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Assessing The Role Of Integrins In Contact Guidance By Substratum Topography, Robin S. Hong 2022 Western University

Assessing The Role Of Integrins In Contact Guidance By Substratum Topography, Robin S. Hong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

In this project, the effect of blocking integrin subunits on contact guidance of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were assessed. Imaging was gathered through Timelapse imaging of live cells as well as immunohistochemistry of fixed cells at designated timepoints.


The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Role Of The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 In Pancreatic Cancer: Mechanisms Of Tumor Immunosuppression And Intestinal Radioprotection, Carolina Garcia Garcia

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The only curative option for patients is surgery, but over 80% of patients are not surgical candidates. Unfortunately, PDAC is resistant to the three remaining options. PDAC is characterized by a profoundly hypoxic and immunosuppressive stroma, which contributes to its therapeutic recalcitrance. Alpha-smooth muscle actin+ (αSMA+) cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal component, as well as mediators of stromal deposition. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1 and HIF2) coordinate responses to hypoxia, yet, despite their known association to poor patient outcomes, their functions within the PDAC tumor microenvironment (TME ...


Location And Conformation Of Titin In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Gaberielle S. Prince 2022 University of South Alabama

Location And Conformation Of Titin In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Gaberielle S. Prince

Theses and Dissertations

Striated muscles consist of contractile myofibrils that generate force. The repeating units (sarcomeres) of striated myofibrils contain thin & thick filaments composed of actin and myosin. In vertebrates, titin connects thin & thick filaments during myofibril assembly and produces passive tension. Invertebrate homologs of vertebrate titin are similar in structure molecularly. However, invertebrate titin homologs are smaller than vertebrate titin, and likely function differently within invertebrate muscles. Here, I used Ce-TTN-1, a titin homolog in the invertebrate roundworm C elegans. To visualize Ce-TTN-1 in C. elegans, I used Nested CRISPR gene editing to generate translational fusions of a red fluorescent protein at ...


Effectiveness Of Adeno-Associated Virus In H9c2 Cardiomyoblast And Hek293t Cell Lines, Cristian Saenz, Andres J. Medina, Genaro A. Ramirez-Correa 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Effectiveness Of Adeno-Associated Virus In H9c2 Cardiomyoblast And Hek293t Cell Lines, Cristian Saenz, Andres J. Medina, Genaro A. Ramirez-Correa

MEDI 8127 Scholarly Activities Pre-Clerkship

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is a prevalent disease that affects many people throughout the world leading to issues such as diabetic cardiomyopathy. O-GlcNAcylation dysregulation, caused by increased levels of serum glucose, contributes to the pathophysiology of decreased cardiac function. O-GlcNAcylation modulates cardiac contraction by reacting with either serine or threonine residues. Our goal was to demonstrate the success of infection of adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) carrying the gene of alpha-cardiac actin (ACTC) mutated at Thr326. Here we show the expression of the mutant ACTC T326D in H9C2 cardiomyoblasts and HEK293T cell lines. Expression in H9C2 cells was significantly increased ...


Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The freeze tolerant spring field cricket, Gryllus veletis, accumulates trehalose in the blood and tissues during cold acclimation. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, thus its blood concentration is tightly regulated, and trehalose is readily metabolized. How do crickets modify their metabolism to accumulate trehalose in their hemolymph and tissues? I hypothesized that trehalose production, transport, and consumption were modified during the cold acclimation to facilitate trehalose accumulation. Trehalose and the trehalose-specific transporter, TRET-1, are distributed among all tissues, and trehalose accumulates in the hemolymph, fat body, Malpighian tubules, and gut. Trehalose production increases during cold acclimation via ...


Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill 2022 San Jose State University

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


Targeting Stress Granule Inhibition As A Novel Vulnerability Of Mutant P53, Elizabeth Thoenen 2022 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Targeting Stress Granule Inhibition As A Novel Vulnerability Of Mutant P53, Elizabeth Thoenen

Research Days

Background: Tumor suppressor p53 (p53) inhibits cancer progression by transactivating genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. P53 is mutated in half of all human tumors, which is well correlated with poor patient outcomes. Most of p53 mutations are missense mutations. Missense mutant p53 protein (mutp53) not only loses wild-type p53 (wtp53) transcription factor activity, but also shows oncogenic gain of function that enhances metastasis and drug resistance through protein-protein interactions. However, the exact mechanism by which mutp53 induces drug resistance is poorly described. Moreover, strategies that directly target mutp53 have been challenging.

Objectives/Goal: Our goal is to ...


Preparation Of Proteins And Peptides From Heat-Stabilized Defatted Rice Bran Via Solid State Fermentation And Investigating For Skin Health, Ali A. Bisly 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Preparation Of Proteins And Peptides From Heat-Stabilized Defatted Rice Bran Via Solid State Fermentation And Investigating For Skin Health, Ali A. Bisly

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat-stabilized defatted rice bran (HDRB) is an abundant and inexpensive agro-industrial by-product of rice milling and rice oil extraction process. Furthermore, HDRB is a potential source of proteins. However, the direct protein extraction has low yield of protein due to the impact of heat stabilization and oil extraction process which made the HDRB proteins bound and interact with other components. This research is based on using solid-state fermentation (SSF), which is a natural and cost-effective approach to facilitate protein extraction from HDRB using Bacillus subtilis (natto) Takahashi as a microorganism.

Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was used with Box-Behnken design ...


Carbonyl Iron Vs Ferrous Sulfate On Blood Iron Markers In Male Division Iii Cross-Country Athletes, Sam Gunter 2022 University of Lynchburg

Carbonyl Iron Vs Ferrous Sulfate On Blood Iron Markers In Male Division Iii Cross-Country Athletes, Sam Gunter

Student Scholar Showcase

Competitive distance runners are often predisposed to developing iron deficiency. This study aimed to determine if carbonyl iron was more effective at maintaining blood iron markers and minimizing overall fatigue and GI stress than ferrous sulfate. In this randomized, independent groups study, 7 male, division III cross-country athletes were supplemented with either carbonyl iron or ferrous sulfate for 6 weeks. Blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, subjective GI distress, subjective fatigue, and relative exertion of recent training were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks. Results will be analyzed via a detailed analysis of variance to determine significant differences in outcome measures. Statistical ...


Investigation Of Oncogenic Ras And Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Calcium Flux And Their Relationship In The Context Of Tumorigenesis, Emma Anderson 2022 Liberty University

Investigation Of Oncogenic Ras And Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Calcium Flux And Their Relationship In The Context Of Tumorigenesis, Emma Anderson

Senior Honors Theses

Intracellular calcium as a signaling molecule is a pervasive feature of cellular pathways, especially those that manage internal homeostasis and transitions through the cell cycle, so much so that regulated, responsive calcium flux between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria has been suggested to play a major role in cancer development. Another factor commonly implicated in tumorigenesis is RAS, an oncogene that controls signaling for many pathways that are also regulated by calcium. While both calcium and oncogenic RAS signaling are implicated in cancer development, possible links between them have yet to be determined. The identification of these links ...


Collagen Iv-Β1integrin Regulation Of Exocytotic Machinery In Pancreatic Beta-Cell Insulin Secretion, Malina Barillaro 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Collagen Iv-Β1integrin Regulation Of Exocytotic Machinery In Pancreatic Beta-Cell Insulin Secretion, Malina Barillaro

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Diabetes is a prevalent metabolic disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion, action, or both. β1-integrin is a key receptor that regulates cell-ECM interactions and is important in maintaining beta-cell functions, including insulin secretion. However, little is reported about the relationship between β1-integrin and the exocytotic proteins involved in insulin secretion. This study examined the influence of ECM-mediated β1-integrin activation on exocytotic machinery involved in insulin secretion using rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells. Collagen IV (COL IV) promoted INS-1 cell adhesion, spreading, and insulin secretion. Additionally, these cells displayed changes in levels and localization of exocytotic proteins involved in insulin secretion. β1-integrin ...


A Ketogenic Diet Enhances Hippocampal Mitochondrial Efficiency, Cali E. Warren, Erin R. Saito, Benjamin T. Bikman 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Ketogenic Diet Enhances Hippocampal Mitochondrial Efficiency, Cali E. Warren, Erin R. Saito, Benjamin T. Bikman

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2022

Mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive impairment are common symptoms in many neurologic disorders, as well as in nonpathological aging. Ketones have been suggested as therapeutic for their relevance in epilepsy and other neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder.


Outcome Measures In Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Clinical Trials, Mehdi Ghasemi, Charles P. Emerson Jr., Lawrence J. Hayward 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Outcome Measures In Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Clinical Trials, Mehdi Ghasemi, Charles P. Emerson Jr., Lawrence J. Hayward

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a debilitating muscular dystrophy with a variable age of onset, severity, and progression. While there is still no cure for this disease, progress towards FSHD therapies has accelerated since the underlying mechanism of epigenetic derepression of the double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene leading to skeletal muscle toxicity was identified. This has facilitated the rapid development of novel therapies to target DUX4 expression and downstream dysregulation that cause muscle degeneration. These discoveries and pre-clinical translational studies have opened new avenues for therapies that await evaluation in clinical trials. As the field anticipates more FSHD trials, the ...


Cell-Type-Specific Circadian Bioluminescence Rhythms In Dbp Reporter Mice, Ciearra B. Smith, Vincent van der Vinne, Eleanor McCartney, Adam C. Stowie, Tanya L. Leise, Blanca Martin-Burgos, Penny C. Molyneux, Lauren A. Garbutt, Michael H. Brodsky, Alec J. Davidson, Mary E. Harrington, Robert Dallmann, David R. Weaver 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Cell-Type-Specific Circadian Bioluminescence Rhythms In Dbp Reporter Mice, Ciearra B. Smith, Vincent Van Der Vinne, Eleanor Mccartney, Adam C. Stowie, Tanya L. Leise, Blanca Martin-Burgos, Penny C. Molyneux, Lauren A. Garbutt, Michael H. Brodsky, Alec J. Davidson, Mary E. Harrington, Robert Dallmann, David R. Weaver

Neurobiology Publications

Circadian rhythms are endogenously generated physiological and molecular rhythms with a cycle length of about 24 h. Bioluminescent reporters have been exceptionally useful for studying circadian rhythms in numerous species. Here, we report development of a reporter mouse generated by modification of a widely expressed and highly rhythmic gene encoding D-site albumin promoter binding protein (Dbp). In this line of mice, firefly luciferase is expressed from the Dbp locus in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner, allowing assessment of bioluminescence rhythms in specific cellular populations. A mouse line in which luciferase expression was Cre-independent was also generated. The Dbp reporter alleles ...


Gut Microbial Trimethylamine Is Elevated In Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis And Contributes To Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury In Mice, Robert N. Helsley, Bruce A. Barton, Jonathan Mark Brown 2022 University of Kentucky

Gut Microbial Trimethylamine Is Elevated In Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis And Contributes To Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury In Mice, Robert N. Helsley, Bruce A. Barton, Jonathan Mark Brown

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

There is mounting evidence that microbes residing in the human intestine contribute to diverse alcohol-associated liver diseases (ALD) including the most deadly form known as alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). However, mechanisms by which gut microbes synergize with excessive alcohol intake to promote liver injury are poorly understood. Furthermore, whether drugs that selectively target gut microbial metabolism can improve ALD has never been tested. We used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantify the levels of microbe and host choline co-metabolites in healthy controls and AH patients, finding elevated levels of the microbial metabolite trimethylamine (TMA) in AH. In subsequent studies, we ...


The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole 2022 Wright State University

The Coxsackievirus And Adenovirus Receptor Has A Short Half-Life In Epithelial Cells, Poornima Kotha Lakshmi Narayan, James M. Readler, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Trisha L. Brockman, Ray Yan, Priyanka Sharma, Vladislav Snitsarev, Katherine J.D.A Excoffon, Abimbola O. Kolawole

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell signaling, and viral infection. The 8-exon encoded isoform (CAREx8) resides at the apical surface of polarized epithelia, where it is accessible as a receptor for adenovirus entering the airway lumen. Given its pivotal role in viral infection, it is a target for antiviral strategies. To understand the regulation of CAREx8 and determine the feasibility of receptor down regulation, the half-life of total and apical localized CAREx8 was determined and correlated with adenovirus transduction. Total and apical CAREx8 has a relatively short half-life ...


Imyoblasts For Ex Vivo And In Vivo Investigations Of Human Myogenesis And Disease Modeling, Dongsheng Guo, Katelyn Daman, Jennifer Jc Chen, Meng-Jiao Shi, Jing Yan, Zdenka Matijasevic, Rene Maehr, Oliver D. King, Lawrence J. Hayward, Charles P. Emerson Jr. 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Imyoblasts For Ex Vivo And In Vivo Investigations Of Human Myogenesis And Disease Modeling, Dongsheng Guo, Katelyn Daman, Jennifer Jc Chen, Meng-Jiao Shi, Jing Yan, Zdenka Matijasevic, Rene Maehr, Oliver D. King, Lawrence J. Hayward, Charles P. Emerson Jr.

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle myoblasts (iMyoblasts) were generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using an efficient and reliable transgene-free induction and stem cell selection protocol. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, qPCR, digital RNA expression profiling, and scRNA-Seq studies identify iMyoblasts as a PAX3+/MYOD1+ skeletal myogenic lineage with a fetal-like transcriptome signature, distinct from adult muscle biopsy myoblasts (bMyoblasts) and iPSC-induced muscle progenitors. iMyoblasts can be stably propagated for > 12 passages or 30 population doublings while retaining their dual commitment for myotube differentiation and regeneration of reserve cells. iMyoblasts also efficiently xenoengrafted into irradiated and injured mouse muscle where they undergo differentiation ...


Meeting Report: The 2021 Fshd International Research Congress, Sujatha Jagannathan, Jessica C. de Greef, Lawrence J. Hayward, Kyoko Yokomori, Davide Gabellini, Karlien Mul, Sabrina Sacconi, Jamshid Arjomand, June Kinoshita, Scott Q. Harper 2022 University of Colorado

Meeting Report: The 2021 Fshd International Research Congress, Sujatha Jagannathan, Jessica C. De Greef, Lawrence J. Hayward, Kyoko Yokomori, Davide Gabellini, Karlien Mul, Sabrina Sacconi, Jamshid Arjomand, June Kinoshita, Scott Q. Harper

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the second most common genetic myopathy, characterized by slowly progressing and highly heterogeneous muscle wasting with a typical onset in the late teens/early adulthood [1]. Although the etiology of the disease for both FSHD type 1 and type 2 has been attributed to gain-of-toxic function stemming from aberrant DUX4 expression, the exact pathogenic mechanisms involved in muscle wasting have yet to be elucidated [2-4]. The 2021 FSHD International Research Congress, held virtually on June 24-25, convened over 350 researchers and clinicians to share the most recent advances in the understanding of the disease mechanism ...


The Scaffold-Dependent Function Of Ripk1 In Dendritic Cells Promotes Injury-Induced Colitis, Kenta Moriwaki, Christa Park, Kazuha Koyama, Sakthi Balaji, Kohei Kita, Ryoko Yagi, Sachiko Komazawa-Sakon, Manami Semba, Tatsuya Asuka, Hiroyasu Nakano, Yoshihiro Kamada, Eiji Miyoshi, Francis K. M. Chan 2022 Toho University

The Scaffold-Dependent Function Of Ripk1 In Dendritic Cells Promotes Injury-Induced Colitis, Kenta Moriwaki, Christa Park, Kazuha Koyama, Sakthi Balaji, Kohei Kita, Ryoko Yagi, Sachiko Komazawa-Sakon, Manami Semba, Tatsuya Asuka, Hiroyasu Nakano, Yoshihiro Kamada, Eiji Miyoshi, Francis K. M. Chan

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a cytosolic multidomain protein that controls cell life and death. While RIPK1 promotes cell death through its kinase activity, it also functions as a scaffold protein to promote cell survival by inhibiting FADD-caspase 8-dependent apoptosis and RIPK3-MLKL-dependent necroptosis. This pro-survival function is highlighted by excess cell death and perinatal lethality in Ripk1(-/-) mice. Recently, loss of function mutation of RIPK1 was found in patients with immunodeficiency and inflammatory bowel diseases. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation restored not only immunodeficiency but also intestinal inflammatory pathology, indicating that RIPK1 in hematopoietic cells is critical to maintain ...


Supplemental Peer Instruction In Physiologic Core Concept Education, Austin Choat 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Supplemental Peer Instruction In Physiologic Core Concept Education, Austin Choat

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The objective of my thesis project was to create and research the importance of supplemental learning videos within core physiological concepts identified by the Advancement of Physiological Principles for the purpose of assisting Dr. Kim Hansen in better educating students with less extensive foundational knowledge of chemical and biological sciences. Through researching the benefits of peer instruction, identifying core physiological concepts crucial to wholistic physiology education, and describing a student population hypothesized to benefit substantially from the work, I created educational videos to aid Dr. Hansen in her work as an educator and in the educational research she is striving ...


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