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The Effects Of Lean Beef Supplementation On The Iron Status Of College Athletes, Jocelyn Johnson, Danielle Burke, Matthew Vukovich, Kendra Kattelmann 2017 South Dakota State University

The Effects Of Lean Beef Supplementation On The Iron Status Of College Athletes, Jocelyn Johnson, Danielle Burke, Matthew Vukovich, Kendra Kattelmann

Matthew Vukovich

The purpose of this study was to determine whether weekly supplementation with nine ounces of prepackaged lean beef sticks could maintain the iron status of college endurance athletes. Thirty-four college endurance athletes (20 female, 14 male) were stratified by sex, baseline serum ferritin concentration, and use of iron supplements, and randomized into an intervention (n = 18) or control (n = 16) group. The participants in the intervention group supplemented their usual diet with nine ounces of prepackaged lean beef sticks per week and a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement containing 18 mg iron. The participants in the control group consumed their normal ...


Energy Balance During A Self-Sufficient, Multistage Ultramarathon, Paul A. Hough, James Earle 2017 St. Mary's University

Energy Balance During A Self-Sufficient, Multistage Ultramarathon, Paul A. Hough, James Earle

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Endurance athletes are recommended to maintain energy balance and ensure adequate energy availability (EA) so that endurance performance is not compromised. Purpose: Describe and evaluate the energy balance of an athlete competing in a self-sufficient, multistage ultramarathon (MSU). Methods: A male endurance athlete (age 35 years; height 183.0 cm; body mass 78.4 kg; VO2max 66 ml/kg/min) volunteered to take part in this observational case study prior to competing in the Marathon des Sables (MdS) 2016. The subject self-reported energy intake (EI) by reviewing his dietary plan following each stage. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated ...


Added Sugar Consumption Among College Students, Maram Murad 2017 University of the Incarnate Word

Added Sugar Consumption Among College Students, Maram Murad

Theses & Dissertations

Added sugar consumption has been increasing in all age groups in the United States and worldwide, with the greatest increase in young adults. College-age years are a critical period in the young adult's life where many habits develop, including nutrition and food choices. An understanding of college-age students’ attitudes and behaviors toward added sugar consumption might help predict added sugar consumption within this population. This was a quantitative study of traditional-aged college students' added sugar consumption through a convenience sample at a private university in San Antonio, TX. A survey was administrated to undergraduate students at different classes. Subjects ...


The Effect Of Blinded Hydration State On Thermoregulation And Performance In Male Cyclists, Jon David Adams 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Blinded Hydration State On Thermoregulation And Performance In Male Cyclists, Jon David Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of these studies was to observe the effect of dehydration on exercise performance while subjects were blinded to their hydration status. Methods: Study 1: Seven male cyclists (weight: 71±8 kg, body fat: 14±6%, VO2peak: 59.4±6 ml∙kg-1·min-1) exercised for 2 hours on a cycle ergometer at 55% VO2peak, in a hot-dry environment (35°C, 30% rh), with a nasogastric (NG) tube under euhydrated (EUH-NT) and hypohydrated (DEH-NT) conditions. In both trials, thirst was matched by drinking 25 mL every 5 min. In the EUH-NT trial sweat losses were fully replaced via the ...


The Role Of Attitude, Control And Intention To Explain Fruit And Vegetable Intake Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Women With Low Socioeconomic Status, Michele DeBiasse, Deborah J. Bowen, Sherry L. Pagoto, Joseph M. Massaro, N. Istfan, Lisa M. Quintiliani 2017 Boston University

The Role Of Attitude, Control And Intention To Explain Fruit And Vegetable Intake Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Women With Low Socioeconomic Status, Michele Debiasse, Deborah J. Bowen, Sherry L. Pagoto, Joseph M. Massaro, N. Istfan, Lisa M. Quintiliani

Sherry L. Pagoto

Objective: Fruit and Vegetable (FV) intake-a modifiable risk factor for chronic diseases-is lower among racial/ethnic minorities and low Socio- Economic Status (SES) groups when compared to other populations. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one theoretical model studied to explain and influence individual health behaviors, including FV intake, in middle class populations, but not exclusively in diverse, low SES groups. This cross-sectional study evaluated the utility of select TPB variables to explain intention to consume and intake of FV in this population.

Design: Demographics, BMI, select TPB variables, and FV intake were measured via survey. Bivariate analyses were ...


Adaptive Thermogenesis And Metabolic Changes Following Diet- And Exercise- Induced Weight Loss, Alexandra R. Martin 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Adaptive Thermogenesis And Metabolic Changes Following Diet- And Exercise- Induced Weight Loss, Alexandra R. Martin

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

With more than two-thirds of adults in the United States considered as overweight or obese, a myriad of weight loss programs and products that promise quick results have infiltrated the market. While many individuals successfully lose weight over the short term, almost half of the initial weight lost is regained within one year, indicating a general predisposition for weight cycling and fat replenishment. As weight is lost, fat-free mass (FFM) also decreases, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) declines, decreasing energy expenditure. After accounting for decreases in FFM, there remains a greater-than- predicted decrease in RMR, referred to as adaptive thermogenesis ...


Dietary Red And Processed Meat Intake And Markers Of Adiposity And Inflammation: The Multiethnic Cohort Study, Weiwen Chai, Yukiko Morimoto, Robert V. Cooney, Adrian A. Franke, Yurii B. Shvetsov, Loïc Le Marchand, Christopher A. Haiman, Laurence N. Kolonel, Marc T. Goodman, Gertraud Maskarinec 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dietary Red And Processed Meat Intake And Markers Of Adiposity And Inflammation: The Multiethnic Cohort Study, Weiwen Chai, Yukiko Morimoto, Robert V. Cooney, Adrian A. Franke, Yurii B. Shvetsov, Loïc Le Marchand, Christopher A. Haiman, Laurence N. Kolonel, Marc T. Goodman, Gertraud Maskarinec

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Objective—The potential influence of dietary factors on inflammation is important for cancer prevention. Utilizing data from control participants (312 men, 911 women) in two nested case-control studies of cancer within the Multiethnic Cohort, we examined the associations of red and processed meat intake with serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 and the mediator effect of body mass index (BMI) on the above associations (if present).

Methods—Multivariable linear models were applied to assess the association between red and processed meat intake at cohort entry and serum biomarker levels ...


Nutrition Screening In The Adult Stroke Population Using The Canadian Nutrition Screening Tool In Comparison With The Subjective Global Assessment, Tess Coutu 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Nutrition Screening In The Adult Stroke Population Using The Canadian Nutrition Screening Tool In Comparison With The Subjective Global Assessment, Tess Coutu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although the Canadian Best Practice Recommendations for Stroke Care recommend all acute stroke patients be screened for malnutrition within 48 hours of admission to hospital using a valid screening tool, none have been validated for use in adult acute stroke patients. The Canadian Nutrition Screening Tool (CNST) tool has been validated within medicine and surgery patients. The purpose of this study is to estimate the level of agreement between the CNST and the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), a nutrition assessment tool, in a cohort of 58 acute adult stroke patients at the Southwestern Ontario Regional Stroke Centre in London. In ...


Relationships Between Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, And Behavior For Fifth Grade Students Attending Title I And Non-Title I Schools, Elisha M. Hall, Weiwen Chai, Julie A. Albrecht 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationships Between Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, And Behavior For Fifth Grade Students Attending Title I And Non-Title I Schools, Elisha M. Hall, Weiwen Chai, Julie A. Albrecht

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a widely used theory for nutrition education programming. Better understanding the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among children of various income levels can help to form and improve nutrition programs, particularly for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among fifth grade students attending Title I (≥ 40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals) and non-Title I schools (< 40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals). A validated survey was completed by 55 fifth grade students from Title I and 122 from non-Title I schools. Differences in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior scores between groups were assessed using t test and adjusted for variations between participating schools. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior. In adjusted models, the Title I group had significantly lower scores on several knowledge items and summary knowledge (P = 0.04). The Title I group had significantly lower scores on several behavior variables including intakes of fruits (P = 0.02), vegetables (P = 0.0005), whole grains (P = 0.0003), and lean protein (P = 0.047), physical activity (P = 0.002) and summary behavior (P = 0.001). However the Title I group scored higher on self-efficacy for meal planning (P = 0.04) and choosing healthy snacks (P = 0.036). Both self-efficacy (β = 0.70, P < 0.0001) and knowledge (β = 0.35, P = 0.002) strongly predicted behavior; however, only self-efficacy remained significant in the Title I group (self-efficacy, β = 0.82, P = 0.0003; knowledge, β = 0.11, P = 0.59). Results demonstrate disparities in nutrition knowledge and behavior outcomes between students surveyed from Title I and non-Title I schools, suggesting more resources may be necessary for lower income populations. Findings suggest that future nutrition interventions should focus on facilitating the improvement of children's self-efficacy


Gelatinization Properties Of Starches From Three Successive Generations Of Six Exotic Corn Lines Grown In Two Locations, Y. Ji, L. M. Pollak, S. Duvick, K. Seetharaman, Philip Dixon, Pamela J. White 2017 Iowa State University

Gelatinization Properties Of Starches From Three Successive Generations Of Six Exotic Corn Lines Grown In Two Locations, Y. Ji, L. M. Pollak, S. Duvick, K. Seetharaman, Philip Dixon, Pamela J. White

Philip Dixon

The objectives of this research were to evaluate the intra- and interpopulation variability in gelatinization properties of starches from exotic corn lines and their derivatives when grown 1) during two successive years in the same location; and 2) in both temperate and tropical environments. Six novel exotic corn lines (two 100% exotic and four 25% exotic derived from a breeding cross developed by crossing an exotic hybrid with Corn Belt lines) were selected for this research because their starches have significantly different (and potentially useful) thermal properties from those found in starch from normal Corn Belt corn. The Sn (n ...


Changes In Dietary Patterns And Body Composition Within 12 Months Of Liver Transplantation, McCoy Simone, Katrina Campbell, Annie-Claude Lassemillante, Matthew P. Wallen, Jonathan Fawcett, Maree Jarrett, Graeme A. Macdonald, Ingrid J. Hickman 2017 Princess Alexandra Hospital Brisbane

Changes In Dietary Patterns And Body Composition Within 12 Months Of Liver Transplantation, Mccoy Simone, Katrina Campbell, Annie-Claude Lassemillante, Matthew P. Wallen, Jonathan Fawcett, Maree Jarrett, Graeme A. Macdonald, Ingrid J. Hickman

Katrina Campbell

Background:

Cardiometabolic risk factors are increasing in liver transplant recipients (LTR). Influencing dietary factors have not been assessed. The aim of this observational study was to assess changes in weight, metabolic function, dietary intake and eating behaviours in the first year after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).

Methods:

Consecutive recruitment of 17 patients (14 males) awaiting OLT at a single tertiary hospital. Dietary intake, food behaviours and anthropometry were recorded at baseline, and 6 and 12 months post-transplant.

Results:

By 12 months, patients had gained on average 7.3% of body weight. The prevalence of overweight or obesity increased from baseline ...


Apparatus And Process For Separating Bone Fragments, Gristle And Sinews From Meat As The Meat Is Being Ground, Patrick H. Huebner, Joseph G. Sebranek, Dennis G. Olson, Eugene A. Anderson 2017 Iowa State University

Apparatus And Process For Separating Bone Fragments, Gristle And Sinews From Meat As The Meat Is Being Ground, Patrick H. Huebner, Joseph G. Sebranek, Dennis G. Olson, Eugene A. Anderson

Joseph G. Sebranek

A conventional meat grinder contains a chopper knife and a chopper plate, the chopper knife rides on the inner surface of the chopper plate and directs the bone fragments, sinews and gristle inwardly toward the central portion of the chopper plate as it chops the meat. The central portion of the chopper plate has a funnel-shaped, frusto-conical central passageway within which the bone fragments, gristle and sinews are collected and are urged outward, first passing through the frusto-conical passageway and out the small end of the passageway, into opposed discharge channels which passes through the hub of the plate and ...


Athyrium Multidentatum (Doll.) Ching Extract Induce Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Oxidative Stress In Hepg2 Cells, Guoyuan Qi, Zhigang Liu, Rong Fan, Ziru Yin, Yashi Mi, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu 2017 Northwest A&F University

Athyrium Multidentatum (Doll.) Ching Extract Induce Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Oxidative Stress In Hepg2 Cells, Guoyuan Qi, Zhigang Liu, Rong Fan, Ziru Yin, Yashi Mi, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching (AMC), a unique and nutritious potherb widely distributed in china, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies indicated that AMC extract exhibited antioxidant and antitumor properties. However, the chemical composition of AMC and molecular mechanism of AMC toxicity to HepG2 cells have not yet been elucidated. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the chemical compositions and the underlying mechanisms of the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of AMC on HepG2. HPLC-MS analysis showed that AMC contain five compounds with chlorogenic acid accounting for 43 percent. Also, AMC strongly inhibited the cell growth and induced ...


Dietary Patterns And Their Association With Hypertension Among Pakistani Urban Adults, Nilofer F. Safdar, Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson, Lorraine Cordeiro, Tazeen H. Jafar, Nancy L. Cohen 2017 Dow University of Health Sciences

Dietary Patterns And Their Association With Hypertension Among Pakistani Urban Adults, Nilofer F. Safdar, Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson, Lorraine Cordeiro, Tazeen H. Jafar, Nancy L. Cohen

Lorraine Cordeiro

Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting more than 25% of adults worldwide. In Pakistan, 33% of the adult population suffers from hypertension. Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the critical role of dietary patterns in the causation, prevention and management of hypertension. There’s a dearth of evidence from South Asia in this regard. The present study aimed to identify the association between dietary patterns and hypertension among 4304 low income urban adults who participated in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study in Karachi, Pakistan. Dietary information was collected by a 33- item ...


Effect Of Postprandial Walking On The Glycemic Effect Of A Meal: Type I Diabetes, Samantha L. Hinojosa 2017 University of the Incarnate Word

Effect Of Postprandial Walking On The Glycemic Effect Of A Meal: Type I Diabetes, Samantha L. Hinojosa

Theses & Dissertations

This study was conducted to determine if 15 minutes of postprandial light walking has an effect on the glycemic response to a Boost® beverage in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Seven participants, 22.3 + 4.3 yrs, with type 1 diabetes completed the two days of data collection. On day 1, participants measured baseline fasting blood glucose (BG) with a glucometer, consumed a Boost® beverage, and sat quietly, repeating BG measurements 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minute. On day 2, participants repeated the protocol, but walked 15 minutes at a light pace (50-60% max HR) immediately after beverage consumption ...


The Effect Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids On Energy Metabolism, Energy Intake, And Metabolic Response In Normal Weight And Overweight And Obese School Aged Children (8-12 Years), Charlayne Mitchell 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids On Energy Metabolism, Energy Intake, And Metabolic Response In Normal Weight And Overweight And Obese School Aged Children (8-12 Years), Charlayne Mitchell

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Obesity is a major health concern in the United States. Omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) have been observed to improve metabolic health and therefore might be useful in treatment of obesity. However, little is known regarding the effect of O3FA on school aged normal weight and overweight children.

Objective: The objective of this thesis was to determine if habitual intake of O3FA at breakfast improves energy metabolism, appetite, and metabolic response in overweight and obese school-aged children.

Design: Twenty healthy, normal weight (NW; n = 11) and overweight (OW; n = 9) children aged 8-12 years were randomly assigned to receive either ...


The Effects Of Dietary Intake On Fuel Metabolism During Aerobic Capacity Exercise, Taylor Lynn Stephenson 2017 Illinois State University

The Effects Of Dietary Intake On Fuel Metabolism During Aerobic Capacity Exercise, Taylor Lynn Stephenson

Theses and Dissertations

In order to produce mechanical energy through muscular activity, the body must oxidize chemical energy, carbohydrate, fat, or protein through metabolic processes, which then results in the production of ATP as mechanical energy through exercise. Total body metabolism, specifically skeletal muscle depends on factors such as the intensity and duration of exercise, substrate availability, and Training status. During exercise at low intensities (25% of VO2 max) fat is the primary macronutrient that is oxidized for energy. As the exercise intensity progresses, (65% of VO2 max) there is an alteration in skeletal muscle utilization, which results in mainly the use of ...


Whole Egg Consumption Attenuates Weight Gain In Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Kaylee Hahn, Caitlyn Coonts, Carter Reed 2017 Iowa State University

Whole Egg Consumption Attenuates Weight Gain In Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Kaylee Hahn, Caitlyn Coonts, Carter Reed

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Obesity is a national epidemic that can increase an individual's risk for a multitude of health complications, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). In individuals already diagnosed with the disease, even small amounts of weight loss can help prevent diabetic complications. Due to the relationship between obesity and T2D, and the link between obesity and diet, a better understanding of how dietary factors affect those with T2D is necessary. Currently, the consumption of whole eggs by those with T2D is controversial. Here, we investigated the relationship between the consumption of whole eggs and obesity in both a genetic-mediated and diet-induced ...


Intervention Effects Of An Eating Disorder Prevention Program Utilized By A Public University, Krista B. DeCeault 2017 Illinois State University

Intervention Effects Of An Eating Disorder Prevention Program Utilized By A Public University, Krista B. Deceault

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Negative body image, disordered eating, and eating disorders affect large numbers of young women each year. The use of dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs in college-aged women has been shown to improve how women feel about their bodies and better equip women for challenging stereotypes that exist in the culture today.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intervention strategies of the “Body Project,” an eating disorder prevention program, and assess the effectiveness on reducing five eating disorder risk factors; thin-ideal internalization, diet restraint, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and eating disorder symptoms.

Design: Two years of ...


Diabetes Care And The College Student, Sydney S. Butikofer 2017 Iowa State University

Diabetes Care And The College Student, Sydney S. Butikofer

Honors Projects and Posters

The focus of this project was to understand diabetes care as it relates to college students. Diabetes is a disease that affects a person’s daily life in immense ways and can lead to serious complications if not managed properly. College can be a difficult period of transition for students as they encounter new experiences and develop new routines. It is the first time in many individuals’ lives that they are learning how to live independently, away from their comfortable support systems. Being in a new environment is challenging, and it is especially notable as to how it can affect ...


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