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A Review Of The Effects Of Dietary Restriction, Dehydration, And Caffeine Withdrawal On Cognition: Implications For A Disabled Submarine Scenario, Sarah Chabal 2020 Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory

A Review Of The Effects Of Dietary Restriction, Dehydration, And Caffeine Withdrawal On Cognition: Implications For A Disabled Submarine Scenario, Sarah Chabal

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

In the event that submariners become trapped aboard a disabled submarine (DISSUB), they must perform a multitude of cognitively demanding tasks in order to maximize their likelihood of survival. During this time, submariners will also be forced to endure poor living conditions, including drastic changes to their nutrition. These nutritional changes have the potential to impair submariners’ cognitive functioning and affect operational performance, which could jeopardize survival; however, the effects of DISSUB nutrition on cognitive performance are not well understood. This review first describes the unique nutritional conditions that submariners will experience in a DISSUB scenario, including the change to ...


“We’Re, Like, The Most Unhealthy People In The Country”: Employing An Equity Lens To Reduce Barriers To Healthy Food Access In Rural Appalachia, Kathryn Cardarelli, Emily M. DeWitt, Rachel Gillespie, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Natalie Jones, Janet Tietyen Mullins 2020 University of Kentucky

“We’Re, Like, The Most Unhealthy People In The Country”: Employing An Equity Lens To Reduce Barriers To Healthy Food Access In Rural Appalachia, Kathryn Cardarelli, Emily M. Dewitt, Rachel Gillespie, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Natalie Jones, Janet Tietyen Mullins

Dietetics and Human Nutrition Faculty Publications

Introduction

Obesity disproportionately affects rural communities, and Appalachia has some of the highest obesity rates in the nation. Successful policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) interventions to reduce obesity must reflect the circumstances of the population. We used a health equity lens to identify barriers and facilitators for healthy food access in Martin County, Kentucky, to design interventions responsive to social, cultural, and historical contexts.

Methods

We conducted 5 focus groups in Martin County, Kentucky, in fall 2019 to obtain perspectives on the local food system and gauge acceptability of PSE interventions. We used grounded theory to identify perceived barriers and ...


The Association Of The Inflammatory Potential Of Diet With Inflammation And Depression Among U.S. Adults: Nhanes 2005-2010, Deniz Azarmanesh 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Association Of The Inflammatory Potential Of Diet With Inflammation And Depression Among U.S. Adults: Nhanes 2005-2010, Deniz Azarmanesh

Doctoral Dissertations

Depression affects 8% of adults in America. Women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. The economic burden in the U.S. is $83 billion in direct (e.g., pharmaceutical) and indirect costs (e.g., absenteeism from work). The etiology of depression includes non-modifiable (e.g., genetics) and modifiable risk factors (e.g., diet). Depression is concurrent with an increase in inflammatory biomarkers, such as c-reactive protein (CRP). Emerging research suggests that a pro-inflammatory diet may increase odds of experiencing depression. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) assesses the inflammatory potential of diet.

According to our narrative review of ...


Adsorptive Surface Modification Of Cellulose Nanocrystals To Stabilize Nutraceuticals Loaded Lipid Carriers For Food Application, Avinash S. Patel 2020 University of Maine

Adsorptive Surface Modification Of Cellulose Nanocrystals To Stabilize Nutraceuticals Loaded Lipid Carriers For Food Application, Avinash S. Patel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lipid carriers such as emulsions and liposomes have been widely studied as carriers for different nutraceuticals. However, lipid carriers' physicochemical instability results in the leakage of loaded nutraceuticals and the low solubility into the digestion medium, thus reducing the bioaccessibility. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are nano-sized cellulose derivatives obtained after hydrolysis of cellulosic matrices that possess potential applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. However, hydrophilicity, anionic surface potential, and poor re-dispersibility limit CNC’s applications. The primary objectives of this research were 1) to modify CNC via adsorbing polyethylene glycol (PEG) to stabilize liposomes and to study its physiochemical stability at ...


Holidays And Healthy Choices, Jamie Baum 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Holidays And Healthy Choices, Jamie Baum

Diet, Food, Exercise, and Nutrition (D-FEND)

Objectives:

Healthy holiday eating

Incorporating physical activity into the holiday season

Budget friendly healthy holiday ideas


Power Ultrasonication Improves Tenderness And Proteolysis In Beef Steak During Aging, Chandler Stafford 2020 Utah State University

Power Ultrasonication Improves Tenderness And Proteolysis In Beef Steak During Aging, Chandler Stafford

Fall Student Research Symposium 2020

Among the eating qualities attributed to cooked meat, tenderness is considered an essential factor in dictating consumers' overall satisfaction and future purchase. Tenderness can be influenced by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors; however, the extent of postmortem proteolysis that occurs during meat aging is the main contributor to end-product tenderness. The process involves enzymatic degradation of key cytoskeletal proteins and the signaling of cellular apoptosis, which ultimately leads to the breakdown of muscles structural integrity, resulting in tenderization. The calcium-dependent calpain system, specifically calpain-1, has been recognized as the main protease involved in postmortem tenderization. In the presence of calcium ...


Belief, Virtue, And Illness In Late-Nineteenth Century Domestic Manuals, Anneka Walton 2020 Utah State University

Belief, Virtue, And Illness In Late-Nineteenth Century Domestic Manuals, Anneka Walton

Fall Student Research Symposium 2020

The belief that one's health is a result of their behavior has persisted throughout much of history. At times, these beliefs were so direct as to blame any and all illness on the "sins" of the victim. In some ways, we still see these beliefs persist today. While we now understand many of the true causes of illness, we continue to believe that poor behaviors can result in poor health outcomes, and often treat people suffering from conditions they "brought on themselves" accordingly. The object of this research is to better understand how American societal beliefs of the causes ...


Cytokine Indicators Of Inflammation In Mice Fed A Western Type Diet, Emily Mortensen 2020 Utah State University

Cytokine Indicators Of Inflammation In Mice Fed A Western Type Diet, Emily Mortensen

Fall Student Research Symposium 2020

Colorectal cancer is currently the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and is projected to cause 53,200 deaths during 2020. The risk of colon cancer increases by 8-20% in individuals who suffer from colitis, which is inflammation of the colon lining. Colitis is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The development of colorectal cancer is complex and can be associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, which has been shown to be affected by diet. Disruption of the gut microbiome can lead to the overgrowth of ...


Mitochondrial Pyruvate Consumption Decreases Glycolytic Flux In Postmortem Muscle, Natalie Keele 2020 Utah State University

Mitochondrial Pyruvate Consumption Decreases Glycolytic Flux In Postmortem Muscle, Natalie Keele

Fall Student Research Symposium 2020

Mitochondrial pyruvate consumption decreases glycolytic flux in postmortem muscleColor, water-holding capacity and tenderness are important aspects of meat quality that are impacted by pH. The pH of meat is primarily determined by the amount of anaerobic glycolysis that occurs postmortem. As glycogen is degraded, it will produce ATP, pyruvate and hydrogen ions that acidify the meat, and this acidification process is essential for proper meat quality development. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate is converted to lactate to restore NAD+ necessary for further glycolysis. In this state of anoxia, mitochondria are often ignored due to their reliance on oxygen to ...


Diet And Successful Aging, Jamie Baum 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Diet And Successful Aging, Jamie Baum

Diet, Food, Exercise, and Nutrition (D-FEND)

Learning Objectives:

Define successful aging

Understand the components of successful aging

Learn diets and dietary patterns for successful aging

Physical activity and successful aging


Understanding Caffeine Vs. Kids, Cindy Nelson, Rachel McMaster 2020 Utah State University

Understanding Caffeine Vs. Kids, Cindy Nelson, Rachel Mcmaster

All Current Publications

Children enjoy numerous foods and drinks on a regular basis that contain caffeine: soda, chocolate candy, energy drinks, and so forth. In fact, almost 3 out of 4 children consume caffeine regularly (American Academy of Family Physicians, 2020). This is a concern because studies show caffeine can affect children and adults differently, and too much caffeine can have detrimental health effects on kids. This fact sheet defines caffeine, reviews its effects and risks, identifies popular foods containing caffeine, and how to reduce consumption of caffeine.


A Note From The Editor, Kristina Bross 2020 Purdue University

A Note From The Editor, Kristina Bross

Ideas: Exhibit Catalog for the Honors College Visiting Scholars Series

This letter introduces issue five of volume one, Ideas magazine, featuring the work of Dr. Lindsay Bottoms, fencer and sports physiologist.


Non-Coding Rna In Raw And Commercially Processed Milk And Putative Targets Related To Growth And Immune-Response, Sayane Shome, Robert Jernigan, Donald C. Beitz, Stephanie Clark, E. Testroet 2020 Iowa State University

Non-Coding Rna In Raw And Commercially Processed Milk And Putative Targets Related To Growth And Immune-Response, Sayane Shome, Robert Jernigan, Donald C. Beitz, Stephanie Clark, E. Testroet

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Background: Bovine milk contains extracellular vesicles (EVs) that play a role in cellular communication, acting in either an autocrine, paracrine, or an exocrine manner. The unique properties of the EVs protect the cargo against degradation. We proled the ncRNAs (non-coding RNA) present in the EVs from ve uid dairy products - raw whole milk, heat-treated skim milk, homogenized heat-treated skim milk, pasteurized homogenized skim milk, and pasteurized heavy whipping cream (four replicates each) obtained at different processing steps from a commercial dairy plant. EVs and their cargo were extracted by using a validated commercial kit that has been shown to be ...


Anti-Inflammatory Properties Of Blackberry Phenolic And Volatile Compounds, Pauline Morin 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Anti-Inflammatory Properties Of Blackberry Phenolic And Volatile Compounds, Pauline Morin

Theses and Dissertations

Berries are known for many health benefits including anti-inflammatory properties that lower risks of chronic diseases. These properties have been linked to high concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. However, the present study hypothesized that volatiles could contribute to the berries’ bioactive properties. Thus, the objectives of this research are to profile the phenolic and volatile composition of 16 blackberry genotypes harvested at the Fruit Research Center of the University of Arkansas and to evaluate the antiinflammatory capacities of three selected genotypes on inflamed cells. Phenolic and volatile profiles were evaluated using chromatographic techniques. The three genotypes A2528T, A2587T and ...


Dietary Regulation Of Successful Aging, Aubree L. Hawley 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dietary Regulation Of Successful Aging, Aubree L. Hawley

Theses and Dissertations

The current growth of the older population is unprecedented in U.S. history. Chronic disease and functional limitation commonly develop prior to old age, leading to prolonged physical disability and decreased well-being. The development of chronic disease and loss of independence is associated with lean body mass (LBM) loss and fat mass gain beginning in middle age. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable factors to mitigate deleterious shifts in body composition to promote successful aging (SA). The concept of SA is associated with longevity, the absence of disease and disability, and subjective components of well-being, however, an operational definition ...


Availability And Consumption Of Vitamin A Foods Among Southern Ethiopian And Zambian Primary Students, Trang Vuong 2020 University of Nebraska Lincoln

Availability And Consumption Of Vitamin A Foods Among Southern Ethiopian And Zambian Primary Students, Trang Vuong

NUTR/GLST 498b: Global Research Experiences in Nutrition & Health

Purpose: Understand vitamin A food availability in open-air markets (OAM’s), and consumption of those foods by primary school children in southern Ethiopia/Zambia.

Methods: Conducted inventories of all consumable/potable items and interviewed 6-7th grade students about consumption of items with vitamin A.

Results: Students consumed most of the 14 vitamin A foods/items sold in OAM’s. Zambian students ate more liver, pumpkin, squash, watermelon, and wild fruits, while Ethiopian students almost never consumed squash, watermelon or wild fruits.

Conclusions: The availability of Vitamin A foods in Ethiopian and Zambian OAMs are varied; however, Zambian children reportedly eat ...


Antioxidant Properties And Anti-Cancer Effects Of Polyphenols In Sweetpotato Leaves, Josue Bolanos 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Antioxidant Properties And Anti-Cancer Effects Of Polyphenols In Sweetpotato Leaves, Josue Bolanos

Theses and Dissertations

Although the root is widely consumed, sweetpotato leaves (SPL) are often discarded and are only consumed in a few countries. In the United States, SPL consumption is limited to private gardens, particularly in the Southeastern United States. Not only are SPL a good source of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, but they also contain polyphenol compounds including the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and carotenoids such as lutein. Several studies have shown the polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities of SPL, which vary based on year and variety, while few studies have shown anti-colon cancer effects of SPL. Therefore, this study investigated ...


The Effect Of Epa And Dha On Skeletal Muscle Physiology And Energy Balance, Saeed Jebor Ghnaimawi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Epa And Dha On Skeletal Muscle Physiology And Energy Balance, Saeed Jebor Ghnaimawi

Theses and Dissertations

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation commonly suggested during pregnancy confers many health benefits on offspring and more recently improves fetal BAT development and induces myoblast trans-differentiation into adiopocytes through activating PPARs expression. Embryonic myoblast is a highly flexible cell showing great capacity to change its phenotype into adipocyte in response to EPA and DHA supplementation in many in vitro models. However, a little is known about the identity of derived adipocytes, whether, they change into brown or white adipocyte, and in vivo evidence is still missing. Given that the myogeneis process is initiated at the mid of ...


The Energy Savings-Oxidative Cost Trade-Off For Migratory Birds During Endurance Flight, Scott R. McWilliams, Barbara J. Pierce, Andrea Wittenzellner, Lillie A. Langlois, Sophia Engel, John R. Speakman, Olivia Fatica, Kristen J. DeMoranville, Wolfgang Goymann, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger 2020 University of Rhode Island

The Energy Savings-Oxidative Cost Trade-Off For Migratory Birds During Endurance Flight, Scott R. Mcwilliams, Barbara J. Pierce, Andrea Wittenzellner, Lillie A. Langlois, Sophia Engel, John R. Speakman, Olivia Fatica, Kristen J. Demoranville, Wolfgang Goymann, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger

Biology Faculty Publications

Elite human and animal athletes must acquire the fuels necessary for extreme feats, but also contend with the oxidative damage associated with peak metabolic performance. Here, we show that a migratory bird with fuel stores composed of more omega-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) expended 11% less energy during long-duration (6 hr) flights with no change in oxidative costs; however, this short-term energy savings came at the long-term cost of higher oxidative damage in the omega-6 PUFA-fed birds. Given that fatty acids are primary fuels, key signaling molecules, the building blocks of cell membranes, and that oxidative damage has long-term consequences for ...


Bifidobacterium Infantis Metabolizes 2'Fucosyllactose-Derived And Free Fucose Through A Common Catabolic Pathway Resulting In 1,2-Propanediol Secretion, Liv R. Dedon, Ezgi Ozcan, Asha Rani, David A. Sela 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Bifidobacterium Infantis Metabolizes 2'Fucosyllactose-Derived And Free Fucose Through A Common Catabolic Pathway Resulting In 1,2-Propanediol Secretion, Liv R. Dedon, Ezgi Ozcan, Asha Rani, David A. Sela

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) enrich beneficial bifidobacteria in the infant gut microbiome which produce molecules that impact development and physiology. 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) is a highly abundant fucosylated HMO which is utilized by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, despite limited scientific understanding of the underlying mechanism. Moreover, there is not a current consensus on whether free fucose could be metabolized when not incorporated in a larger oligosaccharide structure. Based on metabolic and genomic analyses, we hypothesize that B. infantis catabolizes both free fucose and fucosyl oligosaccharide residues to produce 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD). Accordingly, systems-level approaches including transcriptomics and proteomics ...


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