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Neuronal Degeneration And Short-Term Memory Impairment After Tbi, Obiamaraije Igwe 2017 University of Louisville

Neuronal Degeneration And Short-Term Memory Impairment After Tbi, Obiamaraije Igwe

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with impaired short-term memory with causes of vehicle accidents and falls. Protein plaques containing fibrinogen (Fg), are associated with memory loss. After TBI, Fg in blood was higher than normal (>~2 mg/ml), which resulted in increased Fg in extravascular space. Therefore, Fg bonded to its endothelial receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Fg then interacted with cellular prion protein (PrPC), which had a strong effect on the loss of memory and cognition. Mechanisms of Fg and PrPC complex formation and its functional implication are not known. This present study tested the level of Fg-PrPC ...


Heads And Tails, Julie Simons 2017 The California Maritime Academy

Heads And Tails, Julie Simons

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Role Of Nitric Oxide In Embryonic Heart Development And Adult Aortic Valve Disease, Yin Liu 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Role Of Nitric Oxide In Embryonic Heart Development And Adult Aortic Valve Disease, Yin Liu

Yin Liu

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect in infants. Identifying factors that are critical to embryonic heart development or CHDs in general could further our understanding of the disease and may lead to new strategies of its prevention and treatment. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3/eNOS) is known for many important biological functions including vasodilation, vascular homeostasis and angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that deficiency in NOS3 results in congenital septal defects, cardiac hypertrophy and postnatal heart failure. In addition, NOS3 is pivotal to morphogenesis of aortic valve and myocardial capillary development. The aim of my thesis ...


Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Recent observations have shown that patients treated with MTX also exhibit a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although MTX reduces systemic inflammation and tissue damage, the mechanisms by which MTX exerts these beneficial effects are not entirely known. We have previously demonstrated that protein adducts formed by the interaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetaldehyde (AA), known as MAA-protein adducts, are present in diseased tissues of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or CVD. In previously reported studies, MAA-adducts were shown to be highly immunogenic ...


The N-Terminus Of Ift46 Mediates Intraflagellar Transport Of Outer Arm Dynein And Its Cargo-Adaptor Oda16, Yuqing Hou, George B. Witman 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The N-Terminus Of Ift46 Mediates Intraflagellar Transport Of Outer Arm Dynein And Its Cargo-Adaptor Oda16, Yuqing Hou, George B. Witman

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Cilia are assembled via intraflagellar transport (IFT). The IFT machinery is composed of motors and multi-subunit particles, termed IFT-A and IFT-B, that carry cargo into the cilium. Knowledge of how the IFT subunits interact with their cargo is of critical importance for understanding how the unique ciliary domain is established. We previously reported a Chlamydomonas mutant, ift46-1, that fails to express the IFT-B protein IFT46, has greatly reduced levels of other IFT-B proteins, and assembles only very short flagella. A spontaneous suppression of ift46-1 restored IFT-B levels and enabled growth of longer flagella, but the flagella lacked outer dynein arms ...


The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

All of the tissues in triploblastic organisms, with the exception of the germ cells, arise from the three germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and the endoderm. The identification of the genes that underlie the differentiation of these layers is crucial to our understanding of development. T-box family proteins are DNA-binding transcriptional regulators that play important roles during germ layer formation in the early vertebrate embryo. Well-characterized members of this family, including the transcriptional activators Brachyury and VegT, are essential for the proper formation of mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. To date, T-box proteins have not been shown to play a role in ...


Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive In The Setting Of Low And High Output Heart Failure., Rodrigo Del Rio, David C. Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S. Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz 2017 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive In The Setting Of Low And High Output Heart Failure., Rodrigo Del Rio, David C. Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S. Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex function is strongly related to cardiorespiratory disorders and disease progression in heart failure (HF). The mechanisms underlying CB sensitization during HF are not fully understood, however previous work indicates blood flow per se can affect CB function. Then, we hypothesized that the CB-mediated chemoreflex drive will be enhanced only in low output HF but not in high output HF. Myocardial infarcted rats and aorto-caval fistulated rats were used as a low output HF model (MI-CHF) and as a high output HF model (AV-CHF), respectively. Blood flow supply to the CB region was decreased only in ...


Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Environmental conditions imposed onto organisms during certain phases of their life cycles such as embryogenesis or puberty can not only impact the organisms’ own health, but also affect subsequent generations. The underlying mechanisms causing intergenerational phenotypes are not encoded in the genome, but the result of reversible epigenetic modifications. This work investigates in a mouse model the impact of paternal nicotine exposure on the next generation regarding addictive behavior modulation, metabolic changes, and molecular mechanisms. It provides evidence that male offspring from nicotine-exposed fathers (NIC offspring) is more resistant to lethal doses of nicotine. This phenotype is gender-specific and depends ...


Cross-Sectional Relations Of Whole-Blood Mirna Expression Levels And Hand Grip Strength In A Community Sample, Joanne M. Murabito, Jian Rong, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Tianxiao Huan, Honghuang Lin, Qiang Zhao, Jane E. Freedman, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Daniel Levy, Martin G. Larson 2017 Boston University

Cross-Sectional Relations Of Whole-Blood Mirna Expression Levels And Hand Grip Strength In A Community Sample, Joanne M. Murabito, Jian Rong, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Tianxiao Huan, Honghuang Lin, Qiang Zhao, Jane E. Freedman, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Daniel Levy, Martin G. Larson

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression with emerging data suggesting miRNAs play a role in skeletal muscle biology. We sought to examine the association of miRNAs with grip strength in a community-based sample. Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Generation 3 participants (n = 5668 54% women, mean age 55 years, range 24, 90 years) underwent grip strength measurement and miRNA profiling using whole blood from fasting morning samples. Linear mixed-effects regression modeling of grip strength (kg) versus continuous miRNA 'Cq' values and versus binary miRNA expression was performed. We conducted an integrative miRNA-mRNA coexpression analysis and examined the enrichment of biologic pathways ...


Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A'S Role In Heart Failure., George H. Kunkel 2017 University of Louisville

Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A'S Role In Heart Failure., George H. Kunkel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: An essential mitochondrial component, Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A (TFAM) is reduced within the failing heart. TFAM maintains regulatory functions of cardiomyocyte physiology and stability. Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A forms a mitochondrial nucleoid anti-oxidant structure and reduces pathophysiological abnormalities to structural and contractile proteins. Overall, this functions to physically stabilize mtDNA. Significant molecular changes such as a loss of TFAM drive pathophysiological concentrations of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species. Both of these factors induce proteolytic enzymes to degrade the physiological cardiomyocyte. In TFAMs absence, heart function deteriorates and hypertrophic expansion ensues: thereby changing the physiological myocardium to a pathological ...


Killers Creating New Life: Caspases Drive Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation In Tissue Repair And Disease, Caitlin E. Fogarty, Andreas Bergmann 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Killers Creating New Life: Caspases Drive Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation In Tissue Repair And Disease, Caitlin E. Fogarty, Andreas Bergmann

Open Access Articles

Apoptosis is a carefully orchestrated and tightly controlled form of cell death, conserved across metazoans. As the executioners of apoptotic cell death, cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases (caspases) are critical drivers of this cellular disassembly. Early studies of genetically programmed cell death demonstrated that the selective activation of caspases induces apoptosis and the precise elimination of excess cells, thereby sculpting structures and refining tissues. However, over the past decade there has been a fundamental shift in our understanding of the roles of caspases during cell death-a shift precipitated by the revelation that apoptotic cells actively engage with their surrounding environment throughout the ...


Nrg4 Promotes Fuel Oxidation And A Healthy Adipokine Profile To Ameliorate Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders, Zhimin Chen, Guo-Xiao Wang, Sara L. Ma, Dae Young Jung, Hyekyung Ha, Tariq Altamimi, Xu-Yun Zhao, Liang Guo, Peng Zhang, Chun-Rui Hu, Ji-Xin Cheng, Gary D. Lopaschuk, Jason K. Kim, Jiandie D. Lin 2017 University of Michigan Medical Center

Nrg4 Promotes Fuel Oxidation And A Healthy Adipokine Profile To Ameliorate Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders, Zhimin Chen, Guo-Xiao Wang, Sara L. Ma, Dae Young Jung, Hyekyung Ha, Tariq Altamimi, Xu-Yun Zhao, Liang Guo, Peng Zhang, Chun-Rui Hu, Ji-Xin Cheng, Gary D. Lopaschuk, Jason K. Kim, Jiandie D. Lin

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

OBJECTIVE: Brown and white adipose tissue exerts pleiotropic effects on systemic energy metabolism in part by releasing endocrine factors. Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) was recently identified as a brown fat-enriched secreted factor that ameliorates diet-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. However, the physiological mechanisms through which Nrg4 regulates energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism remain incompletely understood. The aims of the current study were: i) to investigate the regulation of adipose Nrg4 expression during obesity and the physiological signals involved, ii) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying Nrg4 regulation of energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism, and ...


Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

The PiZ mutation in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene causes the PiZ mutant protein to be sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, causing significant liver pathology in ~10% of PiZZ homozygous AAT disease patients. Current transgenic mouse models of the disease include the liver-specific over-expression of mutant PiZ protein. However, these animal models do not efficiently recapitulate the liver damage found in PiZZ homozygous patients. Since only a small percentage of patients develop liver disease and it is not reproducible in animal models of AATD, it suggests that there are other factors that participate in disease pathogenesis. Here, we ...


Prospective Relation Of Circulating Adipokines To Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The Framingham Heart Study, Justin P. Zachariah, Rene Quiroz, Kerrie P. Nelson, Zhaoyang Teng, John F. Keaney Jr., Lisa M. Sullivan, Ramachandran S. Vasan 2017 Baylor College of Medicine

Prospective Relation Of Circulating Adipokines To Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The Framingham Heart Study, Justin P. Zachariah, Rene Quiroz, Kerrie P. Nelson, Zhaoyang Teng, John F. Keaney Jr., Lisa M. Sullivan, Ramachandran S. Vasan

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

BACKGROUND: Adipokines are elaborated by adipose tissue and are associated with glycemic, lipid, and vascular traits. We hypothesized that in a cross-sectional analysis circulating adipokines are altered among subsets of obesity stratified by presence versus absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prospectively predict the incidence of MetS.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants in the community-based Framingham Third Generation Cohort who attended examination cycle 1 were included in the study (2002-2005; N=3777, mean age, 40 years; 59% women). Circulating adiponectin, leptin, leptin receptor, fetuin-A, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and retinol binding protein 4 were assayed and related to incident MetS in ...


Association Of Parental Obesity And Diabetes Mellitus With Circulating Adipokines In Nonobese Nondiabetic Offspring, Justin P. Zachariah, Rene Quiroz, Danielle Enserro, Charlotte Andersson, John F. Keaney Jr., Lisa M. Sullivan, Ramachandran S. Vasan 2017 Texas Children's Hospital Baylor College of Medicine

Association Of Parental Obesity And Diabetes Mellitus With Circulating Adipokines In Nonobese Nondiabetic Offspring, Justin P. Zachariah, Rene Quiroz, Danielle Enserro, Charlotte Andersson, John F. Keaney Jr., Lisa M. Sullivan, Ramachandran S. Vasan

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

BACKGROUND: Adipokines are implicated in the development of obesity-related traits. We hypothesized that nonobese participants without diabetes mellitus (DM) whose parents were obese or had DM would have altered circulating adipokines compared with those without parental history of these conditions.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants in the community-based Framingham Third Generation cohort who were not obese (body mass index < 30) and not diabetic with both parents in the Framingham Offspring cohort were included in this analysis (n=2034, mean age 40 years, 54% women). Circulating concentrations of fetuin A, RBP4 (retinol binding protein 4), FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4), leptin, LEP-R (leptin receptor), and adiponectin were assayed. Parental DM was defined as occurring before age 60 years, and obesity was defined as body mass index > /=30 before age 60 years. General estimating equations were used to compare concentrations of adipokines among participants with 0, 1, or 2 parents affected by obesity or DM (separate analyses for each), adjusting for known correlates of adipokines. Overall, 44% had at ...


Joint Analysis Of Left Ventricular Expression And Circulating Plasma Levels Of Omentin After Myocardial Ischemia, Louis A. Saddic, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Olga T. Gupta, Michael P. Czech, Joshua Gorham, Stanton K. Shernan, Christine E. Seidman, Jon G. Seidman, Sary F. Aranki, Simon C. Body, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Jochen D. Muehlschlegel 2017 University of California Los Angeles

Joint Analysis Of Left Ventricular Expression And Circulating Plasma Levels Of Omentin After Myocardial Ischemia, Louis A. Saddic, Sarah M. Nicoloro, Olga T. Gupta, Michael P. Czech, Joshua Gorham, Stanton K. Shernan, Christine E. Seidman, Jon G. Seidman, Sary F. Aranki, Simon C. Body, Timothy P. Fitzgibbons, Jochen D. Muehlschlegel

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

BACKGROUND: Omentin-1, also known as Intelectin-1 (ITLN1), is an adipokine with plasma levels associated with diabetes, obesity, and coronary artery disease. Recent studies suggest that ITLN1 can mitigate myocardial ischemic injury but the expression of ITLN1 in the heart itself has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study is to discern the relationship between the expression pattern of ITLN1 RNA in the human heart and the level of circulating ITLN1 protein in plasma from the same patients following myocardial ischemia.

METHODS: A large cohort of patients (n = 140) undergoing elective cardiac surgery for aortic valve replacement were enrolled ...


Hypothalamic Ampk-Er Stress-Jnk1 Axis Mediates The Central Actions Of Thyroid Hormones On Energy Balance, Noelia Martinez-Sanchez, Roger J. Davis, Miguel Lopez 2017 University of Santiago de Compostela

Hypothalamic Ampk-Er Stress-Jnk1 Axis Mediates The Central Actions Of Thyroid Hormones On Energy Balance, Noelia Martinez-Sanchez, Roger J. Davis, Miguel Lopez

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Thyroid hormones (THs) act in the brain to modulate energy balance. We show that central triiodothyronine (T3) regulates de novo lipogenesis in liver and lipid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the parasympathetic (PSNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), respectively. Central T3 promotes hepatic lipogenesis with parallel stimulation of the thermogenic program in BAT. The action of T3 depends on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced regulation of two signaling pathways in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH): decreased ceramide-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which promotes BAT thermogenesis, and increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which controls hepatic lipid ...


Girk2 And Gababr1 Downregulate In Response To Ttx As Girk2, Gababr1, And Gababr2 Are Not Affected By Bc Treatment, Staci E. Hammer, Amanda Weiss, Hee Jung Chung 2017 Highland Community College

Girk2 And Gababr1 Downregulate In Response To Ttx As Girk2, Gababr1, And Gababr2 Are Not Affected By Bc Treatment, Staci E. Hammer, Amanda Weiss, Hee Jung Chung

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

Homeostatic plasticity is the response neurons undergo to regulate changes in excitability levels and bring the cells back to homeostasis. Research on homeostatic plasticity at the molecular level can lead to improved treatments for neurological diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's, and schizophrenia. The research featured in this poster looks at the response of GIRK (G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium) channels and GABAb (gamma-amniobutyric acid) receptors to neurotoxins, tetrodotoxin (TTX) or bicuculline (BC).

Prolonged activity blockade of 48 hour TTX treatment significantly reduced GABABR1 and GIRK2 expression. This supports the idea that because these two proteins inhibit action potentials, there ...


H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a cardioprotective gas, is endogenously produced from homocysteine by cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) enzymes. However, effect of H2S or homocysteine on CBS and CSE expression, and cross-talk between CBS and CSE are unclear. We hypothesize that homocysteine and H2S regulate CBS and CSE expressions in a dose dependent manner in cardiomyocytes, and CBS deficiency induces cardiac CSE expression. To test the hypothesis, we treated murine atrial HL1 cardiomyocytes with increasing doses of homocysteine or Na2S/GYY4137, a H2S donor, and measured the levels of CBS and CSE. We found that homocysteine upregulates ...


The Effects Of Fluoride Ions On Neuromuscular Activity And Regeneration In Dugesia Tigrina, John Williams Jr. 2017 Albany State University

The Effects Of Fluoride Ions On Neuromuscular Activity And Regeneration In Dugesia Tigrina, John Williams Jr.

Georgia Journal of Science

Fluoride ions have been implicated in numerous nervous system pathologies, though the association of these ions with these conditions has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects that fluoride ions have on the nervous system development and function in planarians as a simple model for fluoride-nervous system interactions. In the first set of experiments, planarians were exposed to one of four concentrations of sodium fluoride: 0 mM, 1 mM, 1 mM, and 5 mM. In the second set of experiments, planarians were bisected and exposed to 1 mM of NaCl and NaF for regeneration purposes ...


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