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Full-Text Articles in Carbohydrates

Metabolic Foundations Of Exercise-Induced Cardiac Growth., Kyle Levi Fulghum Dec 2022

Metabolic Foundations Of Exercise-Induced Cardiac Growth., Kyle Levi Fulghum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Regular aerobic exercise promotes physiological cardiac growth, which is an adaptive response thought to enable the heart to meet higher physical demands. Cardiac growth involves coordination of catabolic and anabolic activities to support ATP generation, macromolecule biosynthesis, and myocyte hypertrophy. Although previous studies suggest that exercise-induced reductions in cardiac glycolysis are critical for physiological myocyte hypertrophy, it remains unclear how exercise influences the many interlinked pathways of metabolism that support adaptive remodeling of the heart. In this thesis project, we tested the general hypothesis that aerobic exercise promotes physiological cardiac growth by coordinating myocardial metabolism to promote glucose-supported anabolic pathway …


4,6-O-Phenylethylidene Acetal Protected D-Glucosamine Carbamate-Based Gelators And Their Applications For Multi-Component Gels, Pooja Sharma, Guijun Wang Mar 2022

4,6-O-Phenylethylidene Acetal Protected D-Glucosamine Carbamate-Based Gelators And Their Applications For Multi-Component Gels, Pooja Sharma, Guijun Wang

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The self-assembly of carbohydrate-based low molecular weight gelators has led to useful advanced soft materials. The interactions of the gelators with various cations and anions are important in creating novel molecular architectures and expanding the scope of the small molecular gelators. In this study, a series of thirteen new C-2 carbamates of the 4,6-O-phenylethylidene acetalprotected D-glucosamine derivatives has been synthesized and characterized. These compounds are rationally designed from a common sugar template. All carbamates synthesized were found to be efficient gelators and three compounds are also hydrogelators. The resulting gels were characterized using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, …


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky Aug 2021

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This …


Radiologic Contrast-Induced Transmetallation In Mineral Rich Fruits: X-Ray Imaging To Understand Heat Cycling During Climate Change And Map Metal Redistribution In Biological Media For Biomedical Applications, Lin Mousa, Hayley Sanchez, Subhendra Sarkar, Zoya Vinokur Jul 2021

Radiologic Contrast-Induced Transmetallation In Mineral Rich Fruits: X-Ray Imaging To Understand Heat Cycling During Climate Change And Map Metal Redistribution In Biological Media For Biomedical Applications, Lin Mousa, Hayley Sanchez, Subhendra Sarkar, Zoya Vinokur

Publications and Research

Heat cycling due to climate change can affect hydrated protein or carbohydrate functions, the latter is not well studied. The project started with involving the study of heat-stressed carbohydrate behavior when bulk water was partly stripped from carbohydrates in model microwaved fruits and vegetables, like apples and sweet potatoes (that are mineral-rich) and was set in mineral exchange competition with toxic metals like Gadolinium and chelating complexes like iodinated EDTA. These are common radiologic contrast medias that strongly absorb x-rays and are currently implicated in man-made environmental toxins. Our goal was to map diffusion of injected heavy atoms as well …


Cardiometabolic Responses In Individuals With/Without Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes, Christopher J. Cavazos Jun 2021

Cardiometabolic Responses In Individuals With/Without Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes, Christopher J. Cavazos

MEDI 8127 Scholarly Activities Pre-Clerkship

Intro: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a national epidemic and is a disease that greatly affects the Rio Grande Valley. Many individuals in the United States, especially in the Rio Grande Valley, have a family history of T2D. Previous evidence has shown that those with a family history of T2D are metabolically inflexible, have a decreased ability to clear circulating glucose, and poor postprandial microvascular recruitment in skeletal muscle tissue. The aforementioned occurs in otherwise healthy individuals with a family history of T2D to nearly the same extent as those who have T2D. Previous studies have not shown where …


Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline May 2021

Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and Crohn’s disease are increasingly common conditions that places a high physical and financial burden on individuals and global healthcare systems. Though many treatments exist for these conditions, their unpredictable nature and causation make them difficult to manage across the variety of IBD patients. Additionally, many of these treatments come with undesirable side effects or modes of delivery. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the use of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate whose affects in the human gut include decreased inflammation and decreased risk of colorectal cancer. As …


Ketogenic Diet As A Preventative Measure Or Treatment Option For Osteoarthritistargeting Nfl Athletes As A High-Risk Group, Kelsi J. Smith Apr 2021

Ketogenic Diet As A Preventative Measure Or Treatment Option For Osteoarthritistargeting Nfl Athletes As A High-Risk Group, Kelsi J. Smith

Selected Honors Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent joint disease that results from the degradation of articular cartilage, leading to inflammation, pain, and eventual joint failure. At one time, it was thought that OA was only the result of the natural decline experienced in old age; however, various risk factors have now been identified that may contribute to an increased risk for developing OA. Risk factors may include joint loading, altered biomechanics, obesity, and joint injury, to which athletes are exposed at a high rate. NFL athletes are one group of athletes that have continued to show a high prevalence of arthritis in …


Reversible Glucan Phosphorylation In The Red Alga, Cyanidioschyzon Merolae, Corey Owen Brizzee Jan 2021

Reversible Glucan Phosphorylation In The Red Alga, Cyanidioschyzon Merolae, Corey Owen Brizzee

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Starch and glycogen are an essential component for the majority of species and have been developed to maintain homeostasis in response to environmental changes. Water-soluble glycogen is an excellent source of quick, short-term energy in response to energy demands. In contrast, plants and algae have developed the macromolecule starch that is elegantly suitable for their dependence on external circumstances. Semi-crystalline starch is water-insoluble and inaccessible to most amylolytic enzymes, thus plants and algae have developed a coordinated system so that these enzymes can gain access to the denser starch energy cache. Starch-like semi-crystalline polysaccharides are also found in red algae, …


Synthesis Of Glycopharmaceuticals For The Treatment Of Microbial Sepsis, Nicholas Forsythe, Alexei Demchenko, Catherine Alex Jan 2021

Synthesis Of Glycopharmaceuticals For The Treatment Of Microbial Sepsis, Nicholas Forsythe, Alexei Demchenko, Catherine Alex

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Carbohydrates (glycans) form the basis of all living organisms and, consequently, are ubiquitous both in nature as biologically active compounds and in medicine as pharmaceuticals. One important application of carbohydrate-based drugs (glycopharmaceuticals) is the treatment of microbial sepsis, an acute illness that causes 100,000+ human deaths annually in the US alone. Exposure of the patient’s blood system to E. coli bacteria causes a massive, and often fatal, immune response. One important cellular receptor that senses the bacterium and is critically involved in triggering the immune response is CD14. Significant efforts by our team and others have been made to develop …


Development Of Hyaluronic Acid-Derived Macromolecular Agents For Multimodal Imaging Probes And Nanomedicine, William M. Payne May 2020

Development Of Hyaluronic Acid-Derived Macromolecular Agents For Multimodal Imaging Probes And Nanomedicine, William M. Payne

Theses & Dissertations

Cancer, one of the most challenging maladies facing modern medicine, is a complex family of diseases that requires a multifaceted treatment regime. In recent years, increased research effort has been placed on the development of nanoscale formulations as a potential method to improve therapeutic efficacy and offer better treatment. Both drug formulation and biomedical imaging has benefitted from the development of new, nanoscale agents. Hyaluronic Acid (HA), a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan, is a promising platform for the development of new drug delivery systems. Furthermore, hyaluronic acid is the principal ligand for the cell surface receptor CD44, which is overexpressed on …


Silver Salt-Mediate Benzylation Of Carbohydrates Under Mildly Acidic Conditions, Nicholas Forsythe, Samira Escopy, Yashapal Singh 2436808, Alexei Demchenko Jan 2020

Silver Salt-Mediate Benzylation Of Carbohydrates Under Mildly Acidic Conditions, Nicholas Forsythe, Samira Escopy, Yashapal Singh 2436808, Alexei Demchenko

Undergraduate Research Symposium

When looking at biomolecules, carbohydrate represent a large group of macromolecules that play an important role in the body. Most importantly, carbohydrates provide an energy supply for organisms, but it is proven that they are also involved in a myriad of other processes. Furthermore, synthesizing these molecules leads to advancements in chemistry, such as drug design, and other structures such as glycolipids play important roles in the immune system. Understanding this, an efficient and reliable way to create these carbohydrates is needed.

The protection and deprotection manipulations of carbohydrates play an essential role in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry.1 Using benzyl …


Arachidin 3 Modulation Of Lipid Metabolism In Rotavirus Infections, Stormey Wisdom Jun 2019

Arachidin 3 Modulation Of Lipid Metabolism In Rotavirus Infections, Stormey Wisdom

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rotavirus (RV) can cause severe and deadly gastroenteritis in young children, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. Previous studies have shown that arachidin 3 (A3) inhibits RV replication, and that RV replication is dependent on the presence of lipids. This study investigated the alteration of lipid metabolism by A3 in RV infected HT29.f8 cells. A decrease in the RV regulation of lipid biosynthesis genes was observed with the addition of A3 using qRT-PCR. Also, immunofluorescent and histochemical staining for neutral fats, a major component of cellular lipid droplets, revealed an increased accumulation with both RV and RV+A3 when compared to no virus …


Diet And Addiction: Interview With A Former Food, Pornography, And Alcohol Addict, Tro Kalayjian, Brian Lenzkes Feb 2019

Diet And Addiction: Interview With A Former Food, Pornography, And Alcohol Addict, Tro Kalayjian, Brian Lenzkes

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Drs. Tro Kalayjian (Tapan, New York) and Brian Lenzkes (Santee, California) talk to Matt about his struggles with food, pornography, and alcohol addiction, and how changing his diet contributed to his recovery from his addictions. This report is excerpted from the audio podcast LowCarbMD, Episode 13 (https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/low-carb-md-podcast/ ), January 30, 2019). This podcast has filled us with immense hope for those struggling with addiction.


Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella Sep 2017

Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In addition to increased intake of sweet solutions by mammals, learning, particularly classically-conditioned “Pavlovian-like” learning, also plays an important role. An orosensory conditioned flavor preference (CFP) can be elicited by pairing one novel flavor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) with a fructose solution and a second novel flavor (CS-) with a saccharin solution. Rats will prefer the CS+ flavor in a subsequent 2-bottle choice test with both flavors mixed in saccharin. Previous pharmacological analyses revealed that systemic administration of dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 as well as NMDA, but not opioid, receptor antagonists eliminated the acquisition (learning) of fructose-CFP. Further, expression of …


Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana May 2017

Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The killer peptide sequence D-(KLAKLAK)2 has been originally designed and developed as an antibacterial agent. Despite having excellent cytotoxicity towards bacteria, this sequence maintains low cell cytotoxity in malignant mammalian cell types such as cancer. The chemical basis for its selectivity has been attributed to its poly(cationic) amphiphilic nature, which facilitates cell permeability across the negatively charged bacterial membrane, but with limited permeability across the zwitterionic membrane of mammalian cells. The positively charged D-(KLAKLAK)2 sequence has been found to accumulate on the surface of the mitochondria causing dissipation of the negatively charged mitochondrial membrane potential. This charge disruption …


Synthesis And Evaluation Of A Novel Carbohydrate Template And Analogs Thereof For Potential Cns-Active Drugs, Emi Hanawa-Romero May 2017

Synthesis And Evaluation Of A Novel Carbohydrate Template And Analogs Thereof For Potential Cns-Active Drugs, Emi Hanawa-Romero

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Central nervous system (CNS) disorders are becoming a major societal problem. Examples of well-known CNS disorders are: neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer’s diseases, epilepsy/seizures, addiction, bipolar disorder, catalepsy, meningitis, migraines, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and multiple sclerosis. CNS disorders can be caused by various factors and therefore can affect ages, genders and races of all.

The population of patients with CNS disorders is increasing and a significant percentage of patients have symptoms that are not controlled by existing treatments. In addition, since CNS disorders are chronic disorder, there is no cure and thus the patients have to …


Mouth Exposure To Carbohydrate Prior To Exercise Possibly Impairs The Efficacy Of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing During Exercise, Kevin Decker May 2017

Mouth Exposure To Carbohydrate Prior To Exercise Possibly Impairs The Efficacy Of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing During Exercise, Kevin Decker

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

Decker K. P., M. J. Saunders, N. D. Luden, C. J. Womack, and N. J. Hladick. Mouth Exposure to Carbohydrate Prior to Exercise Possibly Impairs the Efficacy of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing during Exercise. Purpose: Carbohydrate mouth-rinsing (CHO-MR) during intense endurance exercise has been associated with improved cycling performance, due to neurological influences. However, prior studies have reported the efficacy of CHO-MR is attenuated following a pre-exercise meal. To determine if this outcome is related to desensitization of CHO receptors (rather than metabolic effects following digestion), this study will investigate whether CHO-MR prior to exercise influences cycling performance when CHO-MR …


Beer Potomania: A Challenging Case Of Hyponatremia, Hind Rafei, Raza Yunus, Parvinder S. Khurana Aug 2016

Beer Potomania: A Challenging Case Of Hyponatremia, Hind Rafei, Raza Yunus, Parvinder S. Khurana

Medicine Faculty Publications

Beer potomania is a syndrome of hyponatremia associated with excessive beer drinking. Little or no salt content of beer results in marked reduction in the solute load to the kidney. This leads to impaired water clearance and dilutional hyponatremia. A 66-year-old man with history of alcoholism and alcoholic cardiomyopathy presented to the emergency room with tremors of his upper and lower extremities. He had a significant history of alcohol consumption, usually drinking 4 - 5 cans of beer per night for the past 34 years. In addition, he had consumed a fifth of a vodka bottle the day before presentation. …


Extraction, Purification And Partial Characterization Of A Carotenoid Binding Protein (Cbp) From The Epidermis Of The Monarch Butterfly Larvae (Danaus Plexippus), Nan Fang Jun 2016

Extraction, Purification And Partial Characterization Of A Carotenoid Binding Protein (Cbp) From The Epidermis Of The Monarch Butterfly Larvae (Danaus Plexippus), Nan Fang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the purification and partial characterization of CBP from the epidermis of the monarch butterfly larvae (Danaus plexippus). A yellow protein-carotenoid complex was extracted from the yellow pigmented epidermal tissue from monarch butterfly larvae by homogenization. Additional steps in the purification process included differential precipitation with ammonium sulfate, cation and anion chromatography, and lastly size exclusion chromatography. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrates that a single protein was isolated (M-LBP) having a ~60 kDa molecular weight, the value has subsequently been confirmed by HR-tandem MS. Lutein is the sole carotenoid bound by M-LBP with a stoichiometry of the …


Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel May 2016

Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are family of proteins that belong to a group of growth factors that are found in mammals and play an important role in angiogenesis, differentiation, organogenesis, and tissue repair. In summary, their main functionality is involved in cell division and proliferation. Because FGFs plays such a vital role in cell proliferation, they are mainly involved in the process of wound healing and injuries. FGF binds to its ligand, heparin—a heavily sulfated glycosaminoglycan. The binding of heparin to FGF occurs through electrostatic interactions, specifically between the negatively charged sulfate groups on heparin and positively charged residues such …


Anti-Cancer Diets: Revolution Or Ruse?, Lauren Hogan Apr 2016

Anti-Cancer Diets: Revolution Or Ruse?, Lauren Hogan

First Year Inquiry: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

This paper discusses how the foods we consume can play a role in the diagnosis of cancer.


Probing Allosteric, Partial Inhibition Of Thrombin Using Novel Anticoagulants, Stephen S. Verespy Iii Jan 2016

Probing Allosteric, Partial Inhibition Of Thrombin Using Novel Anticoagulants, Stephen S. Verespy Iii

Theses and Dissertations

Thrombin is the key protease that regulates hemostasis; the delicate balance between procoagulation and anticoagulation of blood. In clotting disorders, like deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, procoagulation is up-regulated, but propagation of clotting can be inhibited with drugs targeting the proteases involved, like thrombin. Such drugs however, have serious side effects (e.g., excessive bleeding) and some require monitoring during the course of treatment. The reason for these side effects is the mechanism by which the drugs’ act. The two major mechanisms are direct orthosteric and indirect allosteric inhibition, which will completely abolish the protease’s activity. Herein we sought an …


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky Jan 2016

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of these preparatory course set of learning objectives is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

These 40+ learning objectives to prepare for Human Anatomy and Physiology can be downloaded and played in a desktop, or laptop (windows exe file).

The entire course has four parts:

Each learning objective is followed by a set of multiple choice question similar to those found later in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course.

The organization and …


Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham Dec 2015

Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham

Nancy A. Burnham

An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the steric forces of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is well known that LPS play a vital role in biofilm formation. These forces were characterized with a modified version of the Alexander and de Gennes (AdG) model for polymers, which is a function of equilibrium brush length, L, probe radius, R, temperature, T, separation distance, D, and an indefinite density variable, s. This last parameter was originally distinguished by de Gennes as the root spacing or mesh spacing depending upon the type of polymer adhesion; however since …


Design And Synthesis Of Novel Nucleoside Analogues: Oxidative And Reductive Approaches Toward Synthesis Of 2'-Fluoro Pyrimidine Nucleosides, Ramanjaneyulu Rayala Jun 2015

Design And Synthesis Of Novel Nucleoside Analogues: Oxidative And Reductive Approaches Toward Synthesis Of 2'-Fluoro Pyrimidine Nucleosides, Ramanjaneyulu Rayala

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fluorinated nucleosides, especially the analogues with fluorine atom(s) in the ribose ring, have been known to exert potent biological activities. The first part of this dissertation was aimed at developing oxidative desulfurization-fluorination and reductive desulfonylation-fluorination methodologies toward the synthesis of 2'-mono and/or 2',2'-difluoro pyrimidine nucleosides from the corresponding 2'-arylthiopyrimidine precursors. Novel oxidative desulfurization-difluorination methodology was developed for the synthesis of α,α-difluorinted esters from the corresponding α-arylthio esters, wherein the arylthio group is present on a secondary internal carbon. For the reductive desulfonylation studies, cyclic voltammetry was utilized to measure the reduction potentials at which the sulfone moiety of substrates can …


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course (1st Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky Jan 2015

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course (1st Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of this preparatory course textbook is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

The organization and functioning of the human organism generally is discussed in terms of different levels of increasing complexity, from the smallest building blocks to the entire body. This Anatomy and Physiology preparatory course covers the foundations on the chemical level, and a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system levels. There is also an introduction to homeostasis at the beginning.


Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen Jan 2015

Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Natural products provide some of the most potent anticancer agents and offer a template for new drug design or improvement with the advantage of an enormous chemical space. The overall goal of this thesis research is to enhance the chemical space of two natural products in order to generate novel drugs with better in vivo bioactivities than the original natural products.

Polycarcin V (PV) is a gilvocarcin-type antitumor agent with similar structure and comparable bioactivity with the principle compound of this group, gilvocarcin V (GV). Modest modifications of the polyketide-derived tetracyclic core of GV had been accomplished, but the most …


Polymer Interactions With Nucleic Acids Under Various Physiological Conditions, Matthew S. Obrzut Jan 2015

Polymer Interactions With Nucleic Acids Under Various Physiological Conditions, Matthew S. Obrzut

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The goal of this project is to improve our understanding of nucleic acid interactions with cationic polymers with the theory that the polymers could protect the nucleic acids from degradation caused by biological enzymes. We seek to understand what the limitations of the cationic polymers are which, in this case, is mainly polymer-DNA compatibility. This experiment utilized peptide-dextran hybrid polymers with differing functionalizations to condense anionic nucleic acids into nanometer-sized polyplexes. Techniques of dynamic light scattering and zeta-potential were utilized to determine the particle sizes and surface charges of polyplexes.

In this experiment, dextran with a molecular weight of 20 …


Synthesis Of Carbohydrate Functionalized Dendrons For Use As Multivalent Scaffold And In Self-Assembled Structures, Namrata Jain Aug 2014

Synthesis Of Carbohydrate Functionalized Dendrons For Use As Multivalent Scaffold And In Self-Assembled Structures, Namrata Jain

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carbohydrates are implicated in a large number of biological processes ranging from cell-cell interactions to bacterial and viral infection. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are generally specific for certain sugars. However, typical carbohydrate–lectin interactions tend to have very low monomeric binding affinities. In many cases, the binding of saccharide ligands by protein receptors can be improved significantly through the attachment of multiple saccharide residues to a common support. Dendronized polymers constitute a class of macromolecules whose nanoscale size, rigidity, and functionality can be controlled with precision by tuning their molecular architecture. It is hypothesized that due to their large size …


Design And Synthesis Of 4-N-Alkanoyl And 4-N-Alkyl Gemcitabine Analogues Suitable For Positron Emission Tomography, Jesse E. Pulido Mar 2014

Design And Synthesis Of 4-N-Alkanoyl And 4-N-Alkyl Gemcitabine Analogues Suitable For Positron Emission Tomography, Jesse E. Pulido

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Gemcitabine is a highly potent chemotherapeutic nucleoside agent used in the treatment of several cancers and solid tumors. However, it is therapeutically limitated because of toxicity to normal cells and its rapid intracellular deamination by cytidine deaminase into the inactive uracil derivative. Modification at the 4-(N) position of gemcitabine's exocyclic amine to an -amide functionality is a well reported prodrug strategy which has been that confers a resistance to intracellular deamination while also altering pharmacokinetics of the parent drug. Coupling of gemcitabine to carboxylic acids with varying terminal moieties afforded the 4-N-alkanoylgemcitabines whereas reaction of 4-N …