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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Tissue-Specific Alterations Of Methyl Group Metabolism With Dna Hypermethylation In The Zucker (Type 2) Diabetic Fatty Rat., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske 2016 Iowa State University

Tissue-Specific Alterations Of Methyl Group Metabolism With Dna Hypermethylation In The Zucker (Type 2) Diabetic Fatty Rat., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske

Kevin Schalinske

BackgroundAltered methyl group and homocysteine metabolism were tissue-specific, persistent, and preceded hepatic DNA hypomethylation in type 1 diabetic rats. Similar metabolic perturbations have been shown in the Zucker (type 2) diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat in the pre-diabetic and early diabetic stages, but tissue specificity and potential impact on epigenetic marks are unknown, particularly during pathogenesis.

Methods ZDF (fa/fa) and lean (+/?) control rats were killed at 12 and 21 weeks of age, representing early and advanced diabetic conditions. Blood and tissues were analysed with respect to methyl group and homocysteine metabolism, including DNA methylation.

Results At 12 weeks, hepatic ...


Greater Apparent Absorption Of Flavonoids Is Associated With Lesser Human Fecal Flavonoid Disappearance Rates, Andrean L. Simons, Mathieu Renouf, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich 2016 Iowa State University

Greater Apparent Absorption Of Flavonoids Is Associated With Lesser Human Fecal Flavonoid Disappearance Rates, Andrean L. Simons, Mathieu Renouf, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich

Suzanne Hendrich

-OH-flavonoids disappeared more rapidly from human fecal incuba- tions and were less absorbable by humans than flavonoids without 5-OH moieties. Anaerobic fecal disappearance rates over 24 h were determined for 15 flavonoids in samples from 20 men and 13 women. In these anaerobic fecal mixtures, flavonoids with 5,7,40-OH groups, genistein, apigenin, naringenin, luteolin, kaempferol, and quercetin (disappearance rate, k = 0.46 ( 0.10 h-1), and methoxylated flavonoids, hesperetin and glycitein (k = 0.24 ( 0.21 h-1), disappeared rapidly compared with flavonoids lacking 5-OH (e.g., daidzein, k = 0.07 ( 0.03 h-1). Apparent absorption of flavonoids that disappeared ...


3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid Induce Trophoblast And Hepatocyte Lipoapoptosis, Taylor Bruett, Taylor Heng, Sathish Kumar Natarajan 2016 University of Nebraska Lincoln

3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid Induce Trophoblast And Hepatocyte Lipoapoptosis, Taylor Bruett, Taylor Heng, Sathish Kumar Natarajan

UCARE Research Products

Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (AFLP) is a very rare and fatal condition for both the mother and the unborn offspring accompanied by severe maternal liver dysfunction. AFLP usually develops during the third trimester of pregnancy with symptoms of liver disease. AFLP is associated with a mutation in the enzyme, long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) which is involved in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Defective beta-oxidation of fatty acids results in the individual unable to metabolize fatty acids which then causes fatty infiltration in their organs, such as the liver. This interferes with normal function of the liver ...


Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff

Doctoral Dissertations

Skeletal muscle glucose metabolism can affect whole body glucose homeostasis significantly. Vitamin A (VA) plays a role in a number of physiological functions including glucose metabolism. However, its role in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism has not been well established. Insulin controls glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle via the regulations of glucose uptake, glycogenesis, and glycolysis. We hypothesize that insulin and VA signaling pathways may converge to regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Here, the effects of retinoic acid (RA) alone and in combination with insulin on glucose utilization in rat L6 muscle cells were studied. L6 cells were treated ...


Effects Of Glycerin Antifreeze On Cpvc, Paul J. Gramann, Javier C. Cruz, David A. Grewell, Melissa Montablo-Lomboy, Tong Wang Professor 2016 The Madison Group

Effects Of Glycerin Antifreeze On Cpvc, Paul J. Gramann, Javier C. Cruz, David A. Grewell, Melissa Montablo-Lomboy, Tong Wang Professor

Tong Wang

There are multiple applications where chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (CPVC) may come in contact with glycerin. One common application is in fire suppression systems that could be subjected to subfreezing temperatures. Chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) is increasingly being used for these systems in place of metal because of its many advantages, including the ease of installation, weight reduction, cost benefits and chemical resistance. When CPVC piping is used in an area that has the potential to freeze, an antifreeze solution must be used in the fire suppression systems to suppress the freezing temperature of the water and reduce possibility of ...


Mechanism Of Triglyceride Lowering Action Of Akkermansia Muciniphila And Fenugreek In A Genetic Induced Hyperlipidemia, Jing Shen 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanism Of Triglyceride Lowering Action Of Akkermansia Muciniphila And Fenugreek In A Genetic Induced Hyperlipidemia, Jing Shen

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Hyperlipidemia is a condition of abnormally elevated levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood circulation. It is usually accompanied with obesity, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and has become a great threat to human health. New therapeutic strategies are needed for the prevention and treatment of both genetic intervention-induced hyperlipidemia and environmentally induced hyperlipidemia. In this study, we determined the therapeutic effects of a diseaseprotecting gut bacteria, Akkermansia muciniphila, and an annual legume, fenugreek, on hypertriglyceridemia induced by genetic depletion of cAMP responsive binding protein H (CREBH KO) in mice. We ...


Nutrigenomics Study In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Novel Diets Supplemented With Marine By-Products, Nellie Gagné 2016 Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Nutrigenomics Study In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Novel Diets Supplemented With Marine By-Products, Nellie Gagné

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Delta Tocotrienol Attenuates Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Via Inhibition Of Nf-Κb Priming And Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Teresa Buckner 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Delta Tocotrienol Attenuates Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Via Inhibition Of Nf-Κb Priming And Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Teresa Buckner

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Chronic, low-grade inflammation during obesity is associated with the development of metabolic dysfunction. The NLRP3 inflammasome is assembled in response to cellular stressors and leads to cytotoxic cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 production, which implicates the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammatory conditions, including type 2 diabetes. Tocotrienols are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory forms of vitamin E. Delta-tocotrienol (dT3) displays NF-κB inhibitory and anti-oxidant abilities, and is easily isolated from the Annatto plant. My primary aim was to determine whether dT3 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and to compare the extent to which dT3 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome with other tocotrienol forms, i.e. alpha-tocotrienol (aT3 ...


Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Black beans contain high phenolic contents that are considered potent antioxidants. Relatively little is known about their ability to inhibit the carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase from releasing glucose from starch and/or disaccharides. The objective of this project was to determine the optimum procedures for extracting total phenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and total condensed tannins (TCT) from black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and then to determine the ability of the phenolic rich extracts to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Due to their high phenolic levels, it was hypothesized that black beans would be an effective inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun 2016 University of Connecticut

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


Examining Maternal Obesity Effects On Oogenesis, Follicular Development, And Embryonic Myogenesis, Chris Lindeman, Jennifer Wood 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examining Maternal Obesity Effects On Oogenesis, Follicular Development, And Embryonic Myogenesis, Chris Lindeman, Jennifer Wood

UCARE Research Products

The CDC estimates that more than one-third of U.S. adults (approximately 78.6 million) are obese. Despite national efforts to combat this with diet and exercise, the number of obese adults and children continues to climb. It is critical to emphasize that obesity can lead to lifelong, chronic complications and health risks including hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes.

Diet and obesity also have important impacts on the reproductive health of female including the ability to become pregnant (fertility) and risk for complications during pregnancy. Furthermore, for women who do become pregnant, obesity can affect the development of the embryo ...


The Impact Of Depleting Dietary Microrna In A High-Fat Diet, Briley Moates, Sonia Manca, Janos Zempleni 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Depleting Dietary Microrna In A High-Fat Diet, Briley Moates, Sonia Manca, Janos Zempleni

UCARE Research Products

We tested the hypothesis that a highfat diet would increase the difference in body weight between C57BL/6J mice provided dietary microRNA (Exo +) and mice which were fed the same diet depleted of microRNA (Exo-).

• The data demonstrate that depleting miRNAs from a high-fat diet does not impact the difference in body weight between Exo+ and Exo- subjects. • Depleting dietary miRNAs from normal low-fat diets do result in differences in body weight, fat, fecundity, purine metabolism, and gut microbiome.


Role Of Acetyl-Coa Synthetase 2 And Acetyl-Coa Precursors, Acetate And Ethanol, On Hepatocyte Gene Expression, Noel Bruner, Anjeza Erickson,, Mengna Xia, Bo He, Regis Moreau 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Role Of Acetyl-Coa Synthetase 2 And Acetyl-Coa Precursors, Acetate And Ethanol, On Hepatocyte Gene Expression, Noel Bruner, Anjeza Erickson,, Mengna Xia, Bo He, Regis Moreau

UCARE Research Products

Abnormally high blood and tissue lipid levels observed in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are associated with extensive gene expression changes. Gene expression is modulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which include modifications of DNA-bound protein histones without alteration of DNA sequence. Histone hyperacetylation is observed in the setting of metabolic disorders but the causes have not been described in any detail. We know that histone acetylation is positively correlated with the abundance of acetyl-coenzyme A. This study tests the hypothesis that acetyl-coenzyme A metabolizing enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2 (ACSS2, cytoplasmic, aka AceCS1) impacts liver function through histone acetylation, and that ...


Biotechnology And The Law: A Consideration Of Intellectual Property Rights And Related Social Issues, Michael D. Mehta 2016 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada

Biotechnology And The Law: A Consideration Of Intellectual Property Rights And Related Social Issues, Michael D. Mehta

University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] "Recent advances in biotechnology are expected by many to improve crop yield, reduce reliance on agricultural inputs like pesticides and herbicides, alleviate world hunger, improve the safety and effectiveness of pharmaceuticals, assist in the discovery of genes that trigger diseases like cancer, and make more efficient our legal institutions through DNA testing. Clearly, innovations in biotechnology are a powerful force for social change, and they pose unique challenges and opportunities for legal scholars and institutions. This section of the Pierce Law Review focuses on the interface between law and technology by examining how innovations in biotechnology accelerate debates about ...


Effect Of Green Tea On Interaction Of Lipid Oxidation Products With Sarcoplasmic And Myofibrillar Protein Homogenates Extracted From Bovine Top Round Muscle, Nahathai Stapornkul, Tatiana Prytkova, Lilian Were 2016 California State University - Northridge

Effect Of Green Tea On Interaction Of Lipid Oxidation Products With Sarcoplasmic And Myofibrillar Protein Homogenates Extracted From Bovine Top Round Muscle, Nahathai Stapornkul, Tatiana Prytkova, Lilian Were

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

The interaction between lipid oxidation products and bovine sarcoplasmic (SP) and myofibrillar protein (MP) homogenates in the presence of green tea was investigated. To monitor the effect of green tea on lipid oxidation, aldehydes were measured while effect on protein was monitored via changes in myoglobin, thiols, and tryptophan fluorescence over nine days of refrigerated storage. The presence of SP and MP decreased free aldehydes in the buffers. The SP bound more aldehydes than MP. The tea compounds exhibited more favorable binding energies than aldehydes near histidine 64 close to the heme moiety of myoglobin. Addition of tea lowered tryptophan ...


Genotoxic Effects Of Magnesium Deficiency In The Cardiovascular System And Their Relationships To Cardiovascular Diseases And Atherogenesis, Burton M. Altura, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Bella T. Altura 2016 Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown)

Genotoxic Effects Of Magnesium Deficiency In The Cardiovascular System And Their Relationships To Cardiovascular Diseases And Atherogenesis, Burton M. Altura, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Bella T. Altura

School of Health Sciences Publications and Research

The authors present evidence for a novel, new hypothesis whereby magnesium deficiency (MgD) acts as a genotoxic agent which probably causes numerous, hertofore, unrecognized consequences, even over a short-term, on the physiological, molecular and biochemical machinery of cardiovascular tissues and cells. The end result of these genotoxic effects of MgD probably plays important roles in the etiology and generation of diverse cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and strokes via alterations in the epigenome of cardiovascular tissues and cells. The importance of adequate water-borne and dietary levels of Mg is emphasized.


Insights Into The Possible Mechanisms By Which Platelet-Activating Factor And Paf-Receptors Function In Vascular Smooth Muscle In Magnesium Deficiency And Vascular Remodeling: Possible Links To Atherogenesis, Hypertension And Cardiac Failure, Burton M. Altura, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Jose Luis Perez-Albela, Bella T. Altura 2016 Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown)

Insights Into The Possible Mechanisms By Which Platelet-Activating Factor And Paf-Receptors Function In Vascular Smooth Muscle In Magnesium Deficiency And Vascular Remodeling: Possible Links To Atherogenesis, Hypertension And Cardiac Failure, Burton M. Altura, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Jose Luis Perez-Albela, Bella T. Altura

School of Health Sciences Publications and Research

The authors discuss different studies concerning the relationship between platelet-activating factor (PAF) and PAF-receptors with atherosclerosis and hypertension.


Sudden Cardiac Death In Infants, Children And Young Adults: Possible Roles Of Dietary Magnesium Intake And Generation Of Platelet-Activating Factor In Coronary Arteries, Burton M. Altura, Wenyan Li, Aimin Zhang, Tao Zheng, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Bella T. Altura 2016 Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown)

Sudden Cardiac Death In Infants, Children And Young Adults: Possible Roles Of Dietary Magnesium Intake And Generation Of Platelet-Activating Factor In Coronary Arteries, Burton M. Altura, Wenyan Li, Aimin Zhang, Tao Zheng, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Bella T. Altura

School of Health Sciences Publications and Research

Magnesium (Mg) is a co-factor for more than 500 enzymes, and is the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium. It is vital in numerous physiological, cellular and biochemical functions and systems necessary for life. Approximately 35 years ago, our laboratory suggested that a progressive, dietary deficiency and/or metabolic induced loss of Mg from the body, beginning early in life, particularly during development of the coronary arteries, could lead to coronary arterial vasospasm, ischemic heart disease, and sudden-cardiac death (SCD). Herein, we review evidence for a brand-new, novel hypothesis which combines knowledge suggesting a combined role for hypomagnesemia and ...


The Expression Of Platelet-Activating Factor Is Induced By Low Extracellular Mg2+ In Aortic, Cerebral And Neonatal Coronary Vascular Smooth Muscle; Cross Talk With Ceramide Production, Nf–Kb And Proto-Oncogenes: Possible Links To Atherogenesis And Sudden Cardiac Death In Children And Infants, And Aging: Hypothesis, Review And Viewpoint, Burton M. Altura, Wenyan Li, Aimin Zhang, Tao Zheng, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Bella T. Altura 2016 Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown)

The Expression Of Platelet-Activating Factor Is Induced By Low Extracellular Mg2+ In Aortic, Cerebral And Neonatal Coronary Vascular Smooth Muscle; Cross Talk With Ceramide Production, Nf–Kb And Proto-Oncogenes: Possible Links To Atherogenesis And Sudden Cardiac Death In Children And Infants, And Aging: Hypothesis, Review And Viewpoint, Burton M. Altura, Wenyan Li, Aimin Zhang, Tao Zheng, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Bella T. Altura

School of Health Sciences Publications and Research

An attempt is made, herein, to reconcile, and integrate, various phenomena associated with magnesium deficiency (MgD) in cardiovascular health, disease, and aging as well as reasons for the high incidence of sudden cardiac death in infants and young adults. With new experiments, we demonstrate, for the first time, that very low concentrations of platelet-activating factor (PAF), when added to primary cultured cerebral, neonatal coronary, and aortic vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells (from three different mammals) promote rapid rises in free intracellular Ca2+ ions and a significant, concomitant reduction in free intracellular Mg2+ ions; these actions of PAF being curtailed with ...


Potential Roles Of Magnesium Deficiency In Inflammation And Atherogenesis: Importance And Cross-Talk Of Platelet-Activating Factor And Ceramide, Burton M. Altura, Asefa Gebrewold, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Bella T. Altura 2016 Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (MIddletown)

Potential Roles Of Magnesium Deficiency In Inflammation And Atherogenesis: Importance And Cross-Talk Of Platelet-Activating Factor And Ceramide, Burton M. Altura, Asefa Gebrewold, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Bella T. Altura

School of Health Sciences Publications and Research

Epidemiologic studies in North America and Europe have shown that people consuming Western-type diets are low in magnesium (Mg) content (i.e., < 30 - 65% of the RDA for Mg); most such diets in the USA show that 60 - 80% of Americans are consuming only 185 - 235 mg/day of Mg. Low Mg content in areas of soft-water, and Mg-poor soil, is associated with high incidences of ischemic heart disease (IHD), coronary artery disease, hypertension, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). It is clear that the leading underlying cause of death worldwide is atherosclerosis. Importantly, both animal and human studies have shown an inverse relationship between dietary intake of Mg and atherosclerosis. The myocardial level of Mg has consistently been observed to be lower in subjects dying from IHD and SCD in soft-water areas than those in hard-water areas. Over the past 20 years, our laboratories, using several types of primary cultured vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells, and myocardial cells, demonstrated that declining levels of extracellular Mg ([Mg2+]0) activated several enzymatic pathways to produce increases in cellular sphingolipids, particularly ceramides which are known to exert numerous types of cardiovascular manifestations including inflammatory effects; the latter play important roles in atherogenesis and cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 20 years ago, we reported that low [Mg2+]0 caused formation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) as well as other types of PAF-like molecules and suggested that these molecules might be causative agents in low Mg2+- induced IHD and SCD. Herein, we review results and data from our labs which strongly support roles for ceramides, PAF and PAF-like lipids in low [Mg2+]0-induced IHD and SCD.


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