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Systems and Integrative Physiology Commons

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The Effect Of Breathing Patterns Common To Competitive Swimming On Gas Exchange And Muscle Deoxygenation During Heavy-Intensity Fartlek Exercise, Kevin J. Grossman 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Breathing Patterns Common To Competitive Swimming On Gas Exchange And Muscle Deoxygenation During Heavy-Intensity Fartlek Exercise, Kevin J. Grossman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to compare the respiratory and muscle deoxygenation (HHb) responses of regulated breathing versus free-breathing, during continuous exercise (CONLD) and intermittent 5s breath holds (BH) (CONLD-BH), intermittent 5s sprint (FLK) and combined 5s BH and sprint (FLK-BH) followed by 25s of free-breathing. Oxygen uptake(V̇O2)was unchanged between CONLD (2.12±0.35L/min) and CONLD-BH (2.15±0.42L/min; p=0.116), and FLK (2.24±0.40L/min) and FLK-BH (2.20±0.45L/min; p=0.861). Δ[Hbtot]: CONLD (3.3±1.6µM) > CONLD-BH (-2.5±1 ...


The Influence Of Temperature And Body Size On Food Consumption In Prairie Lizards (Sceloporus Consobrinus), Morgan Pelley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Influence Of Temperature And Body Size On Food Consumption In Prairie Lizards (Sceloporus Consobrinus), Morgan Pelley

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the effect of temperature on physiological and digestive processes, such as voluntary consumption rate, is critical for assessing the impact of climate change. Food consumption is required for lizard survival and reproduction and its rate is dependent on temperature. For ectotherms, as temperatures increase, the amount of food consumed to meet the energy requirements related to survival and reproduction must also increase. Information on the amount of food voluntarily consumed may aid in determining if lizards can meet energy requirements. Such information could also aid in predicting survival of lizard populations, through construction of predictive climate change models. In ...


Mechanisms Of Diapause And Cold Tolerance In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Jacqueline E. Lebenzon 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Of Diapause And Cold Tolerance In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Jacqueline E. Lebenzon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Many temperate insects enter diapause (a state of dormancy) and enhance their cold tolerance to survive the winter. During diapause, the Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) stops developing, lowers its metabolism, and changes its physiology to avoid freezing. The extent to which diapause confers cold tolerance in CPB is currently unknown. In my thesis, I used CPB to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying metabolic suppression during diapause and cellular protection at sub-zero temperatures in insects. First, I used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare gene expression in two metabolically important tissues (the fat body and flight muscle ...


Supplemental Peer Instruction In Physiologic Core Concept Education, Austin Choat 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Supplemental Peer Instruction In Physiologic Core Concept Education, Austin Choat

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The objective of my thesis project was to create and research the importance of supplemental learning videos within core physiological concepts identified by the Advancement of Physiological Principles for the purpose of assisting Dr. Kim Hansen in better educating students with less extensive foundational knowledge of chemical and biological sciences. Through researching the benefits of peer instruction, identifying core physiological concepts crucial to wholistic physiology education, and describing a student population hypothesized to benefit substantially from the work, I created educational videos to aid Dr. Hansen in her work as an educator and in the educational research she is striving ...


Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Plasticity By The Gut Microbiome, Taylor R. Valentino 2022 University of Kentucky

Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Plasticity By The Gut Microbiome, Taylor R. Valentino

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiome could play a role in skeletal muscle plasticity, providing novel treatments for muscle wasting diseases and/or performance enhancements. I first sought to determine if the gut microbiome is necessary for skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise. Forty-two, four-month old, female C57Bl/6J underwent nine weeks of weighted wheel running or remained in cage with a locked wheel, without or without the administration of antibiotics (treated). In response to wheel running, I found that antibiotic depletion of the microbiome led to a blunted hypertrophic response in the soleus muscle as measured by normalized muscle ...


Physician Assisted Dying (Pad): An Investigation Into The Mechanistic Action Of Opioid, Benzodiazepine, And Barbiturate Administration As An Alternative Measure To Forgoing Life Sustaining Treatment And Aggressive Palliation., Jordana Chanel Deighton 2022 Claremont McKenna College

Physician Assisted Dying (Pad): An Investigation Into The Mechanistic Action Of Opioid, Benzodiazepine, And Barbiturate Administration As An Alternative Measure To Forgoing Life Sustaining Treatment And Aggressive Palliation., Jordana Chanel Deighton

CMC Senior Theses

Whilst modern medicine has increased longevity, the rise in life expectancy has brought about new struggles, namely that of aging and age related disease. Thus, humanity has been presented with a new problem: at what point is death preferable to aggressive life-prolonging treatment in the face of inevitable death? And if so, what right do individuals have to control the circumstances of their death? In the West, traditionally, individuals who seek to end their own lives in the face of terminal illness opt for forgoing artificial hydration and nutrition. Driven by an increase in desire for autonomous dignified death, a ...


Comparative Genomics, Evolutionary Epidemiology, And Rbd-Hace2 Receptor Binding Pattern In B.1.1.7 (Alpha) And B.1.617.2 (Delta) Related To Their Pandemic Response In Uk And India, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Manojit Bhattacharya, Bidyut Mallik, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Sang-Soo Lee 2022 Adamas University

Comparative Genomics, Evolutionary Epidemiology, And Rbd-Hace2 Receptor Binding Pattern In B.1.1.7 (Alpha) And B.1.617.2 (Delta) Related To Their Pandemic Response In Uk And India, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Manojit Bhattacharya, Bidyut Mallik, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Sang-Soo Lee

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

BACKGROUND: The massive increase in COVID-19 infection had generated a second wave in India during May-June 2021 with a critical pandemic situation. The Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was a significant factor during the second wave. Conversely, the UK had passed through the crucial phase of the pandemic from November to December 2020 due to B.1.1.7. The study tried to comprehend the pandemic response in the UK and India to the spread of the B.1.1.7 (Alpha, UK) variant and B.1.617.2 (Delta, India) variant.

METHODS: This study was performed in three ...


T-Lymphocyte Tyrosine Hydroxylase Regulates T H 17 T-Lymphocytes During Repeated Social Defeat Stress, Safwan K. Elkhatib, Cassandra M. Moshfegh, Gabrielle F. Watson, Adam J. Case 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

T-Lymphocyte Tyrosine Hydroxylase Regulates T H 17 T-Lymphocytes During Repeated Social Defeat Stress, Safwan K. Elkhatib, Cassandra M. Moshfegh, Gabrielle F. Watson, Adam J. Case

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder which results in deleterious changes to psychological and physical health. Patients with PTSD are especially susceptible to life-threatening co-morbid inflammation-driven pathologies, such as autoimmunity, while also demonstrating increased T-helper 17 (TH17) lymphocyte-driven inflammation. While the exact mechanism of this increased inflammation is unknown, overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system is a hallmark of PTSD. Neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system (i.e., catecholamines) can alter T-lymphocyte function, which we have previously demonstrated to be partially mitochondrial redox-mediated. Furthermore, we have previously elucidated that T-lymphocytes generate their own catecholamines, and ...


Post-Activation Potentiation & Aging, Sohum Kulkarni 2021 Western University

Post-Activation Potentiation & Aging, Sohum Kulkarni

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This ...


Link Between Muscle And Whole-Body Energetic Responses To Exercise, Christopher M.T. Hayden 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Link Between Muscle And Whole-Body Energetic Responses To Exercise, Christopher M.T. Hayden

Masters Theses

Substantial evidence exists regarding how skeletal muscles use energy and how this affects muscular performance. What remains unclear is how characteristics of muscle energetics affect whole-body energetics during daily living, and what effects this may have on mobility. The goal of this study was to determine the associations between muscle and whole-body energetics including the relationships between: 1) muscle PCr depletion (∆PCr) in response to light intensity isotonic contractions and the oxygen deficit at the onset of a 30-min treadmill walk (30MTW), and, 2) muscle oxidative capacity and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; 30MTW), respiratory exchange ratio (RER; 30MTW), and ...


An Examination Of Fontan Circulation Using Differential Equation Models And Numerical Methods, Vanessa Maybruck 2021 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

An Examination Of Fontan Circulation Using Differential Equation Models And Numerical Methods, Vanessa Maybruck

Honors Student Research

Certain congenital heart defects can lead to the development of only a single pumping chamber, or ventricle, in the heart instead of the usual two ventricles. Individuals with this defect undergo a corrective, three-part surgery, the third step of which is the Fontan procedure, but as the patients age, their cardiovascular health will likely deteriorate. Using computational fluid dynamics and differential equations, Fontan circulation can be modeled to investigate why the procedure fails and how Fontan failure can be maximally prevented. Borrowing from well-established literature on RC circuits, the differential equation models simulate systemic blood flow in a piecewise, switch-like ...


Mechanisms Of Synthetic Cannabinoids On Cardiovascular Health, Madeleine A. Nelson 2021 University of South Dakota

Mechanisms Of Synthetic Cannabinoids On Cardiovascular Health, Madeleine A. Nelson

Honors Thesis

Cannabinoids encompass natural cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. While the synthetic cannabinoids interact with the same endogenous system as cannabis, their effects are quite different and poorly understood. In addition to psychological effects that trigger their use, these substances are linked to cardiovascular morbidity. To assess the cardiovascular effect of synthetic cannabinoids, we first tested the hypothesis that intravenous administration of a synthetic cannabinoid would increase blood pressure in conscious rats. Second, we tested the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system is involved by injecting a ganglion blocker to see if the cardiovascular response from synthetic cannabinoids would be blocked. Third ...


Euler, Father Of Haemodynamics, Sylvio R. Bistafa 2021 University of Sao Paulo

Euler, Father Of Haemodynamics, Sylvio R. Bistafa

Euleriana

This article is being published in conjunction with the translation and synopsis of E855. Principia pro motu sanguinis per arterias determinando of 1775 - view the translation and synopsis by clicking here.


Data From: Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson 2021 Utah State University

Data From: Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson

Browse all Datasets

Wounding events (predation attempts, competitive combat) result in injuries and/or infections that induce integrated immune responses for the recovery process. Despite the survival benefits of immunity in this context, the costs incurred may require investment to be diverted from traits contributing to immediate and/or future survival, such as locomotor performance and oxidative status. Yet, whether trait constraints manifest likely depends on wound severity and the implications for energy budget. For this study, food intake, body mass, sprint speed, and oxidative indices (reactive oxygen metabolites, antioxidant capacity) were monitored in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) healing from cutaneous wounds ...


Quantifying The Regulatory Role Of Individual Transcription Factors In Escherichia Coli [Preprint], Sunil Guharajan, Shivani Chhabra, Vinuselvi Parisutham, Robert C. Brewster 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Quantifying The Regulatory Role Of Individual Transcription Factors In Escherichia Coli [Preprint], Sunil Guharajan, Shivani Chhabra, Vinuselvi Parisutham, Robert C. Brewster

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Transcription factors (TFs) modulate gene expression by binding to regulatory DNA sequences surrounding target genes. To isolate the fundamental regulatory interactions of E. coli TFs, we measure regulation of TFs acting on synthetic target genes that are designed to isolate the individual TF regulatory effect. This data is interpreted through a thermodynamic model that decouples the role of TF copy number and TF binding affinity from the interactions of the TF on RNA polymerase through two distinct mechanisms: (de)stabilization of the polymerase and (de)acceleration of transcription initiation. We find the contribution of each mechanism towards the observed regulation ...


Short-Term Fasting And Autonomic Control, Joshua Gonzalez 2021 Michigan Technological University

Short-Term Fasting And Autonomic Control, Joshua Gonzalez

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests that chronic intermittent fasting improves cardiometabolic health and reduces arterial blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying the reductions in blood pressure and improved cardiovascular health observed from chronic fasting studies remain unclear. The autonomic nervous system has a central role in the regulation of blood pressure and is essential for cardiovascular homeostasis. We conducted a study to investigate how acute fasting influences autonomic control of blood pressure at rest and during stress. Twenty-five young, healthy, normal weight, normotensive participants were tested twice, once in the ...


Open Neuroscience Initiative, Austin Lim 2021 DePaul University

Open Neuroscience Initiative, Austin Lim

College of Science and Health Full Text Publications

The Open Neuroscience Initiative is a free-to-use textbook

This project began as a means to overcoming the financial burden that face undergraduate neuroscience students when buying textbooks. By compiling and writing a completely free-to-access textbook that covers the foundations of a typical college introduction to neuroscience course, students would have one less obstacle to overcome in their educational career, allowing them to focus their valuable time and attention on learning rather than finances. To make this project a reality, I began with a humble tweet in May 2019 that managed to gain a tiny bit of traction among the neuroscience ...


Neurogenic Hypertension Mediated Mitochondrial Abnormality Leads To Cardiomyopathy: Contribution Of Upr Mt And Norepinephrine-Mir- 18a-5p-Hif-1Α Axis, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Kenichi Katsurada, Sushil K. Mahata, Kaushik K. Patel 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Neurogenic Hypertension Mediated Mitochondrial Abnormality Leads To Cardiomyopathy: Contribution Of Upr Mt And Norepinephrine-Mir- 18a-5p-Hif-1Α Axis, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Kenichi Katsurada, Sushil K. Mahata, Kaushik K. Patel

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Aims: Hypertension increases the risk of heart disease. Hallmark features of hypertensive heart disease is sympathoexcitation and cardiac mitochondrial abnormality. However, the molecular mechanisms for specifically neurally mediated mitochondrial abnormality and subsequent cardiac dysfunction are unclear. We hypothesized that enhanced sympatho-excitation to the heart elicits cardiac miR-18a-5p/HIF-1α and mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) signaling that lead to mitochondrial abnormalities and consequent pathological cardiac remodeling. Methods and Results: Using a model of neurogenic hypertension (NG-HTN), induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of Ang II (NG-HTN; 20 ng/min, 14 days, 0.5 μl/h, or Saline; Control, 0.9%) through ...


Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif 2021 The University of Akron

Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Animals use muscles for movement, but some have evolved mechanisms to exceed maximum power used in a motion known as power amplification. In this literature review, I analyzed and compared the evolution of structures capable of power amplification between species. Structures capable of power amplification were broken down into the basic components of the engine, amplifier, and tool. The species analyzed were found to possess necessary structures for power amplification which were relatively similar to each other in morphology, but varied greatly in function. The ease with which these structures evolved was evaluated based on the amount of divergence which ...


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