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147 full-text articles. Page 1 of 5.

Metabolic Network Rewiring Of Propionate Flux Compensates Vitamin B12 Deficiency In C. Elegans, Emma Watson, Viridiana Olin-Sandoval, Michael J. Hoy, Chi-Hua Li, Timo Louisse, Victoria Yao, Akihiro Mori, Amy D. Holdorf, Olga G. Troyanskaya, Markus Ralser, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Metabolic Network Rewiring Of Propionate Flux Compensates Vitamin B12 Deficiency In C. Elegans, Emma Watson, Viridiana Olin-Sandoval, Michael J. Hoy, Chi-Hua Li, Timo Louisse, Victoria Yao, Akihiro Mori, Amy D. Holdorf, Olga G. Troyanskaya, Markus Ralser, Albertha J. M. Walhout

Open Access Articles

Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked ...


Mathematical Modeling Of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation In Young Men, Renee Brady 2016 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Mathematical Modeling Of Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation In Young Men, Renee Brady

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


A Theoretical Model Of The Increase In Venous Oxygen Saturation Levels In Advanced Glaucoma Patients, Julia C. Arciero 2016 IUPUI

A Theoretical Model Of The Increase In Venous Oxygen Saturation Levels In Advanced Glaucoma Patients, Julia C. Arciero

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Genetic Variation In Long-Term And Short-Term Physiological Changes In Daphnia Magna During Acclimation To High Temperature, bret l. coggins 2016 East Tennessee State University

Genetic Variation In Long-Term And Short-Term Physiological Changes In Daphnia Magna During Acclimation To High Temperature, Bret L. Coggins

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The aquatic zooplankton crustacean Daphnia magna must be able to tolerate thermal stress in order to survive their native shallow ponds that are susceptible to drastic seasonal and diurnal temperature fluctuations as well as to globally increasing temperatures. Survival in such variable environments requires plastic responses that must include fundamental aspects of Daphnia biochemistry and physiology. Adaptive response to selection favoring such plastic phenotypes requires the presence of genetic variation for plastic response in natural populations. Adverse effects of elevated temperature on aquatic organisms are diverse and so are their plastic responses; among the most severe challenges aquatic organisms face ...


Afferent Vs. Efferent Cervical Vagal Nerve Stimulation: Effects On Blood Glucose, Insulin, And Glucagon Concentrations In Rats, Erin Elizabeth Meyers 2016 University of Iowa

Afferent Vs. Efferent Cervical Vagal Nerve Stimulation: Effects On Blood Glucose, Insulin, And Glucagon Concentrations In Rats, Erin Elizabeth Meyers

Theses and Dissertations

Cervical vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been studied in the context of several conditions including epilepsy and depression. However, its effects on glucose metabolism, and its potentially beneficial effects in type II diabetes, have not yet been evaluated in humans. Efferent parasympathetic activation reduces hepatic glucose release and increases pancreatic insulin secretion, while afferent parasympathetic activation may increase hepatic glucose release and inhibit insulin secretion potentially through sympathetic activation. Thus, the effect of combined afferent and efferent cervical VNS is difficult to predict. We hypothesized that selective efferent VNS would decrease blood glucose concentration [Glu] and that selective afferent VNS ...


Optimizing Motor Mmemory In Healthy Adults, Sara Jeanne Hussain 2016 University of Iowa

Optimizing Motor Mmemory In Healthy Adults, Sara Jeanne Hussain

Theses and Dissertations

Motor learning is an important component of daily life: humans are constantly adjusting their movements and acquiring new skills in order to meet the demands of their environment. Motor learning also contributes to neurorehabilitation, so it is therefore important to understand the neural mechanisms underlying motor learning so that these mechanisms can be exploited to promote neurorehabilitation after central nervous system injury. This dissertation focuses on three distinct methods of improving motor learning in healthy adults. In Chapter 2, we tested the effects of perturbation schedule on retention of a locomotor adaptation. The results of this work demonstrated that introducing ...


Role Of Anxiety On Vascular Dysfunction, Tiwaloluwa Adedamola Ajibewa 2016 University of Iowa

Role Of Anxiety On Vascular Dysfunction, Tiwaloluwa Adedamola Ajibewa

Theses and Dissertations

High anxiety is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), in particular, atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. However, the mechanisms by which anxiety contributes to the development of CVD are unclear. Unlike other common psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and its effects on CVD risk has not been studied extensively. Moreover, whether elevated anxiety is associated with arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction, biomarkers of CVD risk, in healthy adults and whether a psychological intervention designed to lower anxiety levels in healthy adults with moderate to high baseline anxiety levels ameliorates vascular dysfunction remains unclear. The purpose ...


Designing A Mobile Space Habitat Analog, Victor Kitmanyen, Matthew Burkhard, Timothy Disher 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Designing A Mobile Space Habitat Analog, Victor Kitmanyen, Matthew Burkhard, Timothy Disher

Human Factors and Applied Psychology Student Conference

No abstract provided.


Glucocorticoid Receptor (Nr3c1) Variants Associate With The Muscle Strength And Size Response To Resistance Training., Garrett I Ash, Matthew A Kostek, Harold Lee, Theodore J Angelopoulos, Priscilla M Clarkson, Paul M Gordon, Niall M Moyna, Paul S Visich, Robert F Zoeller, Thomas B Price, Joseph M. Devaney, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Paul D Thompson, Eric P. Hoffman, Linda S Pescatello 2016 George Washington University

Glucocorticoid Receptor (Nr3c1) Variants Associate With The Muscle Strength And Size Response To Resistance Training., Garrett I Ash, Matthew A Kostek, Harold Lee, Theodore J Angelopoulos, Priscilla M Clarkson, Paul M Gordon, Niall M Moyna, Paul S Visich, Robert F Zoeller, Thomas B Price, Joseph M. Devaney, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Paul D Thompson, Eric P. Hoffman, Linda S Pescatello

Integrative Systems Biology Faculty Publications

Glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) polymorphisms associate with obesity, muscle strength, and cortisol sensitivity. We examined associations among four NR3C1 polymorphisms and the muscle response to resistance training (RT). European-American adults (n = 602, 23.8±0.4yr) completed a 12 week unilateral arm RT program. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed isometric strength (kg) and MRI assessed biceps size (cm2) pre- and post-resistance training. Subjects were genotyped for NR3C1 -2722G>A, -1887G>A, -1017T>C, and +363A>G. Men carrying the -2722G allele gained less relative MVC (17.3±1.2vs33.5±6.1%) (p = 0.010) than AA homozygotes; men with -1887GG ...


Low-Dose Aronia Melanocarpa Concentrate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Neurotoxicity, Adam J. Case, Daniel Agraz, Iman M. Ahmad, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Low-Dose Aronia Melanocarpa Concentrate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Neurotoxicity, Adam J. Case, Daniel Agraz, Iman M. Ahmad, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

No abstract provided.


Angiotensin Ii-Induced Hypertension Is Attenuated By Overexpressing Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase In The Brain Organum Vasculosum Of The Lamina Terminalis., John P. Collister, Heather Taylor-Smith, Donna Drebes, David Nahey, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2016 University of Minnesota

Angiotensin Ii-Induced Hypertension Is Attenuated By Overexpressing Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase In The Brain Organum Vasculosum Of The Lamina Terminalis., John P. Collister, Heather Taylor-Smith, Donna Drebes, David Nahey, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Angiotensin II (AngII) can access the brain via circumventricular organs (CVOs), including the subfornical organ (SFO) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), to modulate blood pressure. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for both the SFO and OVLT in the hypertensive response to chronic AngII, yet it is unclear which intracellular signaling pathways are involved in this response. Overexpression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in the SFO has been shown to attenuate the chronic hypertensive effects of AngII. Presently, we tested the hypothesis that elevated levels of superoxide (O2 (∙-)) in the OVLT contribute to the hypertensive effects ...


Success Stories And Emerging Themes In Conservation Physiology, Christine L. Madliger, Steven J. Cooke, Erica J. Crespi, Jennifer L. Funk, Kevin R. Hultine, Kathleen E. Hunt, Jason R. Rohr, Brent J. Sinclair, Cory D. Suski, Craig K. R. Willis, Oliver P. Love 2016 University of Windsor

Success Stories And Emerging Themes In Conservation Physiology, Christine L. Madliger, Steven J. Cooke, Erica J. Crespi, Jennifer L. Funk, Kevin R. Hultine, Kathleen E. Hunt, Jason R. Rohr, Brent J. Sinclair, Cory D. Suski, Craig K. R. Willis, Oliver P. Love

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause–effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of ‘conservation physiology’, to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess ...


Investigation Of Self-Reported Sleep Duration On Waist-To-Height Ratio Measures Of Obesity, Ruth Sanchez 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Investigation Of Self-Reported Sleep Duration On Waist-To-Height Ratio Measures Of Obesity, Ruth Sanchez

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Inadequate sleep over time is associated with excess body mass. Data was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine the effects of sleep duration over time on body adiposity outcomes. Respondents were included if they had participated in all four waves of the Add Health study (n = 2,766) from 1994 to 2008. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between sleep and obesity using the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this study, regression approaches were used to assess the relationship between sleep and WHtR. Analyses were controlled for sex, age, race ...


Dietary Prebiotics Promote Anxiolytic-Like Behavior In The Open Field Test And Reduce Relative Adrenal And Spleen Weight In Fischer 344 Rats, Rachel Roller 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Dietary Prebiotics Promote Anxiolytic-Like Behavior In The Open Field Test And Reduce Relative Adrenal And Spleen Weight In Fischer 344 Rats, Rachel Roller

Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is becoming increasingly clear that the community of microorganisms living in the mammalian gut (the gut microbiota) exerts a significant influence on brain function. Evidence suggests that the microbiota plays a role in anxiety and anxiety-like behavior in animal models. Several studies have demonstrated reduced anxiety-like behavior with administration of probiotics (live bacteria with known health benefits), but less work has been done to investigate the potential anxiolytic effects of prebiotics (dietary substances that promote probiotics already residing in the gut). Prebiotics have several advantages over probiotics as an intervention against anxiety.

We tested the effects of a diet ...


Changes In Brain Water Content In The Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus) Due To High External Ammonia Exposure, Phillip Q.H. Pham-Ho 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

Changes In Brain Water Content In The Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus) Due To High External Ammonia Exposure, Phillip Q.H. Pham-Ho

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In fishes, hyperammonemia may occur following feeding or exposure to abnormally high concentrations of environmental ammonia due to sewage effluents, agricultural run-off and in crowded aquaculture pens. Increased internal ammonia can result in hyperactivity, convulsions, coma and death. In mammals, it is also associated with potentially fatal brain edema, in which the accumulation of intracellular water results in swelling, increased intracranical pressure and herniation leading to death. Recently it was shown that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) experience brain swelling following exposure to high external ammonia (HEA). However, the mechanism of ammonia-induced brain swelling in fishes remains ...


The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr. 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Toxic build-ups of ammonia can cause potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals, but such swelling is reversible in the anoxia- and ammonia-tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus). The mechanisms of ammonia-induced brain swelling and tolerance remain elusive, but several studies have suggested a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of astrocytes in the brain. As a result, osmotic gradients across cell membranes may be altered leading to water uptake by astrocytes and swelling. While a role for ROS has been proposed in mammals, no studies have addressed this question in teleosts, in ...


Lifestyle Contributors To Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Adam J. Berrones 2016 University of Kentucky

Lifestyle Contributors To Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Adam J. Berrones

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

Aortic stiffness is an independent risk factor that has prognostic value regarding future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events such as myocardial infarction, strokes, and heart failure. Although death rates due to coronary heart disease have declined in recent years, the leading global killer remains CVD and prevalence is still high. Understanding lifestyle contributors associated with aortic stiffness would provide the public with insight into targeting key health-related behaviors.

The purpose of this observational study was to examine the association of physical activity, physical function, and dietary quality as independent factors contributing to aortic stiffness in apparently healthy middle aged men. Fifty-two ...


A New Method For Shear Wave Speed Estimation In Shear Wave Elastography, Aaron J. Engel, Gregory R. Bashford 2015 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A New Method For Shear Wave Speed Estimation In Shear Wave Elastography, Aaron J. Engel, Gregory R. Bashford

Biomedical Imaging and Biosignal Analysis Laboratory

Visualization of mechanical properties of tissue can aid in noninvasive pathology diagnosis. Shear wave elastography (SWE) measures the elastic properties of soft tissues by estimation of local shear wave propagation speed. In this paper, a new robust method for estimation of shear wave speed is introduced which has the potential for simplifying continuous filtering and real-time elasticity processing. Shear waves were generated by external mechanical excitation and imaged at a high frame rate. Three homogeneous phantoms of varying elastic moduli and one inclusion phantom were imaged. Waves propagating in separate directions were filtered and shear wave speed was estimated by ...


Brain Injury And Inflammation And Placental Inflammation In Response To Repetitive Umbilical Cord Occlusions In The Near Term Ovine Fetus, Alex Xu 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Brain Injury And Inflammation And Placental Inflammation In Response To Repetitive Umbilical Cord Occlusions In The Near Term Ovine Fetus, Alex Xu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We hypothesized that repetitive umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs) leading to severe acidemia will stimulate a placental and fetal inflammatory response associated with brain injury, which will be exacerbated by chronic hypoxemia and low-grade infection. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep served as controls or underwent repetitive UCOs for up to 4 hours or until fetal arterial pH was2saturation pre-UCOs of >55% and


Relevance Of The Carotid Body Chemoreflex In The Progression Of Heart Failure., David C. Andrade, Claudia Lucero, Camilo Toledo, Carlos Madrid, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz, Rodrigo Del Rio 2015 Universidad Autónoma de Chile

Relevance Of The Carotid Body Chemoreflex In The Progression Of Heart Failure., David C. Andrade, Claudia Lucero, Camilo Toledo, Carlos Madrid, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz, Rodrigo Del Rio

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a global health problem affecting millions of people. Autonomic dysfunction and disordered breathing patterns are commonly observed in patients with CHF, and both are strongly related to poor prognosis and high mortality risk. Tonic activation of carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors contributes to sympathoexcitation and disordered breathing patterns in experimental models of CHF. Recent studies show that ablation of the CB chemoreceptors improves autonomic function and breathing control in CHF and improves survival. These exciting findings indicate that alterations in CB function are critical to the progression of CHF. Therefore, better understanding of the physiology of ...


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