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Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology Commons

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Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) are a family of homologous, acidic, and highly conserved proteins expressed abundantly and ubiquitously in a wide array of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including humans, which regulate important cellular events. Within mammals, seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist: β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ, and σ (stratifin), each of which is encoded by a unique gene. Studies have shown similar expression patterns among mammalian species. The 14-3-3 proteins are commonly expressed and have proven to play critical roles in proper cellular localization, function, and homeostatic regulation. Numerous researchers have investigated the expression and localization patterns of ...


Beaver And Naked Mole Rat Genomes Reveal Common Paths To Longevity, Xuming Zhou, Elinor K. Karlsson, Vadim N. Gladyshev 2020 Harvard Medical School

Beaver And Naked Mole Rat Genomes Reveal Common Paths To Longevity, Xuming Zhou, Elinor K. Karlsson, Vadim N. Gladyshev

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Long-lived rodents have become an attractive model for the studies on aging. To understand evolutionary paths to long life, we prepare chromosome-level genome assemblies of the two longest-lived rodents, Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber), which were scaffolded with in vitro proximity ligation and chromosome conformation capture data and complemented with long-read sequencing. Our comparative genomic analyses reveal that amino acid substitutions at "disease-causing" sites are widespread in the rodent genomes and that identical substitutions in long-lived rodents are associated with common adaptive phenotypes, e.g., enhanced resistance to DNA damage and cellular stress. By ...


Developing A Writing-Intensive Course In Animal Physiology, Tomasz Owerkowicz 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

Developing A Writing-Intensive Course In Animal Physiology, Tomasz Owerkowicz

Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

The project details how Comparative Animal Physiology, a two-semester upper division biology elective, is transformed to meet writing-intensive discipline-appropriate criteria. Targeted and scaffolded assignments allow students to write about physiology in a variety of styles, and to help revise each other’s work to better understand the iterative process of writing. Assignments are aligned with WI student learning outcomes, to promote critical, reflective and effective communication skills.


The Cardiovascular Response To Acute Hypoxic Conditions In Danio Rerio, Bryce Fetterman 2020 The University of Akron

The Cardiovascular Response To Acute Hypoxic Conditions In Danio Rerio, Bryce Fetterman

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

There are many fish that can withstand hypoxia levels. One in particular is the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The zebrafish is a small-sized, Cyprinid teleost fish, and has been used in a laboratory setting for many reasons. A few reasons being that they are widely available, easy to care for, and the cost for these fish are very low. There are various reasons why these fish are used as a model. One main reason is because their cardiovascular system is one of the first developing organs. This allows for better resolution when studying the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study ...


The Evolution Of Dragons, Laura J. Mayfield 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

The Evolution Of Dragons, Laura J. Mayfield

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Dragons have been depicted in human art as early as 4500 BCE. For centuries, these fantasy creatures have inspired countless folk and fantasy tales, as well as appearing in the art of different cultures around the world. Now there are thousands of different depictions of these huge, flying, fire-breathing lizards, but are any of them possible? In this study, I reference peer-reviewed scientific articles, phylogenetic analysis, and paleoart studies to create biologically-sound dragons. Basing the dragon lineage on a real branch of webbed-winged scansoriopterygids—an extinct family of climbing and gliding maniraptoran dinosaurs—I explored the possible wing-structure, fire-breathing abilities ...


Plasticity And The Impact Of Increasing Temperature On A Tropical Ectotherm, Adam A. Rosso 2020 Georgia Southern University

Plasticity And The Impact Of Increasing Temperature On A Tropical Ectotherm, Adam A. Rosso

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organisms may respond to climate change through behavior, genetic adaptation, and/or phenotypic plasticity. Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because most have a narrow range of thermal tolerance while living close to their upper thermal tolerance limits. Additionally, many tropical species live in closed-canopy forests, which provide homogenous thermal landscapes that prevent behavioral compensation for stressfully warm temperatures. Finally, tropical ectotherms are thought to have decreased capacity for phenotypic plasticity because they have evolved in thermally stable environments. We tested gene expression patterns and phenotypic plasticity in the Panamanian slender anole by a) measuring ...


Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus Collaris) Population Declines In Ozark Landscapes: An Assessment Of Environmental Constraints., Casey L. Brewster 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus Collaris) Population Declines In Ozark Landscapes: An Assessment Of Environmental Constraints., Casey L. Brewster

Theses and Dissertations

The Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) has experienced extensive population declines over the past half century in the Ozark Mountains. Previous research suggests that glade habitat degradation through woody vegetation encroachment is an important factor resulting in population declines. In this dissertation I used information on time-energy budgets to investigate the link between habitat degradation and shifts in life history traits likely resulting in population declines of Eastern Collared Lizards (Crotaphytus collaris) in the Ozarks. In chapter one, I addressed the influence of dense woody vegetation encroachment on age-specific growth, body size, body condition and reproduction of C. collaris in ...


#16 - Spatial Variation In Male Whitetail Deer Morphology Across Georgia, Charles Bish, Taylor Malasek, Julia McManus, David Patterson, Jessica Patterson 2019 University of North Georgia

#16 - Spatial Variation In Male Whitetail Deer Morphology Across Georgia, Charles Bish, Taylor Malasek, Julia Mcmanus, David Patterson, Jessica Patterson

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Understanding morphological variation across space in large mammal species can provide insights into their overall ecology and evolutionary history. However, these analyses are frequently limited by the availability of high-resolution morphological data from individuals over a wide spatial scale. In this study, we compiled a large (N=2,092) sample of morphological characteristics from male whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginiana) harvested on Georgia Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Management Areas (N=40; DNR WMA) during the 2017 hunting season. We use these data to investigate spatial heterogeneity in the morphological characteristics (e.g., body weight, total antler spread, antler diameter) of ...


Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach 2019 University of Liverpool

Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Key (2016) affirms that we do not know how the fish brain processes pain but denies — because fish lack a human-like cortex — that fish can feel pain. He affirms that birds, like fish, have a singly-laminated cortex and that the structure of the bird brain is quite different from that of the human brain, yet he does not deny that birds can feel pain. In this commentary we describe how Key cites studies that substantiate mammalian pain but discounts the same kind of data as evidence of fish pain. We suggest that Key's interpretations are illogical, do not reflect ...


Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka 2019 Western Kentucky University

Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep is a fundamental and essential component of vertebrate life, although its exact function remains unknown. Animals that are deprived of sleep typically show reduced neurobiological performance, health, and in some cases, survival. However, a number of animals exhibit adaptations that permit them to carry out normal activities even when sleep is restricted or deprived. Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), arctic-breeding passerine birds, exhibit around-the-clock activity during their short breeding season, with an inactive period of only 3–4 h/day (71°N). Whether these birds suffer behavioral and physiological costs associated with acute sleep loss (SL) is unknown. To assess ...


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley 2019 University of Maine

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


Comparative Thermal Ecology Of Coastal And Inland Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Oreganus), Hayley Layne Crowell 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Comparative Thermal Ecology Of Coastal And Inland Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Oreganus), Hayley Layne Crowell

Master's Theses

Global biodiversity is declining as a direct result of anthropogenic climate change. Ectothermic species have become focal organisms for studying the ecological effects of altered climates due to the clear relationship between environmental temperatures and ectotherms’ basic physiological functions. Historically, examinations of these effects have focused heavily on heliothermic lizards, and most others have tended to focus on single populations or sympatric species within a single community. Addressing the longterm energetic implications of environmental temperature variation will provide valuable insight into the cascading physiological effects that certain populations or species may experience as a result of altered climates.

In this ...


Growth Characteristics And Lipid Metabolism Of Cultured Migratory Bird Skeletal Muscle Cells, Kevin G. Young 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Growth Characteristics And Lipid Metabolism Of Cultured Migratory Bird Skeletal Muscle Cells, Kevin G. Young

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Diets rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may alter the muscle metabolism of migratory birds, improving their endurance performance. I established and validated for the first time in vitro muscle models of a migratory songbird (yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata coronata) and shorebird (sanderling, Calidris alba). To evaluate the role of n-3 PUFA in improving fatty acid metabolism in migratory bird muscle, I measured metabolic outcomes following n-3 PUFA supplementation in these two avian cell types and a murine (Mus musculus, C2C12) cell line. PUFA supplementation in C2C12 cells increased metabolic transcription factor expression ...


Rediscovering The Axolotl As A Model For Thyroid Hormone Dependent Development, Anne Crowner, Shivam Khatri, Dana Blichmann, S. Randal Voss 2019 University of Kentucky

Rediscovering The Axolotl As A Model For Thyroid Hormone Dependent Development, Anne Crowner, Shivam Khatri, Dana Blichmann, S. Randal Voss

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is an important model organism in biomedical research. Much current attention is focused on the axolotl's amazing ability to regenerate tissues and whole organs after injury. However, not forgotten is the axolotl's equally amazing ability to thwart aspects of tissue maturation and retain juvenile morphology into the adult phase of life. Unlike close tiger salamander relatives that undergo a thyroid hormone regulated metamorphosis, the axolotl does not typically undergo a metamorphosis. Instead, the axolotl exhibits a paedomorphic mode of development that enables a completely aquatic life cycle. The evolution of paedomorphosis allowed axolotls ...


Thermal Biology Of Temperate And High-Latitude Arachnids, Susan E. Anthony 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Thermal Biology Of Temperate And High-Latitude Arachnids, Susan E. Anthony

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Temperate and high latitude terrestrial ecosystems have high thermal variability, and the ectotherms that inhabit these regions must have thermal tolerances that mirror these temperatures. However, the thermal limits of many high-latitude arachnids are unknown, as well as any underlying mechanisms of seasonal plasticity for any arachnid. The objective of my thesis is to measure the thermal tolerances of temperate, Arctic, and sub-Arctic arachnids, and identify if they have thermal plasticity, either seasonally or following acclimation. I collected the high-latitude pseudoscorpion Wyochernes asiaticus streamside from the Yukon Territory, where besides large thermal variability, they are also inundated with spring flooding ...


Predators Select For Higher Levels Of Brain Cell Proliferation In Trinidadian Killifish, Rivulus Hartii, Joshua Corbo 2019 Trinity College

Predators Select For Higher Levels Of Brain Cell Proliferation In Trinidadian Killifish, Rivulus Hartii, Joshua Corbo

Senior Theses and Projects

Brain cell proliferation is an important form of brain plasticity that has been sparsely studied in natural populations. Killifish, Rivulus hartii, from the freshwater streams of Trinidad are a remarkable organism for understanding how brain plasticity is influenced by both internal and environmental factors. Through extensive ecological studies in the region, Trinidadian killifish have been used to determine how predation directly effects brain cell proliferation and brain size. In wild populations, waterfalls in the streams block predator movements upstream, thereby creating distinct populations of killifish – i.e., killifish living with abundant predators (high predators, HP) and killifish living with no ...


Impact Of Intrinsic Physiological Factors In The Population Recovery Of Myotis Lucifugus (Little Brown Myotis) From White-Nose Syndrome, Caroline Burke, Caitlin Looney, Alissah Sillah, Christopher Richardson 2019 Lesley University

Impact Of Intrinsic Physiological Factors In The Population Recovery Of Myotis Lucifugus (Little Brown Myotis) From White-Nose Syndrome, Caroline Burke, Caitlin Looney, Alissah Sillah, Christopher Richardson

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

White-nose Syndrome (WNS) has decimated populations of hibernating bats in the US. In particular, Myotis lucifugus (little brown myotis) has been one of the most affected. We investigated the energetic cost of innate immune response and Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) fungal activity on post-hibernating little brown myotis and the link with the recovery of local populations in New England from WNS. We captured bats at one of each of 4 colonies in Eastern Massachusetts and Southern New Hampshire, consecutively, every 14 days to minimize disturbance to the colony. Blood samples were collected from each bat. Respirometry trials were performed on each ...


Alternative Nad(P)H Dehydrogenase And Alternative Oxidase: Proposed Physiological Roles In Animals, Allison McDonald, Dmytro V. Gospodaryov 2019 Wilfrid Laurier University

Alternative Nad(P)H Dehydrogenase And Alternative Oxidase: Proposed Physiological Roles In Animals, Allison Mcdonald, Dmytro V. Gospodaryov

Biology Faculty Publications

The electron transport systems in mitochondria of many organisms contain alternative respiratory enzymes distinct from those of the canonical respiratory system depicted in textbooks. Two of these enzymes, the alternative NADH dehydrogenase and the alternative oxidase, were of interest to a limited circle of researchers until they were envisioned as gene therapy tools for mitochondrial disease treatment. Recently, these enzymes were discovered in several animals. Here, we analyse the functioning of alternative NADH dehydrogenases and oxidases in different organisms. We propose that both enzymes ensure bioenergetic and metabolic flexibility during environmental transitions or other conditions which may compromise the operation ...


Identification Of The Alternative Oxidase Gene And Its Expression In The Copepod Tigriopus Californicus, Allison McDonald, Carly E. Tward, Willie Cygelfarb, Jaspreet Singh 2019 Wilfrid Laurier University

Identification Of The Alternative Oxidase Gene And Its Expression In The Copepod Tigriopus Californicus, Allison Mcdonald, Carly E. Tward, Willie Cygelfarb, Jaspreet Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

In addition to the typical electron transport system (ETS) in animal mitochondria responsible for oxidative phosphorylation, in some species there exists an alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway capable of catalyzing the oxidation of ubiquinol and the reduction of oxygen to water. The discovery of AOX in animals is recent and further investigations into its expression, regulation, and physiological role have been hampered by the lack of a tractable experimental model organism. Our recent DNA database searches using bioinformatics revealed an AOX sequence in several marine copepods including Tigriopus californicus. This species lives in tidepools along the west coast of North America ...


The Effects Of Bisphenol F On Embryonic Cardiac Output In Zebrafish, Kyle Monnot 2019 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Bisphenol F On Embryonic Cardiac Output In Zebrafish, Kyle Monnot

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Bisphenol F (BPF) is an analog compound of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA). BPA utilization has decreased dramatically due to its detrimental effects as an endocrine disrupter. In place of BPA, BPF is growing to be a ubiquitous chemical in epoxy resin manufacturing. Recent research has begun to investigate the possible endocrinal effects of BPF as an analog of BPA. This study was performed to examine the potential effects of BPF exposure on cardiac parameters of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Embryos were exposed to 50 µg/L BPF for 48 hours, and cardiac parameters (stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac ...


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