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Amygdala And Neocortical Structural Volume Analysis In The Shank3b Mutant Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Preet Sawhney 2020 University of Connecticut

Amygdala And Neocortical Structural Volume Analysis In The Shank3b Mutant Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Preet Sawhney

Honors Scholar Theses

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by abnormal social behavior, deficits in communication, and motor stereotypy. The SHANK3 gene, responsible for the generation of a scaffolding protein that is integral for the development of synapses, has been identified as one of the primary candidate genes implicated in the disorder. Shank3B is the rodent homolog for this gene. Research has shown that when this gene is disrupted in rodent models (e.g., via knock-out (KO)), ASD-like behaviors result. These include deficits in social interaction, increased anxiety, and repetitive self-grooming. The current study aimed to identify a ...


Bilateral Muscle Oxygenation Kinetics In Response To Repeat Sprint Cycling In Strong And Weak Individuals, John Abbott 2020 East Tennessee State University

Bilateral Muscle Oxygenation Kinetics In Response To Repeat Sprint Cycling In Strong And Weak Individuals, John Abbott

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Repeat sprint ability has been investigated thoroughly, however optimal training methodology to improve RSA remains elusive. Both kinetic and physiological viewpoints have been used to scrutinize aspects of RSA including, initial sprint performance (anaerobic power), maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), lactate threshold, anaerobic capacity (mean power), muscle activation (EMG), and local muscle oxygenation kinetics. To our knowledge no study has utilized maximal strength levels as a separate factor among a homogenous group of cardiorespiratory fitness individuals (as determined by peak VO2 during RSA). The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between maximal strength, muscular characteristics, and cycling ...


Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna 2020 University of Connecticut

Microglia-Neuron Interactions In A Mouse Model Of Low Grade Neuroepithelial Tumors, Veolette Hanna

Honors Scholar Theses

Microglia are the macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, playing an important role in the immune response to disease states of the nervous system. This study conducts an investigation on the activity of microglia in response to low grade neuroepithelial tumors. Using mouse models and microglial markers, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of microglia activation, migration, and invasion within the brain cortex during early stages of tumor development was conducted. It was found that the presence of a low grade neuroepithelial tumor in the cortex of one hemisphere of the brain causes significant microglia activation in comparison to the ...


Effects Of Normobaric Hypoxia On Oculomotor Dynamics Of Aviator Students During A Simulated Flight Task, Carl Wesley Rider, Abby McCarty, Anna Blackley, Austin Deshner, Josh Engberg, Kaela Ehrlich, Theo Hu, Maja Jankovic, Moroni de Moors, Jared Hornsby, Mitchell Morrison, Brian Walsh 2020 Liberty University

Effects Of Normobaric Hypoxia On Oculomotor Dynamics Of Aviator Students During A Simulated Flight Task, Carl Wesley Rider, Abby Mccarty, Anna Blackley, Austin Deshner, Josh Engberg, Kaela Ehrlich, Theo Hu, Maja Jankovic, Moroni De Moors, Jared Hornsby, Mitchell Morrison, Brian Walsh

Masters Theses

Hypoxia occurs when the body's tissues are unable to obtain adequate oxygen supply and is the primary environmental factor present when pilots are exposed to increasing altitude levels. Hypoxia leads to impaired vision, cognition, and motor control function, which can negatively affect performance and become deadly if a pilot becomes incapacitated. Thus, objective identification of early-onset hypoxia is critical to increase the time of useful consciousness and prevent physiological episodes. Of the few studies utilizing eye-tracking, there is disagreement and mixed results concerning saccadic eye metrics as a means to measure and detect hypoxia. Therefore, the purpose of this ...


Protective Effects Of The Novel Phytonutrient Spectra7 Against Intestinal Tight Junction Disruption: Composition Matters, Erin Olson 2020 Olivet Nazarene University

Protective Effects Of The Novel Phytonutrient Spectra7 Against Intestinal Tight Junction Disruption: Composition Matters, Erin Olson

Honors Program Projects

The prevalence of intestinal inflammatory diseases is increasing, and pharmacologic agents for intervention are currently limited. Preserving epithelial tight junction (TJ) integrity and preventing underlying immune cell activation by intestinal bacteria are key targets for abrogating the perpetual inflammatory cycle that plagues these diseases. Phytonutrients have shown promise for their ability to reduce cellular inflammation, but the extent of their efficacy in an intestinal model of inflammation is not well understood. Here, we hypothesized that S7, a novel phytonutrient derived from extracts rich in curcuminoids and catechins, would reduce immune cell inflammation and preserve TJ integrity in an in vitro ...


A Big-Data Approach To Understanding Metabolic Rate And Response To Obesity In Laboratory Mice, June K. Corrigan, Deepti Ramachandran, Yuchen He, Colin J. Palmer, Michael J. Jurczak, Rui Chen, Bingshan Li, Randall H. Friedline, Jason K. Kim, Jon J. Ramsey, Louise Lantier, Owen P. McGuinness, Alexander S. Banks 2020 Harvard Medical School

A Big-Data Approach To Understanding Metabolic Rate And Response To Obesity In Laboratory Mice, June K. Corrigan, Deepti Ramachandran, Yuchen He, Colin J. Palmer, Michael J. Jurczak, Rui Chen, Bingshan Li, Randall H. Friedline, Jason K. Kim, Jon J. Ramsey, Louise Lantier, Owen P. Mcguinness, Alexander S. Banks

Open Access Articles

Maintaining a healthy body weight requires an exquisite balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. To understand the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the regulation of body weight, an important first step is to establish the normal range of metabolic values and primary sources contributing to variability. Energy metabolism is measured by powerful and sensitive indirect calorimetry devices. Analysis of nearly 10,000 wild-type mice from two large-scale experiments revealed that the largest variation in energy expenditure is due to body composition, ambient temperature, and institutional site of experimentation. We also analyze variation in 2329 knockout strains and ...


The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti

Open Access Articles

Upon exposure to environmental stressors, cells transiently arrest the cell cycle while they adapt and restore homeostasis. A challenge for all cells is to distinguish between stress signals and coordinate the appropriate adaptive response with cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) in the stress response and demonstrate that CN activates the Hog1/p38 pathway in both yeast and human cells. In yeast, the MAPK Hog1 is transiently activated in response to several well-studied osmostressors. We show that when a stressor simultaneously activates CN and Hog1, CN disrupts Hog1-stimulated negative feedback to prolong Hog1 ...


Wai Puna: An Indigenous Model Of Māori Water Safety And Health In Aotearoa, New Zealand, Chanel Phillips Ph.D. 2020 University of Otago, NZ

Wai Puna: An Indigenous Model Of Māori Water Safety And Health In Aotearoa, New Zealand, Chanel Phillips Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Māori (the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa, New Zealand) are intimately connected to wai (i.e., water) yet are overrepresented in New Zealand’s drowning statistics each year. On average Māori account for 20-24% of all preventable and non-preventable drowning fatalities, despite comprising only 15 percent of New Zealand’s population. Drowning remains a significant issue posing a threat to whānau (i.e., families) through premature death being imminent and whakapapa (i.e., genealogy) being interrupted. There is limited research that has examined Māori and indigenous understandings of water safety within the literature and limited studies that have investigated the issue ...


An Examination Of The Validity Of An Ios-Based Heart Rate And Pulse Oximetry App During And After Moderate Intensity Exercise, Nathan Grizenko, Rachel Shipman, Ian Cree, Mitchell Colvin 2020 Ohio Northern University

An Examination Of The Validity Of An Ios-Based Heart Rate And Pulse Oximetry App During And After Moderate Intensity Exercise, Nathan Grizenko, Rachel Shipman, Ian Cree, Mitchell Colvin

ONU Student Research Colloquium

Fitness tracking apps are popular. There is little data validating their use during and after exercise. PURPOSE: Validate an iOS-based pulse oximeter against a fingertip pulse oximeter and a Polar® heart rate monitor during moderate intensity exercise and recovery. METHODS: Age Estimated Maximal Heart Rate (AEMHR) was calculated for fifteen college-aged students. Participants completed a 30-minute running trial divided into three 10-minute segments intended to elicit heart rate responses of 60, 70, and 80% of AEMHR. Heart rate and oxygen saturation data were collected at five and nine minutes of each segment. RESULTS: At 60% the digiDoc® app exhibited a ...


Training Evaluation For Introductory Ocean Lifeguard Instruction: A Practical Example From California, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Jack Futoran 2020 University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; California State Parks, Sacramento, California, USA

Training Evaluation For Introductory Ocean Lifeguard Instruction: A Practical Example From California, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Jack Futoran

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ocean lifeguards have several responsibilities that require precise training. California State Parks is one of the largest providers of open water lifeguard services in the United States, and trains approximately 200 new lifeguards per year. As part of our lifeguard training section’s quality improvement efforts, we conducted a training needs assessment to help determine how well our introductory ocean lifeguard training curriculum prepared lifeguards to perform job related tasks upon successful completion of the training program. We surveyed both first year and seasoned lead lifeguards on operational needs, training gaps, and specific subject areas. We identified several areas where ...


Loss Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 1 And 2 Function In Liver Epithelial Cells Triggers Biliary Hyperproliferation Resembling Cholangiocarcinoma, Francisco Javier Cubero, Mohamed Ramadan Mohamed, Marius M. Woitok, Gang Zhao, Maximilian Hatting, Yulia A. Nevzorova, Chaobo Chen, Johannes Haybaeck, Alain de Bruin, Matias A. Avila, Mark V. Boekschoten, Roger J. Davis, Christian Trautwein 2020 Complutense University of Madrid

Loss Of C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 1 And 2 Function In Liver Epithelial Cells Triggers Biliary Hyperproliferation Resembling Cholangiocarcinoma, Francisco Javier Cubero, Mohamed Ramadan Mohamed, Marius M. Woitok, Gang Zhao, Maximilian Hatting, Yulia A. Nevzorova, Chaobo Chen, Johannes Haybaeck, Alain De Bruin, Matias A. Avila, Mark V. Boekschoten, Roger J. Davis, Christian Trautwein

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Targeted inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) has shown therapeutic potential in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA)-related tumorigenesis. However, the cell-type-specific role and mechanisms triggered by JNK in liver parenchymal cells during CCA remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the relevance of JNK1 and JNK2 function in hepatocytes in two different models of experimental carcinogenesis, the dethylnitrosamine (DEN) model and in nuclear factor kappa B essential modulator (NEMO)(hepatocyte-specific knockout (Deltahepa)) mice, focusing on liver damage, cell death, compensatory proliferation, fibrogenesis, and tumor development. Moreover, regulation of essential genes was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblottings ...


Inhibition Of Grk2, But Not Hsp90 Reduces Mitochondrial Superoxide And Improves Vasodilation Capacity Of Coronary Arterioles From Aged Female Rats, Michaela N Dukes, Evan P. Tracy B.S., Amanda Jo LeBlanc Ph.D. 2020 Cardiovascular Innovation Institute

Inhibition Of Grk2, But Not Hsp90 Reduces Mitochondrial Superoxide And Improves Vasodilation Capacity Of Coronary Arterioles From Aged Female Rats, Michaela N Dukes, Evan P. Tracy B.S., Amanda Jo Leblanc Ph.D.

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Introduction: In post-menopausal women, small coronary microvessel dysfunction is the predominant heart disease presentation.There is currently no single treatment to tackle the multifactorial etiology of micro vessel dysfunction including oxidative stress, hyper constricted state, endothelial dysfunction, and blunted beta-adrenergic function. In the heart, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as the b-adrenergic receptor (bADR) investigated in this experiment, are active in mediating vessel contractility vasodilation to facilitate blood flow. The presence of GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2), which inhibit bADRs, increase in old age and may mediate blunted capacity to vasodilate. Furthermore, GRK2 can be translocated to the mitochondria via heat ...


Alcohol_Focused Drowning Prevention Campaigns: What Do We Know And What Should We Do Now?, Hannah Calverley, Lauren Petrass, Jennifer Blitvich 2020 Federation University, Austalia

Alcohol_Focused Drowning Prevention Campaigns: What Do We Know And What Should We Do Now?, Hannah Calverley, Lauren Petrass, Jennifer Blitvich

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Alcohol and drugs have been identified as key risk factors for youth (aged 15-24 years) and adult drownings in high-income countries (HIC). Whilst alcohol specific drowning prevention education programs have been developed and implemented, youth continue to be over-represented in drowning statistics, including those linked with alcohol. Therefore, this project aimed to: (i) review and assess all alcohol themed drowning prevention campaigns within HICs; (ii) determine whether the campaign had undergone evaluation for effectiveness; and (iii) provide recommendations to improve the effectiveness of future interventions. For each of the eighty-one HICs identified for the 2019 fiscal year, searches of peer-reviewed ...


Socio-Ecological Nature Of Drowning In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Review To Inform Health Promotion Approaches, Muthia Cenderadewi, Richard Charles Franklin, Susan Devine 2020 James Cook University, Australia; the University of Mataram, Indonesia

Socio-Ecological Nature Of Drowning In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Review To Inform Health Promotion Approaches, Muthia Cenderadewi, Richard Charles Franklin, Susan Devine

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Most deaths by drowning (91%) have occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly in Southeast Asia (35%) and Africa (20%), in proportion to total drowning deaths worldwide. Poor data collection in LMICs hinders the planning, implementation, and evaluation of prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to review the rates and risk factors of unintentional drowning in LMICs and to identify drowning prevention strategies within a socio-ecological health promotion framework. A systematic search, guided by PRISMA, was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Informit health, PsycINFO (ProQuest), Scopus, SafetyLit, Google Scholar, and BioMed Central databases for all relevant studies ...


Comparison Of High-Volume And High-Intensity Upper Body Resistance Training On Acute Neuromuscular Performance And Ratings Of Perceived Exertion, Bruno Victor Correia da Silva, Daniella Bertulucci Terra Branco, Bernardo Neme Ide, Moacir Marocolo, Hiago Leandro R de Souza, Rhaí André Arriel e Oliveira, Dustin Jay Oranchuk, Gustavo R. Mota 2020 Auckland University of Technology

Comparison Of High-Volume And High-Intensity Upper Body Resistance Training On Acute Neuromuscular Performance And Ratings Of Perceived Exertion, Bruno Victor Correia Da Silva, Daniella Bertulucci Terra Branco, Bernardo Neme Ide, Moacir Marocolo, Hiago Leandro R De Souza, Rhaí André Arriel E Oliveira, Dustin Jay Oranchuk, Gustavo R. Mota

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(1): 723-733, 2020. The assessment of neuromuscular fatigue is important for minimizing the risks of nonfunctional overreaching, and monitoring training loads has rapidly grown in recent years. The objective of the study was to compare the acute upper body performance and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to high-volume (HV) and high-intensity (HI) resistance-training loads. Sixteen young resistance-trained men (4 repetition maximum [RM] bench press = 105.8 ± 15.9 kg) were divided into two groups of eight subjects each that performed a HI (3 sets of 4RM with 180 s of rest), and a ...


Determining Maod Using A Single Exhaustive Severe Intensity Test, Jose R. Valenzuela, Andrea E. Riojas, Brian K. McFarlin, Jakob L. Vingren, David W. Hill 2020 University of North Texas

Determining Maod Using A Single Exhaustive Severe Intensity Test, Jose R. Valenzuela, Andrea E. Riojas, Brian K. Mcfarlin, Jakob L. Vingren, David W. Hill

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(4): 702-713, 2020. Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) provides a measure of anaerobic capacity. However, its measurement is a time-consuming process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a measure of anaerobic capacity that avoids contentious assumptions and demands of the MAOD method. Twelve women and eight men volunteered for the study and completed cycle ergometer tests that resulted in exhaustion after ~4 min and ~8 min. In each test, anaerobic capacity was determined as (i) the MAOD and (ii) the sum of the phosphocreatine and glycolytic contributions (PCr+glycolysis). MAOD was determined ...


A Comparison Of Muscle Activation Among The Front Squat, Overhead Squat, Back Extension And Plank, David Bautista, Dustin Durke, Joshua A. Cotter, Kurt A. Escobar, Evan E. Schick 2020 California State University, Long Beach

A Comparison Of Muscle Activation Among The Front Squat, Overhead Squat, Back Extension And Plank, David Bautista, Dustin Durke, Joshua A. Cotter, Kurt A. Escobar, Evan E. Schick

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(1): 714-722, 2020. The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activation of the scapula, leg, and trunk among the front squat (FS), overhead squat (OHS), back extension (BE) and plank (PL). Seven recreationally trained men (age: 28 ± 3.6 years, body mass: 92 ± 26.1 kg, height: 175 ± 5.3 cm, 3-RM front squat test: 125 ± 49.8 kg, 3-RM overhead squat test: 91 ± 15.5 kg) participated in this within-subject crossover design. Two isometric exercises (plank and Biering-Sorenson back extension) were also included for trunk musculature comparisons. Neuromuscular activitation of ...


The Implementation Of Exercise For Chronic Kidney Disease And Dialysis Patients, Syed Ahmad Rizvi 2020 Wayne State University Division of Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies & Honors College

The Implementation Of Exercise For Chronic Kidney Disease And Dialysis Patients, Syed Ahmad Rizvi

Honors College Theses

While commonly known to be the organ that helps with urine production within the human body, the kidney plays one of the most crucial roles in maintaining homeostasis. When establishing all of the roles the kidney has on keeping humans healthy, there is the question of how does the body cope when a patient is diagnosed with kidney failure. One of the more common treatment options that allows the body to continue to function without a kidney is by beginning a patient on a form of dialysis. However, as with any treatment, there will always be a list of side ...


Characterization Of A Split-Nluc Assay For Monitoring Changes In Alpha-Synuclein Solubility In Living Cells, BaoLong Truong 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of A Split-Nluc Assay For Monitoring Changes In Alpha-Synuclein Solubility In Living Cells, Baolong Truong

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Alpha-synuclein is the primary constituent of Lewy Bodies, protein aggregates associated with Parkinson’s Disease, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, and Multiple Systems Dystrophy. Given the terminal nature of these synucleinopathies, the need for an assay that can report on alpha-synuclein aggregation levels in living systems is critical. Western blotting represents one potential approach to this problem; however, this technique can often be limited by selectivity of available antibodies and experimental reproducibility. Herein, we describe a novel luminescence-based assay capable of detecting alpha-synuclein solubility in bacterial cells. This platform can report on the influence of disease-relevant mutations and small molecules. Antibodies ...


Perceived And Heart Rate-Based Intensities During Self-Paced Walking: Magnitudes And Comparison, Jennah Flairty, Cory Scheadler 2020 Northern Kentucky University

Perceived And Heart Rate-Based Intensities During Self-Paced Walking: Magnitudes And Comparison, Jennah Flairty, Cory Scheadler

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(5): 677-688, 2020. There is limited research on self-paced walking and whether healthy individuals reach perceived exertion- (RPE) and/or heart rate- (HR) based moderate intensities. Study purpose was to determine if achieved RPE and HR intensities during a self-paced walk are of equivalent magnitude and whether they reach the recommended moderate-intensity. Thirty participants completed a 15-minute self-paced walk. RPE and HR were measured every two minutes; each measure was ranked by intensity. Wilcoxon matched pairs test revealed no significant difference between the mean ranked RPE and %HRmax (2.4 ± 0.9, 2.3 ...


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