Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Systems and Integrative Physiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

195 Full-Text Articles 403 Authors 32355 Downloads 42 Institutions

All Articles in Systems and Integrative Physiology

Faceted Search

195 full-text articles. Page 1 of 8.

Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles 2017 Purdue University

Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Understanding speech in noisy environments can be difficult, especially for people with hearing loss. The background noise can cover up the sounds of interest. Normally, the auditory system works to alleviate this problem by tagging and then cancelling the noise. Our experiments are aimed at understanding the mechanism of this noise cancellation process. We hypothesize that non-linear signal processing in the mammalian cochlea (the most peripheral part of the auditory system) is the basis of noise cancellation. To test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) to sounds embedded in background noise with different statistical properties. ANFs ...


H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a cardioprotective gas, is endogenously produced from homocysteine by cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) enzymes. However, effect of H2S or homocysteine on CBS and CSE expression, and cross-talk between CBS and CSE are unclear. We hypothesize that homocysteine and H2S regulate CBS and CSE expressions in a dose dependent manner in cardiomyocytes, and CBS deficiency induces cardiac CSE expression. To test the hypothesis, we treated murine atrial HL1 cardiomyocytes with increasing doses of homocysteine or Na2S/GYY4137, a H2S donor, and measured the levels of CBS and CSE. We found that homocysteine upregulates ...


Can Cone Signals In The Wild Be Predicted From The Past?, David H. Foster, Iván Marín-Franch 2017 University of Manchester, UK

Can Cone Signals In The Wild Be Predicted From The Past?, David H. Foster, Iván Marín-Franch

MODVIS Workshop

In the natural world, the past is usually a good guide to the future. If light from the sun and sky is blue earlier in the day and yellow now, then it is likely to be more yellow later, as the sun's elevation decreases. But is the light reflected from a scene into the eye as predictable as the light incident upon the scene, especially when lighting changes are not just spectral but include changes in local shadows and mutual reflections? The aim of this work was to test the predictability of cone photoreceptor signals in the wild over ...


Reduced Sirt3 Contributes To Large Elastic Artery Stiffness With Aging, Alexander Lee Brodjeski 2017 University of Iowa

Reduced Sirt3 Contributes To Large Elastic Artery Stiffness With Aging, Alexander Lee Brodjeski

Theses and Dissertations

Age-related increases in arterial stiffness are mediated in part by mitochondrial dysfunction. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase that regulates mitochondrial function. SIRT3 deficiency contributes to physiological dysfunction in a variety of pathological conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that age-associated arterial stiffness, assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), would be accompanied with decreased renal and aortic SIRT3 expression and activity due to decreased NAD+ levels. We further tested whether boosting NAD+ concentration with nicotinamide riboside (NR), a NAD+ precursor, for 6 months would reverse the effects of aging. Old (~26 mo, n = 9) C57BL/6 ...


Recruitment Strategies In Human Sympathetic Nerve Activity, Mark B. Badrov 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Recruitment Strategies In Human Sympathetic Nerve Activity, Mark B. Badrov

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The overall objectives of the current dissertation were to 1) establish the neural coding principles employed by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in response to acute physiological stress; and 2) to determine the various mechanisms of control underlying these sympathetic neural recruitment strategies. This research tested the working hypothesis that efferent post-ganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity exhibits neural coding patterns reflecting increased firing of lower-threshold axons, recruitment of latent sub-populations of higher-threshold axons, as well as malleable synaptic delays, and further, that these strategies are governed by factors such as reflex-specificity, stress severity, perception of effort or stress, age, and ...


Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Immunometabolic Perspective., Paras K. Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K. Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K. Patel, Sushil K. Mahata 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Immunometabolic Perspective., Paras K. Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K. Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K. Patel, Sushil K. Mahata

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM. These early events are followed by steatosis (accumulation of lipid droplets ...


Mitochondria Mediate Cell Membrane Repair And Contribute To Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy., Maria C Vila, Sree Rayavarapu, Marshall W Hogarth, Jack H Van der Meulen, Adam Horn, Aurelia Defour, Shin'ichi Takeda, Kristy J. Brown, Yetrib Hathout, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Jyoti K. Jaiswal 2017 George Washington University

Mitochondria Mediate Cell Membrane Repair And Contribute To Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy., Maria C Vila, Sree Rayavarapu, Marshall W Hogarth, Jack H Van Der Meulen, Adam Horn, Aurelia Defour, Shin'ichi Takeda, Kristy J. Brown, Yetrib Hathout, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Jyoti K. Jaiswal

Integrative Systems Biology Faculty Publications

Dystrophin deficiency is the genetic basis for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but the cellular basis of progressive myofiber death in DMD is not fully understood. Using two dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse models, we find that the mitochondrial dysfunction is among the earliest cellular deficits of mdx muscles. Mitochondria in dystrophic myofibers also respond poorly to sarcolemmal injury. These mitochondrial deficits reduce the ability of dystrophic muscle cell membranes to repair and are associated with a compensatory increase in dysferlin-mediated membrane repair proteins. Dysferlin deficit in mdx mice further compromises myofiber cell membrane repair and enhances the muscle pathology at an asymptomatic ...


Improving The Player's Recruiting Process By Using Scenario Based Analysis Methodology, Dotan I. Shvorin, Kevin M. Taaffe 2017 Clemson University

Improving The Player's Recruiting Process By Using Scenario Based Analysis Methodology, Dotan I. Shvorin, Kevin M. Taaffe

Dotan Shvorin

High performance physical characteristics can be found today in most of the potential recruitsfor any athletic program and it has become increasingly dificult to select the right candidatebased solely on these characteristics. As a result there is a growing need for a recruiter to evaluatethe decision-making capability of a player in order to understand the mind of the player inaddition to the player physical assessment. We employ scenario-based analysis to evaluate suchdecision-making capabilities while enabling any recruiting to customize the potential candidateevaluation, based on the specific program's needs. The proposed method provides a platformfor decision making evaluation within a ...


Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts 2017 The University of Akron

Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts

Honors Research Projects

Background: Biomarkers are taking the spotlight in becoming the norm for early diagnoses. Sepsis is an inflammatory disease that increases metabolic rate in children. The first biomarker is hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte imbalance in clinical practice, often observed in children with inflammatory disease and infection. Presence of hyponatremia is associated with electrical signaling imbalances, inflammation and renal dysfunction. The clinical value of hyponatremia in pediatric patients is unknown. The C-reactive protein is a second biomarker. Its presence signifies that necrotic cells and inflammation are present.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of biomarkers in children seen in the Emergency ...


The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe-Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Elasmobranch-Microbe Relationship: Trimethylamine N-Oxide Synthesis, Urea Hydrolysis, And Microbe-Osmolyte Interactions In The Atlantic Stingray, Dasyatis Sabina, Kaitlin Kelly Doucette

Master's Theses

The elasmobranch osmoregulatory strategy is predicated on the accumulation of nitrogenous compounds, primarily urea and trimethylamine n¬-oxide (TMAO). Despite the abundance of these plasma osmolytes, it is notable that elasmobranchs appear to lack urease and TMA oxidase (Tmase), enzymes that scavenge urea-nitrogen and synthesize TMAO, respectively. However, urease and Tmase are found in many species of bacteria. Therefore, I hypothesized that intestinal bacteria are responsible for urease and Tmase activity in elasmobranchs. Absent dietary nitrogen sources, I evaluated the effects of reduced intestinal microbiota on osmoregulation in Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina) in vivo. D. sabina were given daily broad-spectrum ...


Identification Of Residual Descending Pathways After Human Spinal Cord Injury., Darryn A. Atkinson 2016 University of Louisville

Identification Of Residual Descending Pathways After Human Spinal Cord Injury., Darryn A. Atkinson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in humans is a heterogeneous diagnosis, resulting in variable paralysis and paresthesia based on the mechanism, rostro-caudal location, and severity of injury. Both neurophysiological and anatomical studies have suggested that subclinical residual supraspinal-spinal connectivity exists in a subset of individuals deemed to have motor and sensory complete injuries. Recent reports of volitional movement in chronic, motor complete individuals during epidural spinal stimulation have provided compelling evidence that these residual projections may be capable of mediating volitional movement when the functional state of spinal circuitry is electrically modulated. It was the goal of this project to identify ...


Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown

Theses and Dissertations

AIM: Sarocpenic obesity is a national concern within the United States because this metabolic syndrome is tied with reduced mobility and quality of life. Both obesity and aging are associated with insulin-resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and muscle weakness. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a process that involves the coordinated effort of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), inflammatory signaling, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling for optimal regeneration. It has been demonstrated that obesity and aging have a reduction in muscle regeneration. It has not been examined if sarcopenic obesity will further reduce muscle mass and the regenerative process. The purpose of this study ...


Increased Mitochondrial Superoxide In The Brain, But Not Periphery, Sensitizes Mice To Angiotensin Ii-Mediated Hypertension., Adam J. Case, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Increased Mitochondrial Superoxide In The Brain, But Not Periphery, Sensitizes Mice To Angiotensin Ii-Mediated Hypertension., Adam J. Case, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Angiotensin II (AngII) elicits the production of superoxide (O2(•-)) from mitochondria in numerous cell types within peripheral organs and in the brain suggesting a role for mitochondrial-produced O2(•-) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, it remains unclear if mitochondrial O2(•-) is causal in the development of AngII-induced hypertension, or if mitochondrial O2(•-) in the absence of elevated AngII is sufficient to increase blood pressure. Further, the tissue specific (i.e. central versus peripheral) redox regulation of AngII hypertension remains elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial O2(•-) in the absence of pro-hypertensive stimuli, such as AngII, elevates baseline systemic mean ...


Mitochondrial Superoxide Signaling Contributes To Norepinephrine-Mediated T-Lymphocyte Cytokine Profiles., Adam J. Case, Colton T. Roessner, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Mitochondrial Superoxide Signaling Contributes To Norepinephrine-Mediated T-Lymphocyte Cytokine Profiles., Adam J. Case, Colton T. Roessner, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Norepinephrine (NE) produces multifaceted regulatory patterns in T-lymphocytes. Recently, we have shown that NE utilizes redox signaling as evidenced by increased superoxide (O2●-) causally linked to the observed changes in these cells; however, the source of this reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that the source of increased O2●- in NE-stimulated T-lymphocytes is due to disruption of mitochondrial bioenergetics. To address this hypothesis, we utilized purified mouse splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes stimulated with NE and assessed O2●- levels, mitochondrial metabolism, cellular proliferation, and cytokine profiles. We demonstrate that the increase in O2●- levels in response to ...


Stable Engraftment Of Bifidobacterium Longum Ah1206 In The Human Gut Depends On Individualized Features Of The Resident Microbiome, María X. Maldonado-Gómez, Inés Martínez, Francesca Bottacini, Amy O’Callaghan, Marco Ventura, Douwe van Sinderen, Benjamin Hillmann, Pajau Vangay, Dan Knights, Robert W. Hutkins, Jens Walter 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Stable Engraftment Of Bifidobacterium Longum Ah1206 In The Human Gut Depends On Individualized Features Of The Resident Microbiome, María X. Maldonado-Gómez, Inés Martínez, Francesca Bottacini, Amy O’Callaghan, Marco Ventura, Douwe Van Sinderen, Benjamin Hillmann, Pajau Vangay, Dan Knights, Robert W. Hutkins, Jens Walter

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Live bacteria (such as probiotics) have long been used to modulate gut microbiota and human physiology, but their colonization is mostly transient. Conceptual understanding of the ecological principles as they apply to exogenously introduced microbes in gut ecosystems is lacking. We find that, when orally administered to humans, Bifidobacterium longum AH1206 stably persists in the gut of 30% of individuals for at least 6 months without causing gastrointestinal symptoms or impacting the composition of the resident gut microbiota. AH1206 engraftment was associated with low abundance of resident B. longum and underrepresentation of specific carbohydrate utilization genes in the pre-treatment microbiome ...


Role Of Anterior Cingulate Cortex In Saccade Control, Sahand Babapoor-Farrokhran 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Role Of Anterior Cingulate Cortex In Saccade Control, Sahand Babapoor-Farrokhran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cognitive control is referred to the guidance of behavior based on internal goals rather than external stimuli. It has been postulated that prefrontal cortex is mainly involved in higher order cognitive functions. Specifically, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is part of the prefrontal cortex, is suggested to be involved in performance monitoring and conflict monitoring that are considered to be cognitive control functions.

Saccades are the fast eye movements that align the fovea on the objects of interest in the environment. In this thesis, I have explored the role of ACC in control of saccadic eye movements. First, I performed ...


The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known and may relate to alterations in brain structure (e.g. cortical atrophy) and/or altered neural function, particularly in regions related to the cortical autonomic network, namely, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), insula cortex (IC), and hippocampus (HC). Exercise exerts beneficial effects on brain structure and, in the case of cognition, neurologic function; however, how exercise affects regions of the brain related to autonomic function are not known. This ...


Effect Of Taste Stimuli On Swallowing Function In Persons With Traumatic Injuries, Megan Asselin, Angela M. Dietsch 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Taste Stimuli On Swallowing Function In Persons With Traumatic Injuries, Megan Asselin, Angela M. Dietsch

UCARE Research Products

Background

Swallowing disorders are prevalent and costly. As of now, there are limited therapeutic options available to treat them. Extant research in limited populations has suggested that swallowing mechanics can be improved by extremely sour liquids, but this has not been tested in traumatically injured populations. However, sour tastants are unpleasant, and more palatable taste mixtures have not been tested.

Methods

The quantitative data were extracted from an existing pool of de-identified video fluoroscopic swallowing studies (moving radiographs) obtained from traumatically injured young adults under another research protocol. Each participant completed swallows of custom-mixed plain, sour, and sweet-sour boluses. Positions ...


The Role Of O-Glcnacase During Heart Failure., Sujith Dassanayaka 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of O-Glcnacase During Heart Failure., Sujith Dassanayaka

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global augmentation of protein O-GlcNAcylation occurs in response to a myriad of stressors and confers a survival advantage at the cellular level. This protective phenomenon has been demonstrated to mediate cardioprotection through various in vitro and in vivo studies during ischemia-reperfusion, myocardial infarction, and oxidative stress; however, relatively little is known of the regulation of protein O-GlcNAcylation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is regulated by two antagonistic enzymes, namely, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Ablation of cardiomyocyte OGT, the enzyme that catalyzes the addition of O-GlcNAc to proteins, exacerbates cardiac dysfunction during infarct-induced heart failure (HF). However, little is known of the ...


Metabolic Network Rewiring Of Propionate Flux Compensates Vitamin B12 Deficiency In C. Elegans, Emma Watson, Viridiana Olin-Sandoval, Michael J. Hoy, Chi-Hua Li, Timo Louisse, Victoria Yao, Akihiro Mori, Amy D. Holdorf, Olga G. Troyanskaya, Markus Ralser, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Metabolic Network Rewiring Of Propionate Flux Compensates Vitamin B12 Deficiency In C. Elegans, Emma Watson, Viridiana Olin-Sandoval, Michael J. Hoy, Chi-Hua Li, Timo Louisse, Victoria Yao, Akihiro Mori, Amy D. Holdorf, Olga G. Troyanskaya, Markus Ralser, Albertha J. M. Walhout

Open Access Articles

Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress