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Pilot Study: Heart Rate Variability Analysis And Mental Health Outcomes In University Female Hockey Players, Kaitlyn Jacobs 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Pilot Study: Heart Rate Variability Analysis And Mental Health Outcomes In University Female Hockey Players, Kaitlyn Jacobs

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Exercise improves anxiety and depression, both of which are associated with impaired autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR). In turn, HR variability (HRV) is a reliable physiological indicator of external stressors. The following research tested the hypothesis that HRV is indicative of chronic resilience towards mental stress in female varsity hockey players. Seventeen varsity hockey players (HOCK, age 21 ± 1.5) and fifteen healthy controls (CTRL, age 21 ± 2.2) at Western University participated three times throughout a 7-month season. Participants completed questionnaires (brief resilience scale, BRS; generalized anxiety scale, GAD-7; mental health inventory, MHI; visual analog scale, VAS; short ...


Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett 2018 University of Wyoming

Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett

Honors Theses AY 17/18

One out of every five American children lives below the federal poverty line. Considering that poverty is deemed one of the most influential risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, it is critical to understand what effect poverty has on the developing brain and how those brain changes affect a child’s life. Poverty is chiefly defined by having a low socioeconomic status (SES), but a low SES is often accompanied by other influencers, such as nutrition and mental stimulation, termed poverty co-factors. Other poverty co-factors include, but are not limited to, maternal stress and malnutrition, environmental toxins, parental nurturance, and ...


Effects Of A Form Of Equine-Facilitated Learning On Heart Rate Variability, Immune Function, And Self-Esteem In Older Adults, Ann L. Baldwin, Barbara K. Rector, Ann C. Alden 2018 University of Arizona

Effects Of A Form Of Equine-Facilitated Learning On Heart Rate Variability, Immune Function, And Self-Esteem In Older Adults, Ann L. Baldwin, Barbara K. Rector, Ann C. Alden

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

Equine-facilitated learning (EFL) helps people access their immediate sensations and feelings because horses, as prey animals, are continually aware of their environment and provide instant feedback to human behaviors and emotions. We hypothesize that during EFL, older people become more aware of their bodily sensations and emotions, leading to increased heart rate variability (HRV), improved self-esteem (Rosenberg scale), and improved immune function. Twenty-four subjects (age > 55) participated in a single 15-minute EFL activity, Con Su Permiso, during which they focused on their bodily sensations and the responses of the horse as they moved toward and around the horse. Subjects served ...


Thermoregulatory Adaptations Following Sprint Interval Training, Jonathan E. Wingo, Charlie P. Katica, Svetlana Nepocatych, Andrew T. Del Pozzi, Greg A. Ryan 2018 University of Alabama

Thermoregulatory Adaptations Following Sprint Interval Training, Jonathan E. Wingo, Charlie P. Katica, Svetlana Nepocatych, Andrew T. Del Pozzi, Greg A. Ryan

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Traditional endurance training typically involves weeks of long-duration (60–90 min) exercise performed at a moderate to vigorous intensity. An alternative paradigm, sprint interval training, is characterized by multiple bouts of short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Similar fitness benefits from the two paradigms have been demonstrated, but whether sprint interval training—like traditional endurance training—induces heat acclimation remains unclear.

Purpose

To test the hypothesis that sprint interval training performed over six sessions results in measureable thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptations consistent with heat acclimation.

Methods

Seven untrained men [mean ± SD, 13 ± 5% body fat, 22 ± 3 y, 3.1 ± 0.3 L ...


The Mechanism Of Biotremor Production In The Veiled Chameleon (Chameleon Calyptratus), Samuel Tegge 2018 Western Kentucky University

The Mechanism Of Biotremor Production In The Veiled Chameleon (Chameleon Calyptratus), Samuel Tegge

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Vibratory communication has evolved in numerous animal groups, including insects, spiders, fishes, mammals, and was recently discovered in veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). I examined the mechanism by which C. calyptratus produce these biotremors. Muscle activity data were gathered during simulated anti-predator responses via electromyography (EMG) with simultaneous recordings of biotremor production using an accelerometer. I correlated EMG data with the accelerometer data to implicate the muscles responsible for the production of the biotremors. Mixed-effect linear regression models described the mechanism, and a model selection framework determined which model fit the data best. I then used an analysis of variance to ...


Sympatho-Excitatory Response To Pulmonary Chemosensitive Spinal Afferent Activation In Anesthetized, Vagotomized Rats, Julia A. Shanks, Zhiqiu Xia, Steven J. Lisco, George J. Rozanski, Harold D. Schultz, Irving H. Zucker, Han-Jun Wang 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Sympatho-Excitatory Response To Pulmonary Chemosensitive Spinal Afferent Activation In Anesthetized, Vagotomized Rats, Julia A. Shanks, Zhiqiu Xia, Steven J. Lisco, George J. Rozanski, Harold D. Schultz, Irving H. Zucker, Han-Jun Wang

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

The sensory innervation of the lung is well known to be innervated by nerve fibers of both vagal and sympathetic origin. Although the vagal afferent innervation of the lung has been well characterized, less is known about physiological effects mediated by spinal sympathetic afferent fibers. We hypothesized that activation of sympathetic spinal afferent nerve fibers of the lung would result in an excitatory pressor reflex, similar to that previously characterized in the heart. In this study, we evaluated changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and hemodynamics in response to activation of TRPV1-sensitive pulmonary spinal sensory fibers by agonist application ...


S-Nitrosation Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Mediates Alcohol-Induced Ciliary Dysfunction, Michael E. Price, Adam J. Case, Jacqueline A. Pavlik, Jane M. DeVasure, Todd A. Wyatt, Matthew C. Zimmerman, Joseph H. Sisson 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

S-Nitrosation Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Mediates Alcohol-Induced Ciliary Dysfunction, Michael E. Price, Adam J. Case, Jacqueline A. Pavlik, Jane M. Devasure, Todd A. Wyatt, Matthew C. Zimmerman, Joseph H. Sisson

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a strong risk factor for development and mortality of pneumonia. Mucociliary clearance, a key innate defense against pneumonia, is perturbed by alcohol use. Specifically, ciliated airway cells lose the ability to increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) to β-agonist stimulation after prolonged alcohol exposure. We previously found that alcohol activates protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) through a redox mechanism to cause ciliary dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that PP1 activity is enhanced by alcohol exposure through an S-nitrosothiol-dependent mechanism resulting in desensitization of CBF stimulation. Bronchoalveolar S-nitrosothiol (SNO) content and tracheal PP1 activity was increased in wild-type (WT ...


Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett

CMC Senior Theses

Fossils belonging to the genus Homo, dating as far back as two million years ago, exhibit uniquely efficient features suggesting that early humans had evolved to become exceptional endurance runners. Although they did not have the cushion or stability-control features provided in our modern day running shoes, our early human ancestors experienced far less of the running-related injuries we experience today. The injury rate has been estimated as high as 90% annually for Americans training for a marathon and as high as 79% annually for all American endurance runners. There is an injury epidemic in conventionally shod populations that does ...


Nicotine Administration And Withdrawal And Its Effect On Sleep Latency, Relevant Sleep Variables, And Endogenous Corticosterone Levels In Mice, Vishnu Iyer 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Nicotine Administration And Withdrawal And Its Effect On Sleep Latency, Relevant Sleep Variables, And Endogenous Corticosterone Levels In Mice, Vishnu Iyer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

NREM and REM sleep have shown an exceptional importance in controlling various cognitive functions (Brown et al, 2012), and disruption of such sleep states can cause mental and physical impairments (Christie et al, 2008). Disruptions in sleep stages (Wakefulness, REM, NREM) can be identified via EEG recordings in mice without much interference (Mckenna et al, 2008). Circadian Rhythm, hormonal markers, and stress all affect the duration, intensity and timing of these sleep stages (Brown et al, 2004; Veasey et al 2004; Christie et al, 2008). One cohort of mice (n=7) underwent a baseline condition (BL), a nicotine administration condition ...


Environmental And Physiological Regulation Of Yellow Stingray Color Change, Theresa Rose Gunn 2018 Georgia Southern University

Environmental And Physiological Regulation Of Yellow Stingray Color Change, Theresa Rose Gunn

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Many reef fishes exhibit dynamic coloration and body patterns that can change under nervous or hormonal control. Several species of benthic sharks and rays likely alter melanin in the skin to provide background matching for camouflage. The yellow stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis) is a benthically-oriented elasmobranch with elaborate spot patterns that provide effective camouflage within its habitats. This patterning, when coupled with the ability to alter melanin in response to background color, could increase background matching effectiveness in these species. The yellow stingray has been anecdotally noted to lighten or darken skin color.However, it is unclear whether this type of ...


Space Operations In The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator And Mission Control Center: Lessons Learned With Xcor Lynx, Pedro Llanos, Christopher Nguyen, David Williams, Kim O. Chambers Ph.D., Erik Seedhouse, Robert Davidson 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Space Operations In The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator And Mission Control Center: Lessons Learned With Xcor Lynx, Pedro Llanos, Christopher Nguyen, David Williams, Kim O. Chambers Ph.D., Erik Seedhouse, Robert Davidson

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

This study was conducted to better understand the performance of the XCOR Lynx vehicle. Because the Lynx development was halted, the best knowledge of vehicle dynamics can only be found through simulator flights. X-Plane 10 was chosen for its robust applications and accurate portrayal of dynamics on a vehicle in flight. The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator (SSFS) and Mission Control Center (MCC) were brought to the Applied Aviation Sciences department in fall 2015 at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach campus. This academic and research tool is a department asset capable of providing multiple fields of data about suborbital simulated flights ...


Organizational Effects Of Defeminizing Toxicants: Lessons Learned From An Environmental Sentinel Organism, The Fathead Minnow., Jonathan Ali 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Organizational Effects Of Defeminizing Toxicants: Lessons Learned From An Environmental Sentinel Organism, The Fathead Minnow., Jonathan Ali

Theses & Dissertations

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that interfere with hormone function and are increasingly detected in aquatic environments, where they elicit adverse effects from exposed organisms. The toxicological effects of EDCs can be described as either activational (reversible) or organizational (irreversible), where the latter are associated with adverse outcomes in reproductive performance of adult fish. However, few studies have investigated the organizational impacts of anti-estrogenic or “defeminizing” EDCs, e.g. agrichemicals or pharmacological agents, in an environmentally-relevant or “sentinel” species. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of early-life EDC-initiated changes in estrogenic gene expression on organizational ...


Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Recent observations have shown that patients treated with MTX also exhibit a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although MTX reduces systemic inflammation and tissue damage, the mechanisms by which MTX exerts these beneficial effects are not entirely known. We have previously demonstrated that protein adducts formed by the interaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetaldehyde (AA), known as MAA-protein adducts, are present in diseased tissues of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or CVD. In previously reported studies, MAA-adducts were shown to be highly immunogenic ...


Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive In The Setting Of Low And High Output Heart Failure., Rodrigo Del Rio, David C. Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S. Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz 2017 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive In The Setting Of Low And High Output Heart Failure., Rodrigo Del Rio, David C. Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S. Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex function is strongly related to cardiorespiratory disorders and disease progression in heart failure (HF). The mechanisms underlying CB sensitization during HF are not fully understood, however previous work indicates blood flow per se can affect CB function. Then, we hypothesized that the CB-mediated chemoreflex drive will be enhanced only in low output HF but not in high output HF. Myocardial infarcted rats and aorto-caval fistulated rats were used as a low output HF model (MI-CHF) and as a high output HF model (AV-CHF), respectively. Blood flow supply to the CB region was decreased only in ...


Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles 2017 Purdue University

Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Understanding speech in noisy environments can be difficult, especially for people with hearing loss. The background noise can cover up the sounds of interest. Normally, the auditory system works to alleviate this problem by tagging and then cancelling the noise. Our experiments are aimed at understanding the mechanism of this noise cancellation process. We hypothesize that non-linear signal processing in the mammalian cochlea (the most peripheral part of the auditory system) is the basis of noise cancellation. To test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) to sounds embedded in background noise with different statistical properties. ANFs ...


H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a cardioprotective gas, is endogenously produced from homocysteine by cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) enzymes. However, effect of H2S or homocysteine on CBS and CSE expression, and cross-talk between CBS and CSE are unclear. We hypothesize that homocysteine and H2S regulate CBS and CSE expressions in a dose dependent manner in cardiomyocytes, and CBS deficiency induces cardiac CSE expression. To test the hypothesis, we treated murine atrial HL1 cardiomyocytes with increasing doses of homocysteine or Na2S/GYY4137, a H2S donor, and measured the levels of CBS and CSE. We found that homocysteine upregulates ...


Can Cone Signals In The Wild Be Predicted From The Past?, David H. Foster, Iván Marín-Franch 2017 University of Manchester, UK

Can Cone Signals In The Wild Be Predicted From The Past?, David H. Foster, Iván Marín-Franch

MODVIS Workshop

In the natural world, the past is usually a good guide to the future. If light from the sun and sky is blue earlier in the day and yellow now, then it is likely to be more yellow later, as the sun's elevation decreases. But is the light reflected from a scene into the eye as predictable as the light incident upon the scene, especially when lighting changes are not just spectral but include changes in local shadows and mutual reflections? The aim of this work was to test the predictability of cone photoreceptor signals in the wild over ...


Reduced Sirt3 Contributes To Large Elastic Artery Stiffness With Aging, Alexander Lee Brodjeski 2017 University of Iowa

Reduced Sirt3 Contributes To Large Elastic Artery Stiffness With Aging, Alexander Lee Brodjeski

Theses and Dissertations

Age-related increases in arterial stiffness are mediated in part by mitochondrial dysfunction. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase that regulates mitochondrial function. SIRT3 deficiency contributes to physiological dysfunction in a variety of pathological conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that age-associated arterial stiffness, assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), would be accompanied with decreased renal and aortic SIRT3 expression and activity due to decreased NAD+ levels. We further tested whether boosting NAD+ concentration with nicotinamide riboside (NR), a NAD+ precursor, for 6 months would reverse the effects of aging. Old (~26 mo, n = 9) C57BL/6 ...


Characterization Of Andrenocortical Tissue Morphology, Histology, And Steroid Synthesis Among Finetooth (Carcharhinus Isodon), Blacktip (Carcharhinus Limbatus), Atlantic Sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae), And Bonnethead (Sphyrna Tiburo) Sharks, Danielle Elizabeth Bailey 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Characterization Of Andrenocortical Tissue Morphology, Histology, And Steroid Synthesis Among Finetooth (Carcharhinus Isodon), Blacktip (Carcharhinus Limbatus), Atlantic Sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae), And Bonnethead (Sphyrna Tiburo) Sharks, Danielle Elizabeth Bailey

Master's Theses

Adrenocortical (interrenal) tissue is composed of steroidogenic cells that produce corticosteroids involved in the stress response and hydromineral balance. Previous research characterizing the elasmobranch interrenal suggests that the number of interrenal bodies that produce the single primary corticosteroid, 1a-hydroxycorticosterone (1a-OHB), varies among species. However, potential species-specific differences in the amount of interrenal tissue and major steroid products produced have been understudied. To address this critical gap in our understanding of elasmobranch biology, this study examined interrenal morphology, cell structure, steroidogenic enzyme distribution (3bHSD), and steroid production in four shark species: Finetooth Carcharhinus isodon, Blacktip Carcharhinus limbatus, Atlantic Sharpnose Rhizoprionodon terraenovae ...


Impaired Dynamic Cerebrovascular Autoregulation In Adolescent Concussion, Marcy Erin Moir 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Impaired Dynamic Cerebrovascular Autoregulation In Adolescent Concussion, Marcy Erin Moir

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although cerebrovascular impairments are believed to contribute to concussion symptoms, little information exists regarding brain vasomotor control in adolescent concussion, particularly during changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP). This research tested the hypothesis that adolescent concussion is marked by impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). Thirty concussed adolescents and thirty healthy controls completed two sit-to-stand trials. Cerebral blood flow velocity and ABP were measured continuously. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was calculated and the rate of drop in CVR relative to the change in ABP provided the rate of regulation (RoR). The concussed adolescents were followed through rehabilitation for up to 12-weeks. At ...


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