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Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, Wren Edwards 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, Wren Edwards

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Primates expend approximately 50% less energy (kcal/day) for their body size than other eutherians. Using the doubly labeled water method, I investigated total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity in Sapajus apella. S. apella TEE was similar (p=0.67) to other platyrrhines, but 54% lower than expected for body mass.


Validation Of The Use Of Doubly Labeled Water For Measuring Metabolic Rate In Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Horridus), Caitlin Hirsh 2016 University of Arkansas Fayetteville

Validation Of The Use Of Doubly Labeled Water For Measuring Metabolic Rate In Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Horridus), Caitlin Hirsh

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The doubly labeled water method is an isotopic technique for measuring field metabolic rate and water flux rates of free-living animals. We present a validation of the use doubly labeled water for measuring metabolic rate and water loss in Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus). For this study seven animals of varying body size were used with masses ranging from 148 to 650 grams. Prior to dosing, blood samples were taken to establish background isotope levels for each animal. Snakes were injected with water enriched with isotopes of oxygen (18O) and hydrogen (2H, deuterium). The injected isotopes were then allowed to equilibrate ...


Factors Affecting The Immune System Of The Ornate Box Turtle (Terrapene Ornata), Michelle W. McQuinn, Abigail A. Neyer, Gwendolyn C. Bachman 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Factors Affecting The Immune System Of The Ornate Box Turtle (Terrapene Ornata), Michelle W. Mcquinn, Abigail A. Neyer, Gwendolyn C. Bachman

UCARE Research Products

While many studies have detailed the complex intricacies of the endothermic immune system, relatively little is known about the immune system of ectotherms--specifically, reptiles. In an attempt to gain more knowledge about the factors affecting reptilian immune function, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata) were subjected to chronic stress in the form of high ambient temperatures in a semi-natural environment. It was hypothesized that chronic stress would lead to elevated levels of corticosterone in the blood, which would, in turn, suppress immune activity. It was found that body temperature and body mass in particular were significantly affected by chronic heat stress ...


The Individual And Interactive Effects Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus Enrichment On Coral Reefs, Andrew A. Shantz 2016 Florida International University

The Individual And Interactive Effects Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus Enrichment On Coral Reefs, Andrew A. Shantz

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human domination of global nutrient cycles is profoundly altering our planet. Yet on coral reefs, the effects of changing nutrient regimes have likely been over-simplified. This dissertation investigates the complexity of animal-nutrient interactions at the organismal level and explores how the outcomes of these interactions cascade through levels of biological organization. To do so, I examined the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on corals and macroalgae, and how these effects in turn influenced reef communities and entire ecosystems. I show that P consistently increases coral growth rates while N has variable, often negative, effects on coral growth. The ...


Escape Strategy Of The Cockroach (Gromphadorhina Portentosa) To Heat And Looming Stimuli, Jiangda Ou, Corey L. Cleland 2016 James Madison University

Escape Strategy Of The Cockroach (Gromphadorhina Portentosa) To Heat And Looming Stimuli, Jiangda Ou, Corey L. Cleland

Senior Honors Projects

Escape responses to aversive stimuli have been observed in insects, including species of cricket, fly, locust, and cockroach. The goal of this study was to investigate the escape strategy of the Madagascar cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa. In regard to this species, Erickson and colleagues (2015) showed that electrical stimulation of both cerci and antennae together could generate an escape response. However, in other reports (Olsen and Triblehorn, 2014), it was observed that wind could not elicit the escape response. In this study, G. portentosa was stimulated by looming and heat stimuli. A 2.5’’ black ball approaching at 1 m/s ...


Fighting Forms Of Expression, Paul J.B. Hart 2016 University of Leicester

Fighting Forms Of Expression, Paul J.B. Hart

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Even though Key (2016) has done a very thorough job of assembling evidence showing that fish are unlikely to have the neurological capacity to be conscious and feel pain, there will still be a significant number of behavioural biologists who want to continue maintaining that fish do have consciousness and suffer from pain. In this commentary the reasons for people resisting the conclusions of the evidence are discussed. The reasons revolve around three aspects of the debate: the overblown respect humans have for the powers of consciousness in our day-to-day behaviour, the often used assumption that the possession of complex ...


Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach 2016 University of Liverpool

Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Key (2016) affirms that we do not know how the fish brain processes pain but denies — because fish lack a human-like cortex — that fish can feel pain. He affirms that birds, like fish, have a singly-laminated cortex and that the structure of the bird brain is quite different from that of the human brain, yet he does not deny that birds can feel pain. In this commentary we describe how Key cites studies that substantiate mammalian pain but discounts the same kind of data as evidence of fish pain. We suggest that Key's interpretations are illogical, do not reflect ...


Success Stories And Emerging Themes In Conservation Physiology, Christine L. Madliger, Steven J. Cooke, Erica J. Crespi, Jennifer L. Funk, Kevin R. Hultine, Kathleen E. Hunt, Jason R. Rohr, Brent J. Sinclair, Cory D. Suski, Craig K. R. Willis, Oliver P. Love 2016 University of Windsor

Success Stories And Emerging Themes In Conservation Physiology, Christine L. Madliger, Steven J. Cooke, Erica J. Crespi, Jennifer L. Funk, Kevin R. Hultine, Kathleen E. Hunt, Jason R. Rohr, Brent J. Sinclair, Cory D. Suski, Craig K. R. Willis, Oliver P. Love

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause–effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of ‘conservation physiology’, to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess ...


Changes In Brain Water Content In The Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus) Due To High External Ammonia Exposure, Phillip Q.H. Pham-Ho 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

Changes In Brain Water Content In The Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus) Due To High External Ammonia Exposure, Phillip Q.H. Pham-Ho

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In fishes, hyperammonemia may occur following feeding or exposure to abnormally high concentrations of environmental ammonia due to sewage effluents, agricultural run-off and in crowded aquaculture pens. Increased internal ammonia can result in hyperactivity, convulsions, coma and death. In mammals, it is also associated with potentially fatal brain edema, in which the accumulation of intracellular water results in swelling, increased intracranical pressure and herniation leading to death. Recently it was shown that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) experience brain swelling following exposure to high external ammonia (HEA). However, the mechanism of ammonia-induced brain swelling in fishes remains ...


The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr. 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Toxic build-ups of ammonia can cause potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals, but such swelling is reversible in the anoxia- and ammonia-tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus). The mechanisms of ammonia-induced brain swelling and tolerance remain elusive, but several studies have suggested a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of astrocytes in the brain. As a result, osmotic gradients across cell membranes may be altered leading to water uptake by astrocytes and swelling. While a role for ROS has been proposed in mammals, no studies have addressed this question in teleosts, in ...


Thermal Performance Covaries With Environmental Temperature Across Populations Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Kayla J. Harding Gradil 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Thermal Performance Covaries With Environmental Temperature Across Populations Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Kayla J. Harding Gradil

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Global climate change is projected to have widespread effects that could threaten the viability of natural populations. Physiological processes of aquatic ectotherms critically depend on their thermal environment, such that the optima for performance often correspond to environmental temperatures. Given predicted changes in aquatic thermal environments, it is increasingly important to understand organism’s underlying physiological mechanisms utilized to cope with these changes. Here, I show that three populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are narrowly adapted to their native summer temperatures, such that thermal tolerance is optimized near average temperatures and collapses near peak temperatures. Further, I found evidence ...


Drug-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease Regains Functional Dynamics Through Cleavage Site Coevolution, Nevra Ozer, Aysegul Ozen, Celia Schiffer, Turkan Haliloglu 2015 Bogazici University

Drug-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease Regains Functional Dynamics Through Cleavage Site Coevolution, Nevra Ozer, Aysegul Ozen, Celia Schiffer, Turkan Haliloglu

Celia A. Schiffer

Drug resistance is caused by mutations that change the balance of recognition favoring substrate cleavage over inhibitor binding. Here, a structural dynamics perspective of the regained wild-type functioning in mutant HIV-1 proteases with coevolution of the natural substrates is provided. The collective dynamics of mutant structures of the protease bound to p1-p6 and NC-p1 substrates are assessed using the Anisotropic Network Model (ANM). The drug-induced protease mutations perturb the mechanistically crucial hinge axes that involve key sites for substrate binding and dimerization and mainly coordinate the intrinsic dynamics. Yet with substrate coevolution, while the wild-type dynamic behavior is restored in ...


Hatching Asynchrony, Survival, And The Fitness Of Alternative Adult Morphs In Ambystoma Talpoideum, Travis Ryan 2015 Butler University

Hatching Asynchrony, Survival, And The Fitness Of Alternative Adult Morphs In Ambystoma Talpoideum, Travis Ryan

Travis J. Ryan

The mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, exhibits both aquatic (gilled) and terrestrial (metamorphosed) adult morphologies. Previous studies have shown the existence of body-size advantages associated with the terrestrial morph in A. talpoideum and other polymorphic salamanders (e.g., A. tigrinum). However, aquatic adult A. talpoideum mature at a younger age and often breed earlier than terrestrial adults. We tested the hypothesis that early maturation and reproduction in aquatic adults increase fitness (irrespective of body size). We reared larval A. talpoideum in mesocosms and varied the timing of hatching, with early-hatching larvae representing the offspring from early-breeding aquatic adults, and late-hatching larvae ...


Drug-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease Regains Functional Dynamics Through Cleavage Site Coevolution, Nevra Ozer, Aysegul Ozen, Celia A. Schiffer, Turkan Haliloglu 2015 Bogazici University

Drug-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease Regains Functional Dynamics Through Cleavage Site Coevolution, Nevra Ozer, Aysegul Ozen, Celia A. Schiffer, Turkan Haliloglu

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Drug resistance is caused by mutations that change the balance of recognition favoring substrate cleavage over inhibitor binding. Here, a structural dynamics perspective of the regained wild-type functioning in mutant HIV-1 proteases with coevolution of the natural substrates is provided. The collective dynamics of mutant structures of the protease bound to p1-p6 and NC-p1 substrates are assessed using the Anisotropic Network Model (ANM). The drug-induced protease mutations perturb the mechanistically crucial hinge axes that involve key sites for substrate binding and dimerization and mainly coordinate the intrinsic dynamics. Yet with substrate coevolution, while the wild-type dynamic behavior is restored in ...


Uncoupling Lifespan And Healthspan In Caenorhabditis Elegans Longevity Mutants, Ankita Bansal, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kelvin Yen, Heidi A. Tissenbaum 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Uncoupling Lifespan And Healthspan In Caenorhabditis Elegans Longevity Mutants, Ankita Bansal, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kelvin Yen, Heidi A. Tissenbaum

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

Aging research has been very successful at identifying signaling pathways and evolutionarily conserved genes that extend lifespan with the assumption that an increase in lifespan will also increase healthspan. However, it is largely unknown whether we are extending the healthy time of life or simply prolonging a period of frailty with increased incidence of age-associated diseases. Here we use Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the premiere systems for lifespan studies, to determine whether lifespan and healthspan are intrinsically correlated. We conducted multiple cellular and organismal assays on wild type as well as four long-lived mutants (insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1, dietary restriction ...


Persistence Hunting: The Origin Of Humans, Matthew Glaub 2015 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Persistence Hunting: The Origin Of Humans, Matthew Glaub

Honors Theses

Hominins are smaller, slower, and weaker than most large mammals, yet they have been eating meat from large mammals since before the invention of sophisticated weaponry. It is thought that they achieved this seemingly impossible feat through persistence hunting, a practice powered by endurance running. Essentially, one or more hunters pursue a prey animal in the heat of the day, until it reaches the point of hyperthermia. This allows a hunter to safely kill the weakened animal at close range using methods such as beating, strangling, or spearing. I assessed the feasibility of persistence hunting through several energy returned on ...


The Proteomic Response In The Crustacean Molting Gland Of Land Crab Gecarcinus Lateralis In Response To Artificially Induced Molting Throughout Its Molting Cycle., Andrea Reider, Talia B. Head, Lars Tomanek, Donald L. Mykles 2015 California Polytechnic State University, Environmental Proteomics Laboratory, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA

The Proteomic Response In The Crustacean Molting Gland Of Land Crab Gecarcinus Lateralis In Response To Artificially Induced Molting Throughout Its Molting Cycle., Andrea Reider, Talia B. Head, Lars Tomanek, Donald L. Mykles

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Molting in crustaceans is a highly complex physiological process involving negative regulation by two paired endocrine glands, the X-organ/sinus gland complex (XO/SG) and the Y-organ (YO). The XO/SG complex is responsible for making molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) which negatively regulates synthesis of molting hormones (ecdysteroids) by the YO. Eyestalk ablation (ESA) removes the source of MIH and provides an experimental means to manipulate and induce molting, although the physiological effects of ESA on the YO have not been fully characterized. Analysis of gene expression in the XOs and YOs has lead to the development of a proposed molecular ...


Effect Of The Acute Stress Response On Foraging Behavior In Mountain White-Crowned Sparrows, Zonotrichia Leucophrys, Sarah C. Osborne 2015 Scripps College

Effect Of The Acute Stress Response On Foraging Behavior In Mountain White-Crowned Sparrows, Zonotrichia Leucophrys, Sarah C. Osborne

Scripps Senior Theses

Free-living vertebrates likely encounter many stressors throughout their lifetime, from fighting off a predator to coping with unpredictable weather. As a result, vertebrates will mount an acute response to the stressors. Here, we outline previous research conducted in behavioral endocrinology and stress physiology as it relates to our research. We then discuss our study with white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) in Tioga Pass Meadow, in which we examined how the acute stress response affects foraging behavior 24 hours after a stressor. In birds that underwent a stress series, we found there to be a significant 57% decrease in foraging behavior 24 ...


The Physiological Stress Response Caused By Hypoxia And Reperfusion Injury In Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis) And Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus), Amanda C. Reynolds 2015 Georgia Southern University

The Physiological Stress Response Caused By Hypoxia And Reperfusion Injury In Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis) And Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus), Amanda C. Reynolds

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Approximately five million people in the United States are affected by cardiovascular related diseases yearly contributing to 300,000 annual deaths, making CVD the leading cause of mortality worldwide. It has been suggested that apoptosis (programmed cell death) contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. When blood flow is reduced or cut off from the heart, usually by a thrombus, this results in oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) to the cardiomyocytes (heart cells). In response to this hypoxic stress, cardiomyocytes will undergo apoptosis. Since many species of fish can survive levels of hypoxia that would be fatal to mammals, fish are an ...


Physiological Performance Of Warm-Adapted Marine Ectotherms: Thermal Limits Of Mitochondrial Energy Transduction Efficiency, Eloy Martinez, Eric Hendricks, Michael Menze, Joseph Torres 2014 Virginia commonwealth university

Physiological Performance Of Warm-Adapted Marine Ectotherms: Thermal Limits Of Mitochondrial Energy Transduction Efficiency, Eloy Martinez, Eric Hendricks, Michael Menze, Joseph Torres

Eloy Martinez

Thermal regimes in aquatic systems have profound implications for the physiology of ectotherms. In particular, the effect of elevated temperatures on mitochondrial energy transduction (i.e. energy from carbon substrates to ATP) in tropical and subtropical teleosts may have profound consequences on organismal performance and population viability. Upper and lower whole-organism critical temperatures for teleosts suggest that subtropical and tropical species are not susceptible to the warming trends associated with climate change, but sub-lethal effects on energy transduction efficiency and population dynamics remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to compare the thermal sensitivity of processes associated with ...


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