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The Aim To Decentralize Economic Systems With Blockchains And Crypto, Mary Lacity 2024 The Sam M. Walton College of Business at the University of Arkansas

The Aim To Decentralize Economic Systems With Blockchains And Crypto, Mary Lacity

Arkansas Law Review

As an information systems (“IS”) professor, I wrote this Article for legal professionals new to blockchains and crypto. This target audience likely is most interested in crypto for its legal implications—depending on whether it functions as currencies, securities, commodities, or properties; however, legal professionals also need to understand crypto’s origin, how transactions work, and how they are governed.


Piecing Together Performance: Collaborative, Participatory Research-Through-Design For Better Diversity In Games, Daniel L. Gardner, LouAnne Boyd, Reginald T. Gardner 2024 Chapman University

Piecing Together Performance: Collaborative, Participatory Research-Through-Design For Better Diversity In Games, Daniel L. Gardner, Louanne Boyd, Reginald T. Gardner

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Digital games are a multi-billion-dollar industry whose production and consumption extend globally. Representation in games is an increasingly important topic. As those who create and consume the medium grow ever more diverse, it is essential that player or user-experience research, usability, and any consideration of how people interface with their technology is exercised through inclusive and intersectional lenses. Previous research has identified how character configuration interfaces preface white-male defaults [39, 40, 67]. This study relies on 1-on-1 play-interviews where diverse participants attempt to create “themselves” in a series of games and on group design activities to explore how participants may …


Big Code Search: A Bibliography, Kisub KIM, Sankalp GHATPANDE, Dongsun KIM, Xin ZHOU, Kui LIU, Tegawende F. BISSYANDE, Jacques KLEIN, Traon Yves LE 2024 Singapore Management University

Big Code Search: A Bibliography, Kisub Kim, Sankalp Ghatpande, Dongsun Kim, Xin Zhou, Kui Liu, Tegawende F. Bissyande, Jacques Klein, Traon Yves Le

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Code search is an essential task in software development. Developers often search the internet and other code databases for necessary source code snippets to ease the development efforts. Code search techniques also help learn programming as novice programmers or students can quickly retrieve (hopefully good) examples already used in actual software projects. Given the recurrence of the code search activity in software development, there is an increasing interest in the research community. To improve the code search experience, the research community suggests many code search tools and techniques. These tools and techniques leverage several different ideas and claim a better …


Provably Secure Decisions Based On Potentially Malicious Information, Dongxia WANG, Tim MULLER, Jun SUN 2024 Singapore Management University

Provably Secure Decisions Based On Potentially Malicious Information, Dongxia Wang, Tim Muller, Jun Sun

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

There are various security-critical decisions routinely made, on the basis of information provided by peers: routing messages, user reports, sensor data, navigational information, blockchain updates, etc. Jury theorems were proposed in sociology to make decisions based on information from peers, which assume peers may be mistaken with some probability. We focus on attackers in a system, which manifest as peers that strategically report fake information to manipulate decision making. We define the property of robustness: a lower bound probability of deciding correctly, regardless of what information attackers provide. When peers are independently selected, we propose an optimal, robust decision mechanism …


Conceptthread: Visualizing Threaded Concepts In Mooc Videos, Zhiguang ZHOU, Li YE, Lihong CAI, Lei WANG, Yigang WANG, Yongheng WANG, Wei CHEN, Yong WANG 2024 Singapore Management University

Conceptthread: Visualizing Threaded Concepts In Mooc Videos, Zhiguang Zhou, Li Ye, Lihong Cai, Lei Wang, Yigang Wang, Yongheng Wang, Wei Chen, Yong Wang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) platforms are becoming increasingly popular in recent years. Online learners need to watch the whole course video on MOOC platforms to learn the underlying new knowledge, which is often tedious and time-consuming due to the lack of a quick overview of the covered knowledge and their structures. In this paper, we propose ConceptThread , a visual analytics approach to effectively show the concepts and the relations among them to facilitate effective online learning. Specifically, given that the majority of MOOC videos contain slides, we first leverage video processing and speech analysis techniques, including shot recognition, …


Remote Multi-Person Heart Rate Monitoring With Smart Speakers: Overcoming Separation Constraint, Ngoc Doan Thu TRAN, Dong MA, Rajesh Krishna BALAN 2024 Singapore Management University

Remote Multi-Person Heart Rate Monitoring With Smart Speakers: Overcoming Separation Constraint, Ngoc Doan Thu Tran, Dong Ma, Rajesh Krishna Balan

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Heart rate is a key vital sign that can be used to understand an individual’s health condition. Recently, remote sensing techniques, especially acoustic-based sensing, have received increasing attention for their ability to non-invasively detect heart rate via commercial mobile devices such as smartphones and smart speakers. However, due to signal interference, existing methods have primarily focused on monitoring a single user and required a large separation between them when monitoring multiple people. These limitations hinder many common use cases such as couples sharing the same bed or two or more people located in close proximity. In this paper, we present …


Conversational Localization: Indoor Human Localization Through Intelligent Conversation, SHESHADRI SMITHA, Kotaro HARA 2024 Singapore Management University

Conversational Localization: Indoor Human Localization Through Intelligent Conversation, Sheshadri Smitha, Kotaro Hara

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

We propose a novel sensorless approach to indoor localization by leveraging natural language conversations with users, which we call conversational localization. To show the feasibility of conversational localization, we develop a proof-of-concept system that guides users to describe their surroundings in a chat and estimates their position based on the information they provide. We devised a modular architecture for our system with four modules. First, we construct an entity database with available image-based floor maps. Second, we enable the dynamic identification and scoring of information provided by users through our utterance processing module. Then, we implement a conversational agent that …


Clearspeech: Improving Voice Quality Of Earbuds Using Both In-Ear And Out-Ear Microphones, Dong MA, Ting DANG, Ming DING, Rajesh Krishna BALAN 2024 Singapore Management University

Clearspeech: Improving Voice Quality Of Earbuds Using Both In-Ear And Out-Ear Microphones, Dong Ma, Ting Dang, Ming Ding, Rajesh Krishna Balan

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Wireless earbuds have been gaining increasing popularity and using them to make phone calls or issue voice commands requires the earbud microphones to pick up human speech. When the speaker is in a noisy environment, speech quality degrades significantly and requires speech enhancement (SE). In this paper, we present ClearSpeech, a novel deep-learningbased SE system designed for wireless earbuds. Specifically, by jointly using the earbud’s in-ear and out-ear microphones, we devised a suite of techniques to effectively fuse the two signals and enhance the magnitude and phase of the speech spectrogram. We built an earbud prototype to evaluate ClearSpeech under …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia 2023 Brigham Young University

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Enhancing Urban Life: A Policy-Based Autonomic Smart City Management System For Efficient, Sustainable, And Self-Adaptive Urban Environments, Elham Okhovat 2023 Western University

Enhancing Urban Life: A Policy-Based Autonomic Smart City Management System For Efficient, Sustainable, And Self-Adaptive Urban Environments, Elham Okhovat

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis proposes the concept of the Policy-based Autonomic Smart City Management System, an innovative framework designed to comprehensively manage diverse aspects of urban environments, ranging from environmental conditions such as temperature and air quality to the infrastructure which comprises multiple layers of infrastructure, from sensors and devices to advanced IoT platforms and applications. Efficient management requires continuous monitoring of devices and infrastructure, data analysis, and real-time resource assessment to ensure seamless city operations and improve residents' quality of life. Automating data monitoring is essential due to the vast array of hardware and data exchanges, and round-the-clock monitoring is critical. …


Μakka: Mutation Testing For Actor Concurrency In Akka Using Real-World Bugs, Mohsen Moradi Moghadam, Mehdi Bagherzadeh, Raffi Takvor Khatchadourian Ph,D,, Hamid Bagheri 2023 Oakland University

Μakka: Mutation Testing For Actor Concurrency In Akka Using Real-World Bugs, Mohsen Moradi Moghadam, Mehdi Bagherzadeh, Raffi Takvor Khatchadourian Ph,D,, Hamid Bagheri

Publications and Research

Actor concurrency is becoming increasingly important in the real-world and mission-critical software. This requires these applications to be free from actor bugs, that occur in the real world, and have tests that are effective in finding these bugs. Mutation testing is a well-established technique that transforms an application to induce its likely bugs and evaluate the effectiveness of its tests in finding these bugs. Mutation testing is available for a broad spectrum of applications and their bugs, ranging from web to mobile to machine learning, and is used at scale in companies like Google and Facebook. However, there still is …


Adaptable Object And Animation System For Game Development, Isaiah Turner 2023 Western Kentucky University

Adaptable Object And Animation System For Game Development, Isaiah Turner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In contemporary times, video games have swiftly evolved into a prominent medium, excelling in both entertainment and narrative delivery, positioning themselves as significant rivals to traditional forms such as film and theater. The burgeoning popularity of gaming has led to a surge in aspiring game developers seeking to craft their own creations, driven by both commercial aspirations and personal passion. However, a common challenge faced by these individuals involves the considerable time investment required to acquire essential skills and establish a foundational framework for their projects. Accessible game development engines that offer a diverse range of fundamental features play a …


Vertical Free-Swinging Photovoltaic Racking Energy Modeling: A Novel Approach To Agrivoltaics, Koami Soulemane Hayibo, Joshua M. Pearce 2023 Western University

Vertical Free-Swinging Photovoltaic Racking Energy Modeling: A Novel Approach To Agrivoltaics, Koami Soulemane Hayibo, Joshua M. Pearce

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

To enable lower-cost building materials, a free-swinging bifacial vertical solar photovoltaic (PV) rack has been proposed, which complies with Canadian building codes and is the lowest capital-cost agrivoltaics rack. The wind force applied to the free-swinging PV, however, causes it to have varying tilt angles depending on the wind speed and direction. No energy performance model accurately describes such a system. To provide a simulation model for the free-swinging PV, where wind speed and direction govern the array tilt angle, this study builds upon the open-source System Advisor Model (SAM) using Python. After the SAM python model is validated, a …


Towards Safer Code Reuse: Investigating And Mitigating Security Vulnerabilities And License Violations In Copy-Based Reuse Scenarios, David Reid 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Towards Safer Code Reuse: Investigating And Mitigating Security Vulnerabilities And License Violations In Copy-Based Reuse Scenarios, David Reid

Doctoral Dissertations

Background: A key benefit of open source software is the ability to copy code to reuse in other projects. Code reuse provides benefits such as faster development time, lower cost, and improved quality. There are several ways to reuse open source software in new projects including copy-based reuse, library reuse, and the use of package managers. This work specifically looks at copy-based code reuse.

Motivation: Code reuse has many benefits, but also has inherent risks, including security and legal risks. The reused code may contain security vulnerabilities, license violations, or other issues. Security vulnerabilities may persist in projects that copy …


Robust Test Selection For Deep Neural Networks, Weifeng SUN, Meng YAN, Zhongxin LIU, David LO 2023 Chongqing University

Robust Test Selection For Deep Neural Networks, Weifeng Sun, Meng Yan, Zhongxin Liu, David Lo

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have been widely used in various domains, such as computer vision and software engineering. Although many DNNs have been deployed to assist various tasks in the real world, similar to traditional software, they also suffer from defects that may lead to severe outcomes. DNN testing is one of the most widely used methods to ensure the quality of DNNs. Such method needs rich test inputs with oracle information (expected output) to reveal the incorrect behaviors of a DNN model. However, manually labeling all the collected test inputs is a labor-intensive task, which delays the quality assurance …


Exgen: Ready-To-Use Exercise Generation In Introductory Programming Courses, Nguyen Binh Duong TA, Hua Gia Phuc NGUYEN, GOTTIPATI Swapna 2023 Singapore Management University

Exgen: Ready-To-Use Exercise Generation In Introductory Programming Courses, Nguyen Binh Duong Ta, Hua Gia Phuc Nguyen, Gottipati Swapna

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

In introductory programming courses, students as novice programmers would benefit from doing frequent practices set at a difficulty level and concept suitable for their skills and knowledge. However, setting many good programming exercises for individual learners is very time-consuming for instructors. In this work, we propose an automated exercise generation system, named ExGen, which leverages recent advances in pre-trained large language models (LLMs) to automatically create customized and ready-to-use programming exercises for individual students ondemand. The system integrates seamlessly with Visual Studio Code, a popular development environment for computing students and software engineers. ExGen effectively does the following: 1) maintaining …


Better Pay Attention Whilst Fuzzing, Shunkai ZHU, Jingyi WANG, Jun SUN, Jie YANG, Xingwei LIN, Liyi ZHANG, Peng CHENG 2023 Singapore Management University

Better Pay Attention Whilst Fuzzing, Shunkai Zhu, Jingyi Wang, Jun Sun, Jie Yang, Xingwei Lin, Liyi Zhang, Peng Cheng

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Fuzzing is one of the prevailing methods for vulnerability detection. However, even state-of-the-art fuzzing methods become ineffective after some period of time, i.e., the coverage hardly improves as existing methods are ineffective to focus the attention of fuzzing on covering the hard-to-trigger program paths. In other words, they cannot generate inputs that can break the bottleneck due to the fundamental difficulty in capturing the complex relations between the test inputs and program coverage. In particular, existing fuzzers suffer from the following main limitations: 1) lacking an overall analysis of the program to identify the most “rewarding” seeds, and 2) lacking …


Software Architecture In Practice: Challenges And Opportunities, Zhiyuan WAN, Yun ZHANG, Xin XIA, Yi JIANG, David LO 2023 Singapore Management University

Software Architecture In Practice: Challenges And Opportunities, Zhiyuan Wan, Yun Zhang, Xin Xia, Yi Jiang, David Lo

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Software architecture has been an active research field for nearly four decades, in which previous studies make significant progress such as creating methods and techniques and building tools to support software architecture practice. Despite past efforts, we have little understanding of how practitioners perform software architecture related activities, and what challenges they face. Through interviews with 32 practitioners from 21 organizations across three continents, we identified challenges that practitioners face in software architecture practice during software development and maintenance. We reported on common software architecture activities at software requirements, design, construction and testing, and maintenance stages, as well as corresponding …


On The Usage Of Continual Learning For Out-Of-Distribution Generalization In Pre-Trained Language Models Of Code, Martin WEYSSOW, Xin ZHOU, Kisub KIM, David LO, Houari A. SAHRAOUI 2023 Singapore Management University

On The Usage Of Continual Learning For Out-Of-Distribution Generalization In Pre-Trained Language Models Of Code, Martin Weyssow, Xin Zhou, Kisub Kim, David Lo, Houari A. Sahraoui

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have become a prevalent technique in deep learning for code, utilizing a two-stage pre-training and fine-tuning procedure to acquire general knowledge about code and specialize in a variety of downstream tasks. However, the dynamic nature of software codebases poses a challenge to the effectiveness and robustness of PLMs. In particular, world-realistic scenarios potentially lead to significant differences between the distribution of the pre-training and test data, i.e., distribution shift, resulting in a degradation of the PLM's performance on downstream tasks. In this paper, we stress the need for adapting PLMs of code to software data whose …


C³: Code Clone-Based Identification Of Duplicated Components, Yanming YANG, Ying ZOU, Xing HU, David LO, Chao NI, John C. GRUNDY, Xin: XIA 2023 Singapore Management University

C³: Code Clone-Based Identification Of Duplicated Components, Yanming Yang, Ying Zou, Xing Hu, David Lo, Chao Ni, John C. Grundy, Xin: Xia

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Reinventing the wheel is a detrimental programming practice in software development that frequently results in the introduction of duplicated components. This practice not only leads to increased maintenance and labor costs but also poses a higher risk of propagating bugs throughout the system. Despite numerous issues introduced by duplicated components in software, the identification of component-level clones remains a significant challenge that existing studies struggle to effectively tackle. Specifically, existing methods face two primary limitations that are challenging to overcome: 1) Measuring the similarity between different components presents a challenge due to the significant size differences among them; 2) Identifying …


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