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The Effects Of Fluoride Ions On Neuromuscular Activity And Regeneration In Dugesia Tigrina, John Williams Jr. 2017 Albany State University

The Effects Of Fluoride Ions On Neuromuscular Activity And Regeneration In Dugesia Tigrina, John Williams Jr.

Georgia Journal of Science

Fluoride ions have been implicated in numerous nervous system pathologies, though the association of these ions with these conditions has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects that fluoride ions have on the nervous system development and function in planarians as a simple model for fluoride-nervous system interactions. In the first set of experiments, planarians were exposed to one of four concentrations of sodium fluoride: 0 mM, 1 mM, 1 mM, and 5 mM. In the second set of experiments, planarians were bisected and exposed to 1 mM of NaCl and NaF for regeneration purposes ...


Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Central Role Of Il-23 And Il-17 Producing Eosinophils As Immunomodulatory Effector Cells In Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis And Allergic Asthma, Evelyn V. Santos Guerra, Chrono K. Lee, Charles A. Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R. Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M. Levitz

Christian Mueller

Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with ...


Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Monocyte Differentiation Into Polarized M2 Macrophages Promotes Stellate Cell Activation Via Tgf-Beta, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Monocyte Differentiation Into Polarized M2 Macrophages Promotes Stellate Cell Activation Via Tgf-Beta, Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND and AIMS: Monocyte and macrophage (MPhi) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Disease pathogenesis is regulated by both liver-resident MPhis and monocytes recruited as precursors of MPhis into the damaged liver. Monocytes differentiate into M1 (classic/proinflammatory) or M2 (alternative/anti-inflammatory) polarized MPhis in response to tissue microenvironment. We hypothesized that HCV-infected hepatoma cells (infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 [Huh7.5/JFH-1]) induce monocyte differentiation into polarized MPhis. METHODS: Healthy human monocytes were co-cultured with Huh7.5/JFH-1 cells or cell-free virus for 7 days and analyzed for MPhi markers and cytokine levels ...


Capacitive Memory Alters Alternans And Spontaneous Activity In A Minimal Cardiomyocyte Model, Tien Comlekoglu, Seth H. Weinberg 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Capacitive Memory Alters Alternans And Spontaneous Activity In A Minimal Cardiomyocyte Model, Tien Comlekoglu, Seth H. Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May 2017 University of Maine

Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, we compared the osmotic stress response of larval and juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at the transcriptomic, metabolomic, and whole organism levels. Blue mussels inhabit coastal areas, where they face climate-induced reductions in nearshore salinity. Despite their ecological and economic importance, scientists do not fully understand the underlying transcriptomic and cellular mechanisms of the osmotic stress response in blue mussels or how the ability to respond to stress changes throughout development. Blue mussels spend the first weeks of life developing through several larval stages in the plankton. These early life history stages are more vulnerable to environmental ...


Using Fluorescence Microscopy To Identify A Potential New Treatment For Heart Failure, Ryan D. Himes 2017 Olivet Nazarene University

Using Fluorescence Microscopy To Identify A Potential New Treatment For Heart Failure, Ryan D. Himes

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Cardiac glycosides have been used to treat heart failure for centuries, but they have a narrow therapeutic window, as they inhibit their target receptor nearly irreversibly. Overdoses can lead to arrhythmias. Phospholemman is a natural inhibitor of the same target as cardiac glycosides. It is possible that mutating phospholemman could achieve the same therapeutic benefit, while allowing cells to reverse the inhibition and thereby avoid an arrhythmia. I used fluorescence microscopy to screen candidate phospholemman mutants and identify one that binds more avidly to its target than the naturally occurring phospholemman. This mutant, L30A, caused similar effects as cardiac glycosides ...


Runx1 And Breast Cancer, Jose Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Leslie M. Shaw 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Runx1 And Breast Cancer, Jose Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Leslie M. Shaw

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

News on: Runx1 stabilizes the mammary epithelial cell phenotype and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition, by Hong et al. Oncotarget. 2017; 8:17610-27. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15381.


The Long Haul: Migratory Flight Preparation And Performance In Songbirds, Morag F. Dick 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Long Haul: Migratory Flight Preparation And Performance In Songbirds, Morag F. Dick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Migration requires birds to sustain high intensity endurance exercise for periods lasting from hours to days. Similar to athletes, preparation and nutrition is key to success. Birds seasonally prepare for migration, which includes increasing the capacity to oxidize fat in the flight muscles. Beyond fuelling migration, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are hypothesized to be natural doping agents and increase endurance and fatty acid oxidative capacity. I examined how birds prepare for and sustain migratory flight and directly tested the role of n-3 PUFA. Using yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata) as a model species, I first examined the effects of ...


Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Immunometabolic Perspective., Paras K. Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K. Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K. Patel, Sushil K. Mahata 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: An Immunometabolic Perspective., Paras K. Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K. Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K. Patel, Sushil K. Mahata

Journal Articles: Cellular & Integrative Physiology

The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM. These early events are followed by steatosis (accumulation of lipid droplets ...


Antiproliferative Effects Of Hibernating American Bullfrog (Rana Catesbeiana) Blood Plasma On Thp-1 Cells, Sean Robbins 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Antiproliferative Effects Of Hibernating American Bullfrog (Rana Catesbeiana) Blood Plasma On Thp-1 Cells, Sean Robbins

Annual Graduate Student Symposium

Hibernation is an incredible adaptation that allows an organism to go dormant during the winter, when food is scarce. Much is unknown physiologically about hibernation, and most current research comes from mammalian models. During hibernation, the cells of mammals are impeded from going through mitosis. 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and woodchucks (Marmota monax) have a protein, alpha-2-macroglobulin, in their blood plasma, which has significant antiproliferative effects on spleen cells. The goal of my study was to determine if an exothermic organism, the American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), also actively suppresses mitosis while hibernating and if so, determine if it is ...


Mammalian Swi/Snf Enzymes And The Epigenetics Of Tumor Cell Metabolic Reprogramming, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Qiong Wu, Anthony N. Imbalzano 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mammalian Swi/Snf Enzymes And The Epigenetics Of Tumor Cell Metabolic Reprogramming, Jeffrey A. Nickerson, Qiong Wu, Anthony N. Imbalzano

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Tumor cells reprogram their metabolism to survive and grow in a challenging microenvironment. Some of this reprogramming is performed by epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetics is in turn affected by metabolism; chromatin modifying enzymes are dependent on substrates that are also key metabolic intermediates. We have shown that the chromatin remodeling enzyme Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), an epigenetic regulator, is necessary for rapid breast cancer cell proliferation. The mechanism for this requirement is the BRG1-dependent transcription of key lipogenic enzymes and regulators. Reduction in lipid synthesis lowers proliferation rates, which can be restored by palmitate supplementation. This work has established BRG1 as ...


Alcohol-Related Changes In The Intestinal Microbiome Influence Neutrophil Infiltration, Inflammation And Steatosis In Early Alcoholic Hepatitis In Mice, Patrick Lowe, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Aditya Ambade, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Doyle V. Ward, Gyongyi Szabo 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Alcohol-Related Changes In The Intestinal Microbiome Influence Neutrophil Infiltration, Inflammation And Steatosis In Early Alcoholic Hepatitis In Mice, Patrick Lowe, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Aditya Ambade, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Doyle V. Ward, Gyongyi Szabo

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced intestinal dysbiosis disrupts homeostatic gut-liver axis function and is essential in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Here, we investigate changes in enteric microbiome composition in a model of early alcoholic steatohepatitis and dissect the pathogenic role of intestinal microbes in alcohol-induced liver pathology.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wild type mice received a 10-day diet that was either 5% alcohol-containing or an isocaloric control diet plus a single binge. 16S rDNA sequencing defined the bacterial communities in the cecum of alcohol- and pair-fed animals. Some mice were treated with an antibiotic cocktail prior to and throughout alcohol feeding. Liver ...


Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model 2017 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Intracellular protein concentration is an essential cell characteristic which manifests itself through the refractive index. The latter can be measured from two or more mutually defocused brightfield images analyzed using the TIE (transport-of-intensity equation). In practice, however, TIE does not always achieve quantitatively accurate results on biological cells. Therefore, we have developed a calibration procedure that involves successive imaging of cells in solutions containing different amounts of added protein. This allows one to directly relate the output of TIE (T) to intracellular protein concentration C (g/l). The resultant relationship has a simple form: C ≈ 1.0(T/V), where ...


The Dangers Of Fat Metabolism And Pufa: Why You Don’T Want To Be A Fat Burner, Kyle J. Mamounis 2017 Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway

The Dangers Of Fat Metabolism And Pufa: Why You Don’T Want To Be A Fat Burner, Kyle J. Mamounis

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Hyper- And Hypo- Nutrition Studies Of The Hepatic Transcriptome And Epigenome Suggest That Pparα Regulates Anaerobic Glycolysis, Anthony R. Soltis, Shmulik Motola, Santiago Vernia, Christopher W. Ng, Norman J. Kennedy, Simona Dalin, Bryan J. Matthews, Roger J. Davis, Ernest Fraenkel 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Hyper- And Hypo- Nutrition Studies Of The Hepatic Transcriptome And Epigenome Suggest That Pparα Regulates Anaerobic Glycolysis, Anthony R. Soltis, Shmulik Motola, Santiago Vernia, Christopher W. Ng, Norman J. Kennedy, Simona Dalin, Bryan J. Matthews, Roger J. Davis, Ernest Fraenkel

Davis Lab Publications

Diet plays a crucial role in shaping human health and disease. Diets promoting obesity and insulin resistance can lead to severe metabolic diseases, while calorie-restricted (CR) diets can improve health and extend lifespan. In this work, we fed mice either a chow diet (CD), a 16 week high-fat diet (HFD), or a CR diet to compare and contrast the effects of these diets on mouse liver biology. We collected transcriptomic and epigenomic datasets from these mice using RNA-Seq and DNase-Seq. We found that both CR and HFD induce extensive transcriptional changes, in some cases altering the same genes in the ...


Characterization Of A New Oda3 Allele, Oda3-6, Defective In Assembly Of The Outer Dynein Arm-Docking Complex In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Jason M. Brown, Matthew Mosley, Daniela Montes-Berrueta, Yuqing Hou, Fan Yang, Chasity Scarbrough, George B. Witman, Maureen Wirschell 2017 Winston-Salem State University

Characterization Of A New Oda3 Allele, Oda3-6, Defective In Assembly Of The Outer Dynein Arm-Docking Complex In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Jason M. Brown, Matthew Mosley, Daniela Montes-Berrueta, Yuqing Hou, Fan Yang, Chasity Scarbrough, George B. Witman, Maureen Wirschell

Open Access Articles

We have used an insertional mutagenesis approach to generate new C. reinhardtii motility mutants. Of 56 mutants isolated, one is a new allele at the ODA3 locus, called oda3-6. Similar to the previously characterized oda3 alleles, oda3-6 has a slow-jerky swimming phenotype and reduced swimming speed. The oda3-6 mutant fails to assemble the outer dynein arm motor and outer dynein arm-docking complex (ODA-DC) in the ciliary axoneme due to an insertion in the 5' end of the DCC1 gene, which encodes the DC1 subunit of the ODA-DC. Transformation of oda3-6 with the wild-type DCC1 gene rescues the mutant swimming phenotype ...


Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2017 Duke University

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


The Connection Between Brg1, Ctcf And Topoisomerases At Tad Boundaries, Ahmet Rasim Barutcu, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein, Anthony N. Imbalzano 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Connection Between Brg1, Ctcf And Topoisomerases At Tad Boundaries, Ahmet Rasim Barutcu, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein, Anthony N. Imbalzano

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The eukaryotic genome is partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs). Despite recent advances characterizing TADs and TAD boundaries, the organization of these structures is an important dimension of genome architecture and function that is not well understood. Recently, we demonstrated that knockdown of BRG1, an ATPase driving the chromatin remodeling activity of mammalian SWI/SNF enzymes, globally alters long-range genomic interactions and results in a reduction of TAD boundary strength. We provided evidence suggesting that this effect may be due to BRG1 affecting nucleosome occupancy around CTCF sites present at TAD boundaries. In this review, we elaborate on our findings ...


Metformin Inhibits The Proliferation Of Benign Prostatic Epithelial Cells, Zongwei Wang, Xingyuan Xiao, Rongbin Ge, Jijun Li, Cameron W. Johnson, Cyrus Rassoulian, Aria F. Olumi 2017 Harvard Medical School

Metformin Inhibits The Proliferation Of Benign Prostatic Epithelial Cells, Zongwei Wang, Xingyuan Xiao, Rongbin Ge, Jijun Li, Cameron W. Johnson, Cyrus Rassoulian, Aria F. Olumi

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common proliferative abnormality of the prostate affecting elderly men throughout the world. Epidemiologic studies have shown that diabetes significantly increases the risk of developing BPH, although whether anti-diabetic medications preventing the development of BPH remains to be defined. We have previously found that stromally expressed insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promotes benign prostatic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms. Here, we seek to understand if metformin, a first line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, inhibits the proliferation of benign prostatic epithelial cells through reducing the expression of IGF-1 receptor ...


Statistical Analysis Of Genetic Interactions In Tn-Seq Data, Michael A. DeJesus, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Christopher M. Sassetti, Thomas R. Ioerger 2017 Texas A&M University

Statistical Analysis Of Genetic Interactions In Tn-Seq Data, Michael A. Dejesus, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Christopher M. Sassetti, Thomas R. Ioerger

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Tn-Seq is an experimental method for probing the functions of genes through construction of complex random transposon insertion libraries and quantification of each mutant's abundance using next-generation sequencing. An important emerging application of Tn-Seq is for identifying genetic interactions, which involves comparing Tn mutant libraries generated in different genetic backgrounds (e.g. wild-type strain versus knockout strain). Several analytical methods have been proposed for analyzing Tn-Seq data to identify genetic interactions, including estimating relative fitness ratios and fitting a generalized linear model. However, these have limitations which necessitate an improved approach. We present a hierarchical Bayesian method for identifying ...


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