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The Impacts Of Shoulder Position Sense, Vision, Racket Weight, And Gender On Racket Positioning Accuracy In Tennis Players, Kaitlyn Collins, Sydney Young, You-jou Hung 2020 Angelo State University

The Impacts Of Shoulder Position Sense, Vision, Racket Weight, And Gender On Racket Positioning Accuracy In Tennis Players, Kaitlyn Collins, Sydney Young, You-Jou Hung

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(1): 1086-1097, 2020. Repetitive loading to the shoulder joint can compromise shoulder position sense, which may further contribute to injuries and performance deficits. The first goal of the study was to examine the correlation between shoulder position sense and racket positioning accuracy. The second goal of the study was to examine the impact of visual feedback, racket weight, and gender on racket positioning accuracy in tennis players. Fifty-eight tennis players participated in the study. Active shoulder position sense was examined in 3 abduction (45°, 90°, 135°) and 2 external rotation (45°, 90°) angles. For ...


Molecular Assessment Of Epiretinal Membrane: Activated Microglia, Oxidative Stress And Inflammation, Sushma Vishwakarma, Rishikesh Kumar Gupta, Saumya Jakati, Mudit Tyagi, Rajeev Reddy Pappuru, Keith Reddig, Gregory M. Hendricks, Michael R. Volkert, Hemant Khanna, Jay Chhablani, Inderjeet Kaur 2020 Manipal Academy of Higher Education

Molecular Assessment Of Epiretinal Membrane: Activated Microglia, Oxidative Stress And Inflammation, Sushma Vishwakarma, Rishikesh Kumar Gupta, Saumya Jakati, Mudit Tyagi, Rajeev Reddy Pappuru, Keith Reddig, Gregory M. Hendricks, Michael R. Volkert, Hemant Khanna, Jay Chhablani, Inderjeet Kaur

Radiology Publications

Fibrocellular membrane or epiretinal membrane (ERM) forms on the surface of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) in the inner retina and alters the structure and function of the retina. ERM formation is frequently observed in ocular inflammatory conditions, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and retinal detachment (RD). Although peeling of the ERM is used as a surgical intervention, it can inadvertently distort the retina. Our goal is to design alternative strategies to tackle ERMs. As a first step, we sought to determine the composition of the ERMs by identifying the constituent cell-types and gene expression signature in patient samples ...


Basement Membrane Damage By Ros- And Jnk-Mediated Mmp2 Activation Drives Macrophage Recruitment To Overgrown Tissue, Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Basement Membrane Damage By Ros- And Jnk-Mediated Mmp2 Activation Drives Macrophage Recruitment To Overgrown Tissue, Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann

Open Access Articles

Macrophages are a major immune cell type infiltrating tumors and promoting tumor growth and metastasis. To elucidate the mechanism of macrophage recruitment, we utilize an overgrowth tumor model ("undead" model) in larval Drosophila imaginal discs that are attached by numerous macrophages. Here we report that changes to the microenvironment of the overgrown tissue are important for recruiting macrophages. First, we describe a correlation between generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage of the basement membrane (BM) in all neoplastic, but not hyperplastic, models examined. ROS and the stress kinase JNK mediate the accumulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), damaging ...


Effects Of Intermittent Fasting And Physical Activity On Salivary Expression Of Reduced Glutathione And Interleukin-1b, Colton Allen, Brandon Sellers, Mackinzie Smith, Alyssa Edwards, Kirsten Gateless, Bailey Aab, Kalee Sherrard, Carl Bolyard, Shawn Stover 2020 Davis & Elkins College

Effects Of Intermittent Fasting And Physical Activity On Salivary Expression Of Reduced Glutathione And Interleukin-1b, Colton Allen, Brandon Sellers, Mackinzie Smith, Alyssa Edwards, Kirsten Gateless, Bailey Aab, Kalee Sherrard, Carl Bolyard, Shawn Stover

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(7): 1063-1071, 2020. Previous research has consistently demonstrated that regular exercise promotes antioxidant production and decreases the expression of inflammation markers. However, there is very little research examining the effects of intermittent fasting (IF) on oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study investigated the hypothesis that a combination of IF and physical activity will reduce the need for glutathione (GSH) production by decreasing oxidative stress. In addition, it was hypothesized that a combination of IF and physical activity will significantly reduce inflammation, as indicated by a decrease in interleukin-1b (IL-1b) concentration. For three months ...


Jnk-Mediated Disruption Of Bile Acid Homeostasis Promotes Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma, Elisa Manieri, Tamera Barrett, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Roger J. Davis, Alfonso Mora, Guadalupe Sabio 2020 National Centre for Cardiovascular Research, Spain

Jnk-Mediated Disruption Of Bile Acid Homeostasis Promotes Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma, Elisa Manieri, Tamera Barrett, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Roger J. Davis, Alfonso Mora, Guadalupe Sabio

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Metabolic stress causes activation of the cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway. It is established that one consequence of JNK activation is the development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through inhibition of the transcription factor PPARalpha. Indeed, JNK1/2 deficiency in hepatocytes protects against the development of steatosis, suggesting that JNK inhibition represents a possible treatment for this disease. However, the long-term consequences of JNK inhibition have not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that hepatic JNK controls bile acid production. We found that hepatic JNK deficiency alters cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis, conjugation, and transport, resulting in ...


Modeling Type 1 Diabetes In Vitro Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Nayara C. Leite, Elad Sintov, Torsten B. Meissner, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, David M. Harlan, Douglas A. Melton 2020 Harvard University

Modeling Type 1 Diabetes In Vitro Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Nayara C. Leite, Elad Sintov, Torsten B. Meissner, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, David M. Harlan, Douglas A. Melton

Open Access Articles

Understanding the root causes of autoimmune diseases is hampered by the inability to access relevant human tissues and identify the time of disease onset. To examine the interaction of immune cells and their cellular targets in type 1 diabetes, we differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells into pancreatic endocrine cells, including beta cells. Here, we describe an in vitro platform that models features of human type 1 diabetes using stress-induced patient-derived endocrine cells and autologous immune cells. We demonstrate a cell-type-specific response by autologous immune cells against induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beta cells, along with a reduced effect on alpha ...


Calculating An Equation To Estimate The Maximum Oxygen Uptake In Lifeguards, Brais Ruibal-Lista, José Palacios-Aguilar, José Antonio Prieto, Sergio López-García, Miguel Santiago-Alonso, José Antonio Cecchini-Estrada, Cristian Abelairas-Gómez 2020 Universidade da Coruña

Calculating An Equation To Estimate The Maximum Oxygen Uptake In Lifeguards, Brais Ruibal-Lista, José Palacios-Aguilar, José Antonio Prieto, Sergio López-García, Miguel Santiago-Alonso, José Antonio Cecchini-Estrada, Cristian Abelairas-Gómez

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The aim of this study was to derive an equation that validly and reliably estimates the VO2 reached in the IPTL, a maximum stress test for lifeguards. From the results obtained in the first part of the research, a multiple linear regression model was identified. A "stepwise" procedure was established as a variable selection method, where the VO2IPTL was selected as the dependent variable and the maximum time reached in the IPTL (s), the percentage of muscle mass (%) and weight of the participant (kg), as independent variables. This procedure generated a regression model where a high correlation was ...


Portuguese Lifeguards Performance In Aquatic Rescue: An Exploratory Study, Olga G. Marques Ph.D., José Palacios-Aguilar Ph.D, Henrique G. Melo Mcs., Nuno G. Leitão, Lucia P. Castillo MSc., David Szpilman M.D, Luís Rama Ph.D. 2020 University of Coimbra; Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education

Portuguese Lifeguards Performance In Aquatic Rescue: An Exploratory Study, Olga G. Marques Ph.D., José Palacios-Aguilar Ph.D, Henrique G. Melo Mcs., Nuno G. Leitão, Lucia P. Castillo Msc., David Szpilman M.D, Luís Rama Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The objective of the study was to compare the performance of Portuguese lifeguards in two trials of simulated rescue at the beach within a regular continuous workday. Additionally, the study aimed to analyse the influence of experience and initial course syllabus on the rescue performance. A total of 86 Portuguese lifeguards (LG) participated in this study, 69 males and 17 females. The two simulated drowning occurrences were planned to occur at 50 meters from the coastline between 9.00h am and 18.00h pm. The weather conditions, the characteristics of the beach, wave amplitude were also controlled. The results were ...


Determining Perceptions To Electronically-Delivered, Personally-Adaptive, Multimedia Exercise Prompts For Middle-Age Adults, Paula-Marie M. Ferrara, Ethan T. Schaltegger, Cory Beaumont, Kelley Strohacker 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Determining Perceptions To Electronically-Delivered, Personally-Adaptive, Multimedia Exercise Prompts For Middle-Age Adults, Paula-Marie M. Ferrara, Ethan T. Schaltegger, Cory Beaumont, Kelley Strohacker

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(5): 979-995, 2020. Due to high interaction rates, smart devices are being utilized for mobile health (mHealth) interventions. Multimedia capabilities may be leveraged to improve mHealth exercise interventions. Our purpose was to explore individuals’ perceptions of multimedia exercise prompts tailored to their immediate mental/physical states. Using electronic surveys, respondents provided in-the-moment ratings of emotional state, energy, fatigue, physical discomfort, and thirst, with higher scores reflecting a higher “readiness to exercise” (i.e., if a person is currently in a pleasant mood with high energy and low discomfort, he/she is likely to have ...


The Relationship Between Aerobic Test Performance And Injuries In Police Recruits, Robin Marc Orr, Danielle Ferguson, Ben Schram, J. Jay Dawes, Robert G. Lockie, Rodney Pope 2020 Tactical Research Unit, Bond University

The Relationship Between Aerobic Test Performance And Injuries In Police Recruits, Robin Marc Orr, Danielle Ferguson, Ben Schram, J. Jay Dawes, Robert G. Lockie, Rodney Pope

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(4): 1052-1062, 2020. Lower levels of fitness are associated with an increased risk of injury in police recruits. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between initial aerobic performance assessments and injury risk during police recruit training. Retrospective data from 219 police recruits undergoing training program at a state police training academy, including 20-m Multistage Fitness Test (MSFT) and 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (IFT) scores and injury data, were collected. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between levels of fitness (MSFT rs = - 0.292, p < 0.001: 30-15 IFT rs=- 0.315, p < 0.001) and rates of injury. Furthermore, a Pearson’s correlation showed a strong correlation between MSFT and the 30-15 IFT scores (r = 0.877, p < 0.001). Police recruits with lower fitness were at a higher risk of injury than those with higher fitness over the duration of a recruit training program. These findings indicate that aerobic performance assessments may be used by law enforcement agencies to estimate the relative risks of injury among cadets.


Reproducibility Of Objective And Subjective Markers Of Exercise Recovery In College Aged Males, Katie Coffey, Rachel McCollum, Elizabeth Smyth, Eliza Casey, Jade Plunkett, Katy Horner 2020 University College Dublin

Reproducibility Of Objective And Subjective Markers Of Exercise Recovery In College Aged Males, Katie Coffey, Rachel Mccollum, Elizabeth Smyth, Eliza Casey, Jade Plunkett, Katy Horner

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(4): 1041-1051, 2020. This study investigated the reproducibility of objective and subjective parameters of recovery pre- and post-exercise in college-aged male athletes. Thirteen male (aged 19-22y) team sport players were assessed for a range of recovery markers before and 24 hours after a repeated sprint protocol. An identical procedure was followed one week later. Participants undertook two objective tests: creatine kinase (CK) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height; and two subjective tests: visual analogue scale (VAS) for muscle soreness and 5-item well-being questionnaire (WB). Coefficients of variation (CV) of CMJ and WB were lowest of ...


Anthropometrical And Physical Fitness Predictors Of Operational Military Test Performance In Air Force Personnel, Raí Tripolone Silva, Fabio A D Campos, Leandra Cristina Benetti Campos, Monica Y. Takito, Edison M. Miron, Idico L. Pellegrinotti, Emerson Franchini 2020 Postgraduate Program in Operational Human Performance, Air Force University, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL

Anthropometrical And Physical Fitness Predictors Of Operational Military Test Performance In Air Force Personnel, Raí Tripolone Silva, Fabio A D Campos, Leandra Cristina Benetti Campos, Monica Y. Takito, Edison M. Miron, Idico L. Pellegrinotti, Emerson Franchini

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(4): 1028-1040, 2020. The objective of this study was to verify the relationships between the anthropometrical and physical fitness parameters (measured by the Physical Conditioning Assessment (PCA) of the Aeronautics Command), with the operational performance in the simulated military task performance (SMTP) performed by the infantry military of a Brazilian Air Force (BAF) unit. These evaluations were performed on two distinct days, interspersed by 48h, with PCA on the first day and the SMTP in the second. The distribution of the dependent variable was not normal (Shapiro-Wilk test, p = 0.001). Data are presented ...


Analyzing The Training Load Demands, And Influence Of Sex And Body Mass, On The Tactical Task Of A Casualty Drag Via Surface Electromyography Wearable Technology, Robert G. Lockie, Matthew R. Moreno, Spencer Ducheny, Robin Marc Orr, J. Jay Dawes, Katherine Balfany 2020 California State University, Fullerton

Analyzing The Training Load Demands, And Influence Of Sex And Body Mass, On The Tactical Task Of A Casualty Drag Via Surface Electromyography Wearable Technology, Robert G. Lockie, Matthew R. Moreno, Spencer Ducheny, Robin Marc Orr, J. Jay Dawes, Katherine Balfany

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(4): 1012-1027, 2020. This study measured the training load (TL) demands associated with a military-specific casualty drag measured via surface electromyography (sEMG) wearable technology, and the influence of sex and body mass on these measures. Thirty-six college-aged participants (males = 25; females = 11) performed two trials of a 123-kg (91-kg dummy with 32-kg load) backwards casualty drag over 15 m. Time was recorded to calculate drag velocity, with the fastest trial analyzed. Prior to testing, participants were fitted with compression garments embedded with sensors to measure the vastus lateralis and medialis (quadriceps; QUAD), biceps femoris ...


A Comparison Of V̇O2, And Muscle And Prefrontal Cortex Tissue Oxygen Extraction Between Short And Long-Term Aerobically Trained Men Aged 40 - 60 Years, Gavin Buzza 2020 Charles Sturt University

A Comparison Of V̇O2, And Muscle And Prefrontal Cortex Tissue Oxygen Extraction Between Short And Long-Term Aerobically Trained Men Aged 40 - 60 Years, Gavin Buzza

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(3): 964-978, 2020. This study was designed to compare systemic O2 utilization (V̇O2), and changes in tissue O2 extraction [deoxyhemoglobin (ΔHHb)] in the vastus lateralis (VL), gastrocnemius (GAST) and pre-frontal cortex (PFC) tissue; between aerobically short-term trained (STT) and long-term trained (LTT) older men (40 - 60 yr) who were matched for current training load. On separate occasions, 14 STT and 14 LTT participants completed ramp incremental (RI) and square-wave constant load (SWCL) tests on a cycle ergometer. In LTT compared to STT; (i) V̇O2 was higher during the ...


Physiological And Biomechanical Differences Between Seated And Standing Uphill Cycling, Quint N. Berkemeier, Brent W. Alumbaugh, Trevor Gillum, Jared Coburn, Jong-Kyung Kim, Michael Reeder, Chelsie A. Fechtner, Gerald A. Smith 2020 University of New Mexico

Physiological And Biomechanical Differences Between Seated And Standing Uphill Cycling, Quint N. Berkemeier, Brent W. Alumbaugh, Trevor Gillum, Jared Coburn, Jong-Kyung Kim, Michael Reeder, Chelsie A. Fechtner, Gerald A. Smith

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(2): 996-1011, 2020. Despite differences in economy, cyclists climb in seated and standing positions. Prompted by gaps in research, we compared VO2 and heart rate (HR) (Study 1), muscle activation (Study 2) and breathing and pedaling entrainment (Study 3). METHODS: Subjects rode their bicycles on a treadmill in seated and standing positions. In Study 1, VO2 and HR of four male cyclists (21.3 ± 1.7 yrs; 69.1 ± 6 ml/kg/min) were collected, alternating positions every 5 minutes for 20 minutes (8 mph, 8% grade). In Study 2, muscle activations ...


Regulation Of The Mammalian Swi/Snf Family Of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes By Phosphorylation During Myogenesis, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Anthony N. Imbalzano 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Regulation Of The Mammalian Swi/Snf Family Of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes By Phosphorylation During Myogenesis, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Anthony N. Imbalzano

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Myogenesis is the biological process by which skeletal muscle tissue forms. Regulation of myogenesis involves a variety of conventional, epigenetic, and epigenomic mechanisms that control chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, histone modification, and activation of transcription factors. Chromatin remodeling enzymes utilize ATP hydrolysis to alter nucleosome structure and/or positioning. The mammalian SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (mSWI/SNF) family of chromatin remodeling enzymes is essential for myogenesis. Here we review diverse and novel mechanisms of regulation of mSWI/SNF enzymes by kinases and phosphatases. The integration of classic signaling pathways with chromatin remodeling enzyme function impacts myoblast viability and proliferation as well ...


Phenotypic Plasticity Of Japanese Medaka Gill In Response To Changing Salinities, Laura V. Ellis 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Phenotypic Plasticity Of Japanese Medaka Gill In Response To Changing Salinities, Laura V. Ellis

Theses and Dissertations

Japanese medaka (Oryzais latipes) are euryhaline fish, meaning they are capable of surviving in a variety of salinities from fresh water to seawater. The ability to maintain an internal osmotic concentration stems from the phenotypic plasticity of the osmoregulatory organs, the gill, kidney, intestine, and integument. The gill is the main site of osmotic and ionic regulation in fish due to the three-dimensional structure, the direct contact with the outside environment, and the composition of the gill cells. Fish gills are multifunctional as they regulate water movement, acid/base exchange, nitrogenous waste excretion, and ion fluctuations. In freshwater environments, fish ...


Understanding The Effects Of Physical Activity On Executive Functioning And Psycho-Emotional Well-Being In Children With Adhd, Hannah B. Bigelow 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Understanding The Effects Of Physical Activity On Executive Functioning And Psycho-Emotional Well-Being In Children With Adhd, Hannah B. Bigelow

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A short bout of physical activity has been shown to improve executive functioning in children. However, the implications for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been understudied. We examined the impact of a 10min bout of physical activity on executive functioning and psycho-emotional well-being in children with ADHD. Participants engaged in two lab-based sessions separated by 1-week: a physical activity session and a control session. The physical activity session included a 10min bout of moderate-intensity biking, with a pre-post battery of cognitive and psycho-emotional assessments. The control session consisted of 10mins of silent reading. We used functional imaging ...


Effects Of Combined Power Band Resistance Training On Sprint Speed, Agility, Vertical Jump Height And Strength In Collegiate Soccer Players, Edgar T. Katushabe, Mark Kramer 2020 Nelson Mandela University

Effects Of Combined Power Band Resistance Training On Sprint Speed, Agility, Vertical Jump Height And Strength In Collegiate Soccer Players, Edgar T. Katushabe, Mark Kramer

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(4): 950-963, 2020. Soccer involves explosive physical actions requiring strength, power, and agility for optimal performance. Such attributes may be trained several ways, of which power-band resistance training has received limited attention regarding the potential for performance improvement in soccer players. This study serves to determine the effect of power-band resistance training on 1-repetition maximal (1RM) strength, speed, standing vertical jump (SVJ) height, and agility of collegiate soccer players. Seventeen male players (age: 20.47 ± 1.85 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.08 m, mass: 70.49 ± 4.15 kg) were matched and randomly ...


A Single Bout Of Foam Rolling Increases Flexibility Of The Hip Adductor Muscles Without Compromising Strength, Gavin Connolly, Roger L. Hammer, Joseph A. Powell, Paul L. O'Connor 2020 Purdue University/Central Michigan University

A Single Bout Of Foam Rolling Increases Flexibility Of The Hip Adductor Muscles Without Compromising Strength, Gavin Connolly, Roger L. Hammer, Joseph A. Powell, Paul L. O'Connor

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(7): 938-949, 2020. Foam rolling (FR) is a method of self-myofascial release (SMR) implemented to reduce tension in underlying soft tissue, leading to increased range of motion (ROM). The hip adductor muscles of the groin are commonly less flexible and often a site for soft tissue injuries. Limited research has been done to determine the most effective flexibility exercises to increase ROM in the groin muscles prior to exercise without comprising strength. The purpose was to determine the effect of an acute bout of FR on passive groin flexibility and strength. Randomized crossover study ...


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