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Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill 2022 San Jose State University

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


Targeting Stress Granule Inhibition As A Novel Vulnerability Of Mutant P53, Elizabeth Thoenen 2022 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Targeting Stress Granule Inhibition As A Novel Vulnerability Of Mutant P53, Elizabeth Thoenen

Research Days

Background: Tumor suppressor p53 (p53) inhibits cancer progression by transactivating genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. P53 is mutated in half of all human tumors, which is well correlated with poor patient outcomes. Most of p53 mutations are missense mutations. Missense mutant p53 protein (mutp53) not only loses wild-type p53 (wtp53) transcription factor activity, but also shows oncogenic gain of function that enhances metastasis and drug resistance through protein-protein interactions. However, the exact mechanism by which mutp53 induces drug resistance is poorly described. Moreover, strategies that directly target mutp53 have been challenging.

Objectives/Goal: Our goal is to ...


Carbonyl Iron Vs Ferrous Sulfate On Blood Iron Markers In Male Division Iii Cross-Country Athletes, Sam Gunter 2022 University of Lynchburg

Carbonyl Iron Vs Ferrous Sulfate On Blood Iron Markers In Male Division Iii Cross-Country Athletes, Sam Gunter

Student Scholar Showcase

Competitive distance runners are often predisposed to developing iron deficiency. This study aimed to determine if carbonyl iron was more effective at maintaining blood iron markers and minimizing overall fatigue and GI stress than ferrous sulfate. In this randomized, independent groups study, 7 male, division III cross-country athletes were supplemented with either carbonyl iron or ferrous sulfate for 6 weeks. Blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, subjective GI distress, subjective fatigue, and relative exertion of recent training were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks. Results will be analyzed via a detailed analysis of variance to determine significant differences in outcome measures. Statistical ...


Investigation Of Oncogenic Ras And Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Calcium Flux And Their Relationship In The Context Of Tumorigenesis, Emma Anderson 2022 Liberty University

Investigation Of Oncogenic Ras And Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Calcium Flux And Their Relationship In The Context Of Tumorigenesis, Emma Anderson

Senior Honors Theses

Intracellular calcium as a signaling molecule is a pervasive feature of cellular pathways, especially those that manage internal homeostasis and transitions through the cell cycle, so much so that regulated, responsive calcium flux between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria has been suggested to play a major role in cancer development. Another factor commonly implicated in tumorigenesis is RAS, an oncogene that controls signaling for many pathways that are also regulated by calcium. While both calcium and oncogenic RAS signaling are implicated in cancer development, possible links between them have yet to be determined. The identification of these links ...


Collagen Iv-Β1integrin Regulation Of Exocytotic Machinery In Pancreatic Beta-Cell Insulin Secretion, Malina Barillaro 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Collagen Iv-Β1integrin Regulation Of Exocytotic Machinery In Pancreatic Beta-Cell Insulin Secretion, Malina Barillaro

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Diabetes is a prevalent metabolic disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion, action, or both. β1-integrin is a key receptor that regulates cell-ECM interactions and is important in maintaining beta-cell functions, including insulin secretion. However, little is reported about the relationship between β1-integrin and the exocytotic proteins involved in insulin secretion. This study examined the influence of ECM-mediated β1-integrin activation on exocytotic machinery involved in insulin secretion using rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells. Collagen IV (COL IV) promoted INS-1 cell adhesion, spreading, and insulin secretion. Additionally, these cells displayed changes in levels and localization of exocytotic proteins involved in insulin secretion. β1-integrin ...


A Ketogenic Diet Enhances Hippocampal Mitochondrial Efficiency, Cali E. Warren, Erin R. Saito, Benjamin T. Bikman 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Ketogenic Diet Enhances Hippocampal Mitochondrial Efficiency, Cali E. Warren, Erin R. Saito, Benjamin T. Bikman

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2022

Mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive impairment are common symptoms in many neurologic disorders, as well as in nonpathological aging. Ketones have been suggested as therapeutic for their relevance in epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder.


Outcome Measures In Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Clinical Trials, Mehdi Ghasemi, Charles P. Emerson Jr., Lawrence J. Hayward 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Outcome Measures In Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Clinical Trials, Mehdi Ghasemi, Charles P. Emerson Jr., Lawrence J. Hayward

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a debilitating muscular dystrophy with a variable age of onset, severity, and progression. While there is still no cure for this disease, progress towards FSHD therapies has accelerated since the underlying mechanism of epigenetic derepression of the double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene leading to skeletal muscle toxicity was identified. This has facilitated the rapid development of novel therapies to target DUX4 expression and downstream dysregulation that cause muscle degeneration. These discoveries and pre-clinical translational studies have opened new avenues for therapies that await evaluation in clinical trials. As the field anticipates more FSHD trials, the ...


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life ...


Gut Microbial Trimethylamine Is Elevated In Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis And Contributes To Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury In Mice, Robert N. Helsley, Bruce A. Barton, Jonathan Mark Brown 2022 University of Kentucky

Gut Microbial Trimethylamine Is Elevated In Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis And Contributes To Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury In Mice, Robert N. Helsley, Bruce A. Barton, Jonathan Mark Brown

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

There is mounting evidence that microbes residing in the human intestine contribute to diverse alcohol-associated liver diseases (ALD) including the most deadly form known as alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). However, mechanisms by which gut microbes synergize with excessive alcohol intake to promote liver injury are poorly understood. Furthermore, whether drugs that selectively target gut microbial metabolism can improve ALD has never been tested. We used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantify the levels of microbe and host choline co-metabolites in healthy controls and AH patients, finding elevated levels of the microbial metabolite trimethylamine (TMA) in AH. In subsequent studies, we ...


Imyoblasts For Ex Vivo And In Vivo Investigations Of Human Myogenesis And Disease Modeling, Dongsheng Guo, Katelyn Daman, Jennifer Jc Chen, Meng-Jiao Shi, Jing Yan, Zdenka Matijasevic, Rene Maehr, Oliver D. King, Lawrence J. Hayward, Charles P. Emerson Jr. 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Imyoblasts For Ex Vivo And In Vivo Investigations Of Human Myogenesis And Disease Modeling, Dongsheng Guo, Katelyn Daman, Jennifer Jc Chen, Meng-Jiao Shi, Jing Yan, Zdenka Matijasevic, Rene Maehr, Oliver D. King, Lawrence J. Hayward, Charles P. Emerson Jr.

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle myoblasts (iMyoblasts) were generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using an efficient and reliable transgene-free induction and stem cell selection protocol. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, qPCR, digital RNA expression profiling, and scRNA-Seq studies identify iMyoblasts as a PAX3+/MYOD1+ skeletal myogenic lineage with a fetal-like transcriptome signature, distinct from adult muscle biopsy myoblasts (bMyoblasts) and iPSC-induced muscle progenitors. iMyoblasts can be stably propagated for > 12 passages or 30 population doublings while retaining their dual commitment for myotube differentiation and regeneration of reserve cells. iMyoblasts also efficiently xenoengrafted into irradiated and injured mouse muscle where they undergo differentiation ...


Meeting Report: The 2021 Fshd International Research Congress, Sujatha Jagannathan, Jessica C. de Greef, Lawrence J. Hayward, Kyoko Yokomori, Davide Gabellini, Karlien Mul, Sabrina Sacconi, Jamshid Arjomand, June Kinoshita, Scott Q. Harper 2022 University of Colorado

Meeting Report: The 2021 Fshd International Research Congress, Sujatha Jagannathan, Jessica C. De Greef, Lawrence J. Hayward, Kyoko Yokomori, Davide Gabellini, Karlien Mul, Sabrina Sacconi, Jamshid Arjomand, June Kinoshita, Scott Q. Harper

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the second most common genetic myopathy, characterized by slowly progressing and highly heterogeneous muscle wasting with a typical onset in the late teens/early adulthood [1]. Although the etiology of the disease for both FSHD type 1 and type 2 has been attributed to gain-of-toxic function stemming from aberrant DUX4 expression, the exact pathogenic mechanisms involved in muscle wasting have yet to be elucidated [2-4]. The 2021 FSHD International Research Congress, held virtually on June 24-25, convened over 350 researchers and clinicians to share the most recent advances in the understanding of the disease mechanism ...


The Scaffold-Dependent Function Of Ripk1 In Dendritic Cells Promotes Injury-Induced Colitis, Kenta Moriwaki, Christa Park, Kazuha Koyama, Sakthi Balaji, Kohei Kita, Ryoko Yagi, Sachiko Komazawa-Sakon, Manami Semba, Tatsuya Asuka, Hiroyasu Nakano, Yoshihiro Kamada, Eiji Miyoshi, Francis K. M. Chan 2022 Toho University

The Scaffold-Dependent Function Of Ripk1 In Dendritic Cells Promotes Injury-Induced Colitis, Kenta Moriwaki, Christa Park, Kazuha Koyama, Sakthi Balaji, Kohei Kita, Ryoko Yagi, Sachiko Komazawa-Sakon, Manami Semba, Tatsuya Asuka, Hiroyasu Nakano, Yoshihiro Kamada, Eiji Miyoshi, Francis K. M. Chan

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a cytosolic multidomain protein that controls cell life and death. While RIPK1 promotes cell death through its kinase activity, it also functions as a scaffold protein to promote cell survival by inhibiting FADD-caspase 8-dependent apoptosis and RIPK3-MLKL-dependent necroptosis. This pro-survival function is highlighted by excess cell death and perinatal lethality in Ripk1(-/-) mice. Recently, loss of function mutation of RIPK1 was found in patients with immunodeficiency and inflammatory bowel diseases. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation restored not only immunodeficiency but also intestinal inflammatory pathology, indicating that RIPK1 in hematopoietic cells is critical to maintain ...


Supplemental Peer Instruction In Physiologic Core Concept Education, Austin Choat 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Supplemental Peer Instruction In Physiologic Core Concept Education, Austin Choat

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The objective of my thesis project was to create and research the importance of supplemental learning videos within core physiological concepts identified by the Advancement of Physiological Principles for the purpose of assisting Dr. Kim Hansen in better educating students with less extensive foundational knowledge of chemical and biological sciences. Through researching the benefits of peer instruction, identifying core physiological concepts crucial to wholistic physiology education, and describing a student population hypothesized to benefit substantially from the work, I created educational videos to aid Dr. Hansen in her work as an educator and in the educational research she is striving ...


Comparative Genomics, Evolutionary Epidemiology, And Rbd-Hace2 Receptor Binding Pattern In B.1.1.7 (Alpha) And B.1.617.2 (Delta) Related To Their Pandemic Response In Uk And India, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Manojit Bhattacharya, Bidyut Mallik, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Sang-Soo Lee 2022 Adamas University

Comparative Genomics, Evolutionary Epidemiology, And Rbd-Hace2 Receptor Binding Pattern In B.1.1.7 (Alpha) And B.1.617.2 (Delta) Related To Their Pandemic Response In Uk And India, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Manojit Bhattacharya, Bidyut Mallik, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Sang-Soo Lee

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

BACKGROUND: The massive increase in COVID-19 infection had generated a second wave in India during May-June 2021 with a critical pandemic situation. The Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was a significant factor during the second wave. Conversely, the UK had passed through the crucial phase of the pandemic from November to December 2020 due to B.1.1.7. The study tried to comprehend the pandemic response in the UK and India to the spread of the B.1.1.7 (Alpha, UK) variant and B.1.617.2 (Delta, India) variant.

METHODS: This study was performed in three ...


Characterizing And Investigating The Electrophysiological Properties Of The Plastic Cricket Auditory System In Response To Cooling, Hannah Tess Scotch 2022 Bowdoin College

Characterizing And Investigating The Electrophysiological Properties Of The Plastic Cricket Auditory System In Response To Cooling, Hannah Tess Scotch

Honors Projects

The auditory system of the Mediterranean field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is capable of profound compensatory plasticity. Following deafferentation due to the loss of an auditory organ, the dendrites of intermediate auditory neuron Ascending Neuron 2 (AN-2) grow across the midline and functionally connect to contralateral afferents. The loss of the auditory organ can be mimicked with reversible cold-deactivation, in which cooled Peltier elements silence the auditory organ and its afferents. Though this would presumably prevent AN-2 from firing, cooling instead induces a novel firing pattern called DOPE (delayed-onset, prolonged-excitation). In this study, intracellular physiological recordings were completed before, during, and ...


Building Tools For Improved Modulation Of The Human Gabaa Receptor, A Central Nervous System Target For The Treatment Of Anxiety, Garrett Edward Zinck 2022 University of Kentucky

Building Tools For Improved Modulation Of The Human Gabaa Receptor, A Central Nervous System Target For The Treatment Of Anxiety, Garrett Edward Zinck

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

In the U.S., anxiety is recognized as an increasing range of mentally and physically debilitating psychiatric health disorders with significant economic repercussions. Over the last 20 years, several novel anti-anxiety therapies have entered the drug development pipeline, but none have made it to market.

The work in this dissertation focused on structurally modifying valerenic acid (VA), a structurally unique carboxylated sesquiterpene acid found in Valeriana officinalis. VA is putatively reported to have allosteric modulatory activity of the human GABAA receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel responsible for attenuating neurotransmissions. Structural modeling of VA’s GABAA receptor interaction suggests ...


Structural Basis Of The Super- And Hyper-Relaxed States Of Myosin Ii, Roger W. Craig, Raul A. Padron 2021 UMass Chan Medical School

Structural Basis Of The Super- And Hyper-Relaxed States Of Myosin Ii, Roger W. Craig, Raul A. Padron

Radiology Publications

Super-relaxation is a state of muscle thick filaments in which ATP turnover by myosin is much slower than that of myosin II in solution. This inhibited state, in equilibrium with a faster (relaxed) state, is ubiquitous and thought to be fundamental to muscle function, acting as a mechanism for switching off energy-consuming myosin motors when they are not being used. The structural basis of super-relaxation is usually taken to be a motif formed by myosin in which the two heads interact with each other and with the proximal tail forming an interacting-heads motif, which switches the heads off. However, recent ...


Genome-Wide Analyses Of Genomic Variation Regulating Differential Stress Responses In Japanese Quail, Steven Anthony Shumaker 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genome-Wide Analyses Of Genomic Variation Regulating Differential Stress Responses In Japanese Quail, Steven Anthony Shumaker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As consumer demands for poultry grow, producers work to improve bird productivity in both meat and egg production. This endeavor is multifaceted, as many different factors play a part in influencing the productivity of birds, including environmental conditions, overall health, and genetic potential. One aspect controlled for in all aspects of poultry production optimization is stress management. Mitigation of stress is of primary concern to producers, as improper stress management can have many deleterious effects on chickens. Stress management requires an understanding of poultry stress responses and their physiological mechanisms, which can be more deeply understood through genomic analysis. Chapter ...


Effect Of Estrogen Pretreatment On Glial-Like Cell Viability Following Stress Response Hormone Treatment, Bridget N. Smith, Kevin S. Burgess, Kathleen S. Hughes 2021 Columbus State University

Effect Of Estrogen Pretreatment On Glial-Like Cell Viability Following Stress Response Hormone Treatment, Bridget N. Smith, Kevin S. Burgess, Kathleen S. Hughes

Georgia Journal of Science

The role of steroid hormones is critical in cellular function. Previous studies have found a positive correlation between the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol and cellular protection. Conversely, exogenous conjugated equine estrogens provide less protective mechanisms than endogenous hormones, and little is known about the role of estrogens in cellular protection during a stress response. In the present study, we compare the effects of short-term estrogen pretreatments (alone and in combination) on cell viability when cells with glial cell morphology are exposed to either epinephrine or cortisol. Results showed that 1 µM 17β-estradiol resulted in decreased cell viability following the epinephrine treatment ...


Autophagy In Major Human Diseases, Daniel J. Klionsky, Eric H. Baehrecke, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Federico Pietrocola 2021 University of Michigan

Autophagy In Major Human Diseases, Daniel J. Klionsky, Eric H. Baehrecke, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Federico Pietrocola

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Autophagy is a core molecular pathway for the preservation of cellular and organismal homeostasis. Pharmacological and genetic interventions impairing autophagy responses promote or aggravate disease in a plethora of experimental models. Consistently, mutations in autophagy-related processes cause severe human pathologies. Here, we review and discuss preclinical data linking autophagy dysfunction to the pathogenesis of major human disorders including cancer as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, metabolic, pulmonary, renal, infectious, musculoskeletal, and ocular disorders.


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