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Activation Of The Apoptotic Pathway During Prolonged Prometaphase Blocks Daughter Cell Proliferation, Yumi Uetake, Greenfield Sluder 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Activation Of The Apoptotic Pathway During Prolonged Prometaphase Blocks Daughter Cell Proliferation, Yumi Uetake, Greenfield Sluder

Radiology Publications and Presentations

When untransformed human cells spend >1.5 hr. in prometaphase under standard culture conditions, all daughters arrest in G1 despite normal division of their mothers. We investigate what happens during prolonged prometaphase that leads to daughter cell arrest in the absence of DNA damage. We find that progressive loss of anti-apoptotic MCL-1 activity and oxidative stress act in concert to partially activate the apoptosis pathway resulting in the delayed death of some daughters and senescence for the rest. At physiological oxygen levels, longer prometaphase durations are needed for all daughters to arrest. Partial activation of apoptosis during prolonged prometaphase leads ...


Modified Cantilever Arrays Improve Sensitivity And Reproducibility Of Nanomechanical Sensing In Living Cells, Samadhan B. Patil, Rajai M. Al-Jehani, Hashem Etayash, Valerian Turbe, Keren Jiang, Joe Bailey, Walid Al-Akkad, Rania Soudy, Kamaljit Kaur, Rachel A. McKendry, Thomas Thundat, Joseph W. Ndieyira 2018 University College London

Modified Cantilever Arrays Improve Sensitivity And Reproducibility Of Nanomechanical Sensing In Living Cells, Samadhan B. Patil, Rajai M. Al-Jehani, Hashem Etayash, Valerian Turbe, Keren Jiang, Joe Bailey, Walid Al-Akkad, Rania Soudy, Kamaljit Kaur, Rachel A. Mckendry, Thomas Thundat, Joseph W. Ndieyira

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Mechanical signaling involved in molecular interactions lies at the heart of materials science and biological systems, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we use nanomechanical sensors and intact human cells to provide unique insights into the signaling pathways of connectivity networks, which deliver the ability to probe cells to produce biologically relevant, quantifiable and reproducible signals. We quantify the mechanical signals from malignant cancer cells, with 10 cells per ml in 1000-fold excess of non-neoplastic human epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that a direct link between cells and molecules creates a continuous connectivity which acts like a percolating ...


Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined by low birth weight and contributes to a variety of adult-onset diseases with different severities between males and females. However, the effects of FGR on the pulmonary surfactant are not fully elucidated. In this thesis, first, we investigated the FGR effects on the lung function and the surfactant system at the early postnatal life. It was hypothesized that FGR contributes to alterations of lung mechanics and the surfactant system during the neonatal period. Second, we assessed the FGR effects on the surfactant system in response to sepsis in adulthood. It was hypothesized that FGR ...


Calcium Signaling In The Sperm Head, Julie Simons, Lisa Fauci 2018 The California Maritime Academy

Calcium Signaling In The Sperm Head, Julie Simons, Lisa Fauci

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Mechanisms Underlying Freeze Tolerance In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Jantina Toxopeus 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Underlying Freeze Tolerance In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Jantina Toxopeus

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Freeze tolerance has evolved repeatedly across insects, facilitating survival in low temperature environments. Internal ice formation poses several challenges, but the mechanisms that mitigate these challenges in freeze-tolerant insects are not well understood. To better understand how insects survive freezing, I describe a novel laboratory model, the spring field cricket Gryllus veletis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Following acclimation to six weeks of decreasing temperature and photoperiod (mimicking autumn), G. veletis juveniles becomes moderately freeze-tolerant, surviving freezing at -8 °C for up to one week, and surviving temperatures as low as -12 °C. Acclimation is associated with increased control of the temperature and ...


Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Exports Endocannabinoids To Prevent Inflammation And Maintain Homeostasis, Rose L. Szabady, Christopher Louissaint, Anneke Lubben, Bailu Xie, Shaun Reeksting, Christine Tuohy, Zachary Demma, Sage Foley, Christina S. Faherty, Alejandro Llanos-Chea, Andrew J. Olive, Randall J. Mrsny, Beth A. McCormick 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Exports Endocannabinoids To Prevent Inflammation And Maintain Homeostasis, Rose L. Szabady, Christopher Louissaint, Anneke Lubben, Bailu Xie, Shaun Reeksting, Christine Tuohy, Zachary Demma, Sage Foley, Christina S. Faherty, Alejandro Llanos-Chea, Andrew J. Olive, Randall J. Mrsny, Beth A. Mccormick

Open Access Articles

Neutrophil influx into the intestinal lumen is a critical response to infectious agents, but is also associated with severe intestinal damage observed in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. The chemoattractant hepoxilin A3, an eicosanoid secreted from intestinal epithelial cells by the apically restricted efflux pump multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), mediates this neutrophil influx. Information about a possible counterbalance pathway that could signal the lack of or resolution of an apical inflammatory signal, however, has yet to be described. We now report a system with such hallmarks. Specifically, we identify endocannabinoids as the first known endogenous substrates of the apically restricted ...


Identification Of A Novel Anoikis Signalling Pathway Using The Fungal Virulence Factor Gliotoxin, Florian Haun, Simon Neumann, Lukas Peintner, Katrin Wieland, Juri Habicht, Carsten Schwan, Kristine Ostevold, Maria Magdalena Koczorowska, Martin Biniossek, Matthias Kist, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Roger J. Davis, Ulrich Maurer, Oliver Schilling, Klaus Aktories, Christoph Borner 2018 Albert Ludwigs University

Identification Of A Novel Anoikis Signalling Pathway Using The Fungal Virulence Factor Gliotoxin, Florian Haun, Simon Neumann, Lukas Peintner, Katrin Wieland, Juri Habicht, Carsten Schwan, Kristine Ostevold, Maria Magdalena Koczorowska, Martin Biniossek, Matthias Kist, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Roger J. Davis, Ulrich Maurer, Oliver Schilling, Klaus Aktories, Christoph Borner

Open Access Articles

Anoikis is a form of apoptosis induced by cell detachment. Integrin inactivation plays a major role in the process but the exact signalling pathway is ill-defined. Here we identify an anoikis pathway using gliotoxin (GT), a virulence factor of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, which causes invasive aspergillosis in humans. GT prevents integrin binding to RGD-containing extracellular matrix components by covalently modifying cysteines in the binding pocket. As a consequence, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is inhibited resulting in dephosphorylation of p190RhoGAP, allowing activation of RhoA. Sequential activation of ROCK, MKK4/MKK7 and JNK then triggers pro-apoptotic phosphorylation of Bim. Cells in ...


A Population Of Gut Epithelial Enterochromaffin Cells Is Mechanosensitive And Requires Piezo2 To Convert Force Into Serotonin Release, Constanza Alcaino, Kaitlyn R. Knutson, Anthony J. Treichel, Gulcan Yildiz, Peter R. Strege, David R. Linden, Joyce H. Li, Andrew B. Leiter, Joseph H. Szurszewski, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder 2018 Mayo Clinic

A Population Of Gut Epithelial Enterochromaffin Cells Is Mechanosensitive And Requires Piezo2 To Convert Force Into Serotonin Release, Constanza Alcaino, Kaitlyn R. Knutson, Anthony J. Treichel, Gulcan Yildiz, Peter R. Strege, David R. Linden, Joyce H. Li, Andrew B. Leiter, Joseph H. Szurszewski, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder

Open Access Articles

Enterochromaffin (EC) cells constitute the largest population of intestinal epithelial enteroendocrine (EE) cells. EC cells are proposed to be specialized mechanosensory cells that release serotonin in response to epithelial forces, and thereby regulate intestinal fluid secretion. However, it is unknown whether EE and EC cells are directly mechanosensitive, and if so, what the molecular mechanism of their mechanosensitivity is. Consequently, the role of EE and EC cells in gastrointestinal mechanobiology is unclear. Piezo2 mechanosensitive ion channels are important for some specialized epithelial mechanosensors, and they are expressed in mouse and human EC cells. Here, we use EC and EE cell ...


Are Membranes Non-Apoptotic Compartments For Apoptotic Caspases, Andreas Bergmann 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Are Membranes Non-Apoptotic Compartments For Apoptotic Caspases, Andreas Bergmann

Open Access Articles

Critical mediators of apoptotic cell death are caspases, a highly specialized class of Cys-proteases that cleave substrates after Asp residues. Under normal conditions, caspases are cytosolic proteins. After their activation, they cleave a large number of cytosolic proteins and execute apoptosis (Figure 1, left). However, in addition to their well-studied role in apoptosis, caspases also have many non-apoptotic functions [1, 2]. It is not very well understood how cells escape the potential harmful action of caspases when they perform nonapoptotic functions. In our recent work, we now show that epithelial cells may prevent apoptosis by sequestration of caspases at the ...


Jnk Regulates Muscle Remodeling Via Myostatin/Smad Inhibition, Sarah J. Lessard, Tara L. MacDonald, Prerana Pathak, Myoung Souk Han, Vernon G. Coffey, Johann Edge, Donato A. Rivas, Michael F. Hirshman, Roger J. Davis, Laurie J. Goodyear 2018 Harvard Medical School

Jnk Regulates Muscle Remodeling Via Myostatin/Smad Inhibition, Sarah J. Lessard, Tara L. Macdonald, Prerana Pathak, Myoung Souk Han, Vernon G. Coffey, Johann Edge, Donato A. Rivas, Michael F. Hirshman, Roger J. Davis, Laurie J. Goodyear

Open Access Articles

Skeletal muscle has a remarkable plasticity to adapt and remodel in response to environmental cues, such as physical exercise. Endurance exercise stimulates improvements in muscle oxidative capacity, while resistance exercise induces muscle growth. Here we show that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a molecular switch that when active, stimulates muscle fibers to grow, resulting in increased muscle mass. Conversely, when muscle JNK activation is suppressed, an alternative remodeling program is initiated, resulting in smaller, more oxidative muscle fibers, and enhanced aerobic fitness. When muscle is exposed to mechanical stress, JNK initiates muscle growth via phosphorylation of the transcription factor ...


Effect Of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)-Enriched Diet On Hepatic Heat Shock Protein And Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes In Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens, Joshua Flees 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)-Enriched Diet On Hepatic Heat Shock Protein And Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes In Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens, Joshua Flees

Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) has been reported to alter fat deposition in broilers, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined; therefore, the objectives of the current study were to: (1) determine the effects of acute (2 h) and chronic (3 wk) HS on the expression of key molecular signatures involved in hepatic lipogenic and lipolytic programs; and (2) assess if diet supplementation with dried Noni medicinal plant (0.2% of the diet) modulates these effects. Broilers (n=480 males, 1 d) were randomly assigned to 12 environmental chambers, subjected to two environmental conditions (HS at 35°C vs. thermoneutral condition ...


Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus: Epidemiological Patterns And Construction Of A Clone, Cory Von Keith 2018 Missouri State University - Springfield

Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus: Epidemiological Patterns And Construction Of A Clone, Cory Von Keith

MSU Graduate Theses

Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV) is a recently discovered virus belonging to the Badnavirus genus. Characteristic to its name, the virus is associated with a disease where symptoms manifest as pronounced vein-clearing, resulting in severe berry deformation and vine decline in susceptible grape varieties. Sustainable production of wine is dependent on healthy plants. The associated disease is mainly found in Midwest vineyards. Attempts were made in this thesis to provide evidence of causality of the virus to the associated disease and to infer the historical path and migration pattern of GVCV. Conclusions and discussions will provide grape producers with the ...


A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Persistence Detector For Metabolic Network Rewiring In An Animal, Jote T. Bulcha, Gabrielle E. Giese, Zulfikar Ali, Yong-Uk Lee, Melissa D. Walker, Amy D. Holdorf, L. Safak Yilmaz, Robert C. Brewster, Albertha J. M. Walhout

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Persistence detection is a mechanism that ensures a physiological output is only executed when the relevant input is sustained. Gene regulatory network circuits known as coherent type 1 feed forward loops (FFLs) with an AND-logic gate have been proposed to generate persistence detection. In such circuits two transcription factors (TFs) are both required to activate target genes and one of the two TFs activates the other. While numerous FFLs have been identified, examples of actual persistence detectors have only been described for bacteria. Here, we discover a transcriptional persistence detector in Caenorhabditis elegans involving the nuclear hormone receptors nhr-10 and ...


Activities And Classroom Demonstrations In Biological Physics: A Resource Document, Philip C. Nelson, William Berner 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Activities And Classroom Demonstrations In Biological Physics: A Resource Document, Philip C. Nelson, William Berner

Department of Physics Papers

We give detailed recipes for a number of classroom demonstrations relevant to biological physics instruction. We developed them mainly for use in 2nd-3rd year undergraduate Physics courses. But you can (and we do) use them for primary school, through high school, up to PhD candidates. You adapt the words for each audience, but a phenomenon is a phenomenon.

We also outline a 1-hour introduction to Python for undergraduate scientific computing.

Finally we document some outcomes from courses taught at U Pennsylvania using these resources and others cited here. This material was presented at a workshop at the AAPT meeting in ...


Llc Tumor Cells-Derivated Factors Reduces Adipogenesis In Co-Culture System, Magno Alves Lopes, Felipe Oliveira Franco, Felipe Henriques, Sidney Barnabe Peres, Miguel Luiz Batista Jr. 2018 University of Mogi das Cruzes

Llc Tumor Cells-Derivated Factors Reduces Adipogenesis In Co-Culture System, Magno Alves Lopes, Felipe Oliveira Franco, Felipe Henriques, Sidney Barnabe Peres, Miguel Luiz Batista Jr.

Open Access Articles

Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome with an unknown etiology. The primary symptom is the progressive reduction of the body weight. Recently, down-regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic genes were demonstrated to be early affected during cachexia progression in adipose tissue (AT), resulting in AT remodeling. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate in a co-culture system the influence of the Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumor cells (c/c-LLC) in an established pre-adipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 adipogenic capacity. c/c-LLC in the presence of 3T3-L1 caused a reduction in lipids accumulation, suggesting that secretory tumor cells products may affect adipogenesis. Interestingly ...


Quantitative Profiling Of The Lymph Node Clearance Capacity, Cristina C. Clement, Wei Wang, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Marco Cortese, Kirk C. Hansen, Aniuska Becerra, Sangeetha Thangaswamy, Irina Nizamutdinova, Jee-Young Moon, Lawrence J. Stern, Anatoliy A. Gashev, David Zawieja, Laura Santambrogio 2018 Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Quantitative Profiling Of The Lymph Node Clearance Capacity, Cristina C. Clement, Wei Wang, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Marco Cortese, Kirk C. Hansen, Aniuska Becerra, Sangeetha Thangaswamy, Irina Nizamutdinova, Jee-Young Moon, Lawrence J. Stern, Anatoliy A. Gashev, David Zawieja, Laura Santambrogio

Open Access Articles

Transport of tissue-derived lymphatic fluid and clearance by draining lymph nodes are pivotal for maintenance of fluid homeostasis in the body and for immune-surveillance of the self- and non-self-proteomes. Yet a quantitative analysis of nodal filtration of the tissue-derived proteome present in lymphatic fluid has not been reported. Here we quantified the efficiency of nodal clearance of the composite proteomic load using label-free and isotope-labeling proteomic analysis of pre-nodal and post-nodal samples collected by direct cannulation. These results were extended by quantitation of the filtration efficiency of fluorophore-labeled proteins, bacteria, and beads infused at physiological flow rates into pre-nodal lymphatic ...


Autophagy Is Stimulated By Acute High Intensity Interval Exercise In Human Skeletal Muscle And Electrical Pulse Stimulation In C2c12 Myotubes In Vitro, Kurt A. Escobar 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Autophagy Is Stimulated By Acute High Intensity Interval Exercise In Human Skeletal Muscle And Electrical Pulse Stimulation In C2c12 Myotubes In Vitro, Kurt A. Escobar

Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences ETDs

Purpose: 1) To compare the effects of an acute bout of HIIT exercise (treadmill running) on autophagy to MICT exercise in human skeletal muscle 3 hours post exercise, and 2) to test an in vitro model of muscle contraction-induced autophagy using electrical pulse stimulation in C2C12 myotubes. Methods: Study 1: Ten recreationally active males and females completed a bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) exercise in a fasted state. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken pre and 3 hours post-exercise. Muscle tissue was analyzed for protein expression of markers of ...


Effect Of Alcohol On Pfk1 Gene Expression And Feeding Activity In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Evelyn Sowers, Alex Skoulis, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Effect Of Alcohol On Pfk1 Gene Expression And Feeding Activity In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Evelyn Sowers, Alex Skoulis, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The purpose of this experiment was to test whether alcohol induces starvation conditions in Tetrahymena thermophila. For this experiment, it was hypothesized that alcohol induces starvation due to a lack of energy available in the organism for feeding. This hypothesis was tested by monitoring food vacuole formation and expression of the PFK1 gene in Tetrahymena that were exposed to alcohol. The PFK-1 gene was chosen because its encoded protein plays an essential role in cellular metabolism. For the experiment, control and experimental cultures of Tetrahymena themophila were maintained in a nutrient rich media, with the media of the experimental group ...


Analysis Of Fbp1 Gene Expression In Uv Light-Exposed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cultures, Colby Henry, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Analysis Of Fbp1 Gene Expression In Uv Light-Exposed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cultures, Colby Henry, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this study, Tetrahymena thermophila cultures were exposed to an acute treatment of UV light and expression of the FBP1 gene was examined. The FBP1 gene encodes Fructose- 1,6-biphosphatase which plays an important role in the process of gluconeogenesis. It was hypothesized that exposure of Tetrahymena to UV light would cause an upregulation in DNA repair enzymes, thereby causing these cells to require higher levels of glucose. The higher demand for glucose would then result in the upregulation of gluconeogenesis and FBP1. Following acute exposure of Tetrahymena cultures to UV light, the expression of FBP1 was analyzed using reverse ...


Analyzing Atp Synthetase F1 Expression In Heat-Exposed Tetrahymena Thermophila, Kevin Gardner, Ian Lorang, Stefanie Otto-Hitt 2018 Carroll College

Analyzing Atp Synthetase F1 Expression In Heat-Exposed Tetrahymena Thermophila, Kevin Gardner, Ian Lorang, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this study, we investigated the effect of temperature on expression of the ATP1 gene in the organism Tetrahymena thermophila. We hypothesized that expression of the ATP1 gene would increase as we increased temperature. ATP1 is a highly conserved gene in Tetrahymena that codes for the alpha subunit of ATP Synthase, an enzyme that generates the energy molecule ATP. We decided to use heat treatment based on studies performed on ATP1 in Alaskan Cod showing increased expression in response to increased temperatures (Michael et al., 2015). We used reverse transcription and semi-quantitative PCR to analyze expression of ATP1 in our ...


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