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Mechanisms Underlying Freeze Tolerance In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Jantina Toxopeus 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Underlying Freeze Tolerance In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Jantina Toxopeus

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Freeze tolerance has evolved repeatedly across insects, facilitating survival in low temperature environments. Internal ice formation poses several challenges, but the mechanisms that mitigate these challenges in freeze-tolerant insects are not well understood. To better understand how insects survive freezing, I describe a novel laboratory model, the spring field cricket Gryllus veletis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Following acclimation to six weeks of decreasing temperature and photoperiod (mimicking autumn), G. veletis juveniles becomes moderately freeze-tolerant, surviving freezing at -8 °C for up to one week, and surviving temperatures as low as -12 °C. Acclimation is associated with increased control of the temperature and ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Mrub_1325, Mrub_1326, Mrub_1327, And Mrub_1328 Are Orthologs Of B_3454, B_3455, B_3457, B_3458, Respectively Found In Escherichia Coli Coding For A Branched Chain Amino Acid Atp Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporter System, Bennett Tomlin, Adam Buric, Dr. Lori Scott 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Mrub_1325, Mrub_1326, Mrub_1327, And Mrub_1328 Are Orthologs Of B_3454, B_3455, B_3457, B_3458, Respectively Found In Escherichia Coli Coding For A Branched Chain Amino Acid Atp Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporter System, Bennett Tomlin, Adam Buric, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_1325, Mrub_1326, Mrub_1327, and Mrub_1328 (KEGG map number 02010). We predict these genes encode components of a Branched Chain Amino Acid ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter: 1) Mrub_1325 (DNA coordinates 1357399-1358130 on the reverse strand) encodes the ATP binding domain; 2) Mrub_1326 (DNA coordinates 1358127-1359899 on the reverse strand) encodes the ATP-binding domain and permease domain; 3) Mrub_1327 (DNA coordinates 1359899-1360930 on the reverse strand) encodes a permease domain; and 4)Mrub_1328 (DNA coordinates 1711022-1712185 on the reverse strand) encodes the substrate binding domain. This system is not predicted ...


Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett

CMC Senior Theses

Fossils belonging to the genus Homo, dating as far back as two million years ago, exhibit uniquely efficient features suggesting that early humans had evolved to become exceptional endurance runners. Although they did not have the cushion or stability-control features provided in our modern day running shoes, our early human ancestors experienced far less of the running-related injuries we experience today. The injury rate has been estimated as high as 90% annually for Americans training for a marathon and as high as 79% annually for all American endurance runners. There is an injury epidemic in conventionally shod populations that does ...


Molecular Characterization Of The Mummichog (Fundulus Heteroclitus) Ovarian Steroidogenic Pathway And Implications For Exogenous Estrogen Effects During Follicular Development, Thiviya Kanagasabesan 2018 Wilfrid Laurier University

Molecular Characterization Of The Mummichog (Fundulus Heteroclitus) Ovarian Steroidogenic Pathway And Implications For Exogenous Estrogen Effects During Follicular Development, Thiviya Kanagasabesan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study investigated ovarian development in Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog), through molecular characterization of key mediators in the ovarian steroidogenic pathway; these included ovarian StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), cytochrome P450 enzymes, estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ1 and ERβ2), and gonadotropin receptors (FSHr and LHr); additionally, hepatic vitellogenin (VTG1) and ERs, and brain P450 aromatase (P450arom; CYP19b) were studied. Fish were staged into cortical alveolus, vitellogenic, early mature, late mature, and ovulating stages of maturation; blood (plasma), ovary (tissue and isolated ovarian follicles per stage), liver, and brains were collected. Testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) and maturation inducing steroid (MIS), measured from ...


The Evolution Of The Thermal Niche Across Locally Adapted Populations Of The Copepod Tigriopus Californicus, Christopher S. Willett, Christine Son 2018 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

The Evolution Of The Thermal Niche Across Locally Adapted Populations Of The Copepod Tigriopus Californicus, Christopher S. Willett, Christine Son

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Local adaptation to different thermal environments is often expected to result in trade-offs in other measures of performance, thermal or otherwise. Populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus found along the Pacific coast of North America have previously been shown to display patterns consistent with local adaptation and thermal trade-offs. Much of the work on this species has focused on performance at high and moderate temperatures with the lower thermal performance explored to a lesser degree. In this study, measures of both high and low thermal performance are examined for a set of eight T. californicus populations spanning a range from ...


Organizational Effects Of Defeminizing Toxicants: Lessons Learned From An Environmental Sentinel Organism, The Fathead Minnow., Jonathan Ali 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Organizational Effects Of Defeminizing Toxicants: Lessons Learned From An Environmental Sentinel Organism, The Fathead Minnow., Jonathan Ali

Theses & Dissertations

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that interfere with hormone function and are increasingly detected in aquatic environments, where they elicit adverse effects from exposed organisms. The toxicological effects of EDCs can be described as either activational (reversible) or organizational (irreversible), where the latter are associated with adverse outcomes in reproductive performance of adult fish. However, few studies have investigated the organizational impacts of anti-estrogenic or “defeminizing” EDCs, e.g. agrichemicals or pharmacological agents, in an environmentally-relevant or “sentinel” species. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of early-life EDC-initiated changes in estrogenic gene expression on organizational ...


The Effects Of Selection For High Voluntary Wheel-Running Behavior On Nutrient Canal Abundance And Size, Nicolas Lawrence Schwartz 2017 California State University - San Bernardino

The Effects Of Selection For High Voluntary Wheel-Running Behavior On Nutrient Canal Abundance And Size, Nicolas Lawrence Schwartz

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Variations in skeletal morphology have often been used to interpret an organism’s overall activity level when direct observation is not possible. Although skeletal change in response to exercise is well documented, the skeleton’s response to mechanical loading is modulated by several factors (e.g. age, hormones, sex). Additionally, variation in skeletal morphology is partially a result of genetic variation, which is rarely accounted for in inferences of locomotor activity from skeletal remains. However, blood flow to long bones serves as a proxy for bone metabolic activity, which can be used to infer locomotor activity. Long bones receive blood ...


Physiological Ecology Of Four Endemic Alabama Species And The Exotic Asiatic Weatherfish, Misgurnus Anguillicaudatus (Cantor, 1842), Lindsay M. White, Mark E. Meade, Benjamin A. Staton 2017 Auburn University

Physiological Ecology Of Four Endemic Alabama Species And The Exotic Asiatic Weatherfish, Misgurnus Anguillicaudatus (Cantor, 1842), Lindsay M. White, Mark E. Meade, Benjamin A. Staton

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

The occurrence of Asiatic Weatherfish, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, in Alabama, a state known for its rich biodiversity, has generated concern among conservation managers. The current study used respirometry techniques to investigate the effects of increasing temperature on four native southeastern fishes (one cyprinid, two percids, and one elassomid) and the non-native M. anguillicaudatus. A minimum of five individuals of each species were used, and three experimental temperatures were chosen to represent spring and summer averages of northeast Alabama streams (15, 20, and 25°C). Overall, mean standard metabolic rates (SMRs) for M. anguillicaudatus were low (97.01, 127.75, and 158 ...


The Interommatidial Bristle Variability Of Diptera, Kimberly Palmer 2017 Wayne State University

The Interommatidial Bristle Variability Of Diptera, Kimberly Palmer

Honors College Theses

Insects of the order Diptera are a popular biological model for understanding morphological trait evolution. One area of particular interest is the development of the compound eyes. While the development of ommatidia and photoreceptors has been thoroughly studied in this case, little attention has been paid to the interommatidial bristles (IOBs) present on the eyes of some dipteran families. A preliminary survey suggested that these bristles exhibit high variability among IOB families on multiple taxonomic levels and are not uniformly present or absent in any suborder of the Diptera. To confirm this observation, I conducted a literature search to quantify ...


Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse 2017 Seattle Pacific University

Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse

Honors Projects

A major portion of humans’ activity-based energy expenditure is taken up by locomotion, particularly walking. Humans can offset the energetic expenditure of walking in numerous ways, both evolutionary (such as changes in body shape) and culturally. Behaviorally, people can choose to walk in a variety of ways, including alone or with a group, carrying loads, and walking quickly or more slowly. All of these behaviors have energetic outcomes and as such can be important windows into how populations and groups adjust to different constraints. While sex differences in speed of paired walkers have been established by others, the dynamics of ...


Characterization Of Andrenocortical Tissue Morphology, Histology, And Steroid Synthesis Among Finetooth (Carcharhinus Isodon), Blacktip (Carcharhinus Limbatus), Atlantic Sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae), And Bonnethead (Sphyrna Tiburo) Sharks, Danielle Elizabeth Bailey 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Characterization Of Andrenocortical Tissue Morphology, Histology, And Steroid Synthesis Among Finetooth (Carcharhinus Isodon), Blacktip (Carcharhinus Limbatus), Atlantic Sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae), And Bonnethead (Sphyrna Tiburo) Sharks, Danielle Elizabeth Bailey

Master's Theses

Adrenocortical (interrenal) tissue is composed of steroidogenic cells that produce corticosteroids involved in the stress response and hydromineral balance. Previous research characterizing the elasmobranch interrenal suggests that the number of interrenal bodies that produce the single primary corticosteroid, 1a-hydroxycorticosterone (1a-OHB), varies among species. However, potential species-specific differences in the amount of interrenal tissue and major steroid products produced have been understudied. To address this critical gap in our understanding of elasmobranch biology, this study examined interrenal morphology, cell structure, steroidogenic enzyme distribution (3bHSD), and steroid production in four shark species: Finetooth Carcharhinus isodon, Blacktip Carcharhinus limbatus, Atlantic Sharpnose Rhizoprionodon terraenovae ...


Mechanisms Underlying Variation In Insect Chill Tolerance: The Role Of Ion And Water Transport, Lauren E. Des Marteaux 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Underlying Variation In Insect Chill Tolerance: The Role Of Ion And Water Transport, Lauren E. Des Marteaux

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Water and ion homeostasis has emerged as an important factor limiting chill-susceptible insects at low temperatures; loss of this homeostasis in the cold likely contributes to chronic chilling injury, and reestablishment of homeostasis is required for recovery from chilling. Both plastic and interspecific variation in cold tolerance correlates with enhanced defense of water and ion homeostasis during cold exposure, however the mechanisms are poorly understood. Using Gryllus crickets, I generated and tested hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying this variation in transport function. I first related interspecific variation in cold tolerance to water and ion balance in early chill coma. A ...


The Long Haul: Migratory Flight Preparation And Performance In Songbirds, Morag F. Dick 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Long Haul: Migratory Flight Preparation And Performance In Songbirds, Morag F. Dick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Migration requires birds to sustain high intensity endurance exercise for periods lasting from hours to days. Similar to athletes, preparation and nutrition is key to success. Birds seasonally prepare for migration, which includes increasing the capacity to oxidize fat in the flight muscles. Beyond fuelling migration, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are hypothesized to be natural doping agents and increase endurance and fatty acid oxidative capacity. I examined how birds prepare for and sustain migratory flight and directly tested the role of n-3 PUFA. Using yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata) as a model species, I first examined the effects of ...


Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2017 Duke University

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


The Effects Of Sex, Energy, And Environmental Conditions On The Movement Ecology Of Migratory Bats, Kristin A. Jonasson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Sex, Energy, And Environmental Conditions On The Movement Ecology Of Migratory Bats, Kristin A. Jonasson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lack of knowledge about the behaviour of migratory species during the migratory period is a major barrier to conservation efforts. In this thesis I focus primarily on differences between the sexes of the bat Lasionycteris noctivagans, during spring migration. Females are pregnant during spring migration and this overlap between migration and reproduction may affect the time and energy management of females as compared to males. In Chapter 2 I examine spring migration phenology of bats at a stopover site. Females arrived earlier than males, likely to give their pups a long growing season. Fat stores appeared to reflect a strategy ...


Gait Changes In A Line Of Mice Artificially Selected For Longer Limbs, Leah M. Sparrow, Emily Pellattt, Sabrina S. Yu, David A. Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Campbell Rolian 2017 University of Calgary

Gait Changes In A Line Of Mice Artificially Selected For Longer Limbs, Leah M. Sparrow, Emily Pellattt, Sabrina S. Yu, David A. Raichlen, Herman Pontzer, Campbell Rolian

Publications and Research

In legged terrestrial locomotion, the duration of stance phase, i.e., when limbs are in contact with the substrate, is positively correlated with limb length, and negatively correlated with the metabolic cost of transport. These relationships are well documented at the interspecific level, across a broad range of body sizes and travel speeds. However, such relationships are harder to evaluate within species (i.e., where natural selection operates), largely for practical reasons, including low population variance in limb length, and the presence of confounding factors such as body mass, or training. Here, we compared spatiotemporal kinematics of gait in Longshanks ...


The Effect Of Cold On The Physiology Of Drosophila Larva Heart And On Synaptic Transmission At Crayfish Neuromuscular Junctions, Yuechen Zhu 2017 University of Kentucky

The Effect Of Cold On The Physiology Of Drosophila Larva Heart And On Synaptic Transmission At Crayfish Neuromuscular Junctions, Yuechen Zhu

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Ectothermic animals are susceptible to temperature changes such as cold shock with seasons. To survive through a cold shock, ectotherms have developed unique strategies. My interest is focusing on the physiological function of during cold shock and prolonged cold exposure in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). I used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to investigate cardiac function in response to modulators (serotonin, acetylcholine, octopamine, dopamine and a cocktail of modulators) in acute cold shock and chronic cold shock conditions as possible mechanism to regulate heart rate in the cold. To examine if the dampened heart ...


Altitude- And Sex-Specific Variation In Roosting Ecology And Thermoregulation Of Myotis Lucifugus In Yellowstone National Park, Alexandra C. Slusher 2017 University of Kentucky

Altitude- And Sex-Specific Variation In Roosting Ecology And Thermoregulation Of Myotis Lucifugus In Yellowstone National Park, Alexandra C. Slusher

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

Fifty-nine female and six male little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) were radio-tagged during the summers of 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 in Yellowstone National Park. The grand models for daily maximum skin temperature (F98,154 = 1.55, P = 0.007), daily minimum skin temperature (F98,154 = 1.33, P = 0.05), and daily variation in skin temperature (F98,154 = 1.56, P = 0.006) were significant across roost type and reproductive condition class for adult females. Roosts were classified into Types A (warmest roosts), B (roosts with largest daily temperature variance), and C (stable and cool roosts ...


Dental Biotribology: Final Thoughts And Future Directions, Zhongrong Zhou, Paul Constantino, Mark Hoffman, Mugino Kubo, Gildas Merceron, Mark Purnell, Mark F. Teaford 2017 Touro University California

Dental Biotribology: Final Thoughts And Future Directions, Zhongrong Zhou, Paul Constantino, Mark Hoffman, Mugino Kubo, Gildas Merceron, Mark Purnell, Mark F. Teaford

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


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