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Articles 1 - 30 of 242

Full-Text Articles in Radiochemistry

The "Double Standard" Of Nonproliferation: Regime Type And The U.S. Response To Nuclear Weapons Program, Alina Shymanska Mar 2018

The "Double Standard" Of Nonproliferation: Regime Type And The U.S. Response To Nuclear Weapons Program, Alina Shymanska

International Journal of Nuclear Security

There is no doubt that the NPT regime is far from being equal for all states involved. As the predominant hegemonic power since WWII, the United States plays a major role in deciding the fates of non-great power proliferators. This article tries to find the logical explanation of the phenomenon whereby some nuclear proliferators are absolved regardless of their active accumulation of nuclear arsenals while others are labeled as “rogue states” and ordered to disarm. The article suggests that a particular proliferator’s political regime could affect the way in which its state is approached by the U.S., known ...


Assessing And Enhancing Nuclear Safety And Security Culture For Small Facilities That Handle Radioactive Material, Solymosi Máté Dec 2017

Assessing And Enhancing Nuclear Safety And Security Culture For Small Facilities That Handle Radioactive Material, Solymosi Máté

International Journal of Nuclear Security

The use of radioactive sources is expanding all over the world and abreast the necessity of the enhancement of its safe and secure application is increasing too. In the nuclear industry, the safety and security are top priorities since decades. They share the same goal, to protect humans from the negative affect of the ionizing radiation. The human component of them is a significant factor and technical solutions can protect us so far and thus the culture for safety and security become a major focus. On the other hand, there are still some contradiction between recommendations and international guidance of ...


The Future Of Nuclear Security In Moroccan Territory After The Creation Of The New Moroccan Agency Of Nuclear And Radiological Safety And Security: Opportunities And Challenges, Amal Touarsi, Amina Kharchaf Dec 2017

The Future Of Nuclear Security In Moroccan Territory After The Creation Of The New Moroccan Agency Of Nuclear And Radiological Safety And Security: Opportunities And Challenges, Amal Touarsi, Amina Kharchaf

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Nowadays, a security regime for protecting nuclear and radiological material—providing an intelligent national regulatory institution and establishing national security laws—is necessary in order for a state to ensure security of nuclear and radiological materials used within its borders.

This paper focuses on discussing the opportunities and challenges facing the future of nuclear security after the creation of the new Moroccan Agency of Nuclear and Radiological Safety and Security.


Solar System Battery Backups For Reactor Coolant Pumps During Electricity Outages Resulting From Natural Disasters, Md. Shamsul Huda Sohel Nov 2017

Solar System Battery Backups For Reactor Coolant Pumps During Electricity Outages Resulting From Natural Disasters, Md. Shamsul Huda Sohel

International Journal of Nuclear Security

In a nuclear power plant, its coolant system is major safety equipment. Coolant system failure causes several accidents in nuclear history. There are so many causes for coolant system failure. One of them is lack of electric power for coolant pumps. In typically NPP there is backup system for power redundancy. In this article, focus on reactor coolant system and its backup power when main grid lines failure. Here discuss about solar backup power for batteries and increases a safety lines for reactor coolant pumps. So, our main goal is providing a battery backup from reliable natural source and ensuring ...


Gamma-Radiation Induced Corrosion Of Alloy 800, Mojtaba Momeni Nov 2017

Gamma-Radiation Induced Corrosion Of Alloy 800, Mojtaba Momeni

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis presents a newly developed mechanism and predictive model for the corrosion of Alloy 800. The Fe-Cr-Ni Alloy (Incoloy 800) is mainly used for steam generator (SG) tubing in CANDU and PWR reactors and is a candidate material for the proposed Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) in which it will be exposed to extreme conditions of high radiation flux and large temperature gradients. The influence of gamma radiation and water chemistry conditions on the corrosion behaviour of Alloy 800 are studied in this work. Ionizing radiation creates reducing (•eaq, •H, •O2-) and oxidizing radiolysis (•OH, H2 ...


3d Maldi Mass Spectrometry Imaging Of A Single Cell: Spatial Mapping Of Lipids In The Embryonic Development Of Zebrafish, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Jeffrey J. Essner, Young Jin Lee Nov 2017

3d Maldi Mass Spectrometry Imaging Of A Single Cell: Spatial Mapping Of Lipids In The Embryonic Development Of Zebrafish, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Jeffrey J. Essner, Young Jin Lee

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

The zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) has been widely used as a model vertebrate system to study lipid metabolism, the roles of lipids in diseases, and lipid dynamics in embryonic development. Here, we applied high-spatial resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to map and visualize the three-dimensional spatial distribution of phospholipid classes, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), and phosphatidylinositol (PI), in newly fertilized individual zebrafish embryos. This is the first time MALDI-MSI has been applied for three dimensional chemical imaging of a single cell. PC molecular species are present inside the yolk in addition to the blastodisc, while PE ...


Evolution Of Cu2o Morphology During Copper Corrosion In The Presence Of Gamma-Radiation, Arielle M. Jean Jun 2017

Evolution Of Cu2o Morphology During Copper Corrosion In The Presence Of Gamma-Radiation, Arielle M. Jean

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this work, experiments were carried out in order to develop a mechanistic understanding of the corrosion of copper metal in limited water volumes under gamma-radiation. When exposed to gamma-radiation, water decomposes into chemically reactive oxidizing and reducing species. Under a continuous radiation flux, the concentrations of the radiolytically produced oxidants eventually reach a pseudo-steady state that can influence the corrosion kinetics of metallic surfaces.

The evolution of the surface morphology during water droplet corrosion of copper in the presence of gamma-radiation was investigated as a function of irradiation time and pH. The oxide growth kinetics were studied by measuring ...


Ion Separations: Achieving Selectivity Through Rational Design In Solvent Extraction And Crystallization Systems, Neil Justin Williams May 2017

Ion Separations: Achieving Selectivity Through Rational Design In Solvent Extraction And Crystallization Systems, Neil Justin Williams

Doctoral Dissertations

The selective separation of ions from aqueous solutions has been a difficult challenge to address in the separation sciences. The difficulties associated with selective separations of ions are due to a multitude of chemical and physical differences between them. Additionally, the term ions encompass both positively charged cations and their counter parts the negatively charge anions. The work covered in this dissertation discusses the difficulties encountered during the selective separation of both oxoanions and cations. Apart from the Introduction Chapter 1 and Conclusion Chapter 10, the selective separations oxoanions and cations will be discussed separately with the dissertation being divided ...


Improved Sample Utilization In Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Isotope Ratio Measurements: Refined Development Of Porous Ion Emitters For Nuclear Forensic Applications, Matthew Louis Baruzzini May 2017

Improved Sample Utilization In Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Isotope Ratio Measurements: Refined Development Of Porous Ion Emitters For Nuclear Forensic Applications, Matthew Louis Baruzzini

Doctoral Dissertations

The precise and accurate determination of isotopic composition in nuclear forensic samples is vital for assessing origin, intended use and process history. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is widely accepted as the gold standard for high performance isotopic measurements and has long served as the workhorse in the isotopic ratio determination of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensic and safeguard specialists have relied heavily on such methods for both routine and atypical efforts. Despite widespread use, TIMS methods for the assay of actinide systems continue to be hindered by poor ionization efficiency, often less than tenths of a percent; the majority of ...


Synthesis, Characterization And Biological Studies Of Technetium-99m And Rhenium-188 Peptides, Vanessa Anne Sanders May 2017

Synthesis, Characterization And Biological Studies Of Technetium-99m And Rhenium-188 Peptides, Vanessa Anne Sanders

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Radiopharmaceuticals are very powerful diagnostic tools for evaluation of a host of medical conditions. These drugs are labeled with radioactive isotopes, which are utilized to create pictures of areas of interest through absorption of the drug. They are currently in high demand due to their ability to image areas that traditional imaging devices cannot. The radioisotope 99mTc, with a half-life of 6.01 hours and a 140 keV gamma emission, is central to many radiopharmaceutical compounds. This isotope is easily obtained from a 99Mo-99mTc generator, through beta decay and column chromatography separations. Very little technetium, less than 6 ng, is ...


Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation And Thermal Mass, Kevin Carpenter, J. Kelly Kissock Mar 2017

Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation And Thermal Mass, Kevin Carpenter, J. Kelly Kissock

J. Kelly Kissock

Open tanks and exterior surfaces of process heating equipment lose heat to the surroundings via convection, radiation, and/or evaporation. A practical way of reducing heat loss is by insulating or covering the surfaces. This paper presents methods to quantify heat loss and energy savings from insulating hot surfaces and open tanks. The methods include radiation and evaporation losses, which are ignored by simplified methods. In addition, thermal mass, such as refractory, conveyor and racking equipment, acts as a heat sink and increases heating energy use in process heating applications. This paper presents lumped capacitance and finite-difference methods for estimating ...


Electrochemical And Modelling Studies On Simulated Spent Nuclear Fuel Corrosion Under Permanent Waste Disposal Conditions, Nazhen Liu Feb 2017

Electrochemical And Modelling Studies On Simulated Spent Nuclear Fuel Corrosion Under Permanent Waste Disposal Conditions, Nazhen Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The safety assessment models for the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel require a fundamental understanding of the corrosion of spent fuel in a failed waste container. The overall research goal of this project is to investigate the corrosion of simulated spent fuel under permanent disposal conditions, using both model simulations and experimental investigations. A model for fuel corrosion has been expanded to determine the relative importance of radiolytic hydrogen and hydrogen from corrosion of the steel vessel in suppressing fuel corrosion. It was shown that, for CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) fuel with moderate in-reactor burnup, only micromolar concentrations ...


Irene Joliot-Curie, Erick J. Klein Jan 2017

Irene Joliot-Curie, Erick J. Klein

Natural Sciences Poster Sessions

This poster for the Natural Sciences Poster Session at Parkland College features chemist Irene Joliot-Curie, one of four women, including her mother, Marie Curie, who have won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Joliot-Curie, with her husband Frederic Joliot-Curie won the prize in 1935 for their discovery of artificial radioactivity.


Table Of Contents Dec 2016

Table Of Contents

International Journal of Nuclear Security

No abstract provided.


Prospects For Cooperation On Tackling Nuclear And Radiological Terrorism In South Asia: India–Pakistan Nuclear Detection Architecture, Muhammad Umer Khan Dec 2016

Prospects For Cooperation On Tackling Nuclear And Radiological Terrorism In South Asia: India–Pakistan Nuclear Detection Architecture, Muhammad Umer Khan

International Journal of Nuclear Security

No abstract provided.


Student Competition Cover Dec 2016

Student Competition Cover

International Journal of Nuclear Security

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editor Dec 2016

Letter From The Editor

International Journal of Nuclear Security

No abstract provided.


Nuclear Power: Black Sky Liability Or Black Sky Asset?, Sherrell R. Greene Dec 2016

Nuclear Power: Black Sky Liability Or Black Sky Asset?, Sherrell R. Greene

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Ready access to abundant electricity is a key enabler of modern life. During the past decade the vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure sectors in the U.S. to a variety of natural hazards and man-made threats has become increasingly apparent. The electrical infrastructure (the “Grid”) is the foundation for all other critical civil infrastructures upon which our society depends. Therefore, protection of the Grid is an energy security, homeland security, and national security issue of highest importance. Geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) induced by solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs), electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attacks, and cyber attacks are three events having the potential to ...


Modern Advancements In Post-Detonation Nuclear Forensic Analysis, S. Adam Stratz, Jonathan A. Gill, John D. Auxier Ii, Howard L. Hall Dec 2016

Modern Advancements In Post-Detonation Nuclear Forensic Analysis, S. Adam Stratz, Jonathan A. Gill, John D. Auxier Ii, Howard L. Hall

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Deterring nuclear terrorism is a critical national asset to support the preclusion of non-state actors from initiating a nuclear attack on the United States. Successful attribution of a detonated nuclear weapon allows for timely responsive measures that prove essential in the period following a nuclear event. In conjunction with intelligence and law enforcement evidence, the technical nuclear forensics (TNF) post-detonation community supports this mission through the development and advancement of expertise to characterize weapon debris through a rapid, accurate, and detailed approach. Though the TNF field is young, numerous strides have been made in recent years toward a more robust ...


Evaluation Of Covert Plutonium Production From Unconventional Uranium Sources, Ondrej Chvala, Steven Skutnik, Tyrone Christopher Harris, Emily Anne Frame Dec 2016

Evaluation Of Covert Plutonium Production From Unconventional Uranium Sources, Ondrej Chvala, Steven Skutnik, Tyrone Christopher Harris, Emily Anne Frame

International Journal of Nuclear Security

The potential for a relatively non-advanced nation to covertly acquire a significant quantity of weapons-grade plutonium using a gas-cooled, natural uranium-fueled reactor based on relatively primitive early published designed is evaluated in this article. The economic and technical issues that would influence the design decisions of a covert 239Pu production program are considered.

Several unconventional uranium acquisition approaches were explored. Methods for extracting uranium from enrichment tails, seawater, and coal ash sources were considered. The evaluation indicated that uranium extraction from coal ash or insitu leaching from underground deposits could be performed in economical manner that might be difficult ...


Addressing The Tunnel Threat At Nuclear Facilities: A Case Study, Md. Mobasher Ahmed Dec 2016

Addressing The Tunnel Threat At Nuclear Facilities: A Case Study, Md. Mobasher Ahmed

International Journal of Nuclear Security

No abstract provided.


Improving Nuclear Safety, Security, And Nonproliferation In Northeast Asia Through Multinational Approach, Viet Phuong Nguyen Dec 2016

Improving Nuclear Safety, Security, And Nonproliferation In Northeast Asia Through Multinational Approach, Viet Phuong Nguyen

International Journal of Nuclear Security

No abstract provided.


Janus Realized: The Use Of Social Media As A Means Of Transparency Nuclear Communication To The Public, Frances Bachstein Dec 2016

Janus Realized: The Use Of Social Media As A Means Of Transparency Nuclear Communication To The Public, Frances Bachstein

International Journal of Nuclear Security

No abstract provided.


Modified Fault Tree Method For Vulnerability Analysis Of Nuclear Medicine Facility Security System Case Study: Radiotherapy Facility, Sardjito General Hospital, Haryono Budi Santosa Dec 2016

Modified Fault Tree Method For Vulnerability Analysis Of Nuclear Medicine Facility Security System Case Study: Radiotherapy Facility, Sardjito General Hospital, Haryono Budi Santosa

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Assessing the vulnerability of physical protection systems (PPS) in nuclear medicine facilities is needed to prevent a security incident that could lead to the malicious use of nuclear material. Theft and sabotage of nuclear materials is becoming globally recognized. The current methods of assessing vulnerability tend to be oriented toward complex nuclear security; consequently, it is excessive to use such methods in simple facilities (i.e., radiotherapy facilities in hospitals).

The fault tree analysis is a method to assess vulnerability for a simple nuclear facility. The method’s primary events (i.e., basic events and undeveloped events) are able to ...


Nuclear Security Culture And Batan’S Assessment: Batan’S Experience, Anhar R. Antariksawan Dec 2016

Nuclear Security Culture And Batan’S Assessment: Batan’S Experience, Anhar R. Antariksawan

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Organizations should increase safety to minimize the harmful effects of nuclear materials. Additionally, organizations should take measures to protect security culture within the organization itself. This paper covers the National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia’s (BATAN’s) promotion of nuclear security culture and self- assessment projects, which is based on the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) methodology.


Nuclear Security Risk Analysis: An Insider-Outsider Collusion Scenario, Mohammad A. Hawila, Sunil S. Chirayath Dec 2016

Nuclear Security Risk Analysis: An Insider-Outsider Collusion Scenario, Mohammad A. Hawila, Sunil S. Chirayath

International Journal of Nuclear Security

This study analyses the vulnerability of the physical protection system (PPS) deployed at a hypothetical facility. The PPS is designed to prevent and eliminate threats to nuclear materials and facilities. The analysis considers possible outsider and insider threats. A modified adversary sequence diagram (ASD) evaluates threat pathways to test an insider-outsider collusion case. The ASD also measures the probability of adversary interruption by demonstrating the methodology for a typical nuclear facility.


Legal And Regulatory Framework Of Nuclear Security In Indonesia, Dahlia Cakrawati Sinaga Dec 2016

Legal And Regulatory Framework Of Nuclear Security In Indonesia, Dahlia Cakrawati Sinaga

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Nuclear security is one of the most important topics for regulatory purposes in Indonesia. Nuclear security measures exist to prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized removal of radioactive material and the sabotage of nuclear and radiation facilities. Indonesia participates in bilateral and multilateral cooperation and international events such as the Nuclear Security Summit. Indonesia has also ratified several international instruments related to nuclear security. Based on commitment to international events and ratification, Indonesia has developed nuclear security infrastructures by strengthening legislation and regulation, enhancing building capacity, and strengthening equipment and facilities. Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir (BAPETEN) is Indonesia’s nuclear ...


Table Of Contents Dec 2016

Table Of Contents

International Journal of Nuclear Security

No abstract provided.


From The Editor’S Desk Dec 2016

From The Editor’S Desk

International Journal of Nuclear Security

No abstract provided.


Opportunities And Challenges In Developing Nuclear Security In Africa, James Larkin Mfr Dec 2016

Opportunities And Challenges In Developing Nuclear Security In Africa, James Larkin Mfr

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Those involved in nuclear security recognize that regions of significant instability in Africa have an impact on the safety and security of the continent's nuclear material and un-enriched uranium; however, some countries outside of continental Africa have taken counterproductive approaches to this issue. Despite challenges, the nuclear security community continues to develop and apply appropriate levels of nuclear security where needed. The community also takes every opportunity to make significant contributions to the global discourse on nuclear security culture.