Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,606 Full-Text Articles 5,373 Authors 1,290,840 Downloads 205 Institutions

All Articles in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

Faceted Search

3,606 full-text articles. Page 2 of 161.

A High-Accuracy Detection System: Based On Transfer Learning For Apical Lesions On Periapical Radiograph, Yueh Chuo, Wen-Ming Lin, Tsung-Yi Chen, Mei-Ling Chan, Yu-Sung Chang, Yan-Ru Lin, Yuan-Jin Lin, Yu-Han Shao, Chiung-An Chen, Patricia Angela R. Abu 2022 Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan City, Taiwan

A High-Accuracy Detection System: Based On Transfer Learning For Apical Lesions On Periapical Radiograph, Yueh Chuo, Wen-Ming Lin, Tsung-Yi Chen, Mei-Ling Chan, Yu-Sung Chang, Yan-Ru Lin, Yuan-Jin Lin, Yu-Han Shao, Chiung-An Chen, Patricia Angela R. Abu

Department of Information Systems & Computer Science Faculty Publications

Apical Lesions, one of the most common oral diseases, can be effectively detected in daily dental examinations by a periapical radiograph (PA). In the current popular endodontic treatment, most dentists spend a lot of time manually marking the lesion area. In order to reduce the burden on dentists, this paper proposes a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based regional analysis model for spical lesions for periapical radiographs. In this study, the database was provided by dentists with more than three years of practical experience, meeting the criteria for clinical practical application. The contributions of this work are (1) an advanced adaptive threshold …


The Interaction Of Normalisation And Clustering In Sub-Domain Definition For Multi-Source Transfer Learning Based Time Series Anomaly Detection, Matthew Nicholson, Rahul Agrahari, Clare Conran, Haythem Assem, John D. Kelleher 2022 ADAPT Centre, Trinity College Dublin

The Interaction Of Normalisation And Clustering In Sub-Domain Definition For Multi-Source Transfer Learning Based Time Series Anomaly Detection, Matthew Nicholson, Rahul Agrahari, Clare Conran, Haythem Assem, John D. Kelleher

Articles

This paper examines how data normalisation and clustering interact in the definition of sub-domains within multi-source transfer learning systems for time series anomaly detection. The paper introduces a distinction between (i) clustering as a primary/direct method for anomaly detection, and (ii) clustering as a method for identifying sub-domains within the source or target datasets. Reporting the results of three sets of experiments, we find that normalisation after feature extraction and before clustering results in the best performance for anomaly detection. Interestingly, we find that in the multi-source transfer learning scenario clustering on the target dataset and identifying subdomains in the …


Artificial Intelligence In The Medical Field: Medical Review Sentiment Analysis, Nicholas Podlesak 2022 Northern Illinois University

Artificial Intelligence In The Medical Field: Medical Review Sentiment Analysis, Nicholas Podlesak

Honors Capstones

In this research project, natural language processing techniques’ ability to accurately classify medical text was measured to reinforce the relevance of artificial intelligence in the medical field. Sentiment analyses (analyses to determine whether the text was positive or negative) were performed on the prescription drug reviews in an open-source dataset using four different models: lexical, a neural network, a support vector machine, and a logistic regression model. Each model’s effectiveness was gauged by its ability to correctly classify unlabeled drug reviews (i.e., a percentage representing accuracy). The machine learning models were able to accurately classify the text, while the lexical …


Context-Aware Collaborative Neuro-Symbolic Inference In Internet Of Battlefield Things, Tarek Abdelzaher, Nathaniel D. Bastian, Susmit Jha, Lance Kaplan, Mani Srivastava, Venugopal Veeravalli 2022 Army Cyber Institute, U.S. Military Academy

Context-Aware Collaborative Neuro-Symbolic Inference In Internet Of Battlefield Things, Tarek Abdelzaher, Nathaniel D. Bastian, Susmit Jha, Lance Kaplan, Mani Srivastava, Venugopal Veeravalli

ACI Journal Articles

IoBTs must feature collaborative, context-aware, multi-modal fusion for real-time, robust decision-making in adversarial environments. The integration of machine learning (ML) models into IoBTs has been successful at solving these problems at a small scale (e.g., AiTR), but state-of-the-art ML models grow exponentially with increasing temporal and spatial scale of modeled phenomena, and can thus become brittle, untrustworthy, and vulnerable when interpreting large-scale tactical edge data. To address this challenge, we need to develop principles and methodologies for uncertainty-quantified neuro-symbolic ML, where learning and inference exploit symbolic knowledge and reasoning, in addition to, multi-modal and multi-vantage sensor data. The approach features …


Wordmuse, John M. Nelson 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Wordmuse, John M. Nelson

Computer Science and Software Engineering

Wordmuse is an application that allows users to enter a song and a list of keywords to create a new song. Built on Spotify's API, this project showcases the fusion of music composition and artificial intelligence. This paper also discusses the motivation, design, and creation of Wordmuse.


A Logistic Regression And Linear Programming Approach For Multi-Skill Staffing Optimization In Call Centers, Thuy Anh TA, Tien MAI, Fabian BASTIN, Pierre l'ECUYER 2022 Singapore Management University

A Logistic Regression And Linear Programming Approach For Multi-Skill Staffing Optimization In Call Centers, Thuy Anh Ta, Tien Mai, Fabian Bastin, Pierre L'Ecuyer

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

We study a staffing optimization problem in multi-skill call centers. The objective is to minimize the total cost of agents under some quality of service (QoS) constraints. The key challenge lies in the fact that the QoS functions have no closed-form and need to be approximated by simulation. In this paper we propose a new way to approximate the QoS functions by logistic functions and design a new algorithm that combines logistic regression, cut generations and logistic-based local search to efficiently find good staffing solutions. We report computational results using examples up to 65 call types and 89 agent groups …


Conversation Disentanglement With Bi-Level Contrastive Learning, Chengyu HUANG, Hao FEI, Lizi LIAO, Lizi LIAO 2022 Singapore Management University

Conversation Disentanglement With Bi-Level Contrastive Learning, Chengyu Huang, Hao Fei, Lizi Liao, Lizi Liao

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Conversation disentanglement aims to group utterances into detached sessions, which is a fundamental task in processing multi-party conversations. Existing methods have two main drawbacks. First, they overemphasize pairwise utterance relations but pay inadequate attention to the utterance-to-context relation modeling. Second, a huge amount of human annotated data is required for training, which is expensive to obtain in practice. To address these issues, we propose a general disentangle model based on bi-level contrastive learning. It brings closer utterances in the same session while encourages each utterance to be near its clustered session prototypes in the representation space. Unlike existing approaches, our …


Interventional Training For Out-Of-Distribution Natural Language Understanding, Sicheng YU, Jing JIANG, Hao ZHANG, Yulei NIU, Qianru SUN, Lidong BING 2022 Singapore Management University

Interventional Training For Out-Of-Distribution Natural Language Understanding, Sicheng Yu, Jing Jiang, Hao Zhang, Yulei Niu, Qianru Sun, Lidong Bing

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Out-of-distribution (OOD) settings are used to measure a model’s performance when the distribution of the test data is different from that of the training data. NLU models are known to suffer in OOD settings (Utama et al., 2020b). We study this issue from the perspective of causality, which sees confounding bias as the reason for models to learn spurious correlations. While a common solution is to perform intervention, existing methods handle only known and single confounder, but in many NLU tasks the confounders can be both unknown and multifactorial. In this paper, we propose a novel interventional training method called …


Cold Calls To Enhance Class Participation And Student Engagement, M. THULASIDAS, Aldy GUNAWAN 2022 Singapore Management University

Cold Calls To Enhance Class Participation And Student Engagement, M. Thulasidas, Aldy Gunawan

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

The question whether cold calls increase student engagement in the classroom has not been conclusively answered in the literature. This study describes the automated system to implement unbiased, randomized cold calling by posing a question, allowing all students to think first and then calling on a particular student to respond. Since we already have a measure of the level of student engagement as the self-reported classparticipation entries from the students, its correlation to cold calling is also further studied. The results show that there is a statistically significant increase in the class participation reported, and therefore in student engagement, in …


Biasfinder: Metamorphic Test Generation To Uncover Bias For Sentiment Analysis Systems, Muhammad Hilmi ASYROFI, Zhou YANG, IMAM NUR BANI YUSUF, Hong Jin KANG, Thung Ferdian, David LO 2022 Singapore Management University

Biasfinder: Metamorphic Test Generation To Uncover Bias For Sentiment Analysis Systems, Muhammad Hilmi Asyrofi, Zhou Yang, Imam Nur Bani Yusuf, Hong Jin Kang, Thung Ferdian, David Lo

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Artificial intelligence systems, such as Sentiment Analysis (SA) systems, typically learn from large amounts of data that may reflect human bias. Consequently, such systems may exhibit unintended demographic bias against specific characteristics (e.g., gender, occupation, country-of-origin, etc.). Such bias manifests in an SA system when it predicts different sentiments for similar texts that differ only in the characteristic of individuals described. To automatically uncover bias in SA systems, this paper presents BiasFinder, an approach that can discover biased predictions in SA systems via metamorphic testing. A key feature of BiasFinder is the automatic curation of suitable templates from any given …


Constrained Collective Movement In Human-Robot Teams, Joshua Fagan 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Constrained Collective Movement In Human-Robot Teams, Joshua Fagan

Doctoral Dissertations

This research focuses on improving human-robot co-navigation for teams of robots and humans navigating together as a unit while accomplishing a desired task. Frequently, the team’s co-navigation is strongly influenced by a predefined Standard Operating Procedure (SOP), which acts as a high-level guide for where agents should go and what they should do. In this work, I introduce the concept of Constrained Collective Movement (CCM) of a team to describe how members of the team perform inter-team and intra-team navigation to execute a joint task while balancing environmental and application-specific constraints. This work advances robots’ abilities to participate along side …


Impact Of Digital Twins And Metaverse On Cities: History, Current Situation, And Application Perspectives, Zhihan Lv, Wen Long Shang, Mohsen Guizani 2022 Uppsala Universitet

Impact Of Digital Twins And Metaverse On Cities: History, Current Situation, And Application Perspectives, Zhihan Lv, Wen Long Shang, Mohsen Guizani

Machine Learning Faculty Publications

To promote the expansion and adoption of Digital Twins (DTs) in Smart Cities (SCs), a detailed review of the impact of DTs and digitalization on cities is made to assess the progression of cities and standardization of their management mode. Combined with the technical elements of DTs, the coupling effect of DTs technology and urban construction and the internal logic of DTs technology embedded in urban construction are discussed. Relevant literature covering the full range of DTs technologies and their applications is collected, evaluated, and collated, relevant studies are concatenated, and relevant accepted conclusions are summarized by modules. First, the …


Scalable Distributional Robustness In A Class Of Non Convex Optimization With Guarantees, Avinandan BOSE, Arunesh SINHA, Tien MAI 2022 Singapore Management University

Scalable Distributional Robustness In A Class Of Non Convex Optimization With Guarantees, Avinandan Bose, Arunesh Sinha, Tien Mai

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Distributionally robust optimization (DRO) has shown lot of promise in providing robustness in learning as well as sample based optimization problems. We endeavor to provide DRO solutions for a class of sum of fractionals, non-convex optimization which is used for decision making in prominent areas such as facility location and security games. In contrast to previous work, we find it more tractable to optimize the equivalent variance regularized form of DRO rather than the minimax form. We transform the variance regularized form to a mixed-integer second order cone program (MISOCP), which, while guaranteeing near global optimality, does not scale enough …


Dronlomaly: Runtime Detection Of Anomalous Drone Behaviors Via Log Analysis And Deep Learning, Lwin Khin SHAR, Wei MINN, Nguyen Binh Duong TA, Lingxiao JIANG, Daniel Wai Kiat LIM, Wai Kiat David LIM 2022 Singapore Management University

Dronlomaly: Runtime Detection Of Anomalous Drone Behaviors Via Log Analysis And Deep Learning, Lwin Khin Shar, Wei Minn, Nguyen Binh Duong Ta, Lingxiao Jiang, Daniel Wai Kiat Lim, Wai Kiat David Lim

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Drones are increasingly popular and getting used in a variety of missions such as area surveillance, pipeline inspection, cinematography, etc. While the drone is conducting a mission, anomalies such as sensor fault, actuator fault, configuration errors, bugs in controller program, remote cyber- attack, etc., may affect the drone’s physical stability and cause serious safety violations such as crashing into the public. During a flight mission, drones typically log flight status and state units such as GPS coordinates, actuator outputs, accelerator readings, gyroscopic readings, etc. These log data may reflect the above-mentioned anomalies. In this paper, we propose a novel, deep …


Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction Incorporating Syntactic Constituency Parsing Tree And Commonsense Knowledge Graph, Zhenda HU, Zhaoxia WANG, Yinglin WANG, Ah-hwee TAN 2022 Singapore Management University

Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction Incorporating Syntactic Constituency Parsing Tree And Commonsense Knowledge Graph, Zhenda Hu, Zhaoxia Wang, Yinglin Wang, Ah-Hwee Tan

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

The aspect sentiment triplet extraction (ASTE) task aims to extract the target term and the opinion term, and simultaneously identify the sentiment polarity of target-opinion pairs from the given sentences. While syntactic constituency information and commonsense knowledge are both important and valuable for the ASTE task, only a few studies have explored how to integrate them via flexible graph convolutional networks (GCNs) for this task. To address this gap, this paper proposes a novel end-to-end model, namely GCN-EGTS, which is an enhanced Grid Tagging Scheme (GTS) for ASTE leveraging syntactic constituency parsing tree and a commonsense knowledge graph based on …


A Unified Dialogue User Simulator For Few-Shot Data Augmentation, Dazhen WAN, Zheng ZHANG, Qi ZHU, Lizi LIAO, Minlie HUANG 2022 Singapore Management University

A Unified Dialogue User Simulator For Few-Shot Data Augmentation, Dazhen Wan, Zheng Zhang, Qi Zhu, Lizi Liao, Minlie Huang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Pre-trained language models have shown superior performance in task-oriented dialogues. However, existing datasets are on limited scales, which cannot support large-scale pre-training. Fortunately, various data augmentation methods have been developed to augment largescale task-oriented dialogue corpora. However, they heavily rely on annotated data in the target domain, which require a tremendous amount of data collection and human labeling work. In this paper, we build a unified dialogue user simulation model by pre-training on several publicly available datasets. The model can then be tuned on a target domain with fewshot data. The experiments on a target dataset across multiple domains show …


Vr Computing Lab: An Immersive Classroom For Computing Learning, Huan Shan Shawn PANG, Kyong Jin SHIM, Yi Meng LAU, GOTTIPATI Swapna 2022 Singapore Management University

Vr Computing Lab: An Immersive Classroom For Computing Learning, Huan Shan Shawn Pang, Kyong Jin Shim, Yi Meng Lau, Gottipati Swapna

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

In recent years, virtual reality (VR) is gaining popularity amongst educators and learners. If a picture is worth a thousand words, a VR session is worth a trillion words. VR technology completely immerses users with an experience that transports them into a simulated world. Universities across the United States, United Kingdom, and other countries have already started using VR for higher education in areas such as medicine, business, architecture, vocational training, social work, virtual field trips, virtual campuses, helping students with special needs, and many more. In this paper, we propose a novel VR platform learning framework which maps elements …


Towards Reinterpreting Neural Topic Models Via Composite Activations, Jia Peng LIM, Hady Wirawan LAUW 2022 Singapore Management University

Towards Reinterpreting Neural Topic Models Via Composite Activations, Jia Peng Lim, Hady Wirawan Lauw

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Most Neural Topic Models (NTM) use a variational auto-encoder framework producing K topics limited to the size of the encoder’s output. These topics are interpreted through the selection of the top activated words via the weights or reconstructed vector of the decoder that are directly connected to each neuron. In this paper, we present a model-free two-stage process to reinterpret NTM and derive further insights on the state of the trained model. Firstly, building on the original information from a trained NTM, we generate a pool of potential candidate “composite topics” by exploiting possible co-occurrences within the original set of …


S-Prompts Learning With Pre-Trained Transformers: An Occam's Razor For Domain Incremental Learning, Yabin WANG, Zhiwu HUANG, Xiaopeng. HONG 2022 Singapore Management University

S-Prompts Learning With Pre-Trained Transformers: An Occam's Razor For Domain Incremental Learning, Yabin Wang, Zhiwu Huang, Xiaopeng. Hong

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

State-of-the-art deep neural networks are still struggling to address the catastrophic forgetting problem in continual learning. In this paper, we propose one simple paradigm (named as S-Prompting) and two concrete approaches to highly reduce the forgetting degree in one of the most typical continual learning scenarios, i.e., domain increment learning (DIL). The key idea of the paradigm is to learn prompts independently across domains with pre-trained transformers, avoiding the use of exemplars that commonly appear in conventional methods. This results in a win-win game where the prompting can achieve the best for each domain. The independent prompting across domains only …


Prompting For Multimodal Hateful Meme Classification, Rui CAO, Roy Ka-Wei LEE, Wen-Haw CHONG, Jing JIANG 2022 Singapore Management University

Prompting For Multimodal Hateful Meme Classification, Rui Cao, Roy Ka-Wei Lee, Wen-Haw Chong, Jing Jiang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Hateful meme classification is a challenging multimodal task that requires complex reasoning and contextual background knowledge. Ideally, we could leverage an explicit external knowledge base to supplement contextual and cultural information in hateful memes. However, there is no known explicit external knowledge base that could provide such hate speech contextual information. To address this gap, we propose PromptHate, a simple yet effective prompt-based model that prompts pre-trained language models (PLMs) for hateful meme classification. Specifically, we construct simple prompts and provide a few in-context examples to exploit the implicit knowledge in the pretrained RoBERTa language model for hateful meme classification. …


Digital Commons powered by bepress