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Structural Dichotomy Of The Mind; The Role Of Sexual Neuromodulators, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland 2016 Carol Davila University, Department of Surgery and Psychiatry

Structural Dichotomy Of The Mind; The Role Of Sexual Neuromodulators, Ion G. Motofei, David L. Rowland

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

The mind (mental function) and sexuality represent two distinct environmental functions, but which are supported within the brain by a common (somatic-autonomic) neurobiological substrate. As a consequence, mental function takes on autonomic characteristics from the sexual-autonomic system (like autonomy, duality), while sexual function takes on features from mental functioning (such as lateralization). In this paper we discuss the lateralized action of two classes of sexual neuromodulators: hormones and pheromones. This process of lateralization is assimilated with the structural dichotomy of the mind.

A relatively similar process but related to informational dichotomy of the mind will be presented in a forthcoming ...


A Test Of The Effects Of Androgens On Immunity: No Relationship Between 11-Keto Testosterone And Immune Performance In Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), John W. Loggie 2016 The University of Western Ontario

A Test Of The Effects Of Androgens On Immunity: No Relationship Between 11-Keto Testosterone And Immune Performance In Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), John W. Loggie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The posited immunosuppressive effects of androgens are a key component of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH). My thesis uses bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test two predictions arising from this hypothesis: (1) natural concentrations of the androgen 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) will be negatively related with immunity, and (2) an immunochallenge will lower 11-KT concentration. I found no evidence for a relationship between natural 11-KT concentration and measures of immunity (leukocyte counts, respiratory burst, cytokine gene expression), and an immunochallenge with Vibrio vaccine did not affect 11-KT concentration. I performed a meta-analysis of immunochallenge studies to help interpret my results, and ...


Protein Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (Map4k4) Promotes Obesity-Induced Hyperinsulinemia, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Laura V. Danai, Marina DiStefano, Mark Kelly, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Agata Jurczyk, Rohit B. Sharma, Dae Young Jung, Jong Hun Kim, Jason K. Kim, Rita Bortell, Laura C. Alonso, Michael P. Czech 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Protein Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (Map4k4) Promotes Obesity-Induced Hyperinsulinemia, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Laura V. Danai, Marina Distefano, Mark Kelly, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Agata Jurczyk, Rohit B. Sharma, Dae Young Jung, Jong Hun Kim, Jason K. Kim, Rita Bortell, Laura C. Alonso, Michael P. Czech

Open Access Articles

Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced beta cell mass, fewer proliferating beta cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared ...


Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, MD, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, MD, Franklin D. Shuler, MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, Md, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, Md, Franklin D. Shuler, Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Vitamin K is known to play an essential role in the coagulation cascade; however, a growing body of research has found that a subtype of this vitamin, vitamin K2 (menaquinone) may have a beneficial effect in osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. This purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature regarding menaquinone and its role in human health. This review discusses the physiology of menaquinone, its clinical benefits in cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, and how it may interact with certain medications. The authors conclude that menaquinone supplementation has been shown to improve carboxylation ...


Transition Between Phases Of The Annual Cycle: Spring Migration To Breeding In Nearctic-Neotropical Songbirds, Kristen Marie Covino 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Transition Between Phases Of The Annual Cycle: Spring Migration To Breeding In Nearctic-Neotropical Songbirds, Kristen Marie Covino

Dissertations

Appropriate timing of each life-history stage is crucial for seasonally migratory species. The temporal constraints faced by migratory songbirds require that they overlap preparation for breeding with spring migration. However, previous work has focused primarily on male birds and has produced inconsistent results regarding the degree of overlap between these two life-history stages. I study the degree to which migrating male and female songbirds prepare for breeding throughout spring migration as they move towards their breeding grounds. Overall, male migrants show a significant degree of breeding preparation during spring migration as determined by circulating testosterone levels and their ability to ...


Adipose Tissue Mtorc2 Regulates Chrebp-Driven De Novo Lipogenesis And Hepatic Glucose Metabolism, Yuefeng Tang, Martina Wallace, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Wen-Yu Hsiao, Huawei Li, Peter L. Lee, Santiago Vernia, Christian M. Metallo, David A. Guertin 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adipose Tissue Mtorc2 Regulates Chrebp-Driven De Novo Lipogenesis And Hepatic Glucose Metabolism, Yuefeng Tang, Martina Wallace, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Wen-Yu Hsiao, Huawei Li, Peter L. Lee, Santiago Vernia, Christian M. Metallo, David A. Guertin

Open Access Articles

Adipose tissue de novo lipogenesis (DNL) positively influences insulin sensitivity, is reduced in obesity, and predicts insulin resistance. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms controlling adipose tissue DNL could lead to therapies for type 2 diabetes. Here, we report that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) functions in white adipose tissue (WAT) to control expression of the lipogenic transcription factor ChREBPbeta. Conditionally deleting the essential mTORC2 subunit Rictor in mature adipocytes decreases ChREBPbeta expression, which reduces DNL in WAT, and impairs hepatic insulin sensitivity. Mechanistically, Rictor/mTORC2 promotes ChREBPbeta expression in part by controlling glucose uptake, but without impairing pan-AKT signalling. High-fat ...


Novel Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors Restore Glucose-Handling Abilities Of High-Fat Fed Mice, Gemma Kinsella, Darren Martin, Siobhan Leonard, Robert Devine, Clara Redondo, Conor Breen, Victoria McEneaney, Mary Rooney, Tim Munsey, Richard Porter, Asipu Sivaprasadarao, John Stephens, John Findlay 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Novel Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors Restore Glucose-Handling Abilities Of High-Fat Fed Mice, Gemma Kinsella, Darren Martin, Siobhan Leonard, Robert Devine, Clara Redondo, Conor Breen, Victoria Mceneaney, Mary Rooney, Tim Munsey, Richard Porter, Asipu Sivaprasadarao, John Stephens, John Findlay

Articles

Metformin is the main drug of choice for treating type 2 diabetes, yet the therapeutic regimens and side effects of the compound are all undesirable and can lead to reduced compliance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of two novel compounds which improved glucose handling and weight gain in mice on a high-fat diet. Wildtype C57Bl/6 male mice were fed on a high-fat diet and treated with novel, anti-diabetic compounds. Both compounds restored the glucose handling ability of these mice. At a cellular level, these compounds achieve this by inhibiting complex I activity ...


Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating 2016 Otterbein University

Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating

Honors Thesis Projects

With an increase in anthelmintic resistance and decreased efficacy of many commercial dewormers, understanding factors that contribute to parasite infestations in horses is integral to their management. The goal of this study was to look at the potential relationship between parasites and stress response by evaluating salivary cortisol levels and cyathostome egg shedding levels. Using a sample size of n = 200 horses from the state of Ohio, fecal and saliva samples were collected from each horse. Fecal egg counts were performed for each horse with a modified Stoll method, and saliva samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ...


Intrinsic And Extrinsic Regulation Of Pineal Melatonin Rhythms, Ye Li 2016 University of Kentucky

Intrinsic And Extrinsic Regulation Of Pineal Melatonin Rhythms, Ye Li

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Circadian rhythm is a biological rhythm with period of about 24 hours. Circadian rhythm is universal in phyla from bacteria to mammals and exists in different level from gene expression to behavior. Circadian system consists of three components: 1) a self-sustained oscillator; 2) an input pathway which can alter the phase of the oscillator; and 3) an output such as gene expression, enzyme activity, hormone production, heart rate, body temperature or locomotor activities. The way the oscillator regulates its outputs is complicated, in that on one hand usually the oscillator is not the only factor affecting the outputs, and on ...


A Plan For The Implementation And Evaluation Of Diet Education In Type 2 Diabetes, Soy Ramsumeer 2016 Walden University

A Plan For The Implementation And Evaluation Of Diet Education In Type 2 Diabetes, Soy Ramsumeer

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Abstract

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States with a projected increase of 552 million people worldwide who will be affected with this illness by 2030. The need to address this issue is vital to prevent complications and reduce healthcare spending. The DNP project is aimed at planning and designing a nutritional education program tailored toward specific ethnic groups in order to increase knowledge in making healthy food choices. This project is intended to educate Registered Nurses (RNs) on nutrition so that they can offer dietary knowledge to T2DM patients. Additional ...


Human Adipose Tissue Expansion In Pregnancy Is Impaired In Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Moore Simas, Lawrence Lifshitz, Karl Bellve, So-Yun Min, Jacqueline Pires, Katherine Leung, Crina Boeras, Aylin Sert, Jacqueline Draper, Silvia Corvera 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Human Adipose Tissue Expansion In Pregnancy Is Impaired In Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Moore Simas, Lawrence Lifshitz, Karl Bellve, So-Yun Min, Jacqueline Pires, Katherine Leung, Crina Boeras, Aylin Sert, Jacqueline Draper, Silvia Corvera

Tiffany A. Moore Simas

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: During pregnancy, adipose tissue (AT) must expand to support the growing fetus and the future nutritional needs of the offspring. Limited expandability of AT is associated with insulin resistance, attributed to ectopic lipid deposition. This study aimed to investigate human AT expandability during pregnancy and its role in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: This cross-sectional study of omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SQ) AT collected at Caesarean delivery included 11 pregnant and three non-pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), five with GDM, three with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipocyte size, capillary density, collagen content and ...


Hepatic Nutrient And Hormonal Regulation Of The Pancreatic-Derived Factor (Pander) Promoter, Whitney Ratliff 2015 University of South Florida

Hepatic Nutrient And Hormonal Regulation Of The Pancreatic-Derived Factor (Pander) Promoter, Whitney Ratliff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

PANcreatic-DERived factor (PANDER, FAM3B) has been shown to regulate glycemic levels via interactions with both pancreatic islets and the liver. Although PANDER is predominantly expressed from the endocrine pancreas, recent work has provided sufficient evidence that the liver may also be an additional tissue source of PANDER production. At physiological levels, PANDER is capable of disrupting insulin signaling and promoting increased hepatic glucose production. As shown in some animal models, strong expression of PANDER, induced by viral delivery within the liver, induces hepatic steatosis. However, no studies to date have explicitly characterized the transcriptional regulation of PANDER from the liver ...


Effects Of Prenatal Environment Are Revealed By Post-Natal Challenges: Embryonic Hormone Exposure, Adrenocortical Function And Food In Seabird Chicks, Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks, Jannik Schultner, Alexander S. Kitaysky 2015 Bucknell University

Effects Of Prenatal Environment Are Revealed By Post-Natal Challenges: Embryonic Hormone Exposure, Adrenocortical Function And Food In Seabird Chicks, Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks, Jannik Schultner, Alexander S. Kitaysky

Faculty Journal Articles

The interaction between prenatal environments and postnatal environments is an important source of phenotypic variability. We examined the ability of prenatal steroid exposure and postnatal energy restriction to explain adrenocortical function and fledging age in captive seabird chicks. We proposed and tested two hypotheses: (1) the strength of prenatal effects is attenuated by challenging postnatal environments (postnatal override) and (2) the strength of prenatal effects increases with the severity of postnatal challenges (postnatal reveal). We reared common murre (Uria aalge) chicks and measured prenatal exposure to corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) from allantoic waste. Adrenocortical function was assessed after 10 ...


Weekly Treatment Of 2-Hydroxypropyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin Improves Intracellular Cholesterol Levels In Ldl Receptor Knockout Mice, Sofie M.A. Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Tim Hendrikx, Mike L.J. Jeurissen, Patrick J. van Gorp, Nathalie Vaes, Steven W.M. Olde Damink, Fons Verheyen, Ger H. Koek, Dieter Lutjohann, Alena Grebe, Eicke Latz, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov 2015 Maastricht University

Weekly Treatment Of 2-Hydroxypropyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin Improves Intracellular Cholesterol Levels In Ldl Receptor Knockout Mice, Sofie M.A. Walenbergh, Tom Houben, Tim Hendrikx, Mike L.J. Jeurissen, Patrick J. Van Gorp, Nathalie Vaes, Steven W.M. Olde Damink, Fons Verheyen, Ger H. Koek, Dieter Lutjohann, Alena Grebe, Eicke Latz, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov

Open Access Articles

Recently, the importance of lysosomes in the context of the metabolic syndrome has received increased attention. Increased lysosomal cholesterol storage and cholesterol crystallization inside macrophages have been linked to several metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Two-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-B-CD) is able to redirect lysosomal cholesterol to the cytoplasm in Niemann-Pick type C1 disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. We hypothesize that HP-B-CD ameliorates liver cholesterol and intracellular cholesterol levels inside Kupffer cells (KCs). Hyperlipidemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice were given weekly, subcutaneous injections with HP-B-CD or control PBS. In contrast to control injections, hyperlipidemic mice ...


Lixisenatide Accelerates Restoration Of Normoglycemia And Improves Human Beta-Cell Function And Survival In Diabetic Immunodeficient Nod-Scid Il-2rg(Null) Rip-Dtr Mice Engrafted With Human Islets, Chaoxing Yang, Matthias Loehn, Agata Jurczyk, Natalia Przewozniak, Linda Leehy, Pedro L. Herrera, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, David Harlan, Rita Bortell 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Lixisenatide Accelerates Restoration Of Normoglycemia And Improves Human Beta-Cell Function And Survival In Diabetic Immunodeficient Nod-Scid Il-2rg(Null) Rip-Dtr Mice Engrafted With Human Islets, Chaoxing Yang, Matthias Loehn, Agata Jurczyk, Natalia Przewozniak, Linda Leehy, Pedro L. Herrera, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, David Harlan, Rita Bortell

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 induces glucose-dependent insulin secretion and, in rodents, increases proliferation and survival of pancreatic beta cells. To investigate the effects on human beta cells, we used immunodeficient mice transplanted with human islets. The goal was to determine whether lixisenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, improves human islet function and survival in vivo.

METHODS: Five independent transplant studies were conducted with human islets from five individual donors. Diabetic human islet-engrafted immunodeficient mice were treated with lixisenatide (50, 150, and 500 microg/kg) or vehicle. Islet function was determined by blood glucose, plasma human insulin/C-peptide, and glucose tolerance tests ...


Lh-Independent Testosterone Secretion Is Mediated By The Interaction Between Gnrh2 And Its Receptor Within Porcine Testes, Amy T. Desaulniers, Rebecca A. Cederberg, Ginger A. Mills, J. Joe Ford, Clay A. Lents, Brett R. White 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Lh-Independent Testosterone Secretion Is Mediated By The Interaction Between Gnrh2 And Its Receptor Within Porcine Testes, Amy T. Desaulniers, Rebecca A. Cederberg, Ginger A. Mills, J. Joe Ford, Clay A. Lents, Brett R. White

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Unlike classic gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), the second mammalian isoform (GNRH2) is an ineffective stimulant of gonadotropin release. Species that produce GNRH2 may not maintain a functional GNRH2 receptor (GNRHR2) due to coding errors. A full-length GNRHR2 gene has been identified in swine, but its role in reproduction requires further elucidation. Our objective was to examine the role of GNRH2 and GNRHR2 in testicular function of boars. We discovered that GNRH2 levels were higher in the testis than in the anterior pituitary gland or hypothalamus, corresponding to greater GNRHR2 abundance in the testis versus the anterior pituitary gland. Moreover, GNRH2 ...


Inducible Deletion Of Protein Kinase Map4k4 In Obese Mice Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Liver And Adipose Tissues, Laura V. Danai, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Joseph V Virbasius, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Dae Young Jung, Jong Hun Kim, Jason K. Kim, Michael P. Czech 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Inducible Deletion Of Protein Kinase Map4k4 In Obese Mice Improves Insulin Sensitivity In Liver And Adipose Tissues, Laura V. Danai, Rachel J. Roth Flach, Joseph V Virbasius, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Dae Young Jung, Jong Hun Kim, Jason K. Kim, Michael P. Czech

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Studies in vitro suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) attenuates insulin signaling, but confirmation in vivo is lacking since Map4k4 knockout is lethal during embryogenesis. We thus generated mice with floxed Map4k4 alleles and a tamoxifen-inducible Cre/ERT2 recombinase under the control of the ubiquitin C promoter to induce whole-body Map4k4 deletion after these animals reached maturity. Tamoxifen administration to these mice induced Map4k4 deletion in all tissues examined, causing decreased fasting blood glucose concentrations and enhanced insulin signaling to AKT in adipose tissue and liver but not in skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, however, mice generated with ...


Role Of Energy Metabolism In The Brown Fat Gene Program, Minwoo Nam, Marcus P. Cooper 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Role Of Energy Metabolism In The Brown Fat Gene Program, Minwoo Nam, Marcus P. Cooper

Open Access Articles

In murine and human brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondria are powerful generators of heat that safely metabolize fat, a feature that has great promise in the fight against obesity and diabetes. Recent studies suggest that the actions of mitochondria extend beyond their conventional role as generators of heat. There is mounting evidence that impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity is accompanied by attenuated expression of Ucp1 and other BAT-selective genes, implying that mitochondria exert transcriptional control over the brown fat gene program. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of brown fat mitochondria, their potential role in transcriptional control of the ...


Stress, Emotions, And Hormonal Control: Control Mechanisms Of Stress And Emotion: Neuroendocrine-Based Studies, Sandra Kelly 2015 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Stress, Emotions, And Hormonal Control: Control Mechanisms Of Stress And Emotion: Neuroendocrine-Based Studies, Sandra Kelly

Sandra J. Kelly

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Arginine Vasopressin On Maternal Behavior And Aggression In Peromyscus Californicus Mothers, Nathaniel Ng 2015 Seattle Pacific University

The Effects Of Arginine Vasopressin On Maternal Behavior And Aggression In Peromyscus Californicus Mothers, Nathaniel Ng

Honors Projects

Research studies since the 1950s have shown that a chemical within the brain called arginine vasopressin (AVP) is associated with the modulation of many different social behaviors in mammals. Some of these behaviors are related to parenting, such as parental care initiation, aggression, social recognition, depression and anxiety. Understanding the physiology behind AVP regulation could allow for the creation of new therapies for treating human social disorders, such as using an AVP receptor antagonist to attenuate anxiety. This project examines how neural injections of AVP and an AVP receptor antagonist affect both maternal care and aggression in female Peromyscus californicus ...


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