Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cellular and Molecular Physiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,030 Full-Text Articles 3,339 Authors 115,350 Downloads 99 Institutions

All Articles in Cellular and Molecular Physiology

Faceted Search

1,030 full-text articles. Page 1 of 48.

Efficient Cocaine Degradation By Cocaine Esterase-Loaded Red Blood Cells, Luigia Rossi, Francesca Pierigè, Marco Agostini, Noemi Bigini, Veronica Termopoli, Yingting Cai, Fang Zheng, Chang-Guo Zhan, Donald W. Landry, Mauro Magnani 2020 University of Urbino, Italy

Efficient Cocaine Degradation By Cocaine Esterase-Loaded Red Blood Cells, Luigia Rossi, Francesca Pierigè, Marco Agostini, Noemi Bigini, Veronica Termopoli, Yingting Cai, Fang Zheng, Chang-Guo Zhan, Donald W. Landry, Mauro Magnani

Molecular Modeling and Biopharmaceutical Center Faculty Publications

Recombinant bacterial cocaine esterase (CocE) represents a potential protein therapeutic for cocaine use disorder treatment. Unfortunately, the native enzyme was highly unstable and the corresponding mutagenized derivatives, RBP-8000 and E196-301, although improving in vitro thermo-stability and in vivo half-life, were a partial solution to the problem. For cocaine use disorder treatment, an efficient cocaine-metabolizing enzyme with a longer residence time in circulation would be needed. We investigated in vitro the possibility of developing red blood cells (RBCs) loaded with RBP-8000 and E196-301 as a biocompatible system to metabolize cocaine for a longer period of time. RBP 8000 stability within human ...


Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Expression And Localization Of The 14-3-3 (Ywha) Protein Family Within Mammals, Neha Kumrah, Santanu De

Mako: NSU Undergraduate Student Journal

The 14-3-3 (YWHA) are a family of homologous, acidic, and highly conserved proteins expressed abundantly and ubiquitously in a wide array of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including humans, which regulate important cellular events. Within mammals, seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist: β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ, and σ (stratifin), each of which is encoded by a unique gene. Studies have shown similar expression patterns among mammalian species. The 14-3-3 proteins are commonly expressed and have proven to play critical roles in proper cellular localization, function, and homeostatic regulation. Numerous researchers have investigated the expression and localization patterns of ...


Nano-Vesicle (Mis)Communication In Senescence-Related Pathologies, Sherin Saheera, Ajay Godwin Potnuri, Prasanna Krishnamurthy 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Nano-Vesicle (Mis)Communication In Senescence-Related Pathologies, Sherin Saheera, Ajay Godwin Potnuri, Prasanna Krishnamurthy

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures comprising of exosomes, apoptotic bodies, and microvesicles. Of the extracellular vesicles, exosomes are the most widely sorted and extensively explored for their contents and function. The size of the nanovesicular structures (exosomes) range from 30 to 140 nm and are present in various biological fluids such as saliva, plasma, urine etc. These cargo-laden extracellular vesicles arise from endosome-derived multivesicular bodies and are known to carry proteins and nucleic acids. Exosomes are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, including cellular senescence. Exosomes mediate signaling crosstalk and play a critical role ...


Characterization Of Viral Insulins Reveals White Adipose Tissue Specific Effects In Mice, Martina Chrudinová, Francois Moreau, Hye Lim Noh, Terezie Páníková, Lenka Žáková, Randall H. Friedline, Francisco A. Valenzuela, Jason K. Kim, Czech Academy of Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston College 2020 Boston College

Characterization Of Viral Insulins Reveals White Adipose Tissue Specific Effects In Mice, Martina Chrudinová, Francois Moreau, Hye Lim Noh, Terezie Páníková, Lenka Žáková, Randall H. Friedline, Francisco A. Valenzuela, Jason K. Kim, Czech Academy Of Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston College

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Members of the insulin/IGF superfamily are well conserved across the evolutionary tree. We recently showed that four viruses in the Iridoviridae family possess genes that encode proteins highly homologous to human insulin/IGF-1. Using chemically synthesized single chain (sc), i.e. IGF-1-like, forms of the viral insulin/IGF-1 like peptides (VILPs), we previously showed that they can stimulate human receptors. Because these peptides possess potential cleavage sites to form double chain (dc), i.e. more insulin-like, VILPs, in this study, we have characterized dc forms of VILPs for Grouper iridovirus (GIV), Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and Lymphocystis disease virus-1 ...


Reduced Neurog3 Gene Dosage Shifts Enteroendocrine Progenitor Toward Goblet Cell Lineage In The Mouse Intestine, Joyce H. Li, Subir Ray, Alper Kucukural, Gerard Gradwohl, Andrew B. Leiter 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Reduced Neurog3 Gene Dosage Shifts Enteroendocrine Progenitor Toward Goblet Cell Lineage In The Mouse Intestine, Joyce H. Li, Subir Ray, Alper Kucukural, Gerard Gradwohl, Andrew B. Leiter

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND and AIMS: Transient expression of Neurog3 commits intestinal secretory progenitors to become enteroendocrine-biased progenitors and hence drive enteroendocrine differentiation. Loss of Neurog3 in mouse resulted in the depletion of intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EECs) and an increase in goblet cells. Earlier studies in developing mouse pancreas showed Neurog3 gene dosage in endocrine and exocrine cell fate allocation. We aimed to determine whether Neurog3 gene dosage controls fate choice of enteroendocrine progenitors.

METHODS: We acquired mutant Neurog3 reporter mice carrying 2, 1, or null Neurog3 alleles to study Neurog3 gene dosage effect by lineage tracing. Cell types arising from Neurog3+ progenitors ...


Single-Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie A. Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Single-Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie A. Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech

Open Access Articles

Adipocytes deficient in fatty acid synthase (iAdFASNKO) emit signals that mimic cold exposure to enhance the appearance of thermogenic beige adipocytes in mouse inguinal white adipose tissues (iWATs). Both cold exposure and iAdFASNKO upregulate the sympathetic nerve fiber (SNF) modulator Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), activate SNFs, and require adipocyte cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling for beige adipocyte appearance, as it is blocked by adipocyte Gsalpha deficiency. Surprisingly, however, in contrast to cold-exposed mice, neither iWAT denervation nor Nrg4 loss attenuated adipocyte browning in iAdFASNKO mice. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of iWAT stromal cells revealed increased macrophages displaying gene expression ...


Altered Micos Morphology And Mitochondrial Ion Homeostasis Contribute To Poly(Gr) Toxicity Associated With C9-Als/Ftd, Shuangxi Li, Zhihao Wu, Yu Li, Ishaq Tantray, Diego De Stefani, Andrea Mattarei, Gopinath Krishnan, Fen-Biao Gao, Hannes Vogel, Bingwei Lu 2020 Stanford University

Altered Micos Morphology And Mitochondrial Ion Homeostasis Contribute To Poly(Gr) Toxicity Associated With C9-Als/Ftd, Shuangxi Li, Zhihao Wu, Yu Li, Ishaq Tantray, Diego De Stefani, Andrea Mattarei, Gopinath Krishnan, Fen-Biao Gao, Hannes Vogel, Bingwei Lu

Open Access Articles

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) manifests pathological changes in motor neurons and various other cell types. Compared to motor neurons, the contribution of the other cell types to the ALS phenotypes is understudied. G4C2 repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of ALS along with frontotemporal dementia (C9-ALS/FTD), with increasing evidence supporting repeat-encoded poly(GR) in disease pathogenesis. Here, we show in Drosophila muscle that poly(GR) enters mitochondria and interacts with components of the Mitochondrial Contact Site and Cristae Organizing System (MICOS), altering MICOS dynamics and intra-subunit interactions. This impairs mitochondrial inner membrane structure, ion homeostasis ...


Loss Of Supervillin Causes Myopathy With Myofibrillar Disorganization And Autophagic Vacuoles, Carola Hedberg-Oldfors, Elizabeth J. Luna, Anders Oldfors, Cordula Knopp 2020 University of Gothenburg

Loss Of Supervillin Causes Myopathy With Myofibrillar Disorganization And Autophagic Vacuoles, Carola Hedberg-Oldfors, Elizabeth J. Luna, Anders Oldfors, Cordula Knopp

Open Access Articles

The muscle specific isoform of the supervillin protein (SV2), encoded by the SVIL gene, is a large sarcolemmal myosin II- and F-actin-binding protein. Supervillin (SV2) binds and co-localizes with costameric dystrophin and binds nebulin, potentially attaching the sarcolemma to myofibrillar Z-lines. Despite its important role in muscle cell physiology suggested by various in vitro studies, there are so far no reports of any human disease caused by SVIL mutations. We here report four patients from two unrelated, consanguineous families with a childhood/adolescence onset of a myopathy associated with homozygous loss-of-function mutations in SVIL. Wide neck, anteverted shoulders and prominent ...


Molecular Assessment Of Epiretinal Membrane: Activated Microglia, Oxidative Stress And Inflammation, Sushma Vishwakarma, Rishikesh Kumar Gupta, Saumya Jakati, Mudit Tyagi, Rajeev Reddy Pappuru, Keith Reddig, Gregory M. Hendricks, Michael R. Volkert, Hemant Khanna, Jay Chhablani, Inderjeet Kaur 2020 Manipal Academy of Higher Education

Molecular Assessment Of Epiretinal Membrane: Activated Microglia, Oxidative Stress And Inflammation, Sushma Vishwakarma, Rishikesh Kumar Gupta, Saumya Jakati, Mudit Tyagi, Rajeev Reddy Pappuru, Keith Reddig, Gregory M. Hendricks, Michael R. Volkert, Hemant Khanna, Jay Chhablani, Inderjeet Kaur

Radiology Publications

Fibrocellular membrane or epiretinal membrane (ERM) forms on the surface of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) in the inner retina and alters the structure and function of the retina. ERM formation is frequently observed in ocular inflammatory conditions, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and retinal detachment (RD). Although peeling of the ERM is used as a surgical intervention, it can inadvertently distort the retina. Our goal is to design alternative strategies to tackle ERMs. As a first step, we sought to determine the composition of the ERMs by identifying the constituent cell-types and gene expression signature in patient samples ...


Basement Membrane Damage By Ros- And Jnk-Mediated Mmp2 Activation Drives Macrophage Recruitment To Overgrown Tissue, Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Basement Membrane Damage By Ros- And Jnk-Mediated Mmp2 Activation Drives Macrophage Recruitment To Overgrown Tissue, Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann

Open Access Articles

Macrophages are a major immune cell type infiltrating tumors and promoting tumor growth and metastasis. To elucidate the mechanism of macrophage recruitment, we utilize an overgrowth tumor model ("undead" model) in larval Drosophila imaginal discs that are attached by numerous macrophages. Here we report that changes to the microenvironment of the overgrown tissue are important for recruiting macrophages. First, we describe a correlation between generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage of the basement membrane (BM) in all neoplastic, but not hyperplastic, models examined. ROS and the stress kinase JNK mediate the accumulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), damaging ...


Jnk-Mediated Disruption Of Bile Acid Homeostasis Promotes Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma, Elisa Manieri, Tamera Barrett, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Roger J. Davis, Alfonso Mora, Guadalupe Sabio 2020 National Centre for Cardiovascular Research, Spain

Jnk-Mediated Disruption Of Bile Acid Homeostasis Promotes Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma, Elisa Manieri, Tamera Barrett, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Roger J. Davis, Alfonso Mora, Guadalupe Sabio

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Metabolic stress causes activation of the cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway. It is established that one consequence of JNK activation is the development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through inhibition of the transcription factor PPARalpha. Indeed, JNK1/2 deficiency in hepatocytes protects against the development of steatosis, suggesting that JNK inhibition represents a possible treatment for this disease. However, the long-term consequences of JNK inhibition have not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that hepatic JNK controls bile acid production. We found that hepatic JNK deficiency alters cholesterol metabolism and bile acid synthesis, conjugation, and transport, resulting in ...


Modeling Type 1 Diabetes In Vitro Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Nayara C. Leite, Elad Sintov, Torsten B. Meissner, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, David M. Harlan, Douglas A. Melton 2020 Harvard University

Modeling Type 1 Diabetes In Vitro Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Nayara C. Leite, Elad Sintov, Torsten B. Meissner, Michael A. Brehm, Dale L. Greiner, David M. Harlan, Douglas A. Melton

Open Access Articles

Understanding the root causes of autoimmune diseases is hampered by the inability to access relevant human tissues and identify the time of disease onset. To examine the interaction of immune cells and their cellular targets in type 1 diabetes, we differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells into pancreatic endocrine cells, including beta cells. Here, we describe an in vitro platform that models features of human type 1 diabetes using stress-induced patient-derived endocrine cells and autologous immune cells. We demonstrate a cell-type-specific response by autologous immune cells against induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beta cells, along with a reduced effect on alpha ...


Regulation Of The Mammalian Swi/Snf Family Of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes By Phosphorylation During Myogenesis, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Anthony N. Imbalzano 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Regulation Of The Mammalian Swi/Snf Family Of Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes By Phosphorylation During Myogenesis, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Pablo Reyes-Gutierrez, Anthony N. Imbalzano

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Myogenesis is the biological process by which skeletal muscle tissue forms. Regulation of myogenesis involves a variety of conventional, epigenetic, and epigenomic mechanisms that control chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, histone modification, and activation of transcription factors. Chromatin remodeling enzymes utilize ATP hydrolysis to alter nucleosome structure and/or positioning. The mammalian SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (mSWI/SNF) family of chromatin remodeling enzymes is essential for myogenesis. Here we review diverse and novel mechanisms of regulation of mSWI/SNF enzymes by kinases and phosphatases. The integration of classic signaling pathways with chromatin remodeling enzyme function impacts myoblast viability and proliferation as well ...


Phenotypic Plasticity Of Japanese Medaka Gill In Response To Changing Salinities, Laura V. Ellis 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Phenotypic Plasticity Of Japanese Medaka Gill In Response To Changing Salinities, Laura V. Ellis

Theses and Dissertations

Japanese medaka (Oryzais latipes) are euryhaline fish, meaning they are capable of surviving in a variety of salinities from fresh water to seawater. The ability to maintain an internal osmotic concentration stems from the phenotypic plasticity of the osmoregulatory organs, the gill, kidney, intestine, and integument. The gill is the main site of osmotic and ionic regulation in fish due to the three-dimensional structure, the direct contact with the outside environment, and the composition of the gill cells. Fish gills are multifunctional as they regulate water movement, acid/base exchange, nitrogenous waste excretion, and ion fluctuations. In freshwater environments, fish ...


Dgat1 Is A Lipid Metabolism Oncoprotein That Enables Cancer Cells To Accumulate Fatty Acid While Avoiding Lipotoxicity, Daniel J. Wilcock, Melissa Kasheta, Craig J. Ceol 2020 University of Manchester

Dgat1 Is A Lipid Metabolism Oncoprotein That Enables Cancer Cells To Accumulate Fatty Acid While Avoiding Lipotoxicity, Daniel J. Wilcock, Melissa Kasheta, Craig J. Ceol

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Dysregulated cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. As yet, few druggable oncoproteins directly responsible for this hallmark have been identified. Increased fatty acid acquisition allows cancer cells to meet their membrane biogenesis, ATP, and signaling needs. Excess fatty acids suppress growth factor signaling and cause oxidative stress in non-transformed cells, but surprisingly not in cancer cells. Molecules underlying this cancer adaptation may provide new drug targets. Here, we identify Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), an enzyme integral to triacylglyceride synthesis and lipid droplet formation, as a frequently up-regulated oncoprotein allowing cancer cells to tolerate excess fatty acids. DGAT1 over-expression alone ...


Switching Off The Pancreatic Islet: Complex Network Analysis Of Multicellular Clusters, Janita Patwardhan 2020 University of Maryland - Baltimore County

Switching Off The Pancreatic Islet: Complex Network Analysis Of Multicellular Clusters, Janita Patwardhan

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Role Of Central Ace2 And Nrf2 In Sympatho-Excitation: Responses To Central Angiotensin Ii, Anyun Ma

Theses & Dissertations

Sympatho-excitation is a key characteristic in cardiovascular diseases such as chronic heart failure (CHF) and primary Hypertension (HTN). Evidence suggests that increased sympathetic tone is closely related to activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAAS) in the central nervous system. An underlying mechanism for sympatho-excitation is thought to be oxidative stress resulting from Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. Over the past several decades, pharmacological targeting of components of the RAAS have been used as standard therapy in CHF and HTN. However, additional therapeutic strategies are necessary to control these diseases. Oxidative stress is regulated, in part, by the ...


Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds 2020 University of Mississippi

Investigatin Actin-Myosin Mechanics To Model Heart Disease Using Fluorescence Microscopy And Optical Trapping, Justin Edward Reynolds

Honors Theses

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a hereditary disease in which the myocardium becomes hypertrophied, making it more difficult for the heart to pump blood. HCM is commonly caused by a mutation in the β-cardiac myosin II heavy chain. Myosin is a motor protein that facilitates muscle contraction by converting chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work and concomitantly moving along actin filaments. Optical tweezers have been used previously to analyze single myosin biophysical properties; however, myosin does not work as a single unit within the heart. Multiple myosin interacts to displace actin filaments and do not have the same properties ...


Glucose Metabolism Of Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Preferentially Metastasize To The Lungs And Bone, Anna G. Skubiz 2020 University of Mississippi

Glucose Metabolism Of Breast Cancer Sub-Clones That Preferentially Metastasize To The Lungs And Bone, Anna G. Skubiz

Honors Theses

Malignant breast cancers exhibit preferential metastasis to bone and lung (1). While changes in gene expression in lung-specific (LM) and bone-specific metastasis (BoM) lines derived from the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line have been identified, few metabolic genes are differentially expressed; thus it is unknown if tissue-specific metabolic reprogramming occurs. Two hallmarks of cancer cells are an altered metabolic phenotype characterized by enhanced conversion of glucose to lactate in spite of adequate oxygen availability for complete mitochondrial oxidation of this substrate (referred to as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect) and a greater dependence on glutamine. These changes in primary tumor ...


A Runx2 Stabilization Pathway Mediates Physiologic And Pathologic Bone Formation, Jung-Min Kim, Yeon-Suk Yang, Xianpeng Ge, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Runx2 Stabilization Pathway Mediates Physiologic And Pathologic Bone Formation, Jung-Min Kim, Yeon-Suk Yang, Xianpeng Ge, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim

Open Access Articles

The osteoblast differentiation capacity of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) must be tightly regulated, as inadequate bone formation results in low bone mass and skeletal fragility, and over-exuberant osteogenesis results in heterotopic ossification (HO) of soft tissues. RUNX2 is essential for tuning this balance, but the mechanisms of posttranslational control of RUNX2 remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify that a CK2/HAUSP pathway is a key regulator of RUNX2 stability, as Casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates RUNX2, recruiting the deubiquitinase herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP), which stabilizes RUNX2 by diverting it away from ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. This pathway is important ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress