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Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

The PiZ mutation in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene causes the PiZ mutant protein to be sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, causing significant liver pathology in ~10% of PiZZ homozygous AAT disease patients. Current transgenic mouse models of the disease include the liver-specific over-expression of mutant PiZ protein. However, these animal models do not efficiently recapitulate the liver damage found in PiZZ homozygous patients. Since only a small percentage of patients develop liver disease and it is not reproducible in animal models of AATD, it suggests that there are other factors that participate in disease pathogenesis. Here, we ...


Girk2 And Gababr1 Downregulate In Response To Ttx As Girk2, Gababr1, And Gababr2 Are Not Affected By Bc Treatment, Staci E. Hammer, Amanda Weiss, Hee Jung Chung 2017 Highland Community College

Girk2 And Gababr1 Downregulate In Response To Ttx As Girk2, Gababr1, And Gababr2 Are Not Affected By Bc Treatment, Staci E. Hammer, Amanda Weiss, Hee Jung Chung

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

Homeostatic plasticity is the response neurons undergo to regulate changes in excitability levels and bring the cells back to homeostasis. Research on homeostatic plasticity at the molecular level can lead to improved treatments for neurological diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's, and schizophrenia. The research featured in this poster looks at the response of GIRK (G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium) channels and GABAb (gamma-amniobutyric acid) receptors to neurotoxins, tetrodotoxin (TTX) or bicuculline (BC).

Prolonged activity blockade of 48 hour TTX treatment significantly reduced GABABR1 and GIRK2 expression. This supports the idea that because these two proteins inhibit action potentials, there ...


H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a cardioprotective gas, is endogenously produced from homocysteine by cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) enzymes. However, effect of H2S or homocysteine on CBS and CSE expression, and cross-talk between CBS and CSE are unclear. We hypothesize that homocysteine and H2S regulate CBS and CSE expressions in a dose dependent manner in cardiomyocytes, and CBS deficiency induces cardiac CSE expression. To test the hypothesis, we treated murine atrial HL1 cardiomyocytes with increasing doses of homocysteine or Na2S/GYY4137, a H2S donor, and measured the levels of CBS and CSE. We found that homocysteine upregulates ...


The Effects Of Fluoride Ions On Neuromuscular Activity And Regeneration In Dugesia Tigrina, John Williams Jr. 2017 Albany State University

The Effects Of Fluoride Ions On Neuromuscular Activity And Regeneration In Dugesia Tigrina, John Williams Jr.

Georgia Journal of Science

Fluoride ions have been implicated in numerous nervous system pathologies, though the association of these ions with these conditions has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects that fluoride ions have on the nervous system development and function in planarians as a simple model for fluoride-nervous system interactions. In the first set of experiments, planarians were exposed to one of four concentrations of sodium fluoride: 0 mM, 1 mM, 1 mM, and 5 mM. In the second set of experiments, planarians were bisected and exposed to 1 mM of NaCl and NaF for regeneration purposes ...


Complement-Related Regulates Autophagy In Neighboring Cells, Lin Lin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Complement-Related Regulates Autophagy In Neighboring Cells, Lin Lin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Autophagy is a conserved process that cells use to degrade their own cytoplasmic components by delivery to lysosomes. Autophagy ensures intracellular quality control and is associated with diseases such as cancer and immune disorders. The process of autophagy is controlled by core autophagy (Atg) genes that are conserved from yeast to mammal. Most Atg proteins and their regulators were identified through pioneering studies of the single cell yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and little is known about factors that systematically coordinate autophagy within the tissues of multicellular animals. The goal of this thesis is to identify new autophagy regulators and provide a ...


Ift Trains In Different Stages Of Assembly Queue At The Ciliary Base For Consecutive Release Into The Cilium, Jason M. Brown, Tyler Picariello, Deborah A. Cochran, George B. Witman, Karl Lechtreck 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ift Trains In Different Stages Of Assembly Queue At The Ciliary Base For Consecutive Release Into The Cilium, Jason M. Brown, Tyler Picariello, Deborah A. Cochran, George B. Witman, Karl Lechtreck

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Intraflagellar transport (IFT) trains, multimegadalton assemblies of IFT proteins and motors, traffic proteins in cilia. To study how trains assemble, we employed fluorescence protein-tagged IFT proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. IFT-A and motor proteins are recruited from the cell body to the basal body pool, assembled into trains, move through the cilium, and disperse back into the cell body. In contrast to this 'open' system, IFT-B proteins from retrograde trains reenter the pool and a portion is reused directly in anterograde trains indicating a 'semi-open' system. Similar IFT systems were also observed in Tetrahymena thermophila and IMCD3 cells. FRAP analysis indicated ...


Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz

Christian Mueller

Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with ...


Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Monocyte Differentiation Into Polarized M2 Macrophages Promotes Stellate Cell Activation Via Tgf-Beta, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Monocyte Differentiation Into Polarized M2 Macrophages Promotes Stellate Cell Activation Via Tgf-Beta, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND and AIMS: Monocyte and macrophage (MPhi) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Disease pathogenesis is regulated by both liver-resident MPhis and monocytes recruited as precursors of MPhis into the damaged liver. Monocytes differentiate into M1 (classic/proinflammatory) or M2 (alternative/anti-inflammatory) polarized MPhis in response to tissue microenvironment. We hypothesized that HCV-infected hepatoma cells (infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 [Huh7.5/JFH-1]) induce monocyte differentiation into polarized MPhis. METHODS: Healthy human monocytes were co-cultured with Huh7.5/JFH-1 cells or cell-free virus for 7 days and analyzed for MPhi markers and cytokine levels ...


Capacitive Memory Alters Alternans And Spontaneous Activity In A Minimal Cardiomyocyte Model, Tien Comlekoglu, Seth H. Weinberg 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Capacitive Memory Alters Alternans And Spontaneous Activity In A Minimal Cardiomyocyte Model, Tien Comlekoglu, Seth H. Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The PiZ mutation in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene causes the PiZ mutant protein to be sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, causing significant liver pathology in ~10% of PiZZ homozygous AAT disease patients. Current transgenic mouse models of the disease include the liver-specific over-expression of mutant PiZ protein. However, these animal models do not efficiently recapitulate the liver damage found in PiZZ homozygous patients. Since only a small percentage of patients develop liver disease and it is not reproducible in animal models of AATD, it suggests that there are other factors that participate in disease pathogenesis. Here, we ...


Measuring Changes In Brain Metabolite Levels Using Live-Animal Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy And Offline Lc-Ms Metabolomics In A Binge-Ethanol Murine Model, Michelle L. Dubuke, Guillaume L. Poirier, Laurellee Payne, Arlene Lim, Pranoti Mandrekar, Constance M. Moore, Jean A. King, Scott A. Shaffer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Measuring Changes In Brain Metabolite Levels Using Live-Animal Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy And Offline Lc-Ms Metabolomics In A Binge-Ethanol Murine Model, Michelle L. Dubuke, Guillaume L. Poirier, Laurellee Payne, Arlene Lim, Pranoti Mandrekar, Constance M. Moore, Jean A. King, Scott A. Shaffer

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Alcoholism and acute alcohol binge are significant public health concerns. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolomics is a robust and sensitive technique for determining and quantifying transient or permanent biochemical changes within the central nervous system (CNS). However, access to human tissue and CNS biofluid for such analyses is limited in a clinical context. In-vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an attractive alternative for clinical measurement but currently the technique is limited to a small to a number of well-characterized, highly abundant analytes. We therefore seek to correlate LC-MS and MRS measurements to better understand and leverage the strengths of ...


Invitro-Q: A High-Throughput Biosensor Used To Evaluate The Mechanism Of Phagocytosis Of Macrophages Using Different Particles, Marynawal Abdou, Abiche H. Dewilde 2017 Invitrometrix

Invitro-Q: A High-Throughput Biosensor Used To Evaluate The Mechanism Of Phagocytosis Of Macrophages Using Different Particles, Marynawal Abdou, Abiche H. Dewilde

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The method of phagocytosis of a particle can provide information on how macrophages respond to a detected particle. The response elicited varies based on the nature of the particle and in turn changes which receptor-mediated phagocytosis is initiated. We have developed a multi-well cell-based sensor that can monitor real-time biological changes in living cells, such as mass redistribution, and viscoelasticity. This system provides unique kinetic information regarding the phenotypic change in the cells post treatment. As a proof of principle study, we evaluate macrophage phagocytosis using three different particles: latex beads, Zymosan A, and Staphylococcus aureus. These studies show the ...


Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Regulates Mitochondrial Dynamics Proteins In Primary Human Myotubes Derived From Severely Obese Humans, Kai Zou, J. Matthew Hinkley, Sanghee Park, Donghai Zheng, G. Lynis Dohm, Joseph A. Houmard 2017 University of Massachusetts Boston

Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Regulates Mitochondrial Dynamics Proteins In Primary Human Myotubes Derived From Severely Obese Humans, Kai Zou, J. Matthew Hinkley, Sanghee Park, Donghai Zheng, G. Lynis Dohm, Joseph A. Houmard

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Mitochondrial dynamics including mitochondrial fission (e.g., Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and Fission 1 (Fis1)) and fusion (e.g., Mitofusin 2 (MFN 2)) regulates mitochondrial homeostasis. Defects in mitochondrial dynamics are suggested to contribute to skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance associated with severe obesity. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery markedly improves metabolic health as indicated by enhanced substrate oxidation and insulin action in skeletal muscle. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms responsible for these are unclear and could possibly be due to the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether RYGB surgery ...


Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May 2017 University of Maine

Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, we compared the osmotic stress response of larval and juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at the transcriptomic, metabolomic, and whole organism levels. Blue mussels inhabit coastal areas, where they face climate-induced reductions in nearshore salinity. Despite their ecological and economic importance, scientists do not fully understand the underlying transcriptomic and cellular mechanisms of the osmotic stress response in blue mussels or how the ability to respond to stress changes throughout development. Blue mussels spend the first weeks of life developing through several larval stages in the plankton. These early life history stages are more vulnerable to environmental ...


Enhancing Cell Therapy For Ischemic Cardiomyopathy., Michael J. Book 2017 University of Louisville

Enhancing Cell Therapy For Ischemic Cardiomyopathy., Michael J. Book

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cardiac cell therapy using cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMC) significantly reduces ventricular dysfunction in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Despite the improvement in function, a modest number of CMCs survive in the heart post-transplantation. In this study, we sought to improve the survival and retention of transplanted CMCs to prolong the therapeutic benefits afforded by cardiac cell therapy. To do this, we targeted the enzyme telomerase (TERT), known to be active in some highly proliferating cells (e.g. germ, stem). TERT is responsible for preventing telomere attrition, thereby allowing continued proliferation. TERT has also been shown to be protective, improve cell migration ...


Using Fluorescence Microscopy To Identify A Potential New Treatment For Heart Failure, Ryan D. Himes 2017 Olivet Nazarene University

Using Fluorescence Microscopy To Identify A Potential New Treatment For Heart Failure, Ryan D. Himes

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Cardiac glycosides have been used to treat heart failure for centuries, but they have a narrow therapeutic window, as they inhibit their target receptor nearly irreversibly. Overdoses can lead to arrhythmias. Phospholemman is a natural inhibitor of the same target as cardiac glycosides. It is possible that mutating phospholemman could achieve the same therapeutic benefit, while allowing cells to reverse the inhibition and thereby avoid an arrhythmia. I used fluorescence microscopy to screen candidate phospholemman mutants and identify one that binds more avidly to its target than the naturally occurring phospholemman. This mutant, L30A, caused similar effects as cardiac glycosides ...


Runx1 And Breast Cancer, Jose Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Leslie M. Shaw 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Runx1 And Breast Cancer, Jose Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Leslie M. Shaw

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

News on: Runx1 stabilizes the mammary epithelial cell phenotype and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition, by Hong et al. Oncotarget. 2017; 8:17610-27. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15381.


Loss Of Arf4 Causes Severe Degeneration Of The Exocrine Pancreas But Not Cystic Kidney Disease Or Retinal Degeneration, Jillian N. Pearring, Jovenal T. San Agustin, Ekaterina S. Lobanova, Christopher J. Gabriel, Eric C. Lieu, William J. Monis, Michael W. Stuck, Lara Strittmatter, Samer M. Jaber, Vadim Y. Arshavsky, Gregory J. Pazour 2017 Duke University

Loss Of Arf4 Causes Severe Degeneration Of The Exocrine Pancreas But Not Cystic Kidney Disease Or Retinal Degeneration, Jillian N. Pearring, Jovenal T. San Agustin, Ekaterina S. Lobanova, Christopher J. Gabriel, Eric C. Lieu, William J. Monis, Michael W. Stuck, Lara Strittmatter, Samer M. Jaber, Vadim Y. Arshavsky, Gregory J. Pazour

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Arf4 is proposed to be a critical regulator of membrane protein trafficking in early secretory pathway. More recently, Arf4 was also implicated in regulating ciliary trafficking, however, this has not been comprehensively tested in vivo. To directly address Arf4's role in ciliary transport, we deleted Arf4 specifically in either rod photoreceptor cells, kidney, or globally during the early postnatal period. Arf4 deletion in photoreceptors did not cause protein mislocalization or retinal degeneration, as expected if Arf4 played a role in protein transport to the ciliary outer segment. Likewise, Arf4 deletion in kidney did not cause cystic disease, as expected ...


The Long Haul: Migratory Flight Preparation And Performance In Songbirds, Morag F. Dick 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Long Haul: Migratory Flight Preparation And Performance In Songbirds, Morag F. Dick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Migration requires birds to sustain high intensity endurance exercise for periods lasting from hours to days. Similar to athletes, preparation and nutrition is key to success. Birds seasonally prepare for migration, which includes increasing the capacity to oxidize fat in the flight muscles. Beyond fuelling migration, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are hypothesized to be natural doping agents and increase endurance and fatty acid oxidative capacity. I examined how birds prepare for and sustain migratory flight and directly tested the role of n-3 PUFA. Using yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata) as a model species, I first examined the effects of ...


Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Immunometabolic Perspective., Paras K. Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K. Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K. Patel, Sushil K. Mahata 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Immunometabolic Perspective., Paras K. Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K. Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K. Patel, Sushil K. Mahata

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM. These early events are followed by steatosis (accumulation of lipid droplets ...


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