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The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers 2020 University of San Diego

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the …


Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König 2020 Chapman University

Immune-Endocrine Links To Gregariousness In Wild House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Esther H. D. Carlitz, Morgan Kindel, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Social interactions are critically important for survival and impact overall-health, but also impose costs on animals, such as exposure to contagious agents. The immune system can play a critical role in modulating social behavior when animals are sick, as has been demonstrated within the context of “sickness behaviors.” Can immune molecules affect or be affected by social interactions even when animals are not sick, therefore serving a role in mediating pathogen exposure? We tested whether markers of immune function in both the blood and the brain are associated with gregariousness, quantified as number of animals interacted with per day. To …


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey …


Hear Me Roar, Abigail R. Seethoff 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

Hear Me Roar, Abigail R. Seethoff

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Hear Me Roar, a compilation of personal essays interspersed with short forms, grapples with the nuances of compliance versus autonomy in the context of the male gaze, beauty standards, and pop culture. The collection also explores what it means to treasure something—another person, an object—and how to express and deepen that affection.


Melatonin For The Treatment Of Sepsis: The Scientific Rationale, Ruben Manuel Luciano Colunga Biancatelli, Max Berrill, Yassen H. Mohammed, Paul E. Marik 2020 Old Dominion University

Melatonin For The Treatment Of Sepsis: The Scientific Rationale, Ruben Manuel Luciano Colunga Biancatelli, Max Berrill, Yassen H. Mohammed, Paul E. Marik

Bioelectrics Publications

Sepsis affects 30 million people worldwide, leading to 6 million deaths every year (WHO), and despite decades of research, novel initiatives are drastically needed. According to the current literature, oxidative imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction are common features of septic patients that can cause multiorgan failure and death. Melatonin, alongside its traditionally accepted role as the master hormonal regulator of the circadian rhythm, is a promising adjunctive drug for sepsis through its anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and powerful antioxidant properties. Several animal models of sepsis have demonstrated that melatonin can prevent multiorgan dysfunction and improve survival through restoring mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) …


‘Am I Turning Into A Man?’ Experiences Of Pakistani Women With Pcos, Rida e Zehra Zaidi 2019 Institute of Business Administration

‘Am I Turning Into A Man?’ Experiences Of Pakistani Women With Pcos, Rida E Zehra Zaidi

MSJ Capstone Projects

According to the National Institutes of Health, 20 – 25% of all regularly ovulating women have PCOS. This disorder has a range of visible symptoms including excessive weight gain, hirsutism, acne, and hair loss among others. These symptoms make it difficult for women with the syndrome to fit the femininity ideals of the society, as it demands female bodies to be slim, smart, hair less, and to have porcelain skin and regular menstrual cycles. Women with PCOS and other health problems in Pakistan spend all their lives fighting unnecessary battles. This struggle has severe impacts on their physical and mental …


Evaluation Of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Sleep-Deprived Menopausal- Induced Rats And The Impact On Bone Health, Nicole Ellsworth, Dwight Curry III, CJ DeLeon, Frank Frisch 2019 Chapman University

Evaluation Of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha In Sleep-Deprived Menopausal- Induced Rats And The Impact On Bone Health, Nicole Ellsworth, Dwight Curry Iii, Cj Deleon, Frank Frisch

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Post-menopausal osteoporosis as a consequence of estrogen depletion is a growing concern for women in the United States. As more women take on executive positions and experience sleep deprivation, there is the potential for up regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha. It follows that the homeostatic imbalance of osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity leads to a greater risk of disease. Bisphosphonates generally, and Zolendronate specifically works by decreasing the number of osteoclasts. This current study investigated the impact of Zolendronate on the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha-type (TNFɑ) in 32 ovariectomized Wistar rats. Throughout a five …


Hormonal Therapy And Preventive Care Of Transgender Patients, Angela Chu, Jana Randolph, Austin Hopkins, Victoria Cho, Sophocles Chrissobolis 2019 Ohio Northern University

Hormonal Therapy And Preventive Care Of Transgender Patients, Angela Chu, Jana Randolph, Austin Hopkins, Victoria Cho, Sophocles Chrissobolis

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Transgenderism occurs when an individual's gender identity conflicts with the individual's biological sex. A variety of methods may be used in order to reconcile this disparity in transgender individuals including psychological counseling, cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery. The most important role for pharmacists in the treatment of transgender patients is in dispensing hormonal medications for cross-sex treatment. Hormone therapy may be used to suppress characteristics of the patient's biological sex as well as to induce development of characteristics that correlate with the patient's gender identity. In male-to-female (MtF) transgender patients, the most commonly used medications include agents which …


Testosterone Levels In Men With Chronic Migraine, Lisa B. E. Shields, Tad Seifert, Brent J. Shelton, Brian M. Plato 2019 Norton Healthcare

Testosterone Levels In Men With Chronic Migraine, Lisa B. E. Shields, Tad Seifert, Brent J. Shelton, Brian M. Plato

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Chronic migraine is a frequent and debilitating condition affecting 14% of the general population. This prospective observational pilot study investigated whether men with chronic migraine have lower than expected total serum testosterone levels. We identified 14 men ages 26-51 at our Institution who fulfilled the ICHD-3b criteria for chronic migraine and obtained serum total testosterone levels. The mean total testosterone level in our 14 patients was 322 ng/dL (range: 120-542 ng/dL) which is in the lower 5% of the reference range for our laboratory (300-1080 ng/dL). Men with chronic migraine had lower total testosterone levels compared to published agematched normative …


Divergent Transcriptional Regulation Of Suppressors Of Cytokine Signaling Genes In Adipocytes, Paula Mota de Sa 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Divergent Transcriptional Regulation Of Suppressors Of Cytokine Signaling Genes In Adipocytes, Paula Mota De Sa

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The Janus Kinase - Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway transduces several signals crucial for development and homeostasis. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins control JAK-STAT signaling via a negative feedback loop. The transcription factor STAT5 is known to play a significant role in fat cell development and function, and several studies suggest that acetylation may affect STAT5 transcriptional activity. To test this hypothesis, we treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with growth hormone (GH) to activate STAT5 in the presence or absence of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. STAT5 acetylation levels were low in adipocytes and mostly unchanged by the …


Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma

Theses and Dissertations

Over 200,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Nearly 20% of these patients supplement their diets with some form of vitamin D. This high frequency of vitamin D supplement use may be due in part to research suggesting that cancer patients with higher serum vitamin D3 levels have better prognoses than patients with low serum vitamin D3. However, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in breast cancer have been inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis showed evidence of reduced cancer recurrence in patients taking vitamin D3 supplements who had ‘estrogen receptor positive’ …


Determining The Presence Of Bpa In Vaping Mouthpieces, Jessica Cook-Snelgrove 2019 Ouachita Baptist University

Determining The Presence Of Bpa In Vaping Mouthpieces, Jessica Cook-Snelgrove

Honors Theses

As more and more teenagers and young adults begin to vape, whether it be to quit smoking or to look cool, there is a potential for them to be exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA) through the plastic mouthpieces on the vapes. BPA is a molecule that is added in many plastics to make the plastic harder (Houlihan, Lunder, & Jacob, 2008). Unfortunately, BPA is structurally similar to estrogen as can be seen in Figure 1. The closeness of the structures can cause issues in humans such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and reproductive problems (Houlihan, Lunder, & Jacob, 2008). In recent years, …


Navigating The Myths And Truths Behind Pharmacological Drug And Herbal Supplement Use: A Guide For Pregnant Women, Angela Vu 2019 Regis University

Navigating The Myths And Truths Behind Pharmacological Drug And Herbal Supplement Use: A Guide For Pregnant Women, Angela Vu

Regis University Student Publications (comprehensive collection)

The author comments on current Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines on the regulation of herbal supplements and compares them to international guidelines. They elucidate on how gaps in these regulations can be detrimental to the health of patients and uses this as a platform to introduce an extensive guide denoting the major biochemical changes occurring antepartum and postpartum as an explanation for symptoms often experienced during pregnancy. They then use this as a background to detail the mechanism of the active ingredients in these supplements and comment on the effectiveness of the relating FDA regulations. The author hopes …


Improving Dopamine Monitoring With Ncam And The Effects Of Intranasal Oxytocin On Dopamine Signaling In The Rat Brain, Darren Earl Ginder 2019 Eastern Washington University

Improving Dopamine Monitoring With Ncam And The Effects Of Intranasal Oxytocin On Dopamine Signaling In The Rat Brain, Darren Earl Ginder

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

Dopamine (DA) is a neurohormone highly involved in learning and memory. Oxytocin (OXT), another neurohormone, has also been implicated in learning and memory. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a method used for the real-time examination of DA neurotransmission in the brain. Implanting FSCV electrodes is an invasive technique that likely results in an inflammatory response (i.e. gliosis) that can restrict FSCV recording of DA signals. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) may reduce gliosis and potentially improve the ability of FSCV electrodes to monitor DA signaling. Chapter 1 Methods: FSCV electrodes were coated with NCAM and implanted in the rat brain. …


Ethical Implications Of Treatment For Gender Dysphoria In Youth, Kelsey Hayes 2018 College of Our Lady of the Elms

Ethical Implications Of Treatment For Gender Dysphoria In Youth, Kelsey Hayes

Journal of Health Ethics

This manuscript explores ethical implications on treatment for youth with diagnosed gender dysphoria. The ethical considerations outlined and analyzed in this essay involve illuminating an understanding of whether the administration of pubertal suppression with GnRH agonists, and cross-sex hormones to children with gender dysphoria is morally justified as treatment to manage their psychological distress, or if safer more understood alternatives exist. This essay emphasizes that as health care professionals we must ensure youth with gender dysphoria receive adequate medical treatment and care however, this essay concludes through extensive literature review, that the use of inconclusive and under researched methods to …


Pregnancy Anxiety Predicts Shorter Gestation In Latina And Non-Latina White Women: The Role Of Placental Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone, Isabel F. Ramos, Christine M. Guardino, Maxwell Mansolf, Laura M. Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Calvin J. Hobel, Christine Dunkel Schetter 2018 University of California, Los Angeles

Pregnancy Anxiety Predicts Shorter Gestation In Latina And Non-Latina White Women: The Role Of Placental Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone, Isabel F. Ramos, Christine M. Guardino, Maxwell Mansolf, Laura M. Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Calvin J. Hobel, Christine Dunkel Schetter

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Objective

Previous research has shown that a woman’s anxiety about her pregnancy predicts gestational length. Placental corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a stress-responsive peptide proposed as a mechanism. We examined placental CRH as a physiological mediator of the association between pregnancy anxiety and gestational length in Latina and non-Latina White women to replicate evidence of associations between pregnancy anxiety, placental CRH and gestational length; to test whether placental CRH levels or changes mediate effects of pregnancy anxiety on gestational length; to examine ethnic differences in pregnancy anxiety, placental CRH, and gestational length; and to explore whether the effects of pregnancy anxiety …


Maternal Programming: Application Of A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective, Laura M. Glynn, Mariann A. Howland, Molly Fox 2018 Chapman University

Maternal Programming: Application Of A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective, Laura M. Glynn, Mariann A. Howland, Molly Fox

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

The fetal phase of life has long been recognized as a sensitive period of development. Here we posit that pregnancy represents a simultaneous sensitive period for the adult female with broad and persisting consequences for her health and development, including risk for psychopathology. In this review, we examine the transition to motherhood through the lens of developmental psychopathology. Specifically, we summarize the typical and atypical changes in brain and behavior that characterize the perinatal period. We highlight how the exceptional neuroplasticity exhibited by women during this life phase may account for increased vulnerability for psychopathology. Further, we discuss several modes …


Hormonal Contraceptive Use Among Active Duty Army Servicewomen. Trends And Implications For Risk Of Musculoskeletal Injury., Melanie K. Hosker 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Hormonal Contraceptive Use Among Active Duty Army Servicewomen. Trends And Implications For Risk Of Musculoskeletal Injury., Melanie K. Hosker

Doctoral Dissertations

Almost 40% of servicewomen use hormonal contraception every year, and 60% will use a contraceptive method in their military career. Rates of contraceptive use and musculoskeletal injury are higher among servicewomen as compared to civilians. Gender differences in rates of musculoskeletal injury have led investigators to question the role of sex hormones, including contraception. Recent studies suggest that hormonal contraceptives may decreased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, potentially decreasing early onset osteoarthritis (OA). We utilized the Total Army Injury and Health Outcome Database, which prospectively captured demographics, clinical and pharmacy records on over 5.6 million Army soldiers since …


Kisspeptin Modulates Luteinizing Hormone Release And Ovarian Follicular Dynamics In Pre-Pubertal And Adult Murrah Buffaloes, Vishalkumar Pottapenjera, Srinivasa R. Rajanala, Chandrasekhar Reddy, Arunakumari Gangineni, Kiran Avula, Sandeep K. Bejjanki, Sriravali Sathagopam, Surabhi Kesharwani, Sathya Velmurugan 2018 P. V. Narsimha Rao Telangana Veterinary University, India

Kisspeptin Modulates Luteinizing Hormone Release And Ovarian Follicular Dynamics In Pre-Pubertal And Adult Murrah Buffaloes, Vishalkumar Pottapenjera, Srinivasa R. Rajanala, Chandrasekhar Reddy, Arunakumari Gangineni, Kiran Avula, Sandeep K. Bejjanki, Sriravali Sathagopam, Surabhi Kesharwani, Sathya Velmurugan

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that governs the reproductive axis upstream to GnRH. We wanted to study whether kisspeptin modulates plasma LH and FSH levels and ovarian follicular dynamics in buffaloes and whether kisspeptin can be used for fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI). We carried out these studies in comparison with buserelin, a potent GnRH agonist. Kisspeptin dose-dependently increased plasma LH levels. However, the kisspeptin-induced increase in LH was short-lived as the peak reached in 15–30 min returned to basal values by 1–2 h. The kisspeptin-induced increase in LH level was less compared to buserelin-induced increase in LH level which sustained …


The Effect Of The Oxytocin Hormone In Cocaine Addicted Rats Suffering From Abstinence Syndrome, Juan Padilla 2018 University High School

The Effect Of The Oxytocin Hormone In Cocaine Addicted Rats Suffering From Abstinence Syndrome, Juan Padilla

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Rehabilitation from a history of drug abuse is a very difficult and life changing process. Abstinence syndrome forces the rehabilitating patient to go through anxiety like symptoms. The Oxytocin hormone has been believed to be a potential facilitator in the rehabilitation process. This hormone is very present during interactions of affection (hugs) and birth, it foments trust while it associates to a feeling of calmness. Oxytocin would theoretically be a calming agent to the anxiety like symptoms such as craving. The experiment aimed to test the calming effects of the hormone, consisted of a five-day systemic cocaine injections treatment schedule …


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