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Leveraging Community Health Workers’ Expertise In The Community To Address Food Insecurity In Appalachia, Alexis Kimbro Scott 2022 University of Kentucky

Leveraging Community Health Workers’ Expertise In The Community To Address Food Insecurity In Appalachia, Alexis Kimbro Scott

Theses and Dissertations--Dietetics and Human Nutrition

Residents of the Appalachian region of Kentucky are disproportionately affected by poor social determinants of health that contribute to the persistence of food insecurity and diet related diseases in this region. Poverty levels persist in rural areas of the Appalachian region while they improve throughout the rest of the United States. As this further perpetuates food insecurity in rural Appalachia, it is critical to identify culturally sensitive solutions to food insecurity. Utilizing Community Health Workers (CHWs), lay members of the community who have deep understanding of the communities they live in and serve, may be the answer to this problem ...


Practices Of Vitamin D Supplementation Leading To Vitamin D Toxicity: Experience From A Low-Middle Income Country, Siraj Muneer, Imran Siddiqui, Hafsa Majid, Nawazish Zehra, Lena Jafri, Aysha Habib 2022 Aga Khan University

Practices Of Vitamin D Supplementation Leading To Vitamin D Toxicity: Experience From A Low-Middle Income Country, Siraj Muneer, Imran Siddiqui, Hafsa Majid, Nawazish Zehra, Lena Jafri, Aysha Habib

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Introduction: The trend of prescribing VD preparations for nonspecific body aches and self-medication has increased significantly. The importance of vitamin D toxicity (VDT) has been underestimated and under recognized. This study was done to determine the frequency toxicity (>150 ng/ml) in subjects for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and evaluate the vitamin D (VD) supplements used by these subjects.
Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Section of Chemical Pathology, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi from April 2020 to March 2021. Subjects with 25OHD toxicity were contacted and information related to history of calcium and VD supplementation were collected ...


Nutrition Education And The Effects On Athletic Performance In Collegiate Athletes With Low Energy Availability, Karleigh Sudenga 2022 South Dakota State University

Nutrition Education And The Effects On Athletic Performance In Collegiate Athletes With Low Energy Availability, Karleigh Sudenga

Health and Nutritional Sciences Graduate Students Plan B Capstone Projects

Current research suggests that collegiate athletes lack nutritional knowledge needed for optimal athletic performance. The absence of basic nutritional knowledge in college athletes puts them at an increased risk for RED-S and its sports performance consequences. The objective of this narrative review is to evaluate the literature on low energy availability in collegiate athletes and determine if nutrition education can improve athletic performance. Multiple studies concluded that nutrition education may improve dietary intake in collegiate athletes, while there was one contradicting study that found that athletes improved nutritional knowledge but did not improve dietary intake. 3 studies found that low ...


Narrative Review Of The Relationship Between Depression And Low Blood Folate And Vitamin B12 Levels, Jennifer Sip 2022 South Dakota State University

Narrative Review Of The Relationship Between Depression And Low Blood Folate And Vitamin B12 Levels, Jennifer Sip

Health and Nutritional Sciences Graduate Students Plan B Capstone Projects

Depression is a common psychological mood disorder that impacts more than 16 million adults in the United States. It can impact several areas of a person’s life including physical activity, diet and daily activities. The role of nutrition in depression therapy has been researched for several years, with folate and vitamin B12 being the main highlights. Folate and vitamin B12 play a vital role in the development of the central nervous system and conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Past research has found inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between folate, vitamin B12 and their role in depression. This article dives ...


Maximal Strength Training Increases Metabolic Energy Expenditure In Sedentary Adults Classified As Obese, Robert E. Anderson III 2022 University of Kentucky

Maximal Strength Training Increases Metabolic Energy Expenditure In Sedentary Adults Classified As Obese, Robert E. Anderson Iii

Theses and Dissertations--Dietetics and Human Nutrition

Background: Metabolic adaptations reduce resting and non-resting energy expenditure to account for approximately 120 kcal/day. Weight loss promotes greater skeletal muscle efficiency, reducing the energy cost of physical activity and is correlated with declines in skeletal muscle glucose oxidation. Maximal Strength Training (MST) has the potential to upregulate glucose utilization and may offset these metabolic adaptations. Objective: To determine if MST offsets markers of metabolic adaptation by increasing resting and non-resting energy expenditure in sedentary individuals classified as obese. Methods: Five (5) participants (2 females, 3 males), ages 18-35 years, with obesity (BMI 30–45 kg/m2) were enrolled ...


Pilot Study: The Role Of Online Grocery Shopping In Meal Planning & Prepartion: Utilizing Text Message Based Behavioral Nudges, Brittany Nikole Cox 2022 University of Kentucky

Pilot Study: The Role Of Online Grocery Shopping In Meal Planning & Prepartion: Utilizing Text Message Based Behavioral Nudges, Brittany Nikole Cox

Theses and Dissertations--Dietetics and Human Nutrition

Purpose: To examine if an online grocery shopping intervention improves meal planning and preparation and subsequent dietary intake. The primary hypothesis was that online shopping can improve meal planning and meal preparation habits while also improving dietary intake.

Method: Participants were randomized to either online only (O), online plus nutritional nudges (O+I), or standard brick and mortar (BM). Those in the O+I arm received behavioral nudges three (3) times per week and were part of a Facebook group assisting them with meal planning, nutrition education, and reminders to shop online. The O arm only received reminders to shop ...


Needs Assessment Of Diabetes Self-Management Education And Support Within West Virginia From Provider Viewpoints, Kasey M. Yost 2022 West Virginia University

Needs Assessment Of Diabetes Self-Management Education And Support Within West Virginia From Provider Viewpoints, Kasey M. Yost

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Diabetes is a chronic health condition that affects millions of Americans. It can have significant, lasting effects on an individual’s mental and physical wellbeing, especially when it goes unmanaged or untreated. Diabetes has been a growing problem in West Virginia (WV), which has the highest adult rate of diabetes at 15.7% in the US. Furthermore, WV has the highest mortality rate associated with diabetes at 36.2%. An effective method of management is through diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES). DSMES is a critical component of care for all individuals with diabetes. It is defined as the ongoing ...


Western Diet In Adulthood, Timing Of Menarche, And Economic Status Among Northeast Ohioans, Kailey Maroni, Anne Wiley PhD, Nicole M. Burt PhD, Randall J. Mitchell PhD 2022 The University of Akron

Western Diet In Adulthood, Timing Of Menarche, And Economic Status Among Northeast Ohioans, Kailey Maroni, Anne Wiley Phd, Nicole M. Burt Phd, Randall J. Mitchell Phd

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I studied the age at first menstruation as a predictor of Western diet consumption among adults at The University of Akron and in Cleveland. I used stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of human hair, as well as surveyed consumption of foods important to a Western diet (red meat, sugar, and dairy), to understand whether participants aligned with a Western dietary pattern. Age at survey and adult economic status were investigated as potential confounding variables. My data analysis and conclusions for this project has been completed and approved by my advisor and committee. To maintain collaborators' ability to publish a ...


Developing A Community-Based Rehabilitation Programs In Elderly Nursing Home: A Brief Descriptive Analysis, Melinda Harini, Dosmaria Dosmaria, Herry Herry, Lisa Emilda, Listyani Herman, Nelfidayani Nelfidayani, Putu K. Mahardini, Shynta D. Hantogo, Widya Meiliana, Ikhsan Johnson, Peggy Peggy, Wanarani Aries, Widjajalaksmi Kusumaningsih, Luh K. Wahyuni 2021 Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta

Developing A Community-Based Rehabilitation Programs In Elderly Nursing Home: A Brief Descriptive Analysis, Melinda Harini, Dosmaria Dosmaria, Herry Herry, Lisa Emilda, Listyani Herman, Nelfidayani Nelfidayani, Putu K. Mahardini, Shynta D. Hantogo, Widya Meiliana, Ikhsan Johnson, Peggy Peggy, Wanarani Aries, Widjajalaksmi Kusumaningsih, Luh K. Wahyuni

ASEAN Journal of Community Engagement

The need for rehabilitation services in nursing homes (NH) for the elderly is increasing each year, and this need is fulfilled both with ordinary clinical rehabilitation center visits, as well as community-based rehabilitation (CBR) inside the facility. However, a proper situation analysis is needed to establish a well-delivered CBR program in the NH, a niche to be fulfilled in this study. This study used a descriptive measurement and cross-sectional design to target the elderly who are living in the NHs. Consecutive sampling was done in the largest NH in Jakarta, in Cipayung District. Participants who were dependently ambulated were assessed ...


Nutritional Status Of Children Living Within Institution-Based Care: A Retrospective Analysis With Funnel Plots And Control Charts For Programme Monitoring, Emily DeLacey, Evan Hilberg, Elizabeth Allen, Michael Quiring, Cally J. Tann, Nora Ellen Groce, James Vilus, Ethan A. Bergman, Merzel Demasu-Ay, Hang T. Dam, Marko Kerac 2021 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Nutritional Status Of Children Living Within Institution-Based Care: A Retrospective Analysis With Funnel Plots And Control Charts For Programme Monitoring, Emily Delacey, Evan Hilberg, Elizabeth Allen, Michael Quiring, Cally J. Tann, Nora Ellen Groce, James Vilus, Ethan A. Bergman, Merzel Demasu-Ay, Hang T. Dam, Marko Kerac

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of Education and Professional Studies

Objectives The aim of this study is to fill a key information gap on the nutrition-related epidemiology of orphaned and vulnerable children living within institution-based care (IBC) across six countries.

Design A retrospective analysis with Shewhart control charts and funnel plots to explore intersite and over time variations in nutritional status.

Setting We conducted a retrospective analysis of records from Holt International’s Child Nutrition Programme from 35 sites in six countries; Mongolia, India, Ethiopia, Vietnam, China and the Philippines.

Participants Deidentified health records from Holt International’s online nutrition screening database included records from 2926 children, 0–18 years ...


Descriptive Study Of A Healthy Weight Management Program For Overweight Or Obese Children And Youth, Chad Roberts, Pam Kasyan-Howe, Kristin Domville, Lisa Schubert 2021 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences

Descriptive Study Of A Healthy Weight Management Program For Overweight Or Obese Children And Youth, Chad Roberts, Pam Kasyan-Howe, Kristin Domville, Lisa Schubert

Fall 2021 Virtual OTD Capstone Symposium

The rise in obesity among children and youth in the last 20 years is a public health concern. The prevalence of childhood obesity has multiplied worldwide in the last four decades (“The Heavy Burden of Obesity and the Economics of Prevention,” 2019). Obesity is a complex chronic disease in which abnormal or excessive accumulation of body fat impairs health (Wharton et al., 2020). Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social and emotional well-being, and self-esteem (Rankin et al., 2016 & Purnell et al., 2018). The problem is a lack of an occupation-based evaluation tool utilized to link occupational participation to health, well-being, and quality of life to improve occupational engagement for children and youth who are obese and overweight ages 8-16 (Benjamin Neelon et al., 2016; Gold et al., 2018., p. 308-309;J. Kugel et al., 2017; Pandita et al., 2016; Pizzi, 2016; Pizzi ...


Socio-Economic Disparity In Food Consumption Among Young Children In Eight South Asian And Southeast Asian Countries, Yunhee Kang, Chulwoo Park, Anna Marie Pacheco Young, Jihye Kim 2021 Johns Hopkins School of Public Health

Socio-Economic Disparity In Food Consumption Among Young Children In Eight South Asian And Southeast Asian Countries, Yunhee Kang, Chulwoo Park, Anna Marie Pacheco Young, Jihye Kim

Faculty Research, Scholarly, and Creative Activity

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
This study examined socio-economic differences in diverse food consumption among children 6–23 months of age in South Asia and Southeast Asian countries.
SUBJECTS/METHODS
Data from Demographic and Health Surveys in four countries in South Asia (n = 15,749) and four countries in Southeast Asia (n = 10,789) were used. Survey-design adjusted proportions were estimated for the following 10 food items: grains, legumes, dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), vitamin A-rich fruits, vitamin A-rich vegetables, other fruits and vegetables (OFV), fish, meat, dairy, and eggs. An equity gap was defined as an arithmetic difference in the proportion of ...


Policy Implications Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Food Security In Rural America: Evidence From Appalachia, Kathryn M. Cardarelli, Emily M. DeWitt, Rachel Gillespie, Rachel Hogg-Graham, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Janet T. Mullins 2021 University of Kentucky

Policy Implications Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Food Security In Rural America: Evidence From Appalachia, Kathryn M. Cardarelli, Emily M. Dewitt, Rachel Gillespie, Rachel Hogg-Graham, Heather Norman-Burgdolf, Janet T. Mullins

Dietetics and Human Nutrition Faculty Publications

Rural communities are disproportionally affected by food insecurity, making them vulnerable to the consequences of supply disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. While access to food was initially diminished due to food supply disruptions, little is known about the mechanisms through which federal emergency assistance programs impacted food access in rural populations. Through a series of five focus groups in spring 2021, we examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food access in a rural Appalachian community in Kentucky. Data were analyzed using a Grounded Theory Approach. Findings revealed the following four primary themes: food scarcity in grocery stores ...


Mechanical Overload-Induced Muscle-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Adipose Tissue Lipolysis, Ivan J. Vechetti jr, Bailey D. Peck, Yuan Wen, R Grace Walton, Taylor R. Valentino, Alexander P. Alimov, Cory M. Dungan, Douglas W. Van Pelt, Ferdinand von Walden, Bjorn Alkner, Charlotte A. Peterson, John J. McCarthy 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanical Overload-Induced Muscle-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Adipose Tissue Lipolysis, Ivan J. Vechetti Jr, Bailey D. Peck, Yuan Wen, R Grace Walton, Taylor R. Valentino, Alexander P. Alimov, Cory M. Dungan, Douglas W. Van Pelt, Ferdinand Von Walden, Bjorn Alkner, Charlotte A. Peterson, John J. Mccarthy

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

How regular physical activity is able to improve health remains poorly understood. The release of factors from skeletal muscle following exercise has been proposed as a possible mechanism mediating such systemic benefits. We describe a mechanism wherein skeletal muscle, in response to a hypertrophic stimulus induced by mechanical overload (MOV), released extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing muscle-specific miR-1 that were preferentially taken up by epidydimal white adipose tissue (eWAT). In eWAT, miR-1 promoted adrenergic signaling and lipolysis by targeting Tfap2α, a known repressor of Adrβ3 expression. Inhibiting EV release prevented the MOV-induced increase in eWAT miR-1 abundance and expression of lipolytic ...


Probiotic Intervention Improves Recovery Of Hippocampal Memory And Hippocampal Atrophy Following Disruption From High-Fat Diet In Adult Rats, Sanyourah A. El-Hulu 2021 Belmont University

Probiotic Intervention Improves Recovery Of Hippocampal Memory And Hippocampal Atrophy Following Disruption From High-Fat Diet In Adult Rats, Sanyourah A. El-Hulu

Honors Theses

Presently, lifestyle factors such as chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption occurs concomitantly with weight gain and obesity (Gil-Cardoso et al., 2017; Stranahan et al., 2008). In turn, obesity has been associated with impairments to mental functioning, specifically to memory. Human epidemiological studies show that HFD intake containing saturated, and omega-6-fatty acids is associated with worse performance on a cognitive task whereas a lower fat diet containing omega-3-fatty acids is associated with a protective effect against cognitive decline (Zhang et al., 2006; Uranga et al., 2010). One explanation for this is the critical role of the gut bacteria in brain health ...


Investigating Therapeutic Strategies To Target Metabolic Vulnerabilities Of Nsclc Tumors With Mutant Keap1 Gene, Pranavi Koppula 2021 The Texas Medical Center Library

Investigating Therapeutic Strategies To Target Metabolic Vulnerabilities Of Nsclc Tumors With Mutant Keap1 Gene, Pranavi Koppula

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The metabolic vulnerability of cancers has long been envisaged as an attractive window to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Metabolic flexibility at the cellular level encompasses the efficient rerouting of anabolic and catabolic pathways in response to varying environmental stimuli to maintain cellular homeostasis and sustain proliferation. The primary objective of this study is to identify metabolic vulnerabilities bestowed by KEAP1/NRF2 signaling axis through SLC7A11. SLC7A11 is a transcriptional target of NRF2, an essential regulator of cellular anti-oxidant response. Under unstressed basal conditions, NRF2 interacts with KEAP1, a tumor suppressor gene and a substrate adaptor protein of the Cullin3-dependent ubiquitin ...


The Studies Of Effects Of Vitamin A Status On Type 2 Diabetes In Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats And Retinoic Acid On Glucose Transporter 4 Expression In L6 Cells, Tiannan Wang 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Studies Of Effects Of Vitamin A Status On Type 2 Diabetes In Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats And Retinoic Acid On Glucose Transporter 4 Expression In L6 Cells, Tiannan Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

The epidemic of metabolic diseases such as diabetes has become a public health concern. Previous research data from our lab have shown that vitamin A (VA) status and retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of VA, contribute to the glucose and lipid metabolism in the body and cells. As the skeletal muscle contributes to metabolic homeostasis, the effects of VA signaling system on its glucose metabolism are worth to be investigated. Here in this dissertation, the following two projects were carried out to study the VA’s role in the control of metabolism. (1) The effects of VA status on the ...


The Yearly Financing Need Of Providing Paid Maternity Leave In The Informal Sector In Indonesia, Adiatma Y. M. Siregar, Pipit Pitriyan, Donny Hardiawan, Paul Zambrano, Mireya Vilar-Compte, Graciela Ma Teruel Belismelis, Meztli Moncada, David Tamayo, Grace Carroll, Rafael Perez-Escamilla, Roger Mathisen 2021 Universitas Padjadjaran

The Yearly Financing Need Of Providing Paid Maternity Leave In The Informal Sector In Indonesia, Adiatma Y. M. Siregar, Pipit Pitriyan, Donny Hardiawan, Paul Zambrano, Mireya Vilar-Compte, Graciela Ma Teruel Belismelis, Meztli Moncada, David Tamayo, Grace Carroll, Rafael Perez-Escamilla, Roger Mathisen

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Background: The economic cost of not breastfeeding in Indonesia is estimated at US$1.5–9.4 billion annually, the highest in South East Asia. Half of the 33.6 million working women of reproductive age (WRA) in Indonesia (15–49 years) are informal employees, meaning they are working as casual workers or they are self-employed (small scale business) and assisted by unpaid/family worker(s). No specific maternity protection entitlements are currently available for WRA working informally in Indonesia. This study aims to estimate the financing need of providing maternity leave cash transfer (MCT) for WRA working in the ...


Breastfeeding Media Coverage And Beliefs During The Covid-19 Pandemic In Mexico: Implications For Breastfeeding Equity, Mireya Vilar-Compte, P. Gaitán‐Rossi, E. C. Rhodes, V. Cruz‐Villalba, R. Pérez‐Escamilla 2021 Montclair State University

Breastfeeding Media Coverage And Beliefs During The Covid-19 Pandemic In Mexico: Implications For Breastfeeding Equity, Mireya Vilar-Compte, P. Gaitán‐Rossi, E. C. Rhodes, V. Cruz‐Villalba, R. Pérez‐Escamilla

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Background: Because breastfeeding offers short- and long- term health benefits to mothers and children, breastfeeding promotion and support is a public health priority. Evidence shows that SARS-CoV-2 is not likely to be transmitted via breastmilk. Moreover, antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are thought to be contained in breastmilk of mothers with history of COVID-19 infection or vaccination. WHO recommends direct breastfeeding as the preferred infant feeding option during the COVID-19 pandemic, even among women with COVID-19; but conflicting practices have been adopted, which could widen existing inequities in breastfeeding. This study aims to describe how information about breastfeeding was communicated in Mexican ...


American Bullfrog (Lithobates Catesbeianus) Diet In Uruguay Compared With Other Invasive Populations In Southern South America, Gabriel Laufer, Noelia Gobel, Mauro Berazategui, Matías Zarucki, Sofía Cortizas, Alvaro Soutullo, Claudio Martinez Debat, Rafael O. de Sá 2021 University of Richmond

American Bullfrog (Lithobates Catesbeianus) Diet In Uruguay Compared With Other Invasive Populations In Southern South America, Gabriel Laufer, Noelia Gobel, Mauro Berazategui, Matías Zarucki, Sofía Cortizas, Alvaro Soutullo, Claudio Martinez Debat, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Between 2000-2020, more than ten new populations of the invasive American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) have been reported in the southern cone of South America. We studied the stomach contents of 126 bullfrogs from a population at an early invasion stage in Uruguay (Acegua, Cerro Largo Department). We observed a rich diet, with extensive prey volume range (1 mm3 to more than 7 000 mm(3)); the most frequent items were Hymenoptera (19.6%), Coleoptera (16.4%), Amphipoda (13.3%), Anura (8.9%) and Heteroptera (8.7%). Despite some overlap, differences were observed in volume (chi(2) = 54.6, p <0.001, d.f. = 2) and prey quantity (F = 8.1, p <0.001, d.f. = 79) between males, females, and juveniles. Juveniles showed significantly higher consumption of terrestrial prey by count (82% of their total ingestion) than adults (29% for males and 32% for females) (chi(2) = 28.5, p <0.001, d.f. = 2). Adults, especially females, showed a high frequency of cannibalism (33% of their total ingestion; chi(2) = 20.9, p <0.001, d.f. = 2). Comparing our data with other bullfrog regional studies, we found great plasticity in trophic habits and differences in the incidence of cannibalism (higher incidence in the populations of Acegua, Uruguay, and Buenos Aires, Argentina). These differences could be related to local biodiversity, but also could be affected by the invasion phase. Cannibalism frequency was higher in small bullfrog populations, where it could be favoring the establishment success. This shift in foraging strategies during the invasion process had been insufficiently evaluated in amphibians. Knowing the ecological determinants for the invasion by bullfrogs can be useful to the development of management strategies.


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