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The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known and may relate to alterations in brain structure (e.g. cortical atrophy) and/or altered neural function, particularly in regions related to the cortical autonomic network, namely, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), insula cortex (IC), and hippocampus (HC). Exercise exerts beneficial effects on brain structure and, in the case of cognition, neurologic function; however, how exercise affects regions of the brain related to autonomic function are not known. This ...


Effects Of Acute Exercise On Postprandial Lipemia And Postprandial Glycemia, Stephen Decker 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Effects Of Acute Exercise On Postprandial Lipemia And Postprandial Glycemia, Stephen Decker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise has been shown to attenuate the rise in triglycerides in during the postprandial period, however the effects of acute bouts of high-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia and glycemia have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute high-intensity interval training on postprandial lipemia and postprandial glycemia.

Methods: Ten healthy males participated in a randomized crossover design consisting of one high-intensity exercise session and one sedentary control session, followed by consumption of a mixed meal. Blood triglyceride and glucose concentrations were monitored following the consumption of the meal.

Results: High-intensity ...


A Comparison Of Cervical And Trunk Musculoskeletal Characteristics Between Female And Male Army Helicopter Pilots, Takashi Nagai, Karen A. Keenan, John P. Abt, Timothy C. Sell, Brian W. Smalley, Michael D. Wirt, Scott M. Lephart 2016 University of Pittsburgh

A Comparison Of Cervical And Trunk Musculoskeletal Characteristics Between Female And Male Army Helicopter Pilots, Takashi Nagai, Karen A. Keenan, John P. Abt, Timothy C. Sell, Brian W. Smalley, Michael D. Wirt, Scott M. Lephart

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Introduction: Neck pain (NP) and low back pain (LBP) are prevalent among military helicopter pilots. Although there have been few studies on sex differences in the NP/LBP prevalence in this population, females are shown to be at a greater risk of NP/LBP in civilian studies. This disparity may be due to musculoskeletal characteristics differences that predispose females for NP/LBP. The purpose of this study was to compare cervical and trunk musculoskeletal characteristics between male and female pilots. Methods: A total of 8 female pilots (Age: 27.6 ± 4.2yrs, HT: 166.1 ± 7.7cm, WT: 67.9 ...


The Relationship Between Strength, Power, And Sprint Acceleration In Division I Men’S Soccer Players, Christopher Bellon 2016 East Tennessee State University

The Relationship Between Strength, Power, And Sprint Acceleration In Division I Men’S Soccer Players, Christopher Bellon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this dissertation were three-fold. The first was to identify the approximate distances characterizing early-, mid-, and late-acceleration in a population of Division I men’s collegiate soccer players. The secondary purpose was to investigate the relationships between various strength-power variables and key sprint characteristics during early-, mid-, and late-acceleration in a population of Division I men’s soccer players. The final purpose of this dissertation was to compare the spatiotemporal characteristics of “strong” versus “weak” and “more powerful” versus “less powerful” Division I men’s soccer players during early-, mid-, and late- acceleration. The following are the ...


Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff

Doctoral Dissertations

Skeletal muscle glucose metabolism can affect whole body glucose homeostasis significantly. Vitamin A (VA) plays a role in a number of physiological functions including glucose metabolism. However, its role in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism has not been well established. Insulin controls glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle via the regulations of glucose uptake, glycogenesis, and glycolysis. We hypothesize that insulin and VA signaling pathways may converge to regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Here, the effects of retinoic acid (RA) alone and in combination with insulin on glucose utilization in rat L6 muscle cells were studied. L6 cells were treated ...


The Effects Of Actigraph Bandpass Filtering On Activity Counts During Continuous And Intermittent Lifestyle Activity, Samuel Robert LaMunion 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Effects Of Actigraph Bandpass Filtering On Activity Counts During Continuous And Intermittent Lifestyle Activity, Samuel Robert Lamunion

Masters Theses

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore how increasing the upper limit of the bandpass filter frequency range affected accelerometer counts collected during treadmill walking and running, car driving and intermittent lifestyle activities METHODS: Part A included treadmill walking, running, and car driving (N=20) (mean ± [plus or minus] SD; age, 24.4±3.4 years; body mass index (BMI, 26.4±3.3 kg/m2 [kilograms per meter squared]). Part B included ten lifestyle activities ranging from sedentary behaviors to vigorous intensities (N=30) (mean±SD; age, 23.0±2.3 years; BMI, 25.1±3 ...


A Bayesian Inference Comparing Collegiate Female Cyclists To Elite Female Cyclists From A Meta-Analysis, Frank B. Wyatt, Mihir Dhimar, Yesha Shah 2016 Midwestern State University

A Bayesian Inference Comparing Collegiate Female Cyclists To Elite Female Cyclists From A Meta-Analysis, Frank B. Wyatt, Mihir Dhimar, Yesha Shah

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 368-375, 2016. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological characteristics of competitive, collegiate female cyclists (CFC) to data of elite female cyclists (EFC) obtained from a meta-analytic review. Eleven (n=11) CFC volunteered as subjects. Subjects signed a university approved informed consent. Means and standard deviation (+ SD) were obtained from the following measurements: age (y), 22.5± 5.1; height (cm) 167.22 ± 6.2; body mass (kg) 63.78 ± 9.71; body fat (%) 22.9 ± 3.6. Subjects performed a maximal cycling ergometer test to volitional fatigue. Maximal oxygen ...


Effects Of Static Stretching On Squat Performance In Division I Female Athletes, Clare F. Heisey, J. Derek Kingsley 2016 Kent State Univeristy-Kent Campus

Effects Of Static Stretching On Squat Performance In Division I Female Athletes, Clare F. Heisey, J. Derek Kingsley

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 359-367, 2016. Static stretching was once recognized as a method of preparation for physical activity that would inhibit performance and increase risk of injury. However, a growing body of research suggests that static stretching may not have an inhibitory effect. Regardless, the data have not examined gender differences or the fatigue index (FI) and flexibility effects of static stretching on the back squat over multiple sets. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a static-stretch condition (SC) and control condition (CC) on flexibility and the FI of Division ...


Individual Differences In The Programming Of Rapid Bimanual Movements: Are Two Modes Better Than One?, Ashley N. Vander Does, David E. Sherwood 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Individual Differences In The Programming Of Rapid Bimanual Movements: Are Two Modes Better Than One?, Ashley N. Vander Does, David E. Sherwood

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 347-358, 2016. One of the challenges in performing simultaneous bimanual movements is to prevent interference from one limb to the other, thereby maintaining spatial accuracy in both limbs. Prior research has shown that when a longer distance movement is performed with a shorter movement, the shorter movement overshoots its target and the longer movement undershoots its target relative to control conditions where two shorter or two longer movements are made. The current experiment investigated the motor control strategies used by participants when performing simultaneous aiming movements combining both different and same distances. Participants ...


Exercise-Induced Glycogen Reduction Increases Muscle Activity, Matthew S. Tenan, J. Troy Blackburn, Robert G. McMurray 2016 US Army Research Laboratory

Exercise-Induced Glycogen Reduction Increases Muscle Activity, Matthew S. Tenan, J. Troy Blackburn, Robert G. Mcmurray

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 336-346, 2016. Intramuscular glycogen stores are an important energy source during extended bouts of strenuous exercise. A substantial reduction in glycogen could influence neural muscular drive and result in a decreasing quality of exercise performance and potentially increased injury rates. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of glycogen reduction on motor drive as determined by the surface electromyogram (EMG) amplitude and median frequency during a cycling graded exercise test. Eight trained cyclists performed a discontinuous cycling graded exercise test to exhaustion under both normal and glycogen reduced conditions. EMG ...


Power Training And Functional Performance In Middle Aged Women: A Pilot Study, Mitchel A. Magrini, J. Jay Dawes, Craig Elder, Mary Ann Kluge 2016 University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

Power Training And Functional Performance In Middle Aged Women: A Pilot Study, Mitchel A. Magrini, J. Jay Dawes, Craig Elder, Mary Ann Kluge

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 327-335, 2016. Muscular power is a key component of functional performance (FP) and fall risk reduction. The present study investigated the effect that power training with medicine balls had on body composition and FP in middle-age females. 10 women were divided into a control group (n=4, age=59.8+3.6) and an intervention group (n=6, age=59.5+3.6) in this 6-week study. The intervention group completed a medicine ball training program two times a week. Body composition and FP tests were administered prepost. Data was analyzed using a ...


Do Girls With Excess Adiposity Perform Poorer Motor Skills Than Their Leaner Peers?, Daniel V. Chagas, Joyce F. Carvalho, Luiz A. Batista 2016 State University of Rio de Janeiro

Do Girls With Excess Adiposity Perform Poorer Motor Skills Than Their Leaner Peers?, Daniel V. Chagas, Joyce F. Carvalho, Luiz A. Batista

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 318-326, 2016. The main aim of this study was to analyze the joint association of body fat percentage and physical activity levels on motor coordination scores in girls with different adiposity status. Sixty-eight school-aged children between 12 and 14 years participated in the study. Skinfold thickness was measured and the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder test was administered. Participants completed a selfreporting questionnaire on physical activity. Children’s adiposity status was attributed in according to age-specific cutoff points of a Brazilian database. Analysis of Variance was used to compare motor coordination scores among groups with ...


Factors Influencing Muscular Strength And Endurance In Disadvantaged Children From Low-Income Families, Yi Fang, Ryan D. Burns, James C. Hannon, Timothy A. Brusseau 2016 University of Utah

Factors Influencing Muscular Strength And Endurance In Disadvantaged Children From Low-Income Families, Yi Fang, Ryan D. Burns, James C. Hannon, Timothy A. Brusseau

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 306-317, 2016. Examining the correlates of muscular strength and endurance in children from low-income families will provide evidence for interventions to improve these parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors and trends of muscular strength and endurance in at-risk school-aged children. The sample included 1,232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys; 60% Hispanic) recruited from three U.S. low-income schools. Children performed health-related fitness testing and wore pedometers for one school week. A stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to ...


Perceptions Of Motivational Climate, Goal Orientations, And Light- To Vigorous-Intensity Physical Activity Engagement Of A Sample Of Finnish Grade 5 To 9 Students, Arto Gråstén, Anthony P. Watt 2016 University of Jyvaskyla

Perceptions Of Motivational Climate, Goal Orientations, And Light- To Vigorous-Intensity Physical Activity Engagement Of A Sample Of Finnish Grade 5 To 9 Students, Arto Gråstén, Anthony P. Watt

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 291-305, 2016. The aim of this study was the examination of relationships between children’s perceptions of motivational climate, goal orientation, and their engagement in light- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. The sample comprised 585 school children at age of 11 to 16-year-old from three small cities located in Northeast-Finland. The cross-sectional data was collected using online questionnaires in April 2014. The findings indicated that the higher task-involving motivational climate in physical education the children reported, the higher total light- and moderate-intensity levels they accumulated. Task-involving climate also indicated higher task orientation and ego-involving ...


The Acute Effect Of Pilates Exercise On Lower Extremity Maximal Strength, Heather Monger, Blain C. Harrison 2016 Longwood University

The Acute Effect Of Pilates Exercise On Lower Extremity Maximal Strength, Heather Monger, Blain C. Harrison

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 283-290, 2016. In recent years, the effects of chronic core training on athletic performance have been examined with mixed results; however, the acute effects of core training on athletic performance variables have yet to be examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between an acute bout of core training and lower extremity maximal strength. Seventeen healthy males (weight 90.1 ± 17.2 kg; height 176.7 ± 11.2 cm; age 20.9 ± 1.3 years) performed maximal deadlift assessments following 2 testing conditions. A general cardiovascular warm-up was ...


Physiological Characteristics Of Youth Synchronized Skaters, Laura E. Fischer M.Ed., Lynn A. Darby Ph.D., Amy L. Morgan Ph.D., David A. Tobar Ph.D. 2016 Bowling Green State University

Physiological Characteristics Of Youth Synchronized Skaters, Laura E. Fischer M.Ed., Lynn A. Darby Ph.D., Amy L. Morgan Ph.D., David A. Tobar Ph.D.

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 270-282, 2016. Figure skating is a lifelong sport with participation rates increasing for skaters of all ages. Development within the five disciplines of figure skating (individual skating, synchronized skating, pairs skating, ice dancing, and theater on ice) has led to increased physical demands placed on skaters’ bodies. As a result, focus on sport performance testing, training, and injury prevention specific to figure skating is increasing. The purpose of this study was to use field tests to describe the physical characteristics of synchronized skaters and to determine the relationships between these physiological characteristics and ...


Evaluation Of The Basis Band Fitness Tracker, Pier-Alexandre Desilets, Matthew T. Mahar 2016 East Carolina University

Evaluation Of The Basis Band Fitness Tracker, Pier-Alexandre Desilets, Matthew T. Mahar

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 258-269, 2016. Self-monitoring is a widely recommended behavioral strategy to promote regular physical activity. Commercially available activity monitors are becoming increasingly popular and provide users with the opportunity to self-monitor physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the Basis Band Fitness Tracker to measure heart rate and movement compared to research-grade activity monitors. Twenty participants (14 females and 6 males) aged 18-23 yrs (mean = 20.0 ± 1.1 yrs) wore a Basis Band, an NL-1000 pedometer, an ANT+ Motorola HRM1G chest strap heart rate monitor, and an ...


Body Image Dissatisfaction: Responses Between Male And Female Exercisers And Non-Exercisers, Katie Melching, Matt Green, Eric K. O'Neal, Lee Renfroe 2016 University of North Alabama

Body Image Dissatisfaction: Responses Between Male And Female Exercisers And Non-Exercisers, Katie Melching, Matt Green, Eric K. O'Neal, Lee Renfroe

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 9(3): 249-257, 2016.Body image dissatisfaction (BID) is defined as the difference between actual and desired image. Body image or BID is subject to high levels of societal pressure and discrepancies are frequent between actual and desired image. This study examined BID among male exercisers (ME), female exercisers (FE), male non-exercisers (MNE) and female non-exercisers (FNE). Further, the potential relationship of personal BID on individual’s beliefs regarding what their peers’ perceptions would be was examined. College-aged men (n = 169) and women (n = 246) used the Stunkard scale to self-assess body image. Participants labeled ...


Older Women’S Muscle And Gait Response To A Bout Of Exercise Differs By Physical Activity Level, Jocelyn F. Hafer, Katherine A. Boyer 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Older Women’S Muscle And Gait Response To A Bout Of Exercise Differs By Physical Activity Level, Jocelyn F. Hafer, Katherine A. Boyer

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Changes in gait are a consequence of aging and likely contribute to knee osteoarthritis (OA) incidence. Decrements in muscle function with age, including muscle power and fatigue resistance, may contribute to changes in gait and, subsequently, knee OA. Examining the impact of habitual physical activity (PA) on gait mechanics and muscle function may provide insight for interventions to modify knee OA risk. As knee OA affects women at greater rates than men, the current study focused on older women. The aim of this study was to determine if older women with different levels of habitual PA experienced the same effect ...


Which Is The Primary Factor Influencing Running Stride Parameters: Age Or Lower Limb Strength?, Carl Jewell, Eric Rohr, J. Hamill, Katherine A. Boyer 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Which Is The Primary Factor Influencing Running Stride Parameters: Age Or Lower Limb Strength?, Carl Jewell, Eric Rohr, J. Hamill, Katherine A. Boyer

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Much still remains unknown about the impact of age, and age-related changes in muscle function, on gait parameters. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of strength on running gait parameters across the adult lifespan. We tested the hypothesis that a greater amount of the variance in peak hip, knee and ankle sagittal plane moments would be explained by peak isometric joint torques as compared to age. Twenty-four healthy adults, ages 20-66 years, completed 5 trials on an overground 20-meter runway at a standardized velocity of 3.5 ms-1 (± 5%). Participants performed maximal isometric plantar flexion and ...


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