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Learning Comprehensive Global Features In Person Re-Identification: Ensuring Discriminativeness Of More Local Regions, Jiali XIA, Jianqiang HUANG, Shibao ZHENG, Qin ZHOU, Bernt SCHIELE, Xian-Sheng HUA, Qianru SUN 2023 Singapore Management University

Learning Comprehensive Global Features In Person Re-Identification: Ensuring Discriminativeness Of More Local Regions, Jiali Xia, Jianqiang Huang, Shibao Zheng, Qin Zhou, Bernt Schiele, Xian-Sheng Hua, Qianru Sun

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Person re-identification (Re-ID) aims to retrieve person images from a large gallery given a query image of a person of interest. Global information and fine-grained local features are both essential for the representation. However, global embedding learned by naive classification model tends to be trapped in the most discriminative local region, leading to poor evaluation performance. To address the issue, we propose a novel baseline network that learns strong global feature termed as Comprehensive Global Embedding (CGE), ensuring more local regions of global feature maps to be discriminative. In this work, two key modules are proposed including Non-parameterized Local Classifier ...


Segment-Wise Time-Varying Dynamic Bayesian Network With Graph Regularization, Xing YANG, Chen ZHANG, Baihua ZHENG 2022 Singapore Management University

Segment-Wise Time-Varying Dynamic Bayesian Network With Graph Regularization, Xing Yang, Chen Zhang, Baihua Zheng

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Time-varying dynamic Bayesian network (TVDBN) is essential for describing time-evolving directed conditional dependence structures in complex multivariate systems. In this article, we construct a TVDBN model, together with a score-based method for its structure learning. The model adopts a vector autoregressive (VAR) model to describe inter-slice and intra-slice relations between variables. By allowing VAR parameters to change segment-wisely over time, the time-varying dynamics of the network structure can be described. Furthermore, considering some external information can provide additional similarity information of variables. Graph Laplacian is further imposed to regularize similar nodes to have similar network structures. The regularized maximum a ...


Controllable Neural Synthesis For Natural Images And Vector Art, Difan Liu 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Controllable Neural Synthesis For Natural Images And Vector Art, Difan Liu

Doctoral Dissertations

Neural image synthesis approaches have become increasingly popular over the last years due to their ability to generate photorealistic images useful for several applications, such as digital entertainment, mixed reality, synthetic dataset creation, computer art, to name a few. Despite the progress over the last years, current approaches lack two important aspects: (a) they often fail to capture long-range interactions in the image, and as a result, they fail to generate scenes with complex dependencies between their different objects or parts. (b) they often ignore the underlying 3D geometry of the shape/scene in the image, and as a result ...


Ergo: Event Relational Graph Transformer For Document-Level Event Causality Identification, Meiqi CHEN, Yixin CAO, Kunquan DENG, Mukai LI, Kun WANG, Jing SHAO, Yan ZHANG 2022 Singapore Management University

Ergo: Event Relational Graph Transformer For Document-Level Event Causality Identification, Meiqi Chen, Yixin Cao, Kunquan Deng, Mukai Li, Kun Wang, Jing Shao, Yan Zhang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Document-level Event Causality Identification (DECI) aims to identify event-event causal relations in a document. Existing works usually build an event graph for global reasoning across multiple sentences. However, the edges between events have to be carefully designed through heuristic rules or external tools. In this paper, we propose a novel Event Relational Graph TransfOrmer (ERGO) framework1 for DECI, to ease the graph construction and improve it over the noisy edge issue. Different from conventional event graphs, we define a pair of events as a node and build a complete event relational graph without any prior knowledge or tools. This naturally ...


Equivariance And Invariance Inductive Bias For Learning From Insufficient Data, Tan WANG, Qianru SUN, Sugiri PRANATA, Karlekar JAYASHREE, Hanwang ZHANG 2022 Singapore Management University

Equivariance And Invariance Inductive Bias For Learning From Insufficient Data, Tan Wang, Qianru Sun, Sugiri Pranata, Karlekar Jayashree, Hanwang Zhang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

We are interested in learning robust models from insufficient data, without the need for any externally pre-trained model checkpoints. First, compared to sufficient data, we show why insufficient data renders the model more easily biased to the limited training environments that are usually different from testing. For example, if all the training "swan" samples are "white", the model may wrongly use the "white" environment to represent the intrinsic class "swan". Then, we justify that equivariance inductive bias can retain the class feature while invariance inductive bias can remove the environmental feature, leaving only the class feature that generalizes to any ...


Investigating Accessibility Challenges And Opportunities For Users With Low Vision Disabilities In Customer-To-Customer (C2c) Marketplaces, Bektur RYSKELDIEV, Kotaro HARA, Mariko KOBAYASHI, Koki KUSANO 2022 University of Tsukuba

Investigating Accessibility Challenges And Opportunities For Users With Low Vision Disabilities In Customer-To-Customer (C2c) Marketplaces, Bektur Ryskeldiev, Kotaro Hara, Mariko Kobayashi, Koki Kusano

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Inaccessible e-commerce websites and mobile applications exclude people with visual impairments (PVI) from online shopping. Customer-to-customer (C2C) marketplaces, a form of e-commerce where trading happens not between businesses and customers but between customers, could pose a unique set of challenges in the interactions that the platform brings about. Through online questionnaire and remote interviews, we investigate problems experienced by people with low vision disabilities in common C2C scenarios. Our study with low vision participants (N = 12) reveal both previously known general accessibility issues (e.g., web and mobile interface accessibility) and C2C specific accessibility issues (e.g., inability to confirm ...


Tgdm: Target Guided Dynamic Mixup For Cross-Domain Few-Shot Learning, Linhai ZHUO, Yuqian FU, Jingjing CHEN, Yixin CAO, Yu-Gang JIANG 2022 Singapore Management University

Tgdm: Target Guided Dynamic Mixup For Cross-Domain Few-Shot Learning, Linhai Zhuo, Yuqian Fu, Jingjing Chen, Yixin Cao, Yu-Gang Jiang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Given sufficient training data on the source domain, cross-domain few-shot learning (CD-FSL) aims at recognizing new classes with a small number of labeled examples on the target domain. The key to addressing CD-FSL is to narrow the domain gap and transferring knowledge of a network trained on the source domain to the target domain. To help knowledge transfer, this paper introduces an intermediate domain generated by mixing images in the source and the target domain. Specifically, to generate the optimal intermediate domain for different target data, we propose a novel target guided dynamic mixup (TGDM) framework that leverages the target ...


Interactive Contrastive Learning For Self-Supervised Entity Alignment, Kaisheng ZENG, Zhenhao DONG, Lei HOU, Yixin CAO, Minghao HU, Jifan YU, Xin LV, Lei CAO, Xin WANG, Haozhuang LIU, Yi HUANG, Jing WAN, Juanzi LI 2022 Singapore Management University

Interactive Contrastive Learning For Self-Supervised Entity Alignment, Kaisheng Zeng, Zhenhao Dong, Lei Hou, Yixin Cao, Minghao Hu, Jifan Yu, Xin Lv, Lei Cao, Xin Wang, Haozhuang Liu, Yi Huang, Jing Wan, Juanzi Li

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Self-supervised entity alignment (EA) aims to link equivalent entities across different knowledge graphs (KGs) without the use of pre-aligned entity pairs. The current state-of-the-art (SOTA) selfsupervised EA approach draws inspiration from contrastive learning, originally designed in computer vision based on instance discrimination and contrastive loss, and suffers from two shortcomings. Firstly, it puts unidirectional emphasis on pushing sampled negative entities far away rather than pulling positively aligned pairs close, as is done in the well-established supervised EA. Secondly, it advocates the minimum information requirement for self-supervised EA, while we argue that self-described KG’s side information (e.g., entity name ...


Locally Varying Distance Transform For Unsupervised Visual Anomaly Detection, Wen-yan LIN, Zhonghang LIU, Siying LIU 2022 Singapore Management University

Locally Varying Distance Transform For Unsupervised Visual Anomaly Detection, Wen-Yan Lin, Zhonghang Liu, Siying Liu

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Unsupervised anomaly detection on image data is notoriously unstable. We believe this is because many classical anomaly detectors implicitly assume data is low dimensional. However, image data is always high dimensional. Images can be projected to a low dimensional embedding but such projections rely on global transformations that truncate minor variations. As anomalies are rare, the final embedding often lacks the key variations needed to distinguish anomalies from normal instances. This paper proposes a new embedding using a set of locally varying data projections, with each projection responsible for persevering the variations that distinguish a local cluster of instances from ...


Interactive Video Corpus Moment Retrieval Using Reinforcement Learning, Zhixin MA, Chong-wah NGO 2022 Singapore Management University

Interactive Video Corpus Moment Retrieval Using Reinforcement Learning, Zhixin Ma, Chong-Wah Ngo

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Known-item video search is effective with human-in-the-loop to interactively investigate the search result and refine the initial query. Nevertheless, when the first few pages of results are swamped with visually similar items, or the search target is hidden deep in the ranked list, finding the know-item target usually requires a long duration of browsing and result inspection. This paper tackles the problem by reinforcement learning, aiming to reach a search target within a few rounds of interaction by long-term learning from user feedbacks. Specifically, the system interactively plans for navigation path based on feedback and recommends a potential target that ...


Long-Term Leap Attention, Short-Term Periodic Shift For Video Classification, Hao ZHANG, Lechao CHENG, Yanbin HAO, Chong-wah NGO 2022 Singapore Management University

Long-Term Leap Attention, Short-Term Periodic Shift For Video Classification, Hao Zhang, Lechao Cheng, Yanbin Hao, Chong-Wah Ngo

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Video transformer naturally incurs a heavier computation burden than a static vision transformer, as the former processes �� times longer sequence than the latter under the current attention of quadratic complexity (�� 2�� 2 ). The existing works treat the temporal axis as a simple extension of spatial axes, focusing on shortening the spatio-temporal sequence by either generic pooling or local windowing without utilizing temporal redundancy. However, videos naturally contain redundant information between neighboring frames; thereby, we could potentially suppress attention on visually similar frames in a dilated manner. Based on this hypothesis, we propose the LAPS, a long-term “Leap Attention” (LA), short-term ...


Wave-Vit: Unifying Wavelet And Transformers For Visual Representation Learning, Ting YAO, Yingwei PAN, Yehao LI, Chong-wah NGO, Tao MEI 2022 Singapore Management University

Wave-Vit: Unifying Wavelet And Transformers For Visual Representation Learning, Ting Yao, Yingwei Pan, Yehao Li, Chong-Wah Ngo, Tao Mei

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Multi-scale Vision Transformer (ViT) has emerged as a powerful backbone for computer vision tasks, while the self-attention computation in Transformer scales quadratically w.r.t. the input patch number. Thus, existing solutions commonly employ down-sampling operations (e.g., average pooling) over keys/values to dramatically reduce the computational cost. In this work, we argue that such over-aggressive down-sampling design is not invertible and inevitably causes information dropping especially for high-frequency components in objects (e.g., texture details). Motivated by the wavelet theory, we construct a new Wavelet Vision Transformer (Wave-ViT) that formulates the invertible down-sampling with wavelet transforms and self-attention ...


Dynamic Temporal Filtering In Video Models, Fuchen LONG, Zhaofan QIU, Yingwei PAN, Ting YAO, Chong-wah NGO, Tao MEI 2022 Singapore Management University

Dynamic Temporal Filtering In Video Models, Fuchen Long, Zhaofan Qiu, Yingwei Pan, Ting Yao, Chong-Wah Ngo, Tao Mei

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Video temporal dynamics is conventionally modeled with 3D spatial-temporal kernel or its factorized version comprised of 2D spatial kernel and 1D temporal kernel. The modeling power, nevertheless, is limited by the fixed window size and static weights of a kernel along the temporal dimension. The pre-determined kernel size severely limits the temporal receptive fields and the fixed weights treat each spatial location across frames equally, resulting in sub-optimal solution for longrange temporal modeling in natural scenes. In this paper, we present a new recipe of temporal feature learning, namely Dynamic Temporal Filter (DTF), that novelly performs spatial-aware temporal modeling in ...


On Mitigating Hard Clusters For Face Clustering, Yingjie CHEN, Huasong ZHONG, Chong CHEN, Chen SHEN, Jianqiang HUANG, Tao WANG, Yun LIANG, Qianru SUN 2022 Singapore Management University

On Mitigating Hard Clusters For Face Clustering, Yingjie Chen, Huasong Zhong, Chong Chen, Chen Shen, Jianqiang Huang, Tao Wang, Yun Liang, Qianru Sun

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Face clustering is a promising way to scale up face recognition systems using large-scale unlabeled face images. It remains challenging to identify small or sparse face image clusters that we call hard clusters, which is caused by the heterogeneity, i.e., high variations in size and sparsity, of the clusters. Consequently, the conventional way of using a uniform threshold (to identify clusters) often leads to a terrible misclassification for the samples that should belong to hard clusters. We tackle this problem by leveraging the neighborhood information of samples and inferring the cluster memberships (of samples) in a probabilistic way. We ...


Class Is Invariant To Context And Vice Versa: On Learning Invariance For Out-Of-Distribution Generalization, Jiaxin QI, Kaihua TANG, Qianru SUN, Xian-Sheng HUA, Hanwang ZHANG 2022 Singapore Management University

Class Is Invariant To Context And Vice Versa: On Learning Invariance For Out-Of-Distribution Generalization, Jiaxin Qi, Kaihua Tang, Qianru Sun, Xian-Sheng Hua, Hanwang Zhang

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Out-Of-Distribution generalization (OOD) is all about learning invariance against environmental changes. If the context in every class is evenly distributed, OOD would be trivial because the context can be easily removed due to an underlying principle: class is invariant to context. However, collecting such a balanced dataset is impractical. Learning on imbalanced data makes the model bias to context and thus hurts OOD. Therefore, the key to OOD is context balance.We argue that the widely adopted assumption in prior work—the context bias can be directly annotated or estimated from biased class prediction—renders the context incomplete or even ...


A Roller Coaster For The Mind: Virtual Reality Sickness Modes, Metrics, And Mitigation, Dalton C. Sparks 2022 University of Louisville

A Roller Coaster For The Mind: Virtual Reality Sickness Modes, Metrics, And Mitigation, Dalton C. Sparks

The Cardinal Edge

Understanding and preventing virtual reality sickness(VRS), or cybersickness, is vital in removing barriers for the technology's adoption. Thus, this article aims to synthesize a variety of academic sources to demonstrate the modes by which VRS occurs, the metrics by which it is judged, and the methods to mitigate it. The predominant theories on the biological origins of VRS are discussed, as well as the individual factors which increase the likelihood of a user developing VRS. Moreover, subjective and physiological measurements of VRS are discussed in addition to the development of a predictive model and conceptual framework. Finally, several ...


Distance Based Image Classification: A Solution To Generative Classification’S Conundrum?, Wen-yan LIN, Siying LIU, Bing Tian DAI, Hongdong LI 2022 Singapore Management University

Distance Based Image Classification: A Solution To Generative Classification’S Conundrum?, Wen-Yan Lin, Siying Liu, Bing Tian Dai, Hongdong Li

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Most classifiers rely on discriminative boundaries that separate instances of each class from everything else. We argue that discriminative boundaries are counter-intuitive as they define semantics by what-they-are-not; and should be replaced by generative classifiers which define semantics by what-they-are. Unfortunately, generative classifiers are significantly less accurate. This may be caused by the tendency of generative models to focus on easy to model semantic generative factors and ignore non-semantic factors that are important but difficult to model. We propose a new generative model in which semantic factors are accommodated by shell theory’s [25] hierarchical generative process and non-semantic factors ...


Largeea: Aligning Entities For Large-Scale Knowledge Graphs, Congcong GE, Xiaoze LIU, Lu CHEN, Yunjun GAO, Baihua ZHENG 2022 Singapore Management University

Largeea: Aligning Entities For Large-Scale Knowledge Graphs, Congcong Ge, Xiaoze Liu, Lu Chen, Yunjun Gao, Baihua Zheng

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Entity alignment (EA) aims to find equivalent entities in different knowledge graphs (KGs). Current EA approaches suffer from scalability issues, limiting their usage in real-world EA scenarios. To tackle this challenge, we propose LargeEA to align entities between large-scale KGs. LargeEA consists of two channels, i.e., structure channel and name channel. For the structure channel, we present METIS-CPS, a memory-saving mini-batch generation strategy, to partition large KGs into smaller mini-batches. LargeEA, designed as a general tool, can adopt any existing EA approach to learn entities’ structural features within each mini-batch independently. For the name channel, we first introduce NFF ...


Factors That Influence The Implementation Of Information And Communication Technology Inclusive Design Practices In Organisations, Faizel Ebrahim, Salah Kabanda, Guidance Mthwazi 2022 University of Cape Town

Factors That Influence The Implementation Of Information And Communication Technology Inclusive Design Practices In Organisations, Faizel Ebrahim, Salah Kabanda, Guidance Mthwazi

African Conference on Information Systems and Technology

Inclusive design in information and communication technology (ICT) is the development of information and communication technology artifacts that are accessible and easy to use for as many people as possible. Human diversities must be considered when producing these inclusive design artifacts. It is not only important for abled people but also extends to people with disabilities, the elderly and anybody challenged with using these artifacts. Yet, few designers and developers adopt inclusive design methodologies in their practice. This study seeks to identify and understand the factors that influence the implementation of inclusive design practices in organisations. The methodology was based ...


Evaluating Privacy Adaptation Presentation Methods To Support Social Media Users In Their Privacy-Related Decision-Making Process, Moses Namara 2022 Clemson University

Evaluating Privacy Adaptation Presentation Methods To Support Social Media Users In Their Privacy-Related Decision-Making Process, Moses Namara

All Dissertations

Several privacy scholars have advocated for user-tailored privacy (UTP). A privacy-enhancing adaptive privacy approach to help reconcile users' lack of awareness, privacy management skills and motivation to use available platform privacy features with their need for personalized privacy support in alignment with their privacy preferences. The idea behind UTP is to measure users' privacy characteristics and behaviors, use these measurements to create a personalized model of the user's privacy preferences, and then provide adaptive support to the user in navigating and engaging with the available privacy settings---or even implement certain settings automatically on the user's behalf. To this ...


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