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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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211 Full-Text Articles 519 Authors 34247 Downloads 30 Institutions

All Articles in Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition

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Genetic Variation In Concentration Of The 33-Mer Protein Subcomponent In Wheat, Robert L. Paris, Kaleb M. Pauley, Ryan K. Lokkesmoe, Sarah E. Lyon, James C. Dunlap, Julia M. Pierre, Timothy VanWingerden, Finny J. Johns, Kyle J. Kilchrist, Tyler J. Reid, Caleb M. Winn 2017 Cedarville University

Genetic Variation In Concentration Of The 33-Mer Protein Subcomponent In Wheat, Robert L. Paris, Kaleb M. Pauley, Ryan K. Lokkesmoe, Sarah E. Lyon, James C. Dunlap, Julia M. Pierre, Timothy Vanwingerden, Finny J. Johns, Kyle J. Kilchrist, Tyler J. Reid, Caleb M. Winn

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Celiac Disease is a hypersensitive response to gluten caused by HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 T-cell presentation, initiating destruction of intestinal epithelial cells. Currently, the only remedy for those suffering from celiac disease is elimination of all gluten from the diet. Studies indicate that an indigestible fragment of the gluten molecule, alpha-gliadin subcomponent 33-mer, rich in proline and glutamine, is responsible for the hypersensitivity response. Determination of 33-mer concentration in wheat lines could be beneficial to future development of wheat lines with reduced 33-mer concentration. Protein from wheat flour was extracted and subjected to ELISA techniques in order to quantify the concentration ...


The Dangers Of Fat Metabolism And Pufa: Why You Don’T Want To Be A Fat Burner, Kyle J. Mamounis 2017 Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway

The Dangers Of Fat Metabolism And Pufa: Why You Don’T Want To Be A Fat Burner, Kyle J. Mamounis

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Aberrant Expression Of Microrna Induced By High-Fructose Diet: Implications In The Pathogenesis Of Hyperlipidemia And Hepatic Insulin Resistance, Nettu Sud, Hanyuan Zhang, Kaichao Pan, Xiao Cheng, Juan Cui, Qiaozhu Su 2017 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Aberrant Expression Of Microrna Induced By High-Fructose Diet: Implications In The Pathogenesis Of Hyperlipidemia And Hepatic Insulin Resistance, Nettu Sud, Hanyuan Zhang, Kaichao Pan, Xiao Cheng, Juan Cui, Qiaozhu Su

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Fructose is a highly lipogenic sugar that can alter energy metabolism and trigger metabolic disorders. In the current study, microRNAs (miRNAs) altered by a high-fructose diet were comprehensively explored to elucidate their significance in the pathogenesis of chronic metabolic disorders. miRNA expression profiling using small noncoding RNA sequencing revealed that 19 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and 26 were downregulated in the livers of high-fructose-fed mice compared to chow-fed mice. Computational prediction and functional analysis identified 10 miRNAs, miR-19b-3p, miR-101a-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-378a-3p, miR-33-5p, miR-145a-3p, miR-128-3p, miR-125b-5p and miR-582-3p, assembled as a regulatory network to potentially target key genes in lipid ...


Less-Than-Expected Weight Loss In Normal-Weight Women Undergoing Caloric Restriction And Exercise Is Accompanied By Preservation Of Fat-Free Mass And Metabolic Adaptations, Karsten Koehler, M. J. De Souza, N. I. Williams 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Less-Than-Expected Weight Loss In Normal-Weight Women Undergoing Caloric Restriction And Exercise Is Accompanied By Preservation Of Fat-Free Mass And Metabolic Adaptations, Karsten Koehler, M. J. De Souza, N. I. Williams

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background/Objectives: Normal-weight women frequently restrict their caloric intake and exercise, but little is known about the effects on body weight, body composition and metabolic adaptations in this population.

Subjects/Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in sedentary normal-weight women. Women were assigned to a severe energy deficit (SEV: –1062 ± 80 kcal per day; n = 9), a moderate energy deficit (MOD: –633 ± 71 kcal per day; n = 7) or energy balance (BAL; n = 9) while exercising five times per week for 3 months. Outcome variables included changes in body weight, body composition, resting ...


Press-Pulse: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy For The Metabolic Management Of Cancer, Thomas Seyfried, George Yu, Joseph Maroon, Dominic D'Agostino 2017 George Washington University

Press-Pulse: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy For The Metabolic Management Of Cancer, Thomas Seyfried, George Yu, Joseph Maroon, Dominic D'Agostino

Urology Faculty Publications

Background

A shift from respiration to fermentation is a common metabolic hallmark of cancer cells. As a result, glucose and glutamine become the prime fuels for driving the dysregulated growth of tumors. The simultaneous occurrence of “Press-Pulse” disturbances was considered the mechanism responsible for reduction of organic populations during prior evolutionary epochs. Press disturbances produce chronic stress, while pulse disturbances produce acute stress on populations. It was only when both disturbances coincide that population reduction occurred.

Methods

This general concept can be applied to the management of cancer by creating chronic metabolic stresses on tumor cell energy metabolism (press disturbance ...


Association Between Energy Balance And Metabolic Hormone Suppression During Ultra-Endurance Exercise, Bjoern Geesmann, Jenna C. Gibbs, Joachim Mester, Karsten Koehler 2017 German Sport University, Cologne, Germany

Association Between Energy Balance And Metabolic Hormone Suppression During Ultra-Endurance Exercise, Bjoern Geesmann, Jenna C. Gibbs, Joachim Mester, Karsten Koehler

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Ultra-endurance athletes often accumulate an energy deficit when engaging in ultra-endurance exercise, and upon completion of the exercise, they exhibit endocrine changes that are reminiscent of starvation. However, it remains unclear whether these endocrine changes are a result of the exercise per se or secondary to the energy deficit, and more importantly, whether these changes can be attenuated by increased dietary intake. Our goal was to assess the relationship between changes in key metabolic hormones following ultra-endurance exercise and measures of energy balance. Metabolic hormones as well as energy intake and expenditure were assessed in 14 well-trained male cyclists who ...


Prediction Of Human Dietary Δ15N Intake From Standardized Food Records: Validity And Precision Of Single Meal And 24-H Diet Data, Frank Hülsemann, Karsten Koehler, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Michael Wilhelm, Annett Hilbig, Mathilde Kersting, Hans Braun, Ulrich Flenker, Wilhelm Schänzer 2017 German Sport University Cologne

Prediction Of Human Dietary Δ15N Intake From Standardized Food Records: Validity And Precision Of Single Meal And 24-H Diet Data, Frank Hülsemann, Karsten Koehler, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Michael Wilhelm, Annett Hilbig, Mathilde Kersting, Hans Braun, Ulrich Flenker, Wilhelm Schänzer

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Natural stable isotope ratios (δ15N) of humans can be used for nutritional analyses and dietary reconstruction of modern and historic individuals and populations. Information about an individual’s metabolic state can be obtained by comparison of tissue and dietary δ15N. Different methods have been used to estimate dietary δ15N in the past; however, the validity of such predictions has not been compared to experimental values. For a total of 56 meals and 21 samples of 24-h diets, predicted and experimental δ15N values were compared. The δ15N values were predicted from self-recorded food ...


3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid Induce Trophoblast And Hepatocyte Lipoapoptosis, Taylor Bruett, Taylor Heng, Sathish Kumar Natarajan 2016 University of Nebraska Lincoln

3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid Induce Trophoblast And Hepatocyte Lipoapoptosis, Taylor Bruett, Taylor Heng, Sathish Kumar Natarajan

UCARE Research Products

Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (AFLP) is a very rare and fatal condition for both the mother and the unborn offspring accompanied by severe maternal liver dysfunction. AFLP usually develops during the third trimester of pregnancy with symptoms of liver disease. AFLP is associated with a mutation in the enzyme, long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) which is involved in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Defective beta-oxidation of fatty acids results in the individual unable to metabolize fatty acids which then causes fatty infiltration in their organs, such as the liver. This interferes with normal function of the liver ...


Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff

Doctoral Dissertations

Skeletal muscle glucose metabolism can affect whole body glucose homeostasis significantly. Vitamin A (VA) plays a role in a number of physiological functions including glucose metabolism. However, its role in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism has not been well established. Insulin controls glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle via the regulations of glucose uptake, glycogenesis, and glycolysis. We hypothesize that insulin and VA signaling pathways may converge to regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Here, the effects of retinoic acid (RA) alone and in combination with insulin on glucose utilization in rat L6 muscle cells were studied. L6 cells were treated ...


Mechanism Of Triglyceride Lowering Action Of Akkermansia Muciniphila And Fenugreek In A Genetic Induced Hyperlipidemia, Jing Shen 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanism Of Triglyceride Lowering Action Of Akkermansia Muciniphila And Fenugreek In A Genetic Induced Hyperlipidemia, Jing Shen

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Hyperlipidemia is a condition of abnormally elevated levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood circulation. It is usually accompanied with obesity, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and has become a great threat to human health. New therapeutic strategies are needed for the prevention and treatment of both genetic intervention-induced hyperlipidemia and environmentally induced hyperlipidemia. In this study, we determined the therapeutic effects of a diseaseprotecting gut bacteria, Akkermansia muciniphila, and an annual legume, fenugreek, on hypertriglyceridemia induced by genetic depletion of cAMP responsive binding protein H (CREBH KO) in mice. We ...


Nutrigenomics Study In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Novel Diets Supplemented With Marine By-Products, Nellie Gagné 2016 Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Nutrigenomics Study In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Novel Diets Supplemented With Marine By-Products, Nellie Gagné

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Delta Tocotrienol Attenuates Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Via Inhibition Of Nf-Κb Priming And Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Teresa Buckner 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Delta Tocotrienol Attenuates Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Via Inhibition Of Nf-Κb Priming And Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Teresa Buckner

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Chronic, low-grade inflammation during obesity is associated with the development of metabolic dysfunction. The NLRP3 inflammasome is assembled in response to cellular stressors and leads to cytotoxic cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 production, which implicates the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammatory conditions, including type 2 diabetes. Tocotrienols are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory forms of vitamin E. Delta-tocotrienol (dT3) displays NF-κB inhibitory and anti-oxidant abilities, and is easily isolated from the Annatto plant. My primary aim was to determine whether dT3 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and to compare the extent to which dT3 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome with other tocotrienol forms, i.e. alpha-tocotrienol (aT3 ...


Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Black beans contain high phenolic contents that are considered potent antioxidants. Relatively little is known about their ability to inhibit the carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase from releasing glucose from starch and/or disaccharides. The objective of this project was to determine the optimum procedures for extracting total phenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and total condensed tannins (TCT) from black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and then to determine the ability of the phenolic rich extracts to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Due to their high phenolic levels, it was hypothesized that black beans would be an effective inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun 2016 University of Connecticut

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


The Effect Of Protein Quantity And Quality At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite And Metabolic Health, Brianna Lynne Neumann 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Protein Quantity And Quality At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite And Metabolic Health, Brianna Lynne Neumann

Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is a global health concern and, within the United States, the current obesity rate is 36% and projected to double within the next two decades. Obesity is linked to many chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. In young females, weight gain (5-11 kg) between the ages of 20-30 years increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders later in life. The cause of obesity is multifactorial in nature, however fundamentally weight gain occurs when energy intake is greater than energy expended (i.e. calories in > calories out). Therefore, identifying and validating ...


The Impact Of Depleting Dietary Microrna In A High-Fat Diet, Briley Moates, Sonia Manca, Janos Zempleni 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Depleting Dietary Microrna In A High-Fat Diet, Briley Moates, Sonia Manca, Janos Zempleni

UCARE Research Products

We tested the hypothesis that a highfat diet would increase the difference in body weight between C57BL/6J mice provided dietary microRNA (Exo +) and mice which were fed the same diet depleted of microRNA (Exo-).

• The data demonstrate that depleting miRNAs from a high-fat diet does not impact the difference in body weight between Exo+ and Exo- subjects. • Depleting dietary miRNAs from normal low-fat diets do result in differences in body weight, fat, fecundity, purine metabolism, and gut microbiome.


Examining Maternal Obesity Effects On Oogenesis, Follicular Development, And Embryonic Myogenesis, Chris Lindeman, Jennifer Wood 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examining Maternal Obesity Effects On Oogenesis, Follicular Development, And Embryonic Myogenesis, Chris Lindeman, Jennifer Wood

UCARE Research Products

The CDC estimates that more than one-third of U.S. adults (approximately 78.6 million) are obese. Despite national efforts to combat this with diet and exercise, the number of obese adults and children continues to climb. It is critical to emphasize that obesity can lead to lifelong, chronic complications and health risks including hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes.

Diet and obesity also have important impacts on the reproductive health of female including the ability to become pregnant (fertility) and risk for complications during pregnancy. Furthermore, for women who do become pregnant, obesity can affect the development of the embryo ...


Role Of Acetyl-Coa Synthetase 2 And Acetyl-Coa Precursors, Acetate And Ethanol, On Hepatocyte Gene Expression, Noel Bruner, Anjeza Erickson,, Mengna Xia, Bo He, Regis Moreau 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Role Of Acetyl-Coa Synthetase 2 And Acetyl-Coa Precursors, Acetate And Ethanol, On Hepatocyte Gene Expression, Noel Bruner, Anjeza Erickson,, Mengna Xia, Bo He, Regis Moreau

UCARE Research Products

Abnormally high blood and tissue lipid levels observed in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are associated with extensive gene expression changes. Gene expression is modulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which include modifications of DNA-bound protein histones without alteration of DNA sequence. Histone hyperacetylation is observed in the setting of metabolic disorders but the causes have not been described in any detail. We know that histone acetylation is positively correlated with the abundance of acetyl-coenzyme A. This study tests the hypothesis that acetyl-coenzyme A metabolizing enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2 (ACSS2, cytoplasmic, aka AceCS1) impacts liver function through histone acetylation, and that ...


Biotechnology And The Law: A Consideration Of Intellectual Property Rights And Related Social Issues, Michael D. Mehta 2016 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada

Biotechnology And The Law: A Consideration Of Intellectual Property Rights And Related Social Issues, Michael D. Mehta

University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] "Recent advances in biotechnology are expected by many to improve crop yield, reduce reliance on agricultural inputs like pesticides and herbicides, alleviate world hunger, improve the safety and effectiveness of pharmaceuticals, assist in the discovery of genes that trigger diseases like cancer, and make more efficient our legal institutions through DNA testing. Clearly, innovations in biotechnology are a powerful force for social change, and they pose unique challenges and opportunities for legal scholars and institutions. This section of the Pierce Law Review focuses on the interface between law and technology by examining how innovations in biotechnology accelerate debates about ...


Effect Of Green Tea On Interaction Of Lipid Oxidation Products With Sarcoplasmic And Myofibrillar Protein Homogenates Extracted From Bovine Top Round Muscle, Nahathai Stapornkul, Tatiana Prytkova, Lilian Were 2016 California State University - Northridge

Effect Of Green Tea On Interaction Of Lipid Oxidation Products With Sarcoplasmic And Myofibrillar Protein Homogenates Extracted From Bovine Top Round Muscle, Nahathai Stapornkul, Tatiana Prytkova, Lilian Were

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

The interaction between lipid oxidation products and bovine sarcoplasmic (SP) and myofibrillar protein (MP) homogenates in the presence of green tea was investigated. To monitor the effect of green tea on lipid oxidation, aldehydes were measured while effect on protein was monitored via changes in myoglobin, thiols, and tryptophan fluorescence over nine days of refrigerated storage. The presence of SP and MP decreased free aldehydes in the buffers. The SP bound more aldehydes than MP. The tea compounds exhibited more favorable binding energies than aldehydes near histidine 64 close to the heme moiety of myoglobin. Addition of tea lowered tryptophan ...


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