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Cardiodynamic Associations With Resilience In Undergraduate Students And The Effect Of A Mentorship Intervention, Rachel J. Knetsch 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Cardiodynamic Associations With Resilience In Undergraduate Students And The Effect Of A Mentorship Intervention, Rachel J. Knetsch

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The National College Health Assessment (NCHA) indicates that a majority of Canadian university students report feeling overwhelmed, stressed, and anxious during their undergraduate studies. Resilience refers to positive adaptation, or the ability to maintain or regain mental health, despite experiencing adversity (Herrman et al., 2011). While autonomic indices have been used to describe chronic physiological stress, the role of heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of resilience remains unclear. This research tested the hypotheses that (1) there is a relationship between HRV and resilience scoresand (2) a mentorship intervention will improve HRV and resilience outcomes. Fifty-seven first year students ...


Effect Of Larval Starvation On Lipid Content Of Drosophila Melanogaster Over 15 Days, Fabian Leija, Allen Gibbs 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Effect Of Larval Starvation On Lipid Content Of Drosophila Melanogaster Over 15 Days, Fabian Leija, Allen Gibbs

LSAMP Poster Presentations

Starvation-resistant Drosophila melanogaster, common fruit flies, deriving from 121 generations of starvation selection, have resulted in genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically different individuals compared to non-resistant counterparts. Starvation-resistant Drosophila are more obese, containing twice as much lipids as control flies.This is a result of starvation-resistant fly larva feeding for 5 days and then entering the pupa stage while non-resistant flies only feed for 4 days.

In this experiment, we hope to answer the question of whether the starvation-resistant flies are genetically predisposed to be substantially more obese than wild populations or if it is a result of this alternate behavior ...


Aging And The Plasma Metabolome: Relation To Physiological Function, Lawrence Cody Johnson 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Aging And The Plasma Metabolome: Relation To Physiological Function, Lawrence Cody Johnson

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Advancing age is associated with declines across numerous physiological systems, leading to an increased risk of chronic disease and disability. Whereas aging itself is inevitable, the rate at which physiological impairments occur is highly variable among individuals. Differences in the trajectory of physiological decline are due to complex biological processes; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological impairments are not well understood. Metabolomics provides the unique opportunity to investigate systemic molecular changes in vivo by capturing perturbations in metabolic signaling linked to changes in physiological function. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation was to determine the relation between metabolomic signatures and ...


Pilot Study: Heart Rate Variability Analysis And Mental Health Outcomes In University Female Hockey Players, Kaitlyn Jacobs 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Pilot Study: Heart Rate Variability Analysis And Mental Health Outcomes In University Female Hockey Players, Kaitlyn Jacobs

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Exercise improves anxiety and depression, both of which are associated with impaired autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR). In turn, HR variability (HRV) is a reliable physiological indicator of external stressors. The following research tested the hypothesis that HRV is indicative of chronic resilience towards mental stress in female varsity hockey players. Seventeen varsity hockey players (HOCK, age 21 ± 1.5) and fifteen healthy controls (CTRL, age 21 ± 2.2) at Western University participated three times throughout a 7-month season. Participants completed questionnaires (brief resilience scale, BRS; generalized anxiety scale, GAD-7; mental health inventory, MHI; visual analog scale, VAS; short ...


Thermoregulatory Dysfunction In Multiple Sclerosis, Dustin R. Allen 2018 Southern Methodist University

Thermoregulatory Dysfunction In Multiple Sclerosis, Dustin R. Allen

Department of Applied Physiology and Wellness Theses and Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting an estimated 2.3 million people worldwide. Marked by lesions in the brain and spinal cord, MS leads to conduction abnormalities in the CNS. Evidence suggests ~60% of individuals with MS experience temporary worsening of their symptoms upon exposure to heat. Adding complexity, observational evidence suggests these individuals exhibit reduced thermoregulatory responses in upon increases in core temperature. Consequently, these individuals face a vicious cycle of heat sensitivity and thermoregulatory dysfunction, substantially impacting their quality of life. With this in mind, our lab is dedicated ...


Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett 2018 University of Wyoming

Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett

Honors Theses AY 17/18

One out of every five American children lives below the federal poverty line. Considering that poverty is deemed one of the most influential risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, it is critical to understand what effect poverty has on the developing brain and how those brain changes affect a child’s life. Poverty is chiefly defined by having a low socioeconomic status (SES), but a low SES is often accompanied by other influencers, such as nutrition and mental stimulation, termed poverty co-factors. Other poverty co-factors include, but are not limited to, maternal stress and malnutrition, environmental toxins, parental nurturance, and ...


Effects Of A Form Of Equine-Facilitated Learning On Heart Rate Variability, Immune Function, And Self-Esteem In Older Adults, Ann L. Baldwin, Barbara K. Rector, Ann C. Alden 2018 University of Arizona

Effects Of A Form Of Equine-Facilitated Learning On Heart Rate Variability, Immune Function, And Self-Esteem In Older Adults, Ann L. Baldwin, Barbara K. Rector, Ann C. Alden

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

Equine-facilitated learning (EFL) helps people access their immediate sensations and feelings because horses, as prey animals, are continually aware of their environment and provide instant feedback to human behaviors and emotions. We hypothesize that during EFL, older people become more aware of their bodily sensations and emotions, leading to increased heart rate variability (HRV), improved self-esteem (Rosenberg scale), and improved immune function. Twenty-four subjects (age > 55) participated in a single 15-minute EFL activity, Con Su Permiso, during which they focused on their bodily sensations and the responses of the horse as they moved toward and around the horse. Subjects served ...


Thermoregulatory Adaptations Following Sprint Interval Training, Jonathan E. Wingo, Charlie P. Katica, Svetlana Nepocatych, Andrew T. Del Pozzi, Greg A. Ryan 2018 University of Alabama

Thermoregulatory Adaptations Following Sprint Interval Training, Jonathan E. Wingo, Charlie P. Katica, Svetlana Nepocatych, Andrew T. Del Pozzi, Greg A. Ryan

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Traditional endurance training typically involves weeks of long-duration (60–90 min) exercise performed at a moderate to vigorous intensity. An alternative paradigm, sprint interval training, is characterized by multiple bouts of short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Similar fitness benefits from the two paradigms have been demonstrated, but whether sprint interval training—like traditional endurance training—induces heat acclimation remains unclear.

Purpose

To test the hypothesis that sprint interval training performed over six sessions results in measureable thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptations consistent with heat acclimation.

Methods

Seven untrained men [mean ± SD, 13 ± 5% body fat, 22 ± 3 y, 3.1 ± 0.3 L ...


The Mechanism Of Biotremor Production In The Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo Calyptratus), Samuel Tegge 2018 Western Kentucky University

The Mechanism Of Biotremor Production In The Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo Calyptratus), Samuel Tegge

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Vibratory communication has evolved in numerous animal groups, including insects, spiders, fishes, mammals, and was recently discovered in veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). I examined the mechanism by which C. calyptratus produce these biotremors. Muscle activity data were gathered during simulated anti-predator responses via electromyography (EMG) with simultaneous recordings of biotremor production using an accelerometer. I correlated EMG data with the accelerometer data to implicate the muscles responsible for the production of the biotremors. Mixed-effect linear regression models described the mechanism, and a model selection framework determined which model fit the data best. I then used an analysis of variance to ...


Sympatho-Excitatory Response To Pulmonary Chemosensitive Spinal Afferent Activation In Anesthetized, Vagotomized Rats, Julia A. Shanks, Zhiqiu Xia, Steven J. Lisco, George J. Rozanski, Harold D. Schultz, Irving H. Zucker, Han-Jun Wang 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Sympatho-Excitatory Response To Pulmonary Chemosensitive Spinal Afferent Activation In Anesthetized, Vagotomized Rats, Julia A. Shanks, Zhiqiu Xia, Steven J. Lisco, George J. Rozanski, Harold D. Schultz, Irving H. Zucker, Han-Jun Wang

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

The sensory innervation of the lung is well known to be innervated by nerve fibers of both vagal and sympathetic origin. Although the vagal afferent innervation of the lung has been well characterized, less is known about physiological effects mediated by spinal sympathetic afferent fibers. We hypothesized that activation of sympathetic spinal afferent nerve fibers of the lung would result in an excitatory pressor reflex, similar to that previously characterized in the heart. In this study, we evaluated changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and hemodynamics in response to activation of TRPV1-sensitive pulmonary spinal sensory fibers by agonist application ...


S-Nitrosation Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Mediates Alcohol-Induced Ciliary Dysfunction, Michael E. Price, Adam J. Case, Jacqueline A. Pavlik, Jane M. DeVasure, Todd A. Wyatt, Matthew C. Zimmerman, Joseph H. Sisson 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

S-Nitrosation Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Mediates Alcohol-Induced Ciliary Dysfunction, Michael E. Price, Adam J. Case, Jacqueline A. Pavlik, Jane M. Devasure, Todd A. Wyatt, Matthew C. Zimmerman, Joseph H. Sisson

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a strong risk factor for development and mortality of pneumonia. Mucociliary clearance, a key innate defense against pneumonia, is perturbed by alcohol use. Specifically, ciliated airway cells lose the ability to increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) to β-agonist stimulation after prolonged alcohol exposure. We previously found that alcohol activates protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) through a redox mechanism to cause ciliary dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that PP1 activity is enhanced by alcohol exposure through an S-nitrosothiol-dependent mechanism resulting in desensitization of CBF stimulation. Bronchoalveolar S-nitrosothiol (SNO) content and tracheal PP1 activity was increased in wild-type (WT ...


Direct Conversion Of Mouse Astrocytes Into Neural Progenitor Cells And Specific Lineages Of Neurons, Kangmu Ma, Xiaobei Deng, Xiaohuan Xia, Zhaohuan Fan, Xinrui Qi, Yongxiang Wang, Yuju Li, Yizhao Ma, Qiang Chen, Hui Peng, Jianqing Ding, Chunhong Li, Yunlong Huang, Changhai Tian, Jialin C. Zheng 2018 Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital

Direct Conversion Of Mouse Astrocytes Into Neural Progenitor Cells And Specific Lineages Of Neurons, Kangmu Ma, Xiaobei Deng, Xiaohuan Xia, Zhaohuan Fan, Xinrui Qi, Yongxiang Wang, Yuju Li, Yizhao Ma, Qiang Chen, Hui Peng, Jianqing Ding, Chunhong Li, Yunlong Huang, Changhai Tian, Jialin C. Zheng

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Background: Cell replacement therapy has been envisioned as a promising treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the ethical concerns of ESCs-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and tumorigenic potential of iPSCs, reprogramming of somatic cells directly into multipotent NPCs has emerged as a preferred approach for cell transplantation.

Methods: Mouse astrocytes were reprogrammed into NPCs by the overexpression of transcription factors (TFs) Foxg1, Sox2, and Brn2. The generation of subtypes of neurons was directed by the force expression of cell-type specific TFs Lhx8 or Foxa2/Lmx1a.

Results: Astrocyte-derived induced NPCs (AiNPCs) share high similarities, including the expression of NPC-specific genes, DNA ...


An Investigation Of Cannabidiol-Rich Hemp Extract And The Stress Response In Male And Female Rats, Rachel Roller 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

An Investigation Of Cannabidiol-Rich Hemp Extract And The Stress Response In Male And Female Rats, Rachel Roller

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

While there is evidence that pure cannabidiol has some stress-protective and anti-inflammatory effects, no studies have yet investigated its effects on stress-induced inflammation, and few have investigated cannabidiol-rich hemp extracts. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of ad libitum consumption of cannabidiol-rich hemp extract for one week on the response to acute stress (100 inescapable tail shocks) in male and female rats. As expected, tail shock decreased spleen weight and increased plasma corticosterone, blood glucose, and levels of CINC-1, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. Hemp extract did not impact these responses; however, it reduced body weight gain, spleen ...


Space Operations In The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator And Mission Control Center: Lessons Learned With Xcor Lynx, Pedro Llanos, Christopher Nguyen, David Williams, Kim O. Chambers Ph.D., Erik Seedhouse, Robert Davidson 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Space Operations In The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator And Mission Control Center: Lessons Learned With Xcor Lynx, Pedro Llanos, Christopher Nguyen, David Williams, Kim O. Chambers Ph.D., Erik Seedhouse, Robert Davidson

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

This study was conducted to better understand the performance of the XCOR Lynx vehicle. Because the Lynx development was halted, the best knowledge of vehicle dynamics can only be found through simulator flights. X-Plane 10 was chosen for its robust applications and accurate portrayal of dynamics on a vehicle in flight. The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator (SSFS) and Mission Control Center (MCC) were brought to the Applied Aviation Sciences department in fall 2015 at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach campus. This academic and research tool is a department asset capable of providing multiple fields of data about suborbital simulated flights ...


Nicotine Administration And Withdrawal And Its Effect On Sleep Latency, Relevant Sleep Variables, And Endogenous Corticosterone Levels In Mice, Vishnu Iyer 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Nicotine Administration And Withdrawal And Its Effect On Sleep Latency, Relevant Sleep Variables, And Endogenous Corticosterone Levels In Mice, Vishnu Iyer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

NREM and REM sleep have shown an exceptional importance in controlling various cognitive functions (Brown et al, 2012), and disruption of such sleep states can cause mental and physical impairments (Christie et al, 2008). Disruptions in sleep stages (Wakefulness, REM, NREM) can be identified via EEG recordings in mice without much interference (Mckenna et al, 2008). Circadian Rhythm, hormonal markers, and stress all affect the duration, intensity and timing of these sleep stages (Brown et al, 2004; Veasey et al 2004; Christie et al, 2008). One cohort of mice (n=7) underwent a baseline condition (BL), a nicotine administration condition ...


Environmental And Physiological Regulation Of Yellow Stingray Color Change, Theresa Rose Gunn 2018 Georgia Southern University

Environmental And Physiological Regulation Of Yellow Stingray Color Change, Theresa Rose Gunn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many reef fishes exhibit dynamic coloration and body patterns that can change under nervous or hormonal control. Several species of benthic sharks and rays likely alter melanin in the skin to provide background matching for camouflage. The yellow stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis) is a benthically-oriented elasmobranch with elaborate spot patterns that provide effective camouflage within its habitats. This patterning, when coupled with the ability to alter melanin in response to background color, could increase background matching effectiveness in these species. The yellow stingray has been anecdotally noted to lighten or darken skin color.However, it is unclear whether this type of ...


Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett

CMC Senior Theses

Fossils belonging to the genus Homo, dating as far back as two million years ago, exhibit uniquely efficient features suggesting that early humans had evolved to become exceptional endurance runners. Although they did not have the cushion or stability-control features provided in our modern day running shoes, our early human ancestors experienced far less of the running-related injuries we experience today. The injury rate has been estimated as high as 90% annually for Americans training for a marathon and as high as 79% annually for all American endurance runners. There is an injury epidemic in conventionally shod populations that does ...


Organizational Effects Of Defeminizing Toxicants: Lessons Learned From An Environmental Sentinel Organism, The Fathead Minnow., Jonathan Ali 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Organizational Effects Of Defeminizing Toxicants: Lessons Learned From An Environmental Sentinel Organism, The Fathead Minnow., Jonathan Ali

Theses & Dissertations

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that interfere with hormone function and are increasingly detected in aquatic environments, where they elicit adverse effects from exposed organisms. The toxicological effects of EDCs can be described as either activational (reversible) or organizational (irreversible), where the latter are associated with adverse outcomes in reproductive performance of adult fish. However, few studies have investigated the organizational impacts of anti-estrogenic or “defeminizing” EDCs, e.g. agrichemicals or pharmacological agents, in an environmentally-relevant or “sentinel” species. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of early-life EDC-initiated changes in estrogenic gene expression on organizational ...


Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Salt inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) has been considered a stress-inducible kinase since it was first cloned in 1999. Continued efforts since this time have been dedicated to characterizing the structure and function of SIK1. Such research has laid the ground work for our understanding of SIK1 action and regulation in tissue and stimuli dependent manners. The fundamental findings of this dissertation continue in this tradition and include investigations of SIK1 regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells, the cellular and physiological effects of SIK1 loss of function in vitro and in vivo, and intracellular metabolic and mitochondrial regulation by this kinase ...


Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Recent observations have shown that patients treated with MTX also exhibit a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although MTX reduces systemic inflammation and tissue damage, the mechanisms by which MTX exerts these beneficial effects are not entirely known. We have previously demonstrated that protein adducts formed by the interaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetaldehyde (AA), known as MAA-protein adducts, are present in diseased tissues of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or CVD. In previously reported studies, MAA-adducts were shown to be highly immunogenic ...


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