Transition Between Phases Of The Annual Cycle: Spring Migration To Breeding In Nearctic-Neotropical Songbirds, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Transition Between Phases Of The Annual Cycle: Spring Migration To Breeding In Nearctic-Neotropical Songbirds, Kristen Marie Covino
Appropriate timing of each life-history stage is crucial for seasonally migratory species. The temporal constraints faced by migratory songbirds require that they overlap preparation for breeding with spring migration. However, previous work has focused primarily on male birds and has produced inconsistent results regarding the degree of overlap between these two life-history stages. I study the degree to which migrating male and female songbirds prepare for breeding throughout spring migration as they move towards their breeding grounds. Overall, male migrants show a significant degree of breeding preparation during spring migration as determined by circulating testosterone levels and their ability to ...
Novel Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors Restore Glucose-Handling Abilities Of High-Fat Fed Mice, 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology
Novel Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors Restore Glucose-Handling Abilities Of High-Fat Fed Mice, Gemma Kinsella, Darren Martin, Siobhan Leonard, Robert Devine, Clara Redondo, Conor Breen, Victoria Mceneaney, Mary Rooney, Tim Munsey, Richard Porter, Asipu Sivaprasadarao, John Stephens, John Findlay
Metformin is the main drug of choice for treating type 2 diabetes, yet the therapeutic regimens and side effects of the compound are all undesirable and can lead to reduced compliance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of two novel compounds which improved glucose handling and weight gain in mice on a high-fat diet. Wildtype C57Bl/6 male mice were fed on a high-fat diet and treated with novel, anti-diabetic compounds. Both compounds restored the glucose handling ability of these mice. At a cellular level, these compounds achieve this by inhibiting complex I activity ...
Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, 2016 Otterbein University
Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating
Honors Thesis Projects
With an increase in anthelmintic resistance and decreased efficacy of many commercial dewormers, understanding factors that contribute to parasite infestations in horses is integral to their management. The goal of this study was to look at the potential relationship between parasites and stress response by evaluating salivary cortisol levels and cyathostome egg shedding levels. Using a sample size of n = 200 horses from the state of Ohio, fecal and saliva samples were collected from each horse. Fecal egg counts were performed for each horse with a modified Stoll method, and saliva samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ...
Intrinsic And Extrinsic Regulation Of Pineal Melatonin Rhythms, 2016 University of Kentucky
Intrinsic And Extrinsic Regulation Of Pineal Melatonin Rhythms, Ye Li
Theses and Dissertations--Biology
Circadian rhythm is a biological rhythm with period of about 24 hours. Circadian rhythm is universal in phyla from bacteria to mammals and exists in different level from gene expression to behavior. Circadian system consists of three components: 1) a self-sustained oscillator; 2) an input pathway which can alter the phase of the oscillator; and 3) an output such as gene expression, enzyme activity, hormone production, heart rate, body temperature or locomotor activities. The way the oscillator regulates its outputs is complicated, in that on one hand usually the oscillator is not the only factor affecting the outputs, and on ...
A Plan For The Implementation And Evaluation Of Diet Education In Type 2 Diabetes, 2016 Walden University
A Plan For The Implementation And Evaluation Of Diet Education In Type 2 Diabetes, Soy Ramsumeer
Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States with a projected increase of 552 million people worldwide who will be affected with this illness by 2030. The need to address this issue is vital to prevent complications and reduce healthcare spending. The DNP project is aimed at planning and designing a nutritional education program tailored toward specific ethnic groups in order to increase knowledge in making healthy food choices. This project is intended to educate Registered Nurses (RNs) on nutrition so that they can offer dietary knowledge to T2DM patients. Additional ...
Human Adipose Tissue Expansion In Pregnancy Is Impaired In Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Human Adipose Tissue Expansion In Pregnancy Is Impaired In Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Moore Simas, Lawrence Lifshitz, Karl Bellve, So-Yun Min, Jacqueline Pires, Katherine Leung, Crina Boeras, Aylin Sert, Jacqueline Draper, Silvia Corvera
Tiffany A. Moore Simas
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: During pregnancy, adipose tissue (AT) must expand to support the growing fetus and the future nutritional needs of the offspring. Limited expandability of AT is associated with insulin resistance, attributed to ectopic lipid deposition. This study aimed to investigate human AT expandability during pregnancy and its role in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: This cross-sectional study of omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SQ) AT collected at Caesarean delivery included 11 pregnant and three non-pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), five with GDM, three with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipocyte size, capillary density, collagen content and ...
Effects Of Prenatal Environment Are Revealed By Post-Natal Challenges: Embryonic Hormone Exposure, Adrenocortical Function And Food In Seabird Chicks, Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks, Jannik Schultner, Alexander S. Kitaysky
Faculty Journal Articles
The interaction between prenatal environments and postnatal environments is an important source of phenotypic variability. We examined the ability of prenatal steroid exposure and postnatal energy restriction to explain adrenocortical function and fledging age in captive seabird chicks. We proposed and tested two hypotheses: (1) the strength of prenatal effects is attenuated by challenging postnatal environments (postnatal override) and (2) the strength of prenatal effects increases with the severity of postnatal challenges (postnatal reveal). We reared common murre (Uria aalge) chicks and measured prenatal exposure to corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) from allantoic waste. Adrenocortical function was assessed after 10 ...
Weekly Treatment Of 2-Hydroxypropyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin Improves Intracellular Cholesterol Levels In Ldl Receptor Knockout Mice, Sofie M.A. Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Tim Hendrikx, Mike L.J. Jeurissen, Patrick J. Van Gorp, Nathalie Vaes, Steven W.M. Olde Damink, Fons Verheyen, Ger H. Koek, Dieter Lutjohann, Alena Grebe, Eicke Latz, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Open Access Articles
Recently, the importance of lysosomes in the context of the metabolic syndrome has received increased attention. Increased lysosomal cholesterol storage and cholesterol crystallization inside macrophages have been linked to several metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Two-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-B-CD) is able to redirect lysosomal cholesterol to the cytoplasm in Niemann-Pick type C1 disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. We hypothesize that HP-B-CD ameliorates liver cholesterol and intracellular cholesterol levels inside Kupffer cells (KCs). Hyperlipidemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice were given weekly, subcutaneous injections with HP-B-CD or control PBS. In contrast to control injections, hyperlipidemic mice ...
Lixisenatide Accelerates Restoration Of Normoglycemia And Improves Human Beta-Cell Function And Survival In Diabetic Immunodeficient Nod-Scid Il-2rg(Null) Rip-Dtr Mice Engrafted With Human Islets, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Lixisenatide Accelerates Restoration Of Normoglycemia And Improves Human Beta-Cell Function And Survival In Diabetic Immunodeficient Nod-Scid Il-2rg(Null) Rip-Dtr Mice Engrafted With Human Islets, Chaoxing Yang, Matthias Loehn, Agata Jurczyk, Natalia Przewozniak, Linda Leehy, Pedro L. Herrera, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, David Harlan, Rita Bortell
Open Access Articles
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 induces glucose-dependent insulin secretion and, in rodents, increases proliferation and survival of pancreatic beta cells. To investigate the effects on human beta cells, we used immunodeficient mice transplanted with human islets. The goal was to determine whether lixisenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, improves human islet function and survival in vivo.
METHODS: Five independent transplant studies were conducted with human islets from five individual donors. Diabetic human islet-engrafted immunodeficient mice were treated with lixisenatide (50, 150, and 500 microg/kg) or vehicle. Islet function was determined by blood glucose, plasma human insulin/C-peptide, and glucose tolerance tests ...
Lh-Independent Testosterone Secretion Is Mediated By The Interaction Between Gnrh2 And Its Receptor Within Porcine Testes, 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Lh-Independent Testosterone Secretion Is Mediated By The Interaction Between Gnrh2 And Its Receptor Within Porcine Testes, Amy T. Desaulniers, Rebecca A. Cederberg, Ginger A. Mills, J. Joe Ford, Clay A. Lents, Brett R. White
Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science
Unlike classic gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), the second mammalian isoform (GNRH2) is an ineffective stimulant of gonadotropin release. Species that produce GNRH2 may not maintain a functional GNRH2 receptor (GNRHR2) due to coding errors. A full-length GNRHR2 gene has been identified in swine, but its role in reproduction requires further elucidation. Our objective was to examine the role of GNRH2 and GNRHR2 in testicular function of boars. We discovered that GNRH2 levels were higher in the testis than in the anterior pituitary gland or hypothalamus, corresponding to greater GNRHR2 abundance in the testis versus the anterior pituitary gland. Moreover, GNRH2 ...
Inducible Deletion Of Protein Kinase Map4k4 In Obese Mice Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Liver And Adipose Tissues, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Inducible Deletion Of Protein Kinase Map4k4 In Obese Mice Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Liver And Adipose Tissues, Laura V. Danai, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Joseph V Virbasius, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Dae Young Jung, Jong Hun Kim, Jason K. Kim, Michael P. Czech
Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations
Studies in vitro suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) attenuates insulin signaling, but confirmation in vivo is lacking since Map4k4 knockout is lethal during embryogenesis. We thus generated mice with floxed Map4k4 alleles and a tamoxifen-inducible Cre/ERT2 recombinase under the control of the ubiquitin C promoter to induce whole-body Map4k4 deletion after these animals reached maturity. Tamoxifen administration to these mice induced Map4k4 deletion in all tissues examined, causing decreased fasting blood glucose concentrations and enhanced insulin signaling to AKT in adipose tissue and liver but not in skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, however, mice generated with ...
Role Of Energy Metabolism In The Brown Fat Gene Program, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Role Of Energy Metabolism In The Brown Fat Gene Program, Minwoo Nam, Marcus P. Cooper
Open Access Articles
In murine and human brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondria are powerful generators of heat that safely metabolize fat, a feature that has great promise in the fight against obesity and diabetes. Recent studies suggest that the actions of mitochondria extend beyond their conventional role as generators of heat. There is mounting evidence that impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity is accompanied by attenuated expression of Ucp1 and other BAT-selective genes, implying that mitochondria exert transcriptional control over the brown fat gene program. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of brown fat mitochondria, their potential role in transcriptional control of the ...
Stress, Emotions, And Hormonal Control: Control Mechanisms Of Stress And Emotion: Neuroendocrine-Based Studies, 2015 University of South Carolina - Columbia
Stress, Emotions, And Hormonal Control: Control Mechanisms Of Stress And Emotion: Neuroendocrine-Based Studies, Sandra Kelly
Sandra J. Kelly
No abstract provided.
The Effects Of Arginine Vasopressin On Maternal Behavior And Aggression In Peromyscus Californicus Mothers, 2015 Seattle Pacific University
The Effects Of Arginine Vasopressin On Maternal Behavior And Aggression In Peromyscus Californicus Mothers, Nathaniel Ng
Research studies since the 1950s have shown that a chemical within the brain called arginine vasopressin (AVP) is associated with the modulation of many different social behaviors in mammals. Some of these behaviors are related to parenting, such as parental care initiation, aggression, social recognition, depression and anxiety. Understanding the physiology behind AVP regulation could allow for the creation of new therapies for treating human social disorders, such as using an AVP receptor antagonist to attenuate anxiety. This project examines how neural injections of AVP and an AVP receptor antagonist affect both maternal care and aggression in female Peromyscus californicus ...
Reproduction And Beyond, Kisspeptin In Ruminants., 2015 Berry College
Reproduction And Beyond, Kisspeptin In Ruminants., Joseph Daniel, Chad Foradori, Brian Whitlock, James Sartin
Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT
Kisspeptin (Kp) is synthesized in the arcuate nucleus and preoptic area of the hypothalamus and is a regulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the hypothalamus. In addition, Kp may regulate additional functions such as increased neuropeptide Y gene expression and reduced proopiomelanocortin gene expression in sheep. Other studies have found a role for Kp to release growth hormone (GH), prolactin and luteinizing hormone (LH) from cattle, rat and monkey pituitary cells. Intravenous injection of Kp stimulated release LH, GH, prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone in some experiments in cattle and sheep, but other studies have failed to find an effect ...
Prepubertal Serum Concentrations Of Organochlorine Pesticides And Age At Sexual Maturity In Russian Boys, Thuy Lam, Paige L. Williams, Mary M. Lee, Susan A. Korrick, Linda S. Birnbaum, Jane S. Burns, Oleg Sergeyev, Boris Revich, Larisa M. Altshul, Donald G. Patterson Jr, Russ Hauser
Cell and Developmental Biology Publications and Presentations
BACKGROUND: Few human studies have evaluated the impact of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) on pubertal development.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE)] with age at attainment of sexual maturity among boys.
METHODS: From 2003-2005, 350 8-9 year-old boys from Chapaevsk, Russia with measured OCPs were enrolled and followed annually for eight years. We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with three physician-assessed measures of sexual maturity: Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth, Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth, or testicular volume ...
The Role Of Rfamide-Related Peptide 3 (Rfrp3) In Regulation Of The Neuroendocrine Reproductive And Growth Axes Of The Boar, Jennifer F. Thorson, Amy T. Desaulniers, Chanho Lee, Brett R. White, J. Joe Ford, Clay A. Lents
Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science
RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP3) has been implicated in regulating reproduction and growth. This regulation appears to be dependent upon sex, species, physiological status, and developmental stage. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of RFRP3 on circulating concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) in mature boars. The hypothesis was RFRP3 would reduce circulating concentrations of LH and increase concentrations of GH. Meishan boars (716.6±2.8 days of age; 125.0±12.4kg BW) were randomly assigned to treatment: saline (n=4) or RFRP3 (8.5mg; n=5). Plasma was collected at ...
A Major Role Of Insulin In Promoting Obesity-Associated Adipose Tissue Inflammation, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
A Major Role Of Insulin In Promoting Obesity-Associated Adipose Tissue Inflammation, David J. Pedersen, Adilson L Guilherme, Laura V. Danai, Lauren Heyda, Anouch Matevossian, Jessica L. Cohen, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Hye Lim Noh, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, Michael P. Czech
Open Access Articles
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is associated with systemic insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in obese rodents and humans. A longstanding concept is that hyperinsulinemia may promote systemic insulin resistance through downregulation of its receptor on target tissues. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that insulin also impairs systemic insulin sensitivity by specifically enhancing adipose inflammation.
METHODS: Circulating insulin levels were reduced by about 50% in diet-induced and genetically obese mice by treatments with diazoxide or streptozotocin, respectively. We then examined AT crown-like structures, macrophage markers and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in AT. AT lipogenesis and systemic insulin sensitivity was also monitored ...
Role Of Protein Kinase Map4k4 In Energy Metabolism: A Dissertation, 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Role Of Protein Kinase Map4k4 In Energy Metabolism: A Dissertation, Laura V. Danai
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
Systemic glucose regulation is essential for human survival as low or chronically high glucose levels can be detrimental to the health of an individual. Glucose levels are highly regulated via inter-organ communication networks that alter metabolic function to maintain euglycemia. For example, when nutrient levels are low, pancreatic α-cells secrete glucagon, which signals to the liver to promote glycogen breakdown and glucose production. In times of excess nutrient intake, pancreatic β-cells release insulin. Insulin signals to the liver to suppress hepatic glucose production, and signals to the adipose tissue and the skeletal muscle to take up excess glucose via insulin-regulated ...
Nonenzymatic Glycosylation Of Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins. Relevance To Diabetes, 2015 Harvard Medical School
Nonenzymatic Glycosylation Of Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins. Relevance To Diabetes, J Miller, Ellen Gravallese, H Bunn
Ellen M. Gravallese
Nonenzymatic glycosylation of proteins of the erythrocyte membrane was determined by incubating erythrocyte ghosts with [3H]borohydride. The incorporation of tritium into protein provides a reliable assay of ketoamine linkages. The membrane proteins from 18 patients with diabetes incorporated twice as much radioactivity as membrane proteins from normal erythrocytes. After acid hydrolysis, amino acid analysis showed that the majority of radioactivity was localized to glucosyllysine. Autoradiograms showed that all of the major proteins of the erythrocyte membrane, separated by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, contained ketoamine linkages. No protein bands in either normal or diabetic erythrocytes showed significant preferential ...