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The Dangers Of Fat Metabolism And Pufa: Why You Don’T Want To Be A Fat Burner, Kyle J. Mamounis 2017 Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway

The Dangers Of Fat Metabolism And Pufa: Why You Don’T Want To Be A Fat Burner, Kyle J. Mamounis

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Localisation And Protein-Protein Interactions Of The Helicobacter Pylori Taxis Sensor T1pd And Their Connection To Metabolic Functions, Wiebke Behrens, Tobias Schweinitzer, Jonathan L. McMurry, Christine Josenhans 2017 Hannover Medical School

Localisation And Protein-Protein Interactions Of The Helicobacter Pylori Taxis Sensor T1pd And Their Connection To Metabolic Functions, Wiebke Behrens, Tobias Schweinitzer, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Christine Josenhans

Jonathan McMurry

The Helicobacter pylori energy sensor TlpD determines tactic behaviour under low energy conditions and is important in vivo. We explored protein-protein interactions of TlpD and their impact on TlpD localisation and function. Pull-down of tagged TlpD identified protein interaction partners of TlpD, which included the chemotaxis histidine kinase CheAY2, the central metabolic enzyme aconitase (AcnB) and the detoxifying enzyme catalase (KatA). We confirmed that KatA and AcnB physically interact with TlpD. While the TlpD-dependent behavioural response appeared not influenced in the interactor mutants katA and acnB in steady-state behavioural assays, acetone carboxylase subunit (acxC) mutant behaviour was altered. TlpD was ...


The Sh3 Domain Of Unc-89 (Obscurin) Interacts With Paramyosin, A Coiled-Coil Protein, In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Hiroshi Qadota, Jonathan McMurry, Verra M. Ngwa, Et al. 2017 Emory University

The Sh3 Domain Of Unc-89 (Obscurin) Interacts With Paramyosin, A Coiled-Coil Protein, In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Hiroshi Qadota, Jonathan Mcmurry, Verra M. Ngwa, Et Al.

Jonathan McMurry

UNC-89 is a giant polypeptide located at the sarcomeric M-line of Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. The human homologue is obscurin. To understand how UNC-89 is localized and functions, we have been identifying its binding partners. Screening a yeast two-hybrid library revealed that UNC-89 interacts with paramyosin. Paramyosin is an invertebrate-specific coiled-coil dimer protein that is homologous to the rod portion of myosin heavy chains and resides in thick filament cores. Minimally, this interaction requires UNC-89’s SH3 domain and residues 294–376 of paramyosin and has a KD of ∼1.1 μM. In unc-89 loss-of-function mutants that lack the SH3 domain ...


Efn-4 Functions In Lad-2-Mediated Axon Guidance In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alicia A. Schwieterman, Cory J. Donelson, Jonathan L. McMurry, Martin L. Hudson 2017 Kennesaw State University

Efn-4 Functions In Lad-2-Mediated Axon Guidance In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alicia A. Schwieterman, Cory J. Donelson, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Martin L. Hudson

Jonathan McMurry

During development of the nervous system, growing axons rely on guidance molecules to direct axon pathfinding. A well-characterized family of guidance molecules are the membrane-associated ephrins, which together with their cognate Eph receptors, direct axon navigation in a contact-mediated fashion. InC. elegans, the ephrin-Eph signaling system is conserved and is best characterized for their roles in neuroblast migration during early embryogenesis. This study demonstrates a role for theC. elegansephrin EFN-4 in axon guidance. We provide both genetic and biochemical evidence that is consistent with theC. elegansdivergent L1 cell adhesion molecule LAD-2 acting as a non-canonical ephrin receptor to EFN-4 to ...


Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2017 Duke University

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


Bioaccumulation Of Metallic Trace Elements And Antioxidant Enzyme Activities In Apfelbeckia Insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) (Diplopoda: Callipodida) From The Cave Hadži-Prodanova Pećina (Serbia), Jelena Vranković, Slavica Borković-Mitić, Bojan Ilić, Milanka Radulović, Slaviša Milošević, Slobodan Makarov, Bojan Mitić 2017 University of Belgrade

Bioaccumulation Of Metallic Trace Elements And Antioxidant Enzyme Activities In Apfelbeckia Insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) (Diplopoda: Callipodida) From The Cave Hadži-Prodanova Pećina (Serbia), Jelena Vranković, Slavica Borković-Mitić, Bojan Ilić, Milanka Radulović, Slaviša Milošević, Slobodan Makarov, Bojan Mitić

International Journal of Speleology

The concentration of 10 metallic trace elements or MTE (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr) was measured in specimens of the troglophilic millipede Apfelbeckia insculpta (L. Koch, 1867) and sediment of the cave Hadži-Prodanova Pećina in western Serbia. Some MTE, like Fe and Mn, displayed much higher concentrations compared to other elements, both in the sediment and in the body of A. insculpta. On the other hand, estimation of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in both males and females of A. insculpta showed values greater than 1 for xenobiotic elements compared to those that are essential ...


The Gut Microbiota Of Helix Aspersa, Parker Smith, Michael Baltzley, S. M. Boomer 2017 Western Oregon University

The Gut Microbiota Of Helix Aspersa, Parker Smith, Michael Baltzley, S. M. Boomer

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (Biology)

The Gut Microbiota of Helix aspersa. The gut microbiota plays an important role in the host organism’s well-being, contributing to the host’s immunity and metabolism. An individual’s total gut microbiota is dynamic, fluctuating in response to changes in diet and environmental stressors; however, a host often has a subset of gut microorganisms, known as the core gut microbiome, which is consistent among individuals in a population. To study the gut microbiota, we are using the common garden snail, Helix aspersa, as our model organism. In the past, culture-based studies have been used to identify bacteria from the ...


Increased Mitochondrial Superoxide In The Brain, But Not Periphery, Sensitizes Mice To Angiotensin Ii-Mediated Hypertension., Adam J. Case, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Increased Mitochondrial Superoxide In The Brain, But Not Periphery, Sensitizes Mice To Angiotensin Ii-Mediated Hypertension., Adam J. Case, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Angiotensin II (AngII) elicits the production of superoxide (O2(•-)) from mitochondria in numerous cell types within peripheral organs and in the brain suggesting a role for mitochondrial-produced O2(•-) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, it remains unclear if mitochondrial O2(•-) is causal in the development of AngII-induced hypertension, or if mitochondrial O2(•-) in the absence of elevated AngII is sufficient to increase blood pressure. Further, the tissue specific (i.e. central versus peripheral) redox regulation of AngII hypertension remains elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial O2(•-) in the absence of pro-hypertensive stimuli, such as AngII, elevates baseline systemic mean ...


Altered Interleukin-10 Signaling In Skeletal Muscle Regulates Obesity-Mediated Inflammation And Insulin Resistance, Sezin Dagdeviren, Dae Young Jung, Eunjung Lee, Randall H. Friedline, Hye Lim Noh, Jong Hun. Kim, Payal R. Patel, Nicholas Tsitsilianos, Andrew V. Tsitsilianos, Duy A. Tran, George H. Tsougranis, Caitlyn C. Kearns, Cecilia P. Uong, Jung Yeon. Kwon, Werner Muller, Ki Won. Lee, Jason K. Kim 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Altered Interleukin-10 Signaling In Skeletal Muscle Regulates Obesity-Mediated Inflammation And Insulin Resistance, Sezin Dagdeviren, Dae Young Jung, Eunjung Lee, Randall H. Friedline, Hye Lim Noh, Jong Hun. Kim, Payal R. Patel, Nicholas Tsitsilianos, Andrew V. Tsitsilianos, Duy A. Tran, George H. Tsougranis, Caitlyn C. Kearns, Cecilia P. Uong, Jung Yeon. Kwon, Werner Muller, Ki Won. Lee, Jason K. Kim

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a major characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although obesity-mediated inflammation is causally associated with insulin resistance, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we examined the effects of chronic obesity in mice with muscle-specific overexpression of interleukin-10 (MIL10). After 16 weeks of a high-fat diet (HFD), MIL10 mice became markedly obese but showed improved insulin action compared to that of wild-type mice, which was largely due to increased glucose metabolism and reduced inflammation in skeletal muscle. Since leptin regulates inflammation, the beneficial effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10) were further examined in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice ...


Transient Runx1 Expression During Early Mesendodermal Differentiation Of Hescs Promotes Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition Through Tgfb2 Signaling, Jennifer J. VanOudenhove, Ricardo F. Medina, Prachi N. Ghule University of Vermont College of Medicine, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Sayyed K. Zaidi, Gary S. Stein 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transient Runx1 Expression During Early Mesendodermal Differentiation Of Hescs Promotes Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition Through Tgfb2 Signaling, Jennifer J. Vanoudenhove, Ricardo F. Medina, Prachi N. Ghule University Of Vermont College Of Medicine, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Sayyed K. Zaidi, Gary S. Stein

Open Access Articles

The transition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from pluripotency to lineage commitment is not fully understood, and a role for phenotypic transcription factors in the initial stages of hESC differentiation remains to be explored. From a screen of candidate factors, we found that RUNX1 is selectively and transiently upregulated early in hESC differentiation to mesendodermal lineages. Transcriptome profiling and functional analyses upon RUNX1 depletion established a role for RUNX1 in promoting cell motility. In parallel, we discovered a loss of repression for several epithelial genes, indicating that loss of RUNX1 impaired an epithelial to mesenchymal transition during differentiation. Cell ...


Chrebp Regulates Fructose-Induced Glucose Production Independently Of Insulin Signaling, Mi-Sung Kim, Sarah A. Krawczyk, Ludivine Doridot, Alan J. Fowler, Jennifer X. Wang, Sunia A. Trauger, Hye Lim Noh, Hee Joon Kang, John K. Meissen, Matthew Blatnik, Jason K. Kim, Michelle Lai, Mark A. Herman 2016 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Cente

Chrebp Regulates Fructose-Induced Glucose Production Independently Of Insulin Signaling, Mi-Sung Kim, Sarah A. Krawczyk, Ludivine Doridot, Alan J. Fowler, Jennifer X. Wang, Sunia A. Trauger, Hye Lim Noh, Hee Joon Kang, John K. Meissen, Matthew Blatnik, Jason K. Kim, Michelle Lai, Mark A. Herman

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Obese, insulin-resistant states are characterized by a paradoxical pathogenic condition in which the liver appears to be selectively insulin resistant. Specifically, insulin fails to suppress glucose production, yet successfully stimulates de novo lipogenesis. The mechanisms underlying this dysregulation remain controversial. Here, we hypothesized that carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), a transcriptional activator of glycolytic and lipogenic genes, plays a central role in this paradox. Administration of fructose increased hepatic hexose-phosphate levels, activated ChREBP, and caused glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis in mice. Activation of ChREBP was required for the increased expression of glycolytic and lipogenic genes as well as ...


Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor Type 1 Signaling In Epilepsy And Traumatic Brain Injury, V V Chakravarthi Narla 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor Type 1 Signaling In Epilepsy And Traumatic Brain Injury, V V Chakravarthi Narla

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stress increases the frequency by which epileptic seizures occur. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral response to stress. This thesis sought to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CRF regulates the activity of neural circuits in the piriform cortex (PC) in normal and epileptic states. The PC is richly innervated by CRF and 5-HT containing axons arising from the central amygdala and raphe nucleus. CRFR1 and 5-HT2A/CRs have been shown to interact in a manner where CRFR activation subsequently potentiates the activity of 5-HT2A/CRs. The first purpose of this ...


Macrophages Are Regulators Of Whole Body Metabolism: A Dissertation, Joseph C. Yawe 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Macrophages Are Regulators Of Whole Body Metabolism: A Dissertation, Joseph C. Yawe

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Obesity is the top risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. Obese adipose tissue, particularly visceral depots, exhibits an increase in macrophage accumulation and is described as being in a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. It is characterized by the increased expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines produced by both macrophages and adipocytes, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we investigated the potential role of macrophage infiltration on whole body metabolism, using genetic and diet-induced mouse models of obesity.

Using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence imaging we found that ...


A Gene-Centered C. Elegans Protein-Dna Interaction Network Provides A Framework For Functional Predictions, Juan Fuxman Bass, Carles Pons, Lucie Kozlowski, John S. Reece-Hoyes, Shaleen Shrestha, Amy D. Holdorf, Akihiro Mori, Chad L. Myers, Albertha J. M. Walhout 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Gene-Centered C. Elegans Protein-Dna Interaction Network Provides A Framework For Functional Predictions, Juan Fuxman Bass, Carles Pons, Lucie Kozlowski, John S. Reece-Hoyes, Shaleen Shrestha, Amy D. Holdorf, Akihiro Mori, Chad L. Myers, Albertha J. M. Walhout

Open Access Articles

Transcription factors (TFs) play a central role in controlling spatiotemporal gene expression and the response to environmental cues. A comprehensive understanding of gene regulation requires integrating physical protein-DNA interactions (PDIs) with TF regulatory activity, expression patterns, and phenotypic data. Although great progress has been made in mapping PDIs using chromatin immunoprecipitation, these studies have only characterized ~10% of TFs in any metazoan species. The nematode C. elegans has been widely used to study gene regulation due to its compact genome with short regulatory sequences. Here, we delineated the largest gene-centered metazoan PDI network to date by examining interactions between 90 ...


Maintenance Of The Ph Gradient In The Gastric Mucus Layer., Owen Lewis 2016 The University Of Utah

Maintenance Of The Ph Gradient In The Gastric Mucus Layer., Owen Lewis

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Rna-Binding Protein Atx-2 Regulates Cytokinesis Through Par-5 And Zen-4, Megan M. Gnazzo, Eva-Maria E. Uhlemann, Alex R. Villarreal, Masaki Shirayama, Eddie G. Dominguez, Ahna R. Skop 2016 University of Wisconsin-Madison

The Rna-Binding Protein Atx-2 Regulates Cytokinesis Through Par-5 And Zen-4, Megan M. Gnazzo, Eva-Maria E. Uhlemann, Alex R. Villarreal, Masaki Shirayama, Eddie G. Dominguez, Ahna R. Skop

Open Access Articles

The spindle midzone harbors both microtubules and proteins necessary for furrow formation and the completion of cytokinesis. However, the mechanisms that mediate the temporal and spatial recruitment of cell division factors to the spindle midzone and midbody remain unclear. Here we describe a mechanism governed by the conserved RNA-binding protein ATX-2/Ataxin-2, which targets and maintains ZEN-4 at the spindle midzone. ATX-2 does this by regulating the amount of PAR-5 at mitotic structures, particularly the spindle, centrosomes, and midbody. Preventing ATX-2 function leads to elevated levels of PAR-5, enhanced chromatin and centrosome localization of PAR-5-GFP, and ultimately a reduction of ...


Understanding Adipocyte Dynamics Through Mathematical Modeling, Katrina Johnson, Fred Adler 2016 University of Utah

Understanding Adipocyte Dynamics Through Mathematical Modeling, Katrina Johnson, Fred Adler

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Mitochondrial Superoxide Signaling Contributes To Norepinephrine-Mediated T-Lymphocyte Cytokine Profiles., Adam J. Case, Colton T. Roessner, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Mitochondrial Superoxide Signaling Contributes To Norepinephrine-Mediated T-Lymphocyte Cytokine Profiles., Adam J. Case, Colton T. Roessner, Jun Tian, Matthew C. Zimmerman

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Norepinephrine (NE) produces multifaceted regulatory patterns in T-lymphocytes. Recently, we have shown that NE utilizes redox signaling as evidenced by increased superoxide (O2●-) causally linked to the observed changes in these cells; however, the source of this reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that the source of increased O2●- in NE-stimulated T-lymphocytes is due to disruption of mitochondrial bioenergetics. To address this hypothesis, we utilized purified mouse splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes stimulated with NE and assessed O2●- levels, mitochondrial metabolism, cellular proliferation, and cytokine profiles. We demonstrate that the increase in O2●- levels in response to ...


Sexual Dimorphism In Alcohol Induced Adipose Inflammation Relates To Liver Injury, Melissa A. Fulham, Pranoti Mandrekar 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sexual Dimorphism In Alcohol Induced Adipose Inflammation Relates To Liver Injury, Melissa A. Fulham, Pranoti Mandrekar

Open Access Articles

Alcoholic liver disease occurs due to chronic, heavy drinking and is driven both by metabolic alterations and immune cell activation. Women are at a higher risk than men for developing alcohol induced liver injury and this dimorphism is reflected in animal models of alcoholic liver disease. The importance of adipose tissue in alcoholic liver disease is emerging. Chronic alcohol consumption causes adipose tissue inflammation, which can influence liver injury. Sex differences in body fat composition are well known. However, it is still unclear if alcohol-induced adipose tissue inflammation occurs in a sex-dependent manner. Here we have employed the clinically relevant ...


Effects Of S1p Mutation On Er Stress And Cholesterol Synthesis Markers In Human Epithelial Cells, Connie Gan, George G. Schweitzer, Rita T. Brookheart, Robert C. Bucelli, Brian N. Finck 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Effects Of S1p Mutation On Er Stress And Cholesterol Synthesis Markers In Human Epithelial Cells, Connie Gan, George G. Schweitzer, Rita T. Brookheart, Robert C. Bucelli, Brian N. Finck

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Site-1 Protease (S1P) is a Golgi-resident enzyme required for activation and subsequent nuclear localization of several major transcription factors. A 24-year-old female patient with a de novo single point mutation in S1P presented with a complex phenotype of gut hypomotility, abnormal optic nerves, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Furthermore, this patient suffers from phenotypes related to skeletal muscle dysfunction, resulting in decreased ability to perform physical exercise due to unusual post-exercise pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. This phenomenon has been described in the literature to manifest from myoedema and the breakdown of muscle that releases intracellular proteins into the blood, or ...


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