrastive learning. It brings closer utterances in the same session while encourages each utterance to be near its clustered session prototypes in the representation space. Unlike existing approaches, our …


Vr Computing Lab: An Immersive Classroom For Computing Learning, Huan Shan Shawn Pang, Kyong Jin Shim, Yi Meng Lau, Gottipati Swapna Dec 2022

Vr Computing Lab: An Immersive Classroom For Computing Learning, Huan Shan Shawn Pang, Kyong Jin Shim, Yi Meng Lau, Gottipati Swapna

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

In recent years, virtual reality (VR) is gaining popularity amongst educators and learners. If a picture is worth a thousand words, a VR session is worth a trillion words. VR technology completely immerses users with an experience that transports them into a simulated world. Universities across the United States, United Kingdom, and other countries have already started using VR for higher education in areas such as medicine, business, architecture, vocational training, social work, virtual field trips, virtual campuses, helping students with special needs, and many more. In this paper, we propose a novel VR platform learning framework which maps elements …


Towards Reinterpreting Neural Topic Models Via Composite Activations, Jia Peng Lim, Hady Wirawan Lauw Dec 2022

Towards Reinterpreting Neural Topic Models Via Composite Activations, Jia Peng Lim, Hady Wirawan Lauw

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Most Neural Topic Models (NTM) use a variational auto-encoder framework producing K topics limited to the size of the encoder’s output. These topics are interpreted through the selection of the top activated words via the weights or reconstructed vector of the decoder that are directly connected to each neuron. In this paper, we present a model-free two-stage process to reinterpret NTM and derive further insights on the state of the trained model. Firstly, building on the original information from a trained NTM, we generate a pool of potential candidate “composite topics” by exploiting possible co-occurrences within the original set of …


S-Prompts Learning With Pre-Trained Transformers: An Occam's Razor For Domain Incremental Learning, Yabin Wang, Zhiwu Huang, Xiaopeng. Hong Dec 2022

S-Prompts Learning With Pre-Trained Transformers: An Occam's Razor For Domain Incremental Learning, Yabin Wang, Zhiwu Huang, Xiaopeng. Hong

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

State-of-the-art deep neural networks are still struggling to address the catastrophic forgetting problem in continual learning. In this paper, we propose one simple paradigm (named as S-Prompting) and two concrete approaches to highly reduce the forgetting degree in one of the most typical continual learning scenarios, i.e., domain increment learning (DIL). The key idea of the paradigm is to learn prompts independently across domains with pre-trained transformers, avoiding the use of exemplars that commonly appear in conventional methods. This results in a win-win game where the prompting can achieve the best for each domain. The independent prompting across domains only …


Interventional Training For Out-Of-Distribution Natural Language Understanding, Sicheng Yu, Jing Jiang, Hao Zhang, Yulei Niu, Qianru Sun, Lidong Bing Dec 2022

Interventional Training For Out-Of-Distribution Natural Language Understanding, Sicheng Yu, Jing Jiang, Hao Zhang, Yulei Niu, Qianru Sun, Lidong Bing

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Out-of-distribution (OOD) settings are used to measure a model’s performance when the distribution of the test data is different from that of the training data. NLU models are known to suffer in OOD settings (Utama et al., 2020b). We study this issue from the perspective of causality, which sees confounding bias as the reason for models to learn spurious correlations. While a common solution is to perform intervention, existing methods handle only known and single confounder, but in many NLU tasks the confounders can be both unknown and multifactorial. In this paper, we propose a novel interventional training method called …


Cold Calls To Enhance Class Participation And Student Engagement, M. Thulasidas, Aldy Gunawan Dec 2022

Cold Calls To Enhance Class Participation And Student Engagement, M. Thulasidas, Aldy Gunawan

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

The question whether cold calls increase student engagement in the classroom has not been conclusively answered in the literature. This study describes the automated system to implement unbiased, randomized cold calling by posing a question, allowing all students to think first and then calling on a particular student to respond. Since we already have a measure of the level of student engagement as the self-reported classparticipation entries from the students, its correlation to cold calling is also further studied. The results show that there is a statistically significant increase in the class participation reported, and therefore in student engagement, in …