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The Impact Of External Loads Carried By Police Officers On Vertical Jump Performance, Amy Wiley, Aaron Joseph, Robin Marc Orr, Ben Schram, Charles Kornhauser, Ryan J. Holmes, J. Jay Dawes 2020 Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine, Bond University

The Impact Of External Loads Carried By Police Officers On Vertical Jump Performance, Amy Wiley, Aaron Joseph, Robin Marc Orr, Ben Schram, Charles Kornhauser, Ryan J. Holmes, J. Jay Dawes

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(6): 1179-1189, 2020. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that external loads have on vertical jump height and peak anaerobic power output (PAPw) of police officers during a vertical jump (VJ) test. Retrospective data of 47 (mean age 38.79 ± 7.97 years) police officers from a US Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) were used for analysis. VJ heights and body mass were used in the Sayers Peak Power Equation to calculate PAPw. Power-to-weight (P:W) ratios were then calculated by dividing PAPw by the officer’s body mass. VJ height ...


Not All Hift Classes Are Created Equal: Evaluating Energy Expenditure And Relative Intensity Of A High-Intensity Functional Training Regimen, Jonathan D. Browne, Robert Carter, Anthony Robinson, Brigette Waldrup, Geoffrey Zhang, Erik Carrillo, Minhsang Dinh, Michael T. Arnold, Jonathan Hu, Eric V. Neufeld, Brett A. Dolezal 2020 University of California, Los Angeles

Not All Hift Classes Are Created Equal: Evaluating Energy Expenditure And Relative Intensity Of A High-Intensity Functional Training Regimen, Jonathan D. Browne, Robert Carter, Anthony Robinson, Brigette Waldrup, Geoffrey Zhang, Erik Carrillo, Minhsang Dinh, Michael T. Arnold, Jonathan Hu, Eric V. Neufeld, Brett A. Dolezal

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(4): 1206-1216, 2020. The demand for efficient and effective exercises has grown in concert with increased attention to fitness as a determinant of overall health. While past studies have examined the benefits traditional conditioning exercises, there have been few investigations of high intensity functional training (HIFT). The aim of this study was to measure the energy expenditure and relative intensity from participation in a signature, 35-minute group-based HIFT regimen. During the HIFT session, 13 volunteers (aged 23-59 years, 6 females) donned a portable breath-by-breath gas analyzer and a heart rate monitor. Mean caloric expenditure ...


Physiological Responses To Repeated Running Sprint Ability Tests: A Systematic Review, Jérémie Charron, Juan Emmanuel Veliz-Garcia, Philippe Roy, Pierre-Marc Ferland, Alain Steve Comtois 2020 University of Quebec in Montreal

Physiological Responses To Repeated Running Sprint Ability Tests: A Systematic Review, Jérémie Charron, Juan Emmanuel Veliz-Garcia, Philippe Roy, Pierre-Marc Ferland, Alain Steve Comtois

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(4): 1190-1205, 2020. The purpose of this study was to review acute physiological responses induced by repeated running sprint ability (RRSA) tests that could serve as references for practitioners utilising repeated sprints as a performance measure with athletes. This research was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. The systematic search was conducted in November 2019 and yielded 26 different scientific articles. Only peer-reviewed full-text article were included as abstracts are too short to allow proper explanation of the RRSAT methodology that was employed. According to the present literature, practitioners should use the following assessments: the ...


Characterization Of Viral Insulins Reveals White Adipose Tissue Specific Effects In Mice, Martina Chrudinová, Francois Moreau, Hye Lim Noh, Terezie Páníková, Lenka Žáková, Randall H. Friedline, Francisco A. Valenzuela, Jason K. Kim, Czech Academy of Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston College 2020 Boston College

Characterization Of Viral Insulins Reveals White Adipose Tissue Specific Effects In Mice, Martina Chrudinová, Francois Moreau, Hye Lim Noh, Terezie Páníková, Lenka Žáková, Randall H. Friedline, Francisco A. Valenzuela, Jason K. Kim, Czech Academy Of Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston College

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Members of the insulin/IGF superfamily are well conserved across the evolutionary tree. We recently showed that four viruses in the Iridoviridae family possess genes that encode proteins highly homologous to human insulin/IGF-1. Using chemically synthesized single chain (sc), i.e. IGF-1-like, forms of the viral insulin/IGF-1 like peptides (VILPs), we previously showed that they can stimulate human receptors. Because these peptides possess potential cleavage sites to form double chain (dc), i.e. more insulin-like, VILPs, in this study, we have characterized dc forms of VILPs for Grouper iridovirus (GIV), Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and Lymphocystis disease virus-1 ...


Reduced Neurog3 Gene Dosage Shifts Enteroendocrine Progenitor Toward Goblet Cell Lineage In The Mouse Intestine, Joyce H. Li, Subir Ray, Alper Kucukural, Gerard Gradwohl, Andrew B. Leiter 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Reduced Neurog3 Gene Dosage Shifts Enteroendocrine Progenitor Toward Goblet Cell Lineage In The Mouse Intestine, Joyce H. Li, Subir Ray, Alper Kucukural, Gerard Gradwohl, Andrew B. Leiter

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND and AIMS: Transient expression of Neurog3 commits intestinal secretory progenitors to become enteroendocrine-biased progenitors and hence drive enteroendocrine differentiation. Loss of Neurog3 in mouse resulted in the depletion of intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EECs) and an increase in goblet cells. Earlier studies in developing mouse pancreas showed Neurog3 gene dosage in endocrine and exocrine cell fate allocation. We aimed to determine whether Neurog3 gene dosage controls fate choice of enteroendocrine progenitors.

METHODS: We acquired mutant Neurog3 reporter mice carrying 2, 1, or null Neurog3 alleles to study Neurog3 gene dosage effect by lineage tracing. Cell types arising from Neurog3+ progenitors ...


Changes In Selected Physiological Parameters Following A Training Block Of Specific Circuit Training Among National Top-Level Basketball Players, Brigitte Affidéhomé TONON, Polycarpe Nounagnon GOUTHON, Issiako BIO NIGAN, Romario Vankan AKPATCHI, Basile NOUATIN 2020 University of Abomey-Calavi

Changes In Selected Physiological Parameters Following A Training Block Of Specific Circuit Training Among National Top-Level Basketball Players, Brigitte Affidéhomé Tonon, Polycarpe Nounagnon Gouthon, Issiako Bio Nigan, Romario Vankan Akpatchi, Basile Nouatin

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(6): 1156-1166, 2020. The study aims at measuring the effects of six weeks of specific circuit training (SCT) according to the 15-15 modality, on selected physiological parameters in national top-level basketball players. It was an intervention study, undertaken with 44 senior players randomly assigned to two groups depending on the program: intervention (IG: n = 22; SCT) and control (CG: n = 22; usual content of the defending champion team's), submitted to a six-week training block. The heart rate recovery at 1 (HRR1) and then 2 (HRR2) minutes, the double product (DP) and O2 ...


The Determinants Of Marathon Performance: An Observational Analysis Of Anthropometric, Pre-Race And In-Race Variables, Alison Keogh, Olwyn O'Connor Sheridan, Oisin McCaffrey, Siofra Dunne, Alanna Lally, Cailbhe Doherty 2020 University College Dublin

The Determinants Of Marathon Performance: An Observational Analysis Of Anthropometric, Pre-Race And In-Race Variables, Alison Keogh, Olwyn O'Connor Sheridan, Oisin Mccaffrey, Siofra Dunne, Alanna Lally, Cailbhe Doherty

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(6): 1132-1142, 2020. Researchers investigating the determinants of marathon performance have previously focused on pre-race (e.g. training) or in-race (e.g. pacing) variables, but not both. This cross-sectional study, therefore, sought to elucidate the relationship between training behaviours, in-race pacing and anthropometric variables with eventual marathon finish time. A self-report questionnaire collecting athletes’ anthropometrics, training behaviours and recent race times was administered to 260 participants in the 2018 Dublin Marathon. Participants’ race numbers were cross referenced with in-race split times and finish times to determine their race performance. The accuracy or pragmatism of ...


Motivational Coaching Improves Intrinsic Motivation In Adult Fitness Program Participants, Victoria J. Gaesser, William M. Maakestad, Erik S. Hayes, Stephen J. Snyder 2020 Taylor University - Upland

Motivational Coaching Improves Intrinsic Motivation In Adult Fitness Program Participants, Victoria J. Gaesser, William M. Maakestad, Erik S. Hayes, Stephen J. Snyder

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(5): 1167-1178, 2020. The purpose of this study was to measure intrinsic motivation following the implementation of motivational coaching strategies in a semester long personalized adult fitness program. Sixty individuals (40 female/ 20 male, age= 48 ± 15 yrs) participated as clients in an undergraduate exercise training program led by student trainers at Taylor University. The program took place during two consecutive semesters, therefore subject participation ranged from one to two semesters. In addition to personalized exercise prescription, student trainers implemented motivational strategies using a motivational coaching guide aimed at increasing individuals’ overall intrinsic motivation ...


The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-5 (Scat5): Baseline Assessments In Ncaa Division I Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kyle M. Petit, Jennifer L. Savage, Abigail C. Bretzin, Morgan Anderson, Tracey Covassin 2020 Michigan State University

The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-5 (Scat5): Baseline Assessments In Ncaa Division I Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kyle M. Petit, Jennifer L. Savage, Abigail C. Bretzin, Morgan Anderson, Tracey Covassin

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(3): 1143-1155, 2020. The purpose of this study was to report baseline values for the SCAT5 in NCAA Division I collegiate student-athletes, while also evaluating if sex, health diagnoses, or sport type influenced baseline performance. A sample of 462 collegiate student-athletes (212 females, 250 males, (19.21±1.32 years)) completed the SCAT5 prior to the 2017-18, 2018-19 or 2019-20 athletic seasons. Descriptive statistics were reported for symptom total (22 possible), symptom severity (132 possible), orientation (5 possible), immediate memory (30 possible), concentration (5 possible), delayed recall (10 possible), total SAC score (50 possible ...


Body Composition, Metabolism And Inflammation In Breast Cancer Survivors And Healthy Age-Matched Controls: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Takudzwa A. Madzima, Caroline D. Deaterly 2020 Elon University

Body Composition, Metabolism And Inflammation In Breast Cancer Survivors And Healthy Age-Matched Controls: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Takudzwa A. Madzima, Caroline D. Deaterly

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(3): 1108-1119, 2020. Breast cancer survivors (BCS) experience treatment induced alterations in body composition including the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and lean soft tissue (LST). These changes can affect the metabolism and the systemic inflammatory environment of BCS. Objective: To evaluate the differences in body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and inflammation in BCS and age-matched women without a prior cancer diagnosis (control). Methods: Seventeen post-menopausal BCS (stages 0-III; age: 59 ± 9 years) and 18 (59 ± 6 years) controls had their total body and regional (lumbar spine, femur, and forearm) BMD, LST ...


Mechanisms Of Beta-Cell Deficiency In Gestational Diabetes And Strategies To Reverse Hyperglycemia, Sandra K. Szlapinski 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Of Beta-Cell Deficiency In Gestational Diabetes And Strategies To Reverse Hyperglycemia, Sandra K. Szlapinski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly prevalent form of diabetes that first appears during pregnancy, and reverses after parturition in most cases. Nonetheless, GDM is associated with adverse maternal and fetal health outcomes. There is currently no reliable method of intervention for GDM and a limited understanding of the mechanisms of impaired endocrine adaptability in GDM. In this thesis, I aimed to address these knowledge gaps by establishing a mouse model for the study of suboptimal endocrine adaptations during pregnancy. This was accomplished using a dietary low protein (LP) insult during fetal and neonatal development, which programs for suboptimal ...


Long Qt Syndrome Type 2: Emerging Strategies For Correcting Class 2 Kcnh2 (Herg) Mutations And Identifying New Patients, Makoto Ono, Don E. Burgess, Elizabeth A. Schroder, Claude S. Elayi, Corey L. Anderson, Craig T. January, Bin Sun, Kalyan Immadisetty, Peter M. Kekenes-Huskey, Brian P. Delisle 2020 University of Kentucky

Long Qt Syndrome Type 2: Emerging Strategies For Correcting Class 2 Kcnh2 (Herg) Mutations And Identifying New Patients, Makoto Ono, Don E. Burgess, Elizabeth A. Schroder, Claude S. Elayi, Corey L. Anderson, Craig T. January, Bin Sun, Kalyan Immadisetty, Peter M. Kekenes-Huskey, Brian P. Delisle

Physiology Faculty Publications

Significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) have been made. A wide variety of experimental approaches, including heterologous expression of mutant ion channel proteins and the use of inducible pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from LQTS patients offer insights into etiology and new therapeutic strategies. This review briefly discusses the major molecular mechanisms underlying LQTS type 2 (LQT2), which is caused by loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in the KCNH2 gene (also known as the human ether-à-go-go-related gene or hERG). Almost half of suspected LQT2-causing mutations are missense mutations, and functional studies suggest ...


Single-Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie A. Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Single-Cell Rna Profiling Reveals Adipocyte To Macrophage Signaling Sufficient To Enhance Thermogenesis, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Adilson L. Guilherme, Mark Kelly, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Karl D. Bellve, Leslie A. Rowland, Batuhan Yenilmez, Shreya Kumar, Yetao Wang, Jeremy Luban, Michael P. Czech

Open Access Articles

Adipocytes deficient in fatty acid synthase (iAdFASNKO) emit signals that mimic cold exposure to enhance the appearance of thermogenic beige adipocytes in mouse inguinal white adipose tissues (iWATs). Both cold exposure and iAdFASNKO upregulate the sympathetic nerve fiber (SNF) modulator Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), activate SNFs, and require adipocyte cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling for beige adipocyte appearance, as it is blocked by adipocyte Gsalpha deficiency. Surprisingly, however, in contrast to cold-exposed mice, neither iWAT denervation nor Nrg4 loss attenuated adipocyte browning in iAdFASNKO mice. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of iWAT stromal cells revealed increased macrophages displaying gene expression ...


Altered Micos Morphology And Mitochondrial Ion Homeostasis Contribute To Poly(Gr) Toxicity Associated With C9-Als/Ftd, Shuangxi Li, Zhihao Wu, Yu Li, Ishaq Tantray, Diego De Stefani, Andrea Mattarei, Gopinath Krishnan, Fen-Biao Gao, Hannes Vogel, Bingwei Lu 2020 Stanford University

Altered Micos Morphology And Mitochondrial Ion Homeostasis Contribute To Poly(Gr) Toxicity Associated With C9-Als/Ftd, Shuangxi Li, Zhihao Wu, Yu Li, Ishaq Tantray, Diego De Stefani, Andrea Mattarei, Gopinath Krishnan, Fen-Biao Gao, Hannes Vogel, Bingwei Lu

Open Access Articles

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) manifests pathological changes in motor neurons and various other cell types. Compared to motor neurons, the contribution of the other cell types to the ALS phenotypes is understudied. G4C2 repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of ALS along with frontotemporal dementia (C9-ALS/FTD), with increasing evidence supporting repeat-encoded poly(GR) in disease pathogenesis. Here, we show in Drosophila muscle that poly(GR) enters mitochondria and interacts with components of the Mitochondrial Contact Site and Cristae Organizing System (MICOS), altering MICOS dynamics and intra-subunit interactions. This impairs mitochondrial inner membrane structure, ion homeostasis ...


Zebrafish As A Model To Understand The Impact Of Inactivity And Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation On Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Elisabeth Kilroy 2020 University of Maine

Zebrafish As A Model To Understand The Impact Of Inactivity And Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation On Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Elisabeth Kilroy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Skeletal muscle plasticity is imperative for functional adaptation to changing demands in activity. Although a great deal is known about the structural and functional plasticity of healthy skeletal muscle, far less is known about plasticity in diseased muscle. Here, we combined the power of the zebrafish model with the adaptability of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to study the basic mechanisms of plasticity in the zebrafish model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Four NMES paradigms, defined by their frequency, delay, and voltage, were designed to emulate the repetition and load schemes of human resistance training programs. Additionally, two inactivity paradigms were ...


Impacts Of Tourism On The Ecophysiology Of The Endangered Northern Bahamian Rock Iguana (Cyclura Cychlura), Alison C. Webb 2020 Utah State University

Impacts Of Tourism On The Ecophysiology Of The Endangered Northern Bahamian Rock Iguana (Cyclura Cychlura), Alison C. Webb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increased interest in ecotourism over recent years has led to more direct human-animal interactions and a striking concomitant increase in the provisioning of non-natural food, that may have unintended consequences for the wildlife involved. The critically endangered Northern Bahamian Rock Iguana provides a valuable model to address the potential impact of food provisioning on health as there are populations that represent a graded variation in human presence, with sites experiencing high, low, or no tourism. To assess the potential impacts of tourism on iguana physiology I first reviewed the relevant literature on iguana physiology and then performed three investigations focusing ...


Loss Of Supervillin Causes Myopathy With Myofibrillar Disorganization And Autophagic Vacuoles, Carola Hedberg-Oldfors, Elizabeth J. Luna, Anders Oldfors, Cordula Knopp 2020 University of Gothenburg

Loss Of Supervillin Causes Myopathy With Myofibrillar Disorganization And Autophagic Vacuoles, Carola Hedberg-Oldfors, Elizabeth J. Luna, Anders Oldfors, Cordula Knopp

Open Access Articles

The muscle specific isoform of the supervillin protein (SV2), encoded by the SVIL gene, is a large sarcolemmal myosin II- and F-actin-binding protein. Supervillin (SV2) binds and co-localizes with costameric dystrophin and binds nebulin, potentially attaching the sarcolemma to myofibrillar Z-lines. Despite its important role in muscle cell physiology suggested by various in vitro studies, there are so far no reports of any human disease caused by SVIL mutations. We here report four patients from two unrelated, consanguineous families with a childhood/adolescence onset of a myopathy associated with homozygous loss-of-function mutations in SVIL. Wide neck, anteverted shoulders and prominent ...


The Influence Of Normalization Technique On Between-Muscle Activation During A Back-Squat, J Adam Korak, Brett D. Bruininks, Max R. Paquette 2020 University of St. Thomas

The Influence Of Normalization Technique On Between-Muscle Activation During A Back-Squat, J Adam Korak, Brett D. Bruininks, Max R. Paquette

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(1): 1098-1107, 2020. Currently, no gold standard electromyography (EMG) normalizing technique exists when conducting between-muscle comparisons of muscle activity during isotonic resistance training exercises. The aim of this study was to assess if between-muscle activation during the back-squat differed among electromyography (EMG) normalization techniques when normalizing to: (1) 1 repetition maximum (1RM), (2) maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and (3) the first of a set of three repetitions (Rep1%) in trained female lifters. Thirteen participants completed a back-squat 1RM, MVIC of the rectus-femoris (RF) and gluteus-maximus (GM), and three repetitions of the back-squat at ...


Beaver And Naked Mole Rat Genomes Reveal Common Paths To Longevity, Xuming Zhou, Elinor K. Karlsson, Vadim N. Gladyshev 2020 Harvard Medical School

Beaver And Naked Mole Rat Genomes Reveal Common Paths To Longevity, Xuming Zhou, Elinor K. Karlsson, Vadim N. Gladyshev

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Long-lived rodents have become an attractive model for the studies on aging. To understand evolutionary paths to long life, we prepare chromosome-level genome assemblies of the two longest-lived rodents, Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber), which were scaffolded with in vitro proximity ligation and chromosome conformation capture data and complemented with long-read sequencing. Our comparative genomic analyses reveal that amino acid substitutions at "disease-causing" sites are widespread in the rodent genomes and that identical substitutions in long-lived rodents are associated with common adaptive phenotypes, e.g., enhanced resistance to DNA damage and cellular stress. By ...


Effects Of Power-Endurance And Controlled Heavy Squat Protocols On Vertical Jump Performance In Females, Cameron S. Mackey, Ryan M. Thiele, Jessica Schnaiter-Brasche, Doug B. Smith, Eric C. Conchola 2020 Oklahoma State University

Effects Of Power-Endurance And Controlled Heavy Squat Protocols On Vertical Jump Performance In Females, Cameron S. Mackey, Ryan M. Thiele, Jessica Schnaiter-Brasche, Doug B. Smith, Eric C. Conchola

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 13(4): 1072-1085, 2020. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immediate and acute vertical jump performance responses throughout and following two different free-weight back squat exercise protocols. Fifteen resistance-trained women (mean ± SD: age = 21.8 ± 0.9 years; height = 164.6 ± 8.4 cm; mass = 68.5 ± 9.2 kg) performed vertical jumps before (Pre), immediately after each set (S1-S5), and up to 20 minutes post squat exercise (Post0-Post20) of either a power-endurance (PE; 5×16 at 40% 1-RM) or controlled heavy (CHP; 5×8 at 80%) protocol. Participants’ jump height (JH ...


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