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Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2017 Duke University

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


The Effects Of Sex, Energy, And Environmental Conditions On The Movement Ecology Of Migratory Bats, Kristin A. Jonasson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Sex, Energy, And Environmental Conditions On The Movement Ecology Of Migratory Bats, Kristin A. Jonasson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lack of knowledge about the behaviour of migratory species during the migratory period is a major barrier to conservation efforts. In this thesis I focus primarily on differences between the sexes of the bat Lasionycteris noctivagans, during spring migration. Females are pregnant during spring migration and this overlap between migration and reproduction may affect the time and energy management of females as compared to males. In Chapter 2 I examine spring migration phenology of bats at a stopover site. Females arrived earlier than males, likely to give their pups a long growing season. Fat stores appeared to reflect a strategy ...


Examining The Combined Effects Of Dissolved Oxygen, Temperature, And Body Size On The Physiological Responses Of A Model Macrobenthic Polychaete Species, Capitella Teleta, Kelsey Burns Gillam 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Examining The Combined Effects Of Dissolved Oxygen, Temperature, And Body Size On The Physiological Responses Of A Model Macrobenthic Polychaete Species, Capitella Teleta, Kelsey Burns Gillam

Dissertations

While the scientific community is in consensus that coastal systems are threatened by climate change, few climate change studies test the effects of more than one variable directly related to climate change. The dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of the ocean are currently subject to both global warming and eutrophication; 94% of all hypoxia zones are expected to experience >2°C increase by 2035. This dissertation aims to examine how a model organism responds to simultaneous thermal and DO stress involving four levels of DO (100%, 70%, 50%, and 20%) saturation and three temperatures (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C ...


Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, Wren Edwards 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Total Energy Expenditure In Captive Sapajus Apella, Wren Edwards

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Primates expend approximately 50% less energy (kcal/day) for their body size than other eutherians. Using the doubly labeled water method, I investigated total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity in Sapajus apella. S. apella TEE was similar (p=0.67) to other platyrrhines, but 54% lower than expected for body mass.


Validation Of The Use Of Doubly Labeled Water For Measuring Metabolic Rate In Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Horridus), Caitlin Hirsh 2016 University of Arkansas Fayetteville

Validation Of The Use Of Doubly Labeled Water For Measuring Metabolic Rate In Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Horridus), Caitlin Hirsh

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The doubly labeled water method is an isotopic technique for measuring field metabolic rate and water flux rates of free-living animals. We present a validation of the use doubly labeled water for measuring metabolic rate and water loss in Timber Rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus). For this study seven animals of varying body size were used with masses ranging from 148 to 650 grams. Prior to dosing, blood samples were taken to establish background isotope levels for each animal. Snakes were injected with water enriched with isotopes of oxygen (18O) and hydrogen (2H, deuterium). The injected isotopes were then allowed to equilibrate ...


The Influence Of Canine Aggression And Behavioral Treatment On Heart Rate Variability, Lydia Craig 2016 Macalester College

The Influence Of Canine Aggression And Behavioral Treatment On Heart Rate Variability, Lydia Craig

Psychology Honors Projects

Dog aggression affects many, with nearly 5 million dog bites reported yearly in the United States alone. With the physical, emotional, and monetary costs of bites, it is of considerable interest to identify dogs that are likely to bite. One physiological measure that might serve as an index of aggression is heart rate variability (HRV), which refers to vagally mediated beat-to-beat change in heart rate. Low HRV has been associated with impaired emotional and behavioral regulation and stress in both humans and animals. To assess whether this measure corresponds with aggression in dogs, resting HRV was measured for dogs with ...


Factors Affecting The Immune System Of The Ornate Box Turtle (Terrapene Ornata), Michelle W. McQuinn, Abigail A. Neyer, Gwendolyn C. Bachman 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Factors Affecting The Immune System Of The Ornate Box Turtle (Terrapene Ornata), Michelle W. Mcquinn, Abigail A. Neyer, Gwendolyn C. Bachman

UCARE Research Products

While many studies have detailed the complex intricacies of the endothermic immune system, relatively little is known about the immune system of ectotherms--specifically, reptiles. In an attempt to gain more knowledge about the factors affecting reptilian immune function, ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata) were subjected to chronic stress in the form of high ambient temperatures in a semi-natural environment. It was hypothesized that chronic stress would lead to elevated levels of corticosterone in the blood, which would, in turn, suppress immune activity. It was found that body temperature and body mass in particular were significantly affected by chronic heat stress ...


The Individual And Interactive Effects Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus Enrichment On Coral Reefs, Andrew A. Shantz 2016 Florida International University

The Individual And Interactive Effects Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus Enrichment On Coral Reefs, Andrew A. Shantz

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human domination of global nutrient cycles is profoundly altering our planet. Yet on coral reefs, the effects of changing nutrient regimes have likely been over-simplified. This dissertation investigates the complexity of animal-nutrient interactions at the organismal level and explores how the outcomes of these interactions cascade through levels of biological organization. To do so, I examined the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on corals and macroalgae, and how these effects in turn influenced reef communities and entire ecosystems. I show that P consistently increases coral growth rates while N has variable, often negative, effects on coral growth. The ...


Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach 2016 University of Liverpool

Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Key (2016) affirms that we do not know how the fish brain processes pain but denies — because fish lack a human-like cortex — that fish can feel pain. He affirms that birds, like fish, have a singly-laminated cortex and that the structure of the bird brain is quite different from that of the human brain, yet he does not deny that birds can feel pain. In this commentary we describe how Key cites studies that substantiate mammalian pain but discounts the same kind of data as evidence of fish pain. We suggest that Key's interpretations are illogical, do not reflect ...


The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr. 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Toxic build-ups of ammonia can cause potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals, but such swelling is reversible in the anoxia- and ammonia-tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus). The mechanisms of ammonia-induced brain swelling and tolerance remain elusive, but several studies have suggested a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of astrocytes in the brain. As a result, osmotic gradients across cell membranes may be altered leading to water uptake by astrocytes and swelling. While a role for ROS has been proposed in mammals, no studies have addressed this question in teleosts, in ...


Changes In Brain Water Content In The Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus) Due To High External Ammonia Exposure, Phillip Q.H. Pham-Ho 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

Changes In Brain Water Content In The Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus) Due To High External Ammonia Exposure, Phillip Q.H. Pham-Ho

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In fishes, hyperammonemia may occur following feeding or exposure to abnormally high concentrations of environmental ammonia due to sewage effluents, agricultural run-off and in crowded aquaculture pens. Increased internal ammonia can result in hyperactivity, convulsions, coma and death. In mammals, it is also associated with potentially fatal brain edema, in which the accumulation of intracellular water results in swelling, increased intracranical pressure and herniation leading to death. Recently it was shown that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) experience brain swelling following exposure to high external ammonia (HEA). However, the mechanism of ammonia-induced brain swelling in fishes remains ...


Escape Strategy Of The Cockroach (Gromphadorhina Portentosa) To Heat And Looming Stimuli, Jiangda Ou, Corey L. Cleland 2016 James Madison University

Escape Strategy Of The Cockroach (Gromphadorhina Portentosa) To Heat And Looming Stimuli, Jiangda Ou, Corey L. Cleland

Senior Honors Projects

Escape responses to aversive stimuli have been observed in insects, including species of cricket, fly, locust, and cockroach. The goal of this study was to investigate the escape strategy of the Madagascar cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa. In regard to this species, Erickson and colleagues (2015) showed that electrical stimulation of both cerci and antennae together could generate an escape response. However, in other reports (Olsen and Triblehorn, 2014), it was observed that wind could not elicit the escape response. In this study, G. portentosa was stimulated by looming and heat stimuli. A 2.5’’ black ball approaching at 1 m/s ...


Success Stories And Emerging Themes In Conservation Physiology, Christine L. Madliger, Steven J. Cooke, Erica J. Crespi, Jennifer L. Funk, Kevin R. Hultine, Kathleen E. Hunt, Jason R. Rohr, Brent J. Sinclair, Cory D. Suski, Craig K. R. Willis, Oliver P. Love 2016 University of Windsor

Success Stories And Emerging Themes In Conservation Physiology, Christine L. Madliger, Steven J. Cooke, Erica J. Crespi, Jennifer L. Funk, Kevin R. Hultine, Kathleen E. Hunt, Jason R. Rohr, Brent J. Sinclair, Cory D. Suski, Craig K. R. Willis, Oliver P. Love

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause–effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of ‘conservation physiology’, to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess ...


Fighting Forms Of Expression, Paul J.B. Hart 2016 University of Leicester

Fighting Forms Of Expression, Paul J.B. Hart

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Even though Key (2016) has done a very thorough job of assembling evidence showing that fish are unlikely to have the neurological capacity to be conscious and feel pain, there will still be a significant number of behavioural biologists who want to continue maintaining that fish do have consciousness and suffer from pain. In this commentary the reasons for people resisting the conclusions of the evidence are discussed. The reasons revolve around three aspects of the debate: the overblown respect humans have for the powers of consciousness in our day-to-day behaviour, the often used assumption that the possession of complex ...


Effects Of Supplemental Hydration On Physiology And Behavior Of Northern Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Oreganus Oreganus), Griffin D. Capehart 2015 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Effects Of Supplemental Hydration On Physiology And Behavior Of Northern Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Oreganus Oreganus), Griffin D. Capehart

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Hydration is a critical element for many physiological processes in vertebrates, such as protein production, innate immunity, and behavioral processes such as daily activity and thermoregulation. Few studies have directly assessed the effect of hydration on these animals in nature. While it seems intuitive that drought is stressful to animals, studies examining drought are typically observational and fail to assess how the hydration state of these animals influences their physiology and behavior. We tested for an effect of hydration on several physiological and behavioral parameters in Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus oreganus) by experimentally manipulating hydration levels in the field ...


Thermal Performance Covaries With Environmental Temperature Across Populations Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Kayla J. Harding Gradil 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Thermal Performance Covaries With Environmental Temperature Across Populations Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Kayla J. Harding Gradil

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Global climate change is projected to have widespread effects that could threaten the viability of natural populations. Physiological processes of aquatic ectotherms critically depend on their thermal environment, such that the optima for performance often correspond to environmental temperatures. Given predicted changes in aquatic thermal environments, it is increasingly important to understand organism’s underlying physiological mechanisms utilized to cope with these changes. Here, I show that three populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are narrowly adapted to their native summer temperatures, such that thermal tolerance is optimized near average temperatures and collapses near peak temperatures. Further, I found evidence ...


Drug-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease Regains Functional Dynamics Through Cleavage Site Coevolution, Nevra Ozer, Aysegul Ozen, Celia Schiffer, Turkan Haliloglu 2015 Bogazici University

Drug-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease Regains Functional Dynamics Through Cleavage Site Coevolution, Nevra Ozer, Aysegul Ozen, Celia Schiffer, Turkan Haliloglu

Celia A. Schiffer

Drug resistance is caused by mutations that change the balance of recognition favoring substrate cleavage over inhibitor binding. Here, a structural dynamics perspective of the regained wild-type functioning in mutant HIV-1 proteases with coevolution of the natural substrates is provided. The collective dynamics of mutant structures of the protease bound to p1-p6 and NC-p1 substrates are assessed using the Anisotropic Network Model (ANM). The drug-induced protease mutations perturb the mechanistically crucial hinge axes that involve key sites for substrate binding and dimerization and mainly coordinate the intrinsic dynamics. Yet with substrate coevolution, while the wild-type dynamic behavior is restored in ...


Hatching Asynchrony, Survival, And The Fitness Of Alternative Adult Morphs In Ambystoma Talpoideum, Travis Ryan 2015 Butler University

Hatching Asynchrony, Survival, And The Fitness Of Alternative Adult Morphs In Ambystoma Talpoideum, Travis Ryan

Travis J. Ryan

The mole salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, exhibits both aquatic (gilled) and terrestrial (metamorphosed) adult morphologies. Previous studies have shown the existence of body-size advantages associated with the terrestrial morph in A. talpoideum and other polymorphic salamanders (e.g., A. tigrinum). However, aquatic adult A. talpoideum mature at a younger age and often breed earlier than terrestrial adults. We tested the hypothesis that early maturation and reproduction in aquatic adults increase fitness (irrespective of body size). We reared larval A. talpoideum in mesocosms and varied the timing of hatching, with early-hatching larvae representing the offspring from early-breeding aquatic adults, and late-hatching larvae ...


Drug-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease Regains Functional Dynamics Through Cleavage Site Coevolution, Nevra Ozer, Aysegul Ozen, Celia A. Schiffer, Turkan Haliloglu 2015 Bogazici University

Drug-Resistant Hiv-1 Protease Regains Functional Dynamics Through Cleavage Site Coevolution, Nevra Ozer, Aysegul Ozen, Celia A. Schiffer, Turkan Haliloglu

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Drug resistance is caused by mutations that change the balance of recognition favoring substrate cleavage over inhibitor binding. Here, a structural dynamics perspective of the regained wild-type functioning in mutant HIV-1 proteases with coevolution of the natural substrates is provided. The collective dynamics of mutant structures of the protease bound to p1-p6 and NC-p1 substrates are assessed using the Anisotropic Network Model (ANM). The drug-induced protease mutations perturb the mechanistically crucial hinge axes that involve key sites for substrate binding and dimerization and mainly coordinate the intrinsic dynamics. Yet with substrate coevolution, while the wild-type dynamic behavior is restored in ...


Uncoupling Lifespan And Healthspan In Caenorhabditis Elegans Longevity Mutants, Ankita Bansal, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kelvin Yen, Heidi A. Tissenbaum 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Uncoupling Lifespan And Healthspan In Caenorhabditis Elegans Longevity Mutants, Ankita Bansal, Lihua Julie Zhu, Kelvin Yen, Heidi A. Tissenbaum

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

Aging research has been very successful at identifying signaling pathways and evolutionarily conserved genes that extend lifespan with the assumption that an increase in lifespan will also increase healthspan. However, it is largely unknown whether we are extending the healthy time of life or simply prolonging a period of frailty with increased incidence of age-associated diseases. Here we use Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the premiere systems for lifespan studies, to determine whether lifespan and healthspan are intrinsically correlated. We conducted multiple cellular and organismal assays on wild type as well as four long-lived mutants (insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1, dietary restriction ...


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