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Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Direct Antioxidant Properties Of Methotrexate: Inhibition Of Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde-Protein Adduct Formation And Superoxide Scavenging., Matthew C. Zimmerman, Dahn L. Clemens, Michael J. Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D. Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W. Klassen, James R. O'Dell, Geoffrey M. Thiele, Ted R. Mikuls, Daniel R. Anderson

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Recent observations have shown that patients treated with MTX also exhibit a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although MTX reduces systemic inflammation and tissue damage, the mechanisms by which MTX exerts these beneficial effects are not entirely known. We have previously demonstrated that protein adducts formed by the interaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetaldehyde (AA), known as MAA-protein adducts, are present in diseased tissues of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or CVD. In previously reported studies, MAA-adducts were shown to be highly immunogenic ...


The N-Terminus Of Ift46 Mediates Intraflagellar Transport Of Outer Arm Dynein And Its Cargo-Adaptor Oda16, Yuqing Hou, George B. Witman 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The N-Terminus Of Ift46 Mediates Intraflagellar Transport Of Outer Arm Dynein And Its Cargo-Adaptor Oda16, Yuqing Hou, George B. Witman

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Cilia are assembled via intraflagellar transport (IFT). The IFT machinery is composed of motors and multi-subunit particles, termed IFT-A and IFT-B, that carry cargo into the cilium. Knowledge of how the IFT subunits interact with their cargo is of critical importance for understanding how the unique ciliary domain is established. We previously reported a Chlamydomonas mutant, ift46-1, that fails to express the IFT-B protein IFT46, has greatly reduced levels of other IFT-B proteins, and assembles only very short flagella. A spontaneous suppression of ift46-1 restored IFT-B levels and enabled growth of longer flagella, but the flagella lacked outer dynein arms ...


Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive In The Setting Of Low And High Output Heart Failure., Rodrigo Del Rio, David C. Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S. Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz 2017 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive In The Setting Of Low And High Output Heart Failure., Rodrigo Del Rio, David C. Andrade, Camilo Toledo, Hugo S. Diaz, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Noah J. Marcus, Harold D. Schultz

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex function is strongly related to cardiorespiratory disorders and disease progression in heart failure (HF). The mechanisms underlying CB sensitization during HF are not fully understood, however previous work indicates blood flow per se can affect CB function. Then, we hypothesized that the CB-mediated chemoreflex drive will be enhanced only in low output HF but not in high output HF. Myocardial infarcted rats and aorto-caval fistulated rats were used as a low output HF model (MI-CHF) and as a high output HF model (AV-CHF), respectively. Blood flow supply to the CB region was decreased only in ...


Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Environmental conditions imposed onto organisms during certain phases of their life cycles such as embryogenesis or puberty can not only impact the organisms’ own health, but also affect subsequent generations. The underlying mechanisms causing intergenerational phenotypes are not encoded in the genome, but the result of reversible epigenetic modifications. This work investigates in a mouse model the impact of paternal nicotine exposure on the next generation regarding addictive behavior modulation, metabolic changes, and molecular mechanisms. It provides evidence that male offspring from nicotine-exposed fathers (NIC offspring) is more resistant to lethal doses of nicotine. This phenotype is gender-specific and depends ...


Cross-Sectional Relations Of Whole-Blood Mirna Expression Levels And Hand Grip Strength In A Community Sample, Joanne M. Murabito, Jian Rong, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Tianxiao Huan, Honghuang Lin, Qiang Zhao, Jane E. Freedman, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Daniel Levy, Martin G. Larson 2017 Boston University

Cross-Sectional Relations Of Whole-Blood Mirna Expression Levels And Hand Grip Strength In A Community Sample, Joanne M. Murabito, Jian Rong, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Tianxiao Huan, Honghuang Lin, Qiang Zhao, Jane E. Freedman, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Daniel Levy, Martin G. Larson

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression with emerging data suggesting miRNAs play a role in skeletal muscle biology. We sought to examine the association of miRNAs with grip strength in a community-based sample. Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Generation 3 participants (n = 5668 54% women, mean age 55 years, range 24, 90 years) underwent grip strength measurement and miRNA profiling using whole blood from fasting morning samples. Linear mixed-effects regression modeling of grip strength (kg) versus continuous miRNA 'Cq' values and versus binary miRNA expression was performed. We conducted an integrative miRNA-mRNA coexpression analysis and examined the enrichment of biologic pathways ...


Killers Creating New Life: Caspases Drive Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation In Tissue Repair And Disease, Caitlin E. Fogarty, Andreas Bergmann 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Killers Creating New Life: Caspases Drive Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation In Tissue Repair And Disease, Caitlin E. Fogarty, Andreas Bergmann

Open Access Articles

Apoptosis is a carefully orchestrated and tightly controlled form of cell death, conserved across metazoans. As the executioners of apoptotic cell death, cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases (caspases) are critical drivers of this cellular disassembly. Early studies of genetically programmed cell death demonstrated that the selective activation of caspases induces apoptosis and the precise elimination of excess cells, thereby sculpting structures and refining tissues. However, over the past decade there has been a fundamental shift in our understanding of the roles of caspases during cell death-a shift precipitated by the revelation that apoptotic cells actively engage with their surrounding environment throughout the ...


Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

The PiZ mutation in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene causes the PiZ mutant protein to be sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, causing significant liver pathology in ~10% of PiZZ homozygous AAT disease patients. Current transgenic mouse models of the disease include the liver-specific over-expression of mutant PiZ protein. However, these animal models do not efficiently recapitulate the liver damage found in PiZZ homozygous patients. Since only a small percentage of patients develop liver disease and it is not reproducible in animal models of AATD, it suggests that there are other factors that participate in disease pathogenesis. Here, we ...


Girk2 And Gababr1 Downregulate In Response To Ttx As Girk2, Gababr1, And Gababr2 Are Not Affected By Bc Treatment, Staci E. Hammer, Amanda Weiss, Hee Jung Chung 2017 Highland Community College

Girk2 And Gababr1 Downregulate In Response To Ttx As Girk2, Gababr1, And Gababr2 Are Not Affected By Bc Treatment, Staci E. Hammer, Amanda Weiss, Hee Jung Chung

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

Homeostatic plasticity is the response neurons undergo to regulate changes in excitability levels and bring the cells back to homeostasis. Research on homeostatic plasticity at the molecular level can lead to improved treatments for neurological diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's, and schizophrenia. The research featured in this poster looks at the response of GIRK (G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium) channels and GABAb (gamma-amniobutyric acid) receptors to neurotoxins, tetrodotoxin (TTX) or bicuculline (BC).

Prolonged activity blockade of 48 hour TTX treatment significantly reduced GABABR1 and GIRK2 expression. This supports the idea that because these two proteins inhibit action potentials, there ...


H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

H2s And Homocysteine Control A Novel Feedback Regulation Of Cystathionine Beta Synthase And Cystathionine Gamma Lyase In Cardiomyocytes., Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras K. Mishra

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a cardioprotective gas, is endogenously produced from homocysteine by cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) enzymes. However, effect of H2S or homocysteine on CBS and CSE expression, and cross-talk between CBS and CSE are unclear. We hypothesize that homocysteine and H2S regulate CBS and CSE expressions in a dose dependent manner in cardiomyocytes, and CBS deficiency induces cardiac CSE expression. To test the hypothesis, we treated murine atrial HL1 cardiomyocytes with increasing doses of homocysteine or Na2S/GYY4137, a H2S donor, and measured the levels of CBS and CSE. We found that homocysteine upregulates ...


The Effects Of Fluoride Ions On Neuromuscular Activity And Regeneration In Dugesia Tigrina, John Williams Jr. 2017 Albany State University

The Effects Of Fluoride Ions On Neuromuscular Activity And Regeneration In Dugesia Tigrina, John Williams Jr.

Georgia Journal of Science

Fluoride ions have been implicated in numerous nervous system pathologies, though the association of these ions with these conditions has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects that fluoride ions have on the nervous system development and function in planarians as a simple model for fluoride-nervous system interactions. In the first set of experiments, planarians were exposed to one of four concentrations of sodium fluoride: 0 mM, 1 mM, 1 mM, and 5 mM. In the second set of experiments, planarians were bisected and exposed to 1 mM of NaCl and NaF for regeneration purposes ...


Complement-Related Regulates Autophagy In Neighboring Cells, Lin Lin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Complement-Related Regulates Autophagy In Neighboring Cells, Lin Lin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Autophagy is a conserved process that cells use to degrade their own cytoplasmic components by delivery to lysosomes. Autophagy ensures intracellular quality control and is associated with diseases such as cancer and immune disorders. The process of autophagy is controlled by core autophagy (Atg) genes that are conserved from yeast to mammal. Most Atg proteins and their regulators were identified through pioneering studies of the single cell yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and little is known about factors that systematically coordinate autophagy within the tissues of multicellular animals. The goal of this thesis is to identify new autophagy regulators and provide a ...


Rod Outer Segment Development Influences Aav-Mediated Photoreceptor Transduction After Subretinal Injection, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Shun-Yun Cheng, Guangping Gao, Claudio Punzo 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Rod Outer Segment Development Influences Aav-Mediated Photoreceptor Transduction After Subretinal Injection, Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Shun-Yun Cheng, Guangping Gao, Claudio Punzo

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are currently the preferred tools for delivering genes to photoreceptors (PR) in small and large animals. AAVs have been applied successfully in various models of PR dystrophies. However, unknown barriers still limit AAV's efficient application in several forms of severe PR degenerations due to insufficient transgene expression and/or treated cells at the time of injection. Optimizations of PR gene therapy strategies will likely benefit from the identification of the cellular factors that influence PR transduction. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that the AAV transduction profile of PRs differs significantly between neonatal ...


Ift Trains In Different Stages Of Assembly Queue At The Ciliary Base For Consecutive Release Into The Cilium, Jason M. Brown, Tyler Picariello, Deborah A. Cochran, George B. Witman, Karl Lechtreck 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ift Trains In Different Stages Of Assembly Queue At The Ciliary Base For Consecutive Release Into The Cilium, Jason M. Brown, Tyler Picariello, Deborah A. Cochran, George B. Witman, Karl Lechtreck

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Intraflagellar transport (IFT) trains, multimegadalton assemblies of IFT proteins and motors, traffic proteins in cilia. To study how trains assemble, we employed fluorescence protein-tagged IFT proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. IFT-A and motor proteins are recruited from the cell body to the basal body pool, assembled into trains, move through the cilium, and disperse back into the cell body. In contrast to this 'open' system, IFT-B proteins from retrograde trains reenter the pool and a portion is reused directly in anterograde trains indicating a 'semi-open' system. Similar IFT systems were also observed in Tetrahymena thermophila and IMCD3 cells. FRAP analysis indicated ...


Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz

Christian Mueller

Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with ...


Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Monocyte Differentiation Into Polarized M2 Macrophages Promotes Stellate Cell Activation Via Tgf-Beta, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Monocyte Differentiation Into Polarized M2 Macrophages Promotes Stellate Cell Activation Via Tgf-Beta, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND and AIMS: Monocyte and macrophage (MPhi) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Disease pathogenesis is regulated by both liver-resident MPhis and monocytes recruited as precursors of MPhis into the damaged liver. Monocytes differentiate into M1 (classic/proinflammatory) or M2 (alternative/anti-inflammatory) polarized MPhis in response to tissue microenvironment. We hypothesized that HCV-infected hepatoma cells (infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 [Huh7.5/JFH-1]) induce monocyte differentiation into polarized MPhis. METHODS: Healthy human monocytes were co-cultured with Huh7.5/JFH-1 cells or cell-free virus for 7 days and analyzed for MPhi markers and cytokine levels ...


Jak/Stat Pathway Inhibition Overcomes Il7-Induced Glucocorticoid Resistance In A Subset Of Human T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias, C. Delgado-Martin, L. K. Meyer, B. J. Huang, M. S. Zinter, J. V. Nguyen, G. A. Smith, J. Taunton, S. S. Winter, Justine R. Roderick, Michelle A. Kelliher, T. M. Horton, B. L. Wood, D. T. Teachey, M. L. Hermiston 2017 University of California, San Francisco

Jak/Stat Pathway Inhibition Overcomes Il7-Induced Glucocorticoid Resistance In A Subset Of Human T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias, C. Delgado-Martin, L. K. Meyer, B. J. Huang, M. S. Zinter, J. V. Nguyen, G. A. Smith, J. Taunton, S. S. Winter, Justine R. Roderick, Michelle A. Kelliher, T. M. Horton, B. L. Wood, D. T. Teachey, M. L. Hermiston

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

While outcomes for children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) have improved dramatically, survival rates for patients with relapsed/refractory disease remain dismal. Prior studies indicate that glucocorticoid (GC) resistance is more common than resistance to other chemotherapies at relapse. In addition, failure to clear peripheral blasts during a prednisone prophase correlates with an elevated risk of relapse in newly diagnosed patients. Here we show that intrinsic GC resistance is present at diagnosis in early thymic precursor (ETP) T-ALLs as well as in a subset of non-ETP T-ALLs. GC-resistant non-ETP T-ALLs are characterized by strong induction of JAK/STAT signaling ...


Capacitive Memory Alters Alternans And Spontaneous Activity In A Minimal Cardiomyocyte Model, Tien Comlekoglu, Seth H. Weinberg 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Capacitive Memory Alters Alternans And Spontaneous Activity In A Minimal Cardiomyocyte Model, Tien Comlekoglu, Seth H. Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling Connects Respiratory Capacity To Thermogenic Gene Expression, Minwoo Nam, Thomas E. Akie, Masato Sanosaka, Siobhan M. Craige, Shashi Kant, John F. Keaney Jr., Marcus P. Cooper 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling Connects Respiratory Capacity To Thermogenic Gene Expression, Minwoo Nam, Thomas E. Akie, Masato Sanosaka, Siobhan M. Craige, Shashi Kant, John F. Keaney Jr., Marcus P. Cooper

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Mitochondrial respiration plays a crucial role in determining the metabolic state of brown adipose tissue (BAT), due to its direct roles in thermogenesis, as well as through additional mechanisms. Here, we show that respiration-dependent retrograde signaling from mitochondria to nucleus contributes to genetic and metabolic reprogramming of BAT. In mouse BAT, ablation of LRPPRC (LRP130), a potent regulator of mitochondrial transcription and respiratory capacity, triggers down-regulation of thermogenic genes, promoting a storage phenotype in BAT. This retrograde regulation functions by inhibiting the recruitment of PPARgamma to the regulatory elements of thermogenic genes. Reducing cytosolic Ca2+ reverses the attenuation of thermogenic ...


Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatic Changes Associated With Chronic Alcohol Exposure In An Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Piz Mouse Model, Zhuoyao Lyu, Alisha M. Gruntman, Brian O'Sullivan-Murphy, Christian Mueller, Terence R. Flotte

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The PiZ mutation in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene causes the PiZ mutant protein to be sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, causing significant liver pathology in ~10% of PiZZ homozygous AAT disease patients. Current transgenic mouse models of the disease include the liver-specific over-expression of mutant PiZ protein. However, these animal models do not efficiently recapitulate the liver damage found in PiZZ homozygous patients. Since only a small percentage of patients develop liver disease and it is not reproducible in animal models of AATD, it suggests that there are other factors that participate in disease pathogenesis. Here, we ...


Measuring Changes In Brain Metabolite Levels Using Live-Animal Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy And Offline Lc-Ms Metabolomics In A Binge-Ethanol Murine Model, Michelle L. Dubuke, Guillaume L. Poirier, Laurellee Payne, Arlene Lim, Pranoti Mandrekar, Constance M. Moore, Jean A. King, Scott A. Shaffer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Measuring Changes In Brain Metabolite Levels Using Live-Animal Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy And Offline Lc-Ms Metabolomics In A Binge-Ethanol Murine Model, Michelle L. Dubuke, Guillaume L. Poirier, Laurellee Payne, Arlene Lim, Pranoti Mandrekar, Constance M. Moore, Jean A. King, Scott A. Shaffer

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Alcoholism and acute alcohol binge are significant public health concerns. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolomics is a robust and sensitive technique for determining and quantifying transient or permanent biochemical changes within the central nervous system (CNS). However, access to human tissue and CNS biofluid for such analyses is limited in a clinical context. In-vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an attractive alternative for clinical measurement but currently the technique is limited to a small to a number of well-characterized, highly abundant analytes. We therefore seek to correlate LC-MS and MRS measurements to better understand and leverage the strengths of ...


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