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Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The freeze tolerant spring field cricket, Gryllus veletis, accumulates trehalose in the blood and tissues during cold acclimation. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, thus its blood concentration is tightly regulated, and trehalose is readily metabolized. How do crickets modify their metabolism to accumulate trehalose in their hemolymph and tissues? I hypothesized that trehalose production, transport, and consumption were modified during the cold acclimation to facilitate trehalose accumulation. Trehalose and the trehalose-specific transporter, TRET-1, are distributed among all tissues, and trehalose accumulates in the hemolymph, fat body, Malpighian tubules, and gut. Trehalose production increases during cold acclimation via ...


Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson 2022 University of Mississippi

Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson

Honors Theses

Across phylogeny, integration of external factors, memory, and internal states of the organism dictate organismal behavior and mechanisms. The underlying genetic components can affect these behaviors such as in genomic changes arising from speciation. In this thesis, a new place preference assay was evaluated in the analysis and investigation of two species of Drosophila flies (D. melanogaster and D. simulans) to measure similarities and differences and their attraction to two different food substrates. Sleep and circadian measurements were also recorded during experimentation. The Drosophila Activity Monitor 5M (DAM5M) System and Sleep Circadian Analysis MATLAB Program (SCAMP) analysis were used in ...


Temperature-Dependent Developmental Plasticity In The Cardiorespiratory System Of Atlantic Salmon, Carlie A. Muir 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Temperature-Dependent Developmental Plasticity In The Cardiorespiratory System Of Atlantic Salmon, Carlie A. Muir

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anthropogenic climate change is expected to have pervasive impacts on the performance and viability of fishes, as increasing temperatures create aerobically constrained environments for many species. Given the rapid rates of projected temperature increases, it is critical to evaluate the capacity for fish to respond to a changing thermal environment through phenotypic plasticity. In this thesis, I examined the capacity for developmental plasticity in the thermal performance of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared under two thermal regimes from fertilization, and investigated potential mechanistic underpinnings within the cardiorespiratory system. Cardiac performance was examined using a noninvasive Doppler echocardiograph system originally ...


Relating Metabolic Phenotypes To Movement Behavior In Brook Trout, Jacob E. Bowman 2022 Northern Michigan University

Relating Metabolic Phenotypes To Movement Behavior In Brook Trout, Jacob E. Bowman

All NMU Master's Theses

Brook trout movement-related life history strategies vary considerably and range from individuals that stay within the same 100 meters their entire life to individuals that are potamodromous or anadromous. Potential drivers of movement life histories have been the subject of much research in fish, with genetic subpopulation explanations often failing to explain the phenomenon. Metabolic phenotypes have been suggested as a possible driver for expression of different movement life histories. I investigated if metabolic phenotypes are related to movement strategies within a population of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Unnamed Creek, a tributary to the Rock River, Alger County, MI ...


Mechanisms Of Diapause And Cold Tolerance In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Jacqueline E. Lebenzon 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Of Diapause And Cold Tolerance In The Colorado Potato Beetle, Jacqueline E. Lebenzon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Many temperate insects enter diapause (a state of dormancy) and enhance their cold tolerance to survive the winter. During diapause, the Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) stops developing, lowers its metabolism, and changes its physiology to avoid freezing. The extent to which diapause confers cold tolerance in CPB is currently unknown. In my thesis, I used CPB to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying metabolic suppression during diapause and cellular protection at sub-zero temperatures in insects. First, I used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare gene expression in two metabolically important tissues (the fat body and flight muscle ...


Strong Inferences About Pain In Invertebrates Require Stronger Evidence, Edgar T. Walters 2022 University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

Strong Inferences About Pain In Invertebrates Require Stronger Evidence, Edgar T. Walters

Animal Sentience

Evidence for sentience in animals distantly related to humans is often sought in observations of behavioral and neural responses to noxious stimuli that would be painful in humans. Most proposed criteria for painful sentience in “lower” animals such as decapod crustaceans have no necessary links to the affective (“suffering”) component of pain. The best evidence for painful affect in animals is learned aversion to stimuli associated with noxious experience, and conditioned preference for contexts associated with relief from aversive consequences of noxious experience, as expressed in voluntary behavior. Such evidence is currently lacking for any invertebrate except octopus.


Pulmonary Capillary Recruitment And Distention In Mammalian Lungs: Species Similarities, David Langleben, Benjamin D. Fox, Stylianos E. Orfanos, Michele Giovinazzo, John D. Catravas 2022 Old Dominion University

Pulmonary Capillary Recruitment And Distention In Mammalian Lungs: Species Similarities, David Langleben, Benjamin D. Fox, Stylianos E. Orfanos, Michele Giovinazzo, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Pulmonary arterial pressure rises minimally during exercise. The pulmonary microcirculation accommodates increasing blood flow via recruitment of pulmonary capillaries and, at higher flows, by distention of already perfused capillaries. The flow transition range between recruitment and distention has not been studied or compared across mammalian species, including humans. We hypothesised that the range would be similar. Functional pulmonary capillary surface area (FCSA) can be estimated using validated metabolic techniques. We reviewed data from previous studies in three mammalian species (perfused rabbit lungs and dog lung lobes, and exercising humans) and generated blood flow-FCSA curves over a range of flows. We ...


Design And Validation Of Artificial Feeders To Study Feeding Preferences And Growth Of Hematophagous Juvenile Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus), Gracie Li-Ting-Wai 2022 Wilfrid Laurier University

Design And Validation Of Artificial Feeders To Study Feeding Preferences And Growth Of Hematophagous Juvenile Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus), Gracie Li-Ting-Wai

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The parasitic and invasive land-locked sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus populations contributed to the collapse of the Great Lakes fisheries in the mid-1900s, while native anadromous populations are currently under threat and require conservation efforts for protection. Despite the increasing concern for both populations of this species, the juvenile stage of the sea lamprey’s life cycle has not been well studied. This is due, in part, to ethical concerns raised around holding live host fish with juveniles and the lack of an alternative feeding method to maintain these juveniles in the laboratory. The feeder should be designed to minimize fouling ...


Effects Of Maternal And Neonatal Hypoxia On The Future Life History Of Daphnia Magna, Rachael Lowman 2021 East Tennessee State University

Effects Of Maternal And Neonatal Hypoxia On The Future Life History Of Daphnia Magna, Rachael Lowman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Early exposure to hypoxia is related to a variety of physiological and metabolic changes that have lasting effects on organisms’ physiology and life history. We measured the effects of maternal and embryonic mild, intermittent hypoxia on the life history of four clones of microcrustacean Daphnia magna, an emerging model organism for the studies of senescence and longevity. Daphnia individuals were produced parthenogenically, maintained in individual vials, and fed standard algal concentration daily. The cohort consisted of 189 individuals. We measured body size at first reproduction, fecundity (including late-life fecundity peak), offspring sex ratio, and longevity. We found no effect of ...


A Literature Review On The Development Of Upper Limbs In Humans, Anh T. Phan 2021 University of Louisville

A Literature Review On The Development Of Upper Limbs In Humans, Anh T. Phan

The Cardinal Edge

The development of tetrapod upper limbs shares an evolutionary origin and has been adapted and specialized for different functions for different species, such as flight in birds, swimming and balance in sea mammals, and coordination and grabbing objects in humans. The basis of tetrapod limb development has common developmental patterns, starting with the formation of the limb bud via Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, where later developmental steps are modified for specialized functions. This review covers the basic developmental patterns of mammalian tetrapod development seen in humans, beginning with the formation of the limb bud, to the axis development of the ...


Ecological Correlates Of Alligator Snapping Turtle Bite Performance, Ashley Herrin Gagnon 2021 Missouri State University

Ecological Correlates Of Alligator Snapping Turtle Bite Performance, Ashley Herrin Gagnon

MSU Graduate Theses

The Alligator Snapping Turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) is one of many turtle species facing conservation challenges. Nearly extirpated in the 1980s, it is currently the subject of a head-start initiative, of which, any lasting behavioral or physiological effects were—until now—unknown! To evaluate the ability of captive-reared individuals to excel in natural habitats, and to foresee any future research or conservation challenges regarding this animal, I explored a suite of variables that influence bite performance and behaviors including captive or free-ranging status, and environmental conditions including body temperature and season. My results indicated that free-ranging M. temminckii outperform those residing ...


The Neurological Asymmetry Of Self-Face Recognition, Aleksandra Janowska, Brianna Balugas, Matthew Pardillo, Victoria Mistretta, Katherine Chavarria, Janet Brenya, Taylor Shelansky, Vanessa Martinez, Kitty Pagano, Nathira Ahmad, Samantha Zorns, Abigail Straus, Sarah Sierra, Julian Keenan 2021 Montclair State University

The Neurological Asymmetry Of Self-Face Recognition, Aleksandra Janowska, Brianna Balugas, Matthew Pardillo, Victoria Mistretta, Katherine Chavarria, Janet Brenya, Taylor Shelansky, Vanessa Martinez, Kitty Pagano, Nathira Ahmad, Samantha Zorns, Abigail Straus, Sarah Sierra, Julian Keenan

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

While the desire to uncover the neural correlates of consciousness has taken numerous directions, self-face recognition has been a constant in attempts to isolate aspects of self-awareness. The neuroimaging revolution of the 1990s brought about systematic attempts to isolate the underlying neural basis of self-face recognition. These studies, including some of the first fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) examinations, revealed a right-hemisphere bias for self-face recognition in a diverse set of regions including the insula, the dorsal frontal lobe, the temporal parietal junction, and the medial temporal cortex. In this systematic review, we provide confirmation of these data (which are ...


Habitat Heterogeneity Affects The Thermal Ecology Of The Federally Endangered Blunt-Nosed Leopard Lizard, Nicole Gaudenti 2021 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Habitat Heterogeneity Affects The Thermal Ecology Of The Federally Endangered Blunt-Nosed Leopard Lizard, Nicole Gaudenti

Master's Theses

Global climate change is already contributing to the extirpation of numerous species worldwide, and sensitive species will continue to face challenges associated with rising temperatures throughout this century and beyond. It is especially important to evaluate the thermal ecology of endangered ectotherm species now so that mitigation measures can be taken as early as possible. A recent study of the thermal ecology of the federally endangered Blunt-Nosed Leopard Lizard (Gambelia sila) suggested that they face major activity restrictions due to thermal constraints in their desert habitat, but that large shade-providing shrubs act as thermal buffers to allow them to maintain ...


Ecophysiological Responses Of Two Closely Related Epigean And Hypogean Niphargus Species To Hypoxia And Increased Temperature: Do They Differ?, Tatjana Simčič, Boris Sket 2021 National Institute of Biology, Slovenia

Ecophysiological Responses Of Two Closely Related Epigean And Hypogean Niphargus Species To Hypoxia And Increased Temperature: Do They Differ?, Tatjana Simčič, Boris Sket

International Journal of Speleology

Ecological performance of animals depends on physiological and biochemical processes that are adjusted to the environment. The responses to hypoxia or anoxia have been frequently studied in subterranean aquatic organisms in order to find potential adaptations to restrict oxygen conditions occurring in the underground habitats. However, some previous studies have compared phylogenetic distant epigean and hypogean species or the epigean and hypogean populations of the same species due to little chance to compare closely related epigean and hypogean species. Therefore, in this study, we compared the effects of exposure to hypoxia, followed by reoxygenation, and increased temperature on oxygen consumption ...


Patterns And Mechanisms Of Intraspecific Trait Variation Across Thermal Gradients In A Marine Gastropod, Andrew R. Villeneuve 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Patterns And Mechanisms Of Intraspecific Trait Variation Across Thermal Gradients In A Marine Gastropod, Andrew R. Villeneuve

Masters Theses

As the earth’s climate changes due to anthropogenic emissions, it has increasingly become an imperative within the ecological community to understand existing species adaptations to climate change. Much focus has been paid to how a species might react to climate change, but the role of locally adapted traits and responsible environmental mechanisms have received less attention. Quantifying how sublethal (e.g. growth rates) and lethal (e.g. thermal tolerance) trait performance vary between populations can thus improve our understanding of how populations, and the entire species, will react to climate change. Here, I quantified the spatial patterns of performance ...


Data From: Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson 2021 Utah State University

Data From: Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson

Browse all Datasets

Wounding events (predation attempts, competitive combat) result in injuries and/or infections that induce integrated immune responses for the recovery process. Despite the survival benefits of immunity in this context, the costs incurred may require investment to be diverted from traits contributing to immediate and/or future survival, such as locomotor performance and oxidative status. Yet, whether trait constraints manifest likely depends on wound severity and the implications for energy budget. For this study, food intake, body mass, sprint speed, and oxidative indices (reactive oxygen metabolites, antioxidant capacity) were monitored in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) healing from cutaneous wounds ...


Comparing Interrelated Stress Measures To Differentiate Acute And Chronic Stress In Urban Freshwater Turtles, Katherine Caldwell 2021 Rollins College

Comparing Interrelated Stress Measures To Differentiate Acute And Chronic Stress In Urban Freshwater Turtles, Katherine Caldwell

Honors Program Theses

As urban areas grow in size and number, there are increasing impacts on the wildlife. While some species adapt, others cannot thrive in these conditions. Stress is the biological response to a stimulus that threatens homeostasis, which can be used to understand the condition of an individual. While acute stress is beneficial for survival, chronic stress can lead to deleterious impacts. A majority of turtles can be classified as declining in number or endangered, yet there is little understanding of their physiological stress response. This study examined how various stress measures—including corticosterone (CORT) in plasma, nails and leeches, metabolic ...


Morphological Variance In Mouthparts And Foraging Behavior In Bumblebees, Ye Jin Lee 2021 Colby College

Morphological Variance In Mouthparts And Foraging Behavior In Bumblebees, Ye Jin Lee

Honors Theses

Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) show an incredible degree of size variation within and between species. Individuals from the same hive may vary up to 10-fold in mass. This variation allows individuals to specialize in foraging on different flowers suited to their morphology. However, as different species have different foraging behaviors, their variation in mouthparts and scaling of mouthparts to body size may have been under different kinds of stabilizing selection as they adapted to collect nectar from flowering plants over evolutionary time. Here, we examined the scaling relationships between body size and mouthpart structures, and the variation in mouthpart shape ...


Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif 2021 The University of Akron

Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Animals use muscles for movement, but some have evolved mechanisms to exceed maximum power used in a motion known as power amplification. In this literature review, I analyzed and compared the evolution of structures capable of power amplification between species. Structures capable of power amplification were broken down into the basic components of the engine, amplifier, and tool. The species analyzed were found to possess necessary structures for power amplification which were relatively similar to each other in morphology, but varied greatly in function. The ease with which these structures evolved was evaluated based on the amount of divergence which ...


Physiological Impacts Of Lampricides On Invasive Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) And Non-Target Fishes, Razvan, Adrian Ionescu 2021 Wilfrid Laurier University

Physiological Impacts Of Lampricides On Invasive Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) And Non-Target Fishes, Razvan, Adrian Ionescu

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) ingest large quantities of blood from fishes using their oral disc and rasping tongue, most often killing the host. In the early 1900s, sea lamprey invaded the Laurentian Great Lakes, decimating sport, commercial and culturally significant fisheries. Since the early 1960s, chemical control using the lampricides 3- trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and niclosamide have helped to reduce sea lamprey populations by 90%. Lampricides are applied to larval lamprey nursery streams targeting many generations of lamprey at once. However, there is concern about the potential adverse effects of lampricides on other fishes, particularly vulnerable lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens ...


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