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Vr Computing Lab: An Immersive Classroom For Computing Learning, Huan Shan Shawn PANG, Kyong Jin SHIM, Yi Meng LAU, GOTTIPATI Swapna 2022 Singapore Management University

Vr Computing Lab: An Immersive Classroom For Computing Learning, Huan Shan Shawn Pang, Kyong Jin Shim, Yi Meng Lau, Gottipati Swapna

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

In recent years, virtual reality (VR) is gaining popularity amongst educators and learners. If a picture is worth a thousand words, a VR session is worth a trillion words. VR technology completely immerses users with an experience that transports them into a simulated world. Universities across the United States, United Kingdom, and other countries have already started using VR for higher education in areas such as medicine, business, architecture, vocational training, social work, virtual field trips, virtual campuses, helping students with special needs, and many more. In this paper, we propose a novel VR platform learning framework which maps elements …


Towards Reinterpreting Neural Topic Models Via Composite Activations, Jia Peng LIM, Hady Wirawan LAUW 2022 Singapore Management University

Towards Reinterpreting Neural Topic Models Via Composite Activations, Jia Peng Lim, Hady Wirawan Lauw

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Most Neural Topic Models (NTM) use a variational auto-encoder framework producing K topics limited to the size of the encoder’s output. These topics are interpreted through the selection of the top activated words via the weights or reconstructed vector of the decoder that are directly connected to each neuron. In this paper, we present a model-free two-stage process to reinterpret NTM and derive further insights on the state of the trained model. Firstly, building on the original information from a trained NTM, we generate a pool of potential candidate “composite topics” by exploiting possible co-occurrences within the original set of …


S-Prompts Learning With Pre-Trained Transformers: An Occam's Razor For Domain Incremental Learning, Yabin WANG, Zhiwu HUANG, Xiaopeng. HONG 2022 Singapore Management University

S-Prompts Learning With Pre-Trained Transformers: An Occam's Razor For Domain Incremental Learning, Yabin Wang, Zhiwu Huang, Xiaopeng. Hong

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

State-of-the-art deep neural networks are still struggling to address the catastrophic forgetting problem in continual learning. In this paper, we propose one simple paradigm (named as S-Prompting) and two concrete approaches to highly reduce the forgetting degree in one of the most typical continual learning scenarios, i.e., domain increment learning (DIL). The key idea of the paradigm is to learn prompts independently across domains with pre-trained transformers, avoiding the use of exemplars that commonly appear in conventional methods. This results in a win-win game where the prompting can achieve the best for each domain. The independent prompting across domains only …


Prompting For Multimodal Hateful Meme Classification, Rui CAO, Roy Ka-Wei LEE, Wen-Haw CHONG, Jing JIANG 2022 Singapore Management University

Prompting For Multimodal Hateful Meme Classification, Rui Cao, Roy Ka-Wei Lee, Wen-Haw Chong, Jing Jiang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Hateful meme classification is a challenging multimodal task that requires complex reasoning and contextual background knowledge. Ideally, we could leverage an explicit external knowledge base to supplement contextual and cultural information in hateful memes. However, there is no known explicit external knowledge base that could provide such hate speech contextual information. To address this gap, we propose PromptHate, a simple yet effective prompt-based model that prompts pre-trained language models (PLMs) for hateful meme classification. Specifically, we construct simple prompts and provide a few in-context examples to exploit the implicit knowledge in the pretrained RoBERTa language model for hateful meme classification. …


A Unified Dialogue User Simulator For Few-Shot Data Augmentation, Dazhen WAN, Zheng ZHANG, Qi ZHU, Lizi LIAO, Minlie HUANG 2022 Singapore Management University

A Unified Dialogue User Simulator For Few-Shot Data Augmentation, Dazhen Wan, Zheng Zhang, Qi Zhu, Lizi Liao, Minlie Huang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Pre-trained language models have shown superior performance in task-oriented dialogues. However, existing datasets are on limited scales, which cannot support large-scale pre-training. Fortunately, various data augmentation methods have been developed to augment largescale task-oriented dialogue corpora. However, they heavily rely on annotated data in the target domain, which require a tremendous amount of data collection and human labeling work. In this paper, we build a unified dialogue user simulation model by pre-training on several publicly available datasets. The model can then be tuned on a target domain with fewshot data. The experiments on a target dataset across multiple domains show …


Identity Term Sampling For Measuring Gender Bias In Training Data, Nasim Sobhani, Sarah Jane Delany Prof 2022 Technological University Dublin

Identity Term Sampling For Measuring Gender Bias In Training Data, Nasim Sobhani, Sarah Jane Delany Prof

Conference Papers

Predictions from machine learning models can reflect biases in the data on which they are trained. Gender bias has been identified in natural language processing systems such as those used for recruitment. The development of approaches to mitigate gender bias in training data typically need to be able to isolate the effect of gender on the output to see the impact of gender. While it is possible to isolate and identify gender for some types of training data, e.g. CVs in recruitment, for most textual corpora there is no obvious gender label. This paper proposes a general approach to measure …


A Protocol To Build Trust With Black Box Models, TIMOTHY K. THIELKE 2022 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

A Protocol To Build Trust With Black Box Models, Timothy K. Thielke

Theses and Dissertations

Data scientists are more widely using artificial intelligence and machine learning (ML) algorithms today despite the general mistrust associated with them due to the lack of contextual understanding of the domain occurring within the algorithm. Of the many types of ML algorithms, those that use non-linear activation functions are especially regarded with suspicion because of the lack of transparency and intuitive understanding of what is occurring within the black box of the algorithm. In this thesis, we set out to create a protocol to delve into the black box of an ML algorithm set to predict synoptic severe weather patterns …


Region Detection & Segmentation Of Nissl-Stained Rat Brain Tissue, Alexandro Arnal 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Region Detection & Segmentation Of Nissl-Stained Rat Brain Tissue, Alexandro Arnal

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

People who analyze images of biological tissue rely on the segmentation of structures as a preliminary step. In particular, laboratories studying the rat brain delineate brain regions to position scientific findings on a brain atlas to propose hypotheses about the rat brain and, ultimately, the human brain. Our work intersects with the preliminary step of delineating regions in images of brain tissue via computational methods.

We investigate pixel-wise classification or segmentation of brain regions using ten histological images of brain tissue sections stained for Nissl substance. We present a deep learning approach that uses the fully convolutional neural network, U-Net, …


Synthetic Data Generation For Intelligent Inspection Of Structural Environments, Noshin Habib 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Synthetic Data Generation For Intelligent Inspection Of Structural Environments, Noshin Habib

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Automated detection of cracks and corrosion in pavements and industrial settings is essential to a cost-effective approach to maintenance. Deep learning has paved the path for vast levels of improvement in the area. Such models require a plethora of data with accurate ground truth and enough variation for the model to generalize to the data, which is notwidely available. There has been recent progress in computer graphics being used for the creation of synthetic data to address the issue of deficient data availability, but it is limited to specific objects, such as cars and human beings. Textures and deformities within …


Performance Enhancement Of Hyperspectral Semantic Segmentation Leveraging Ensemble Networks, Nicholas Soucy 2022 University of Maine

Performance Enhancement Of Hyperspectral Semantic Segmentation Leveraging Ensemble Networks, Nicholas Soucy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hyperspectral image (HSI) semantic segmentation is a growing field within computer vision, machine learning, and forestry. Due to the separate nature of these communities, research applying deep learning techniques to ground-type semantic segmentation needs improvement, along with working to bring the research and expectations of these three communities together. Semantic segmentation consists of classifying individual pixels within the image based on the features present. Many issues need to be resolved in HSI semantic segmentation including data preprocessing, feature reduction, semantic segmentation techniques, and adversarial training. In this thesis, we tackle these challenges by employing ensemble methods for HSI semantic segmentation. …


Driver Behavior Analysis Based On Real On-Road Driving Data In The Design Of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems, Nima Khairdoost 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Driver Behavior Analysis Based On Real On-Road Driving Data In The Design Of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems, Nima Khairdoost

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The number of vehicles on the roads increases every day. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the overwhelming majority of serious crashes (over 94 percent) are caused by human error. The broad aim of this research is to develop a driver behavior model using real on-road data in the design of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs). For several decades, these systems have been a focus of many researchers and vehicle manufacturers in order to increase vehicle and road safety and assist drivers in different driving situations. Some studies have concentrated on drivers as the main actor in …


Physics-Informed Neural Networks For Informed Vaccine Distribution In Heterogeneously Mixed Populations, Alvan Arulandu, Padmanabhan Seshaiyer 2022 George Mason University

Physics-Informed Neural Networks For Informed Vaccine Distribution In Heterogeneously Mixed Populations, Alvan Arulandu, Padmanabhan Seshaiyer

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


An Autoencoder-Based Deep Learning Method For Genotype Imputation, Meng Song, Jonathan Greenbaum, Joseph Luttrell IV, Weihua Zhou, Chong Wu, Zhe Luo, Chuan Qiu, Lan Juan Zhao, Kuan-Jui Su, Qing Tian, Hui Shen, Huixiao Hong, Ping Gong, Xinghua Shi, Hong-Wen Deng, Chaoyang Zhang 2022 University of Southern Mississippi

An Autoencoder-Based Deep Learning Method For Genotype Imputation, Meng Song, Jonathan Greenbaum, Joseph Luttrell Iv, Weihua Zhou, Chong Wu, Zhe Luo, Chuan Qiu, Lan Juan Zhao, Kuan-Jui Su, Qing Tian, Hui Shen, Huixiao Hong, Ping Gong, Xinghua Shi, Hong-Wen Deng, Chaoyang Zhang

Faculty Publications

Genotype imputation has a wide range of applications in genome-wide association study (GWAS), including increasing the statistical power of association tests, discovering trait-associated loci in meta-analyses, and prioritizing causal variants with fine-mapping. In recent years, deep learning (DL) based methods, such as sparse convolutional denoising autoencoder (SCDA), have been developed for genotype imputation. However, it remains a challenging task to optimize the learning process in DL-based methods to achieve high imputation accuracy. To address this challenge, we have developed a convolutional autoencoder (AE) model for genotype imputation and implemented a customized training loop by modifying the training process with a …


Tree-Based Unidirectional Neural Networks For Low-Power Computer Vision, Abhinav Goel, Caleb Tung, Nick Eliopoulos, Amy Wang, Jamie C. Davis, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yung-Hisang Lu 2022 Purdue University

Tree-Based Unidirectional Neural Networks For Low-Power Computer Vision, Abhinav Goel, Caleb Tung, Nick Eliopoulos, Amy Wang, Jamie C. Davis, George K. Thiruvathukal, Yung-Hisang Lu

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article describes the novel Tree-based Unidirectional Neural Network (TRUNK) architecture. This architecture improves computer vision efficiency by using a hierarchy of multiple shallow Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), instead of a single very deep CNN. We demonstrate this architecture’s versatility in performing different computer vision tasks efficiently on embedded devices. Across various computer vision tasks, the TRUNK architecture consumes 65% less energy and requires 50% less memory than representative low-power CNN architectures, e.g., MobileNet v2, when deployed on the NVIDIA Jetson Nano.


Off-Policy Evaluation For Action-Dependent Non-Stationary Environments, Yash Chandak, Shiv Shankar, Nathaniel D. Bastian, Bruno Castro da Silva, Emma Brunskill, Philip Thomas 2022 Army Cyber Institute, U.S. Military Academy

Off-Policy Evaluation For Action-Dependent Non-Stationary Environments, Yash Chandak, Shiv Shankar, Nathaniel D. Bastian, Bruno Castro Da Silva, Emma Brunskill, Philip Thomas

ACI Journal Articles

Methods for sequential decision-making are often built upon a foundational assumption that the underlying decision process is stationary. This limits the application of such methods because real-world problems are often subject to changes due to external factors (passive non-stationarity), changes induced by interactions with the system itself (active non-stationarity), or both (hybrid non-stationarity). In this work, we take the first steps towards the fundamental challenge of on-policy and off-policy evaluation amidst structured changes due to active, passive, or hybrid non-stationarity. Towards this goal, we make a higher-order stationarity assumption such that non-stationarity results in changes over time, but the way …


Photovoltaic Cells For Energy Harvesting And Indoor Positioning, Hamada RIZK, Dong MA, Mahbub HASSAN, Moustafa YOUSSEF 2022 Singapore Management University

Photovoltaic Cells For Energy Harvesting And Indoor Positioning, Hamada Rizk, Dong Ma, Mahbub Hassan, Moustafa Youssef

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

We propose SoLoc, a lightweight probabilistic fingerprinting-based technique for energy-free device-free indoor localization. The system harnesses photovoltaic currents harvested by the photovoltaic cells in smart environments for simultaneously powering digital devices and user positioning. The basic principle is that the location of the human interferes with the lighting received by the photovoltaic cells, thus producing a location fingerprint on the generated photocurrents. To ensure resilience to noisy measurements, SoLoc constructs probability distributions as a photovoltaic fingerprint at each location. Then, we employ a probabilistic graphical model for estimating the user location in the continuous space. Results show that SoLoc can …


Recipegen++: An Automated Trigger Action Programs Generator, IMAM NUR BANI YUSUF, DIYANAH BINTE ABDUL JAMAL, Lingxiao JIANG, David LO 2022 Singapore Management University

Recipegen++: An Automated Trigger Action Programs Generator, Imam Nur Bani Yusuf, Diyanah Binte Abdul Jamal, Lingxiao Jiang, David Lo

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Trigger Action Programs (TAPs) are event-driven rules that allow users to automate smart-devices and internet services. Users can write TAPs by specifying triggers and actions from a set of predefined channels and functions. Despite its simplicity, composing TAPs can still be challenging for users due to the enormous search space of available triggers and actions. The growing popularity of TAPs is followed by the increasing number of supported devices and services, resulting in a huge number of possible combinations between triggers and actions. Motivated by such a fact, we improve our prior work and propose RecipeGen++, a deep-learning-based approach that …


A Scientometric Review Of Artificial Intelligence In Tourism (2000-2021), Rujun Wang, Yu Mu, Ying Huang 2022 Sichuan Agricultural University

A Scientometric Review Of Artificial Intelligence In Tourism (2000-2021), Rujun Wang, Yu Mu, Ying Huang

University of South Florida (USF) M3 Publishing

With the increase in the combination of artificial intelligence and the service industry, many applications of artificial intelligence in tourism have been gradually spawned. However, most of the existing research focuses on the algorithms and models of artificial intelligence, and few scholars have systematically reviewed the intersection of tourism and artificial intelligence, this study is based on scientometric, reviewing and sorting out 2689 relevant literature published in 2000-2021, and achieving the three purposes of status carding, hot spot snooping and trend prediction. First, through the participating locations, institutions and authors of collaborative networks, the main sources of AI-related research in …


Hydrological Drought Forecasting Using A Deep Transformer Model, Amobichukwu C. Amanambu, Joann Mossa, Yin-Hsuen Chen 2022 University of Florida

Hydrological Drought Forecasting Using A Deep Transformer Model, Amobichukwu C. Amanambu, Joann Mossa, Yin-Hsuen Chen

University Administration Publications

Hydrological drought forecasting is essential for effective water resource management planning. Innovations in computer science and artificial intelligence (AI) have been incorporated into Earth science research domains to improve predictive performance for water resource planning and disaster management. Forecasting of future hydrological drought can assist with mitigation strategies for various stakeholders. This study uses the transformer deep learning model to forecast hydrological drought, with a benchmark comparison with the long short-term memory (LSTM) model. These models were applied to the Apalachicola River, Florida, with two gauging stations located at Chattahoochee and Blountstown. Daily stage-height data from the period 1928–2022 were …


In The Face Of The Robot, David J. Gunkel 2022 Northern Illinois University

In The Face Of The Robot, David J. Gunkel

communication +1

“Robot” designates something that does not quite fit the standard way of organizing beings into the mutually exclusive categories of “person” or “thing.” The figure of the robot interrupts this fundamental organizing schema, resisting efforts at both reification and personification. Consequently, what is seen reflected in the face or faceplate of the robot is the fact that the existing moral and legal ontology—the way that we make sense of and organize our world—is already broken or at least straining against its own limitations. What is needed in response to this robot uprising is a significantly reformulated moral and legal ontology …


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