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The Role Of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha (Hif-1⍺) In Human Coronavirus Oc43 Infection, Olivia Faith Riffey 2024 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Role Of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha (Hif-1⍺) In Human Coronavirus Oc43 Infection, Olivia Faith Riffey

Masters Theses

The importance of altering host cell metabolism for promoting infection and propagation of coronaviruses highlights the intricate play between viruses and the cells they infect (1). Upregulation of the glycolytic pathway in host cells infected with coronaviruses was observed in single-cell RNAseq, although the mechanism(s) that mediate this effect are still being investigated(2). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1⍺) is a transcription factor that regulates many glycolytic enzymes. Recent studies have identified SARS-CoV-2 upregulation of HIF-1⍺, which suggests it may have an important role in virus production (3, 4). However, the exact role and physiological relevance of HIF-1⍺ during viral infection is …


Increasing Maternity Leave And Decreasing Attrition Rates Of U.S. Active Duty Women In The Prenatal And Immediate Postpartum Period, Minette S.R. Herrick, Weiwen Chai 2023 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Increasing Maternity Leave And Decreasing Attrition Rates Of U.S. Active Duty Women In The Prenatal And Immediate Postpartum Period, Minette S.R. Herrick, Weiwen Chai

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

Introduction:The USA currently does not have a national parental leave policy. In 2016, the Secretary of Defense increased the allotted maternity leave for active duty U.S. military members from 6 to 12 weeks. The purpose of this study was to understand the potential impact of this change on attrition rates of active duty women in the Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marines from their initial prenatal visit through the first year postpartum.

Methods: All active duty women who had a confirmed pregnancy in the electronic health record from 2011 to 2019 were included for consideration in the study. …


Influences Of High-Fat Diet And Antrodia Camphorata In Early Life On Intestinal Tumorigensis Later In Life, Ting-Chun Lin 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Influences Of High-Fat Diet And Antrodia Camphorata In Early Life On Intestinal Tumorigensis Later In Life, Ting-Chun Lin

Doctoral Dissertations

Young-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing public health concern globally due to the increasing prevalence of westernized lifestyles during childhood and adolescence. Meanwhile, there have been reports of health-promoting effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, associated with Antrodia camphorata (AC), a unique fungus native to Taiwan. This study aimed to investigate the impact of early-life high-fat diet (HF) and AC supplementation on intestinal tumorigenesis in young adulthood, using APC1638N mice. Additionally, the study aimed to determine the role of Turicibacter, a probiotic negatively associated with diet-induced obesity, in colorectal tumorigenesis, and to explore the anti-cancer mechanism …


Milk-Borne Small Extracellular Vesicles: Kinetics And Mechanisms Of Transport, Distribution, And Elimination, Alice Ngu, Javaria Munir, Janos Zempleni 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Milk-Borne Small Extracellular Vesicles: Kinetics And Mechanisms Of Transport, Distribution, And Elimination, Alice Ngu, Javaria Munir, Janos Zempleni

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) in milk have the qualities desired for delivering therapeutics to diseased tissues. The production of bovine milk sEVs is scalable (1021 annually per cow), and they resist degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Most cells studied to date internalize milk sEVs by a saturable process that follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The bioavailability of oral milk sEVs is approximately 50%. In addition to crossing the intestinal mucosa, milk sEVs also cross barriers such as the placenta and blood-brain barrier, thereby enabling the delivery of therapeutics to hard-to-reach tissues. In time course studies, levels of milk sEVs peaked in …


Kluyveromyces Marxianus Prepared As A Ready To Use Supplemental Food (Rusf), Zachary Christman 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Kluyveromyces Marxianus Prepared As A Ready To Use Supplemental Food (Rusf), Zachary Christman

Applied Science Program: Theses

Ready to Use Supplemental Food (RUSF) is a nutrient dense paste or compressed bar used to supplement a person’s nutritional needs because of malnutrition or due to food shortages. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate some methods of how the dairy organism Kluyveromyces marxianus can be used to enrich the protein value of bread or ferment a substrate such as wheat bran into a more digestible form.


Piperine Encourages Apoptosis In Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells Through Ros Generation, Dna Fragmentation, Caspase-3 Activation And Cell Cycle Arrest, Asif Jafri, Juhi Rais, Sudhir Kumar, Md Arshad 2023 University of Lucknow

Piperine Encourages Apoptosis In Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells Through Ros Generation, Dna Fragmentation, Caspase-3 Activation And Cell Cycle Arrest, Asif Jafri, Juhi Rais, Sudhir Kumar, Md Arshad

Research Symposium

Background: Cancer is one of the most common destructive diseases and the second leading cause of death in humans. Among cancer, cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women globally. Thus, there is a continuous need to search for chemotherapeutic chemicals or naturally occurring drugs to resolve this global health problem. Piperine (1-piperoylpeperdine) is present in the fruits of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) and long pepper (Piper longum Linn.). It possesses several pharmacological properties and in the present study we have evaluated its anti-cancer potential on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells.

Methods: The anti-proliferative effect …


Resistance Training In Humans And Mechanical Overload In Rodents Do Not Elevate Muscle Protein Lactylation, Madison L. Mattingly, Auburn University A. Ruple, Casey L. Sexton, Joshua S. Godwin, Mason C. McIntosh, Morgan A. Smith, Daniel L. Plotkin, J. Max Michel, Derick A. Anglin, Nicholas J. Kontos, Shengyi Fei, Stuart M. Phillips, C. Brooks Mobley, Ivan Jose Vechetti Jr, Christopher G. Vann, Michael D. Roberts 2023 Auburn University

Resistance Training In Humans And Mechanical Overload In Rodents Do Not Elevate Muscle Protein Lactylation, Madison L. Mattingly, Auburn University A. Ruple, Casey L. Sexton, Joshua S. Godwin, Mason C. Mcintosh, Morgan A. Smith, Daniel L. Plotkin, J. Max Michel, Derick A. Anglin, Nicholas J. Kontos, Shengyi Fei, Stuart M. Phillips, C. Brooks Mobley, Ivan Jose Vechetti Jr, Christopher G. Vann, Michael D. Roberts

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

Although several reports have hypothesized that exercise may increase skeletal muscle protein lactylation, empirical evidence in humans is lacking. Thus, we adopted a multifaceted approach to examine if acute and subchronic resistance training (RT) altered skeletal muscle protein lactylation levels. In mice, we also sought to examine if surgical ablation-induced plantaris hypertrophy coincided with increases in muscle protein lactylation. To examine acute responses, participants’ blood lactate concentrations were assessed before, during, and after eight sets of an exhaustive lower body RT bout (n = 10 trained college-aged men). Vastus lateralis biopsies were also taken before, 3-h post, and 6-h post-exercise …


Critical Contributions Of Protein Cargos To The Functions Of Macrophage‑Derived Extracellular Vesicles, Baolong Liu, Phuong Linh Nguyen, Han Yu, Xingzhi Li, Huiren Wang, Wang Price, Meng Niu, Chittibabu Guda, Xiao Cheng, Xinghui Sun, Regis Moreau, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Naldrett, Sophie Alvarez, Jiujiu Yu 2023 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Critical Contributions Of Protein Cargos To The Functions Of Macrophage‑Derived Extracellular Vesicles, Baolong Liu, Phuong Linh Nguyen, Han Yu, Xingzhi Li, Huiren Wang, Wang Price, Meng Niu, Chittibabu Guda, Xiao Cheng, Xinghui Sun, Regis Moreau, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Naldrett, Sophie Alvarez, Jiujiu Yu

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

Background Macrophages are highly plastic innate immune cells that play key roles in host defense, tissue repair, and homeostasis maintenance. In response to divergent stimuli, macrophages rapidly alter their functions and manifest a wide polarization spectrum with two extremes: M1 or classical activation and M2 or alternative activation. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from differentially activated macrophages have been shown to have diverse functions, which are primarily attributed to their microRNA cargos. The role of protein cargos in these EVs remains largely unexplored. Therefore, in this study, we focused on the protein cargos in macrophage-derived EVs.

Results Naïve murine bone marrow-derived …


Sprouting Alters Metabolite And Peptide Contents In The Gastrointestinal Digest Of Soybean And Enhances In-Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Emerson Nolasco, Inga Krassovskaya, Kelvin Hong, Kali Hansen, Sophie Alvarez, Toshihiro Obata, Kaustav Majumder 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sprouting Alters Metabolite And Peptide Contents In The Gastrointestinal Digest Of Soybean And Enhances In-Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Emerson Nolasco, Inga Krassovskaya, Kelvin Hong, Kali Hansen, Sophie Alvarez, Toshihiro Obata, Kaustav Majumder

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

Sprouting of soybeans can enhance the release of health-beneficial bioactive compounds, especially peptides, and metabolites, while gastrointestinal (GI) digestion alters their biotransformation and bioaccessibility. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of soybean sprouting and GI digestion in modulating its anti-inflammatory activity. Soybeans were soaked in water overnight (Day 0) and sprouted for two and four days, subjected to simulated GI digestion, and human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were pretreated (2 h) with soybean sprout digest (SSD: 1000 μg/mL) before inflammation induction with IL-1β. Pre-treatment with Day 4 SSD specifically reduced the secretion of cytokine IL-8 by 19.5%. Sprouting …


Protein Enriched Bread Using Spent Wine Yeast, Zachary Christman 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Protein Enriched Bread Using Spent Wine Yeast, Zachary Christman

Applied Science Program: Theses

Yeast is a common byproduct of wine production. Wine yeast may be used as a food source. It does not contain bitter and astringent compounds such as those present in spent yeast from making beer The use of nutritional yeast and yeast extract for protein enrichment of bread are presented in this article.


Antibiotic-Induced Gut Dysbiosis And Cognitive, Emotional, And Behavioral Changes In Rodents: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Shivdeep S. Hayer, Soonjo Hwang, Jonathan B. Clayton 2023 University of Nebraska at Omaha, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, University of Guelph

Antibiotic-Induced Gut Dysbiosis And Cognitive, Emotional, And Behavioral Changes In Rodents: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Shivdeep S. Hayer, Soonjo Hwang, Jonathan B. Clayton

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

There are previous epidemiological studies reporting associations between antibiotic use and psychiatric symptoms. Antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and alteration of microbiota-gut-brain axis communication has been proposed to play a role in this association. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we reviewed published articles that have presented results on changes in cognition, emotion, and behavior in rodents (rats and mice) after antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis. We searched three databases—PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS to identify such articles using dedicated search strings and extracted data from 48 articles. Increase in anxiety and depression-like behavior was reported in 32.7 and 40.7 percent of the …


Resistant Potato Starch Supplementation Reduces Serum Histamine Levels In Healthy Adults With Links To Attenuated Intestinal Permeability, Jason R. Bush, Jun Han, Edward C. Deehan, Scott V. Harding, Madhura Maiya, Joshua Baisley, David Schibli, David R. Goodlett 2023 MSP Starch Products Inc.

Resistant Potato Starch Supplementation Reduces Serum Histamine Levels In Healthy Adults With Links To Attenuated Intestinal Permeability, Jason R. Bush, Jun Han, Edward C. Deehan, Scott V. Harding, Madhura Maiya, Joshua Baisley, David Schibli, David R. Goodlett

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

Histamine from our diet or gut microbes can trigger gastrointestinal disturbances, and resistant potato starch (RPS) has previously been shown to alleviate these symptoms while increasing levels of health-associated bacteria such as Akkermansia through unknown mechanisms. Post hoc exploratory metabolomic analysis of serum amino acid, amine, and carnitine metabolites in participants consuming 3.5 g/day RPS or placebo (n = 48) was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine whether RPS positively influences histamine metabolism and related parameters. Histamine levels were significantly reduced by RPS treatment, but histamine-degrading enzyme products were unaffected by RPS. RPS also reduced histamine-secreting Haemophilus and Lactobacillus …


Fatiguing Joint Angle Does Not Influence Torque And Neuromuscular Responses Following Sustained, Isometric Forearm Flexion Tasks Anchored To Perceptual Intensity In Men, Dolores G. Ortega, Terry J. Housh, Robert W. Smith, Jocelyn E. Arnett, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Fatiguing Joint Angle Does Not Influence Torque And Neuromuscular Responses Following Sustained, Isometric Forearm Flexion Tasks Anchored To Perceptual Intensity In Men, Dolores G. Ortega, Terry J. Housh, Robert W. Smith, Jocelyn E. Arnett, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

This study examined the effects of joint angle (JA) on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and neuromuscular responses following fatiguing tasks anchored to RPE. Nine men (mean ± SD: age = 20.7 ± 1.2 yrs) performed forearm flexion MVICs at elbow JAs of 75o and 125o before and after sustained, isometric forearm flexion tasks to failure at fatiguing joint angles (FJA) of 75o and 125o anchored to RPE = 8. The amplitude and frequency of the electromyographic and mechanomyographic signals were recorded. Neuromuscular efficiency was calculated by dividing normalized torque by normalized electromyographic amplitude. A dependent …


Fatiguing Joint Angle Does Not Influence Torque And Neuromuscular Responses Following Sustained, Isometric Forearm Flexion Tasks Anchored To Perceptual Intensity In Men, Dolores G. Ortega, Terry J. Housh, Robert Smith, Jocelyn E. Arnett, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Fatiguing Joint Angle Does Not Influence Torque And Neuromuscular Responses Following Sustained, Isometric Forearm Flexion Tasks Anchored To Perceptual Intensity In Men, Dolores G. Ortega, Terry J. Housh, Robert Smith, Jocelyn E. Arnett, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

This study examined the effects of joint angle (JA) on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and neuromuscular responses following fatiguing tasks anchored to RPE. Nine men (mean ± SD: age = 20.7 ± 1.2 yrs) performed forearm flexion MVICs at elbow JAs of 75o and 125o before and after sustained, isometric forearm flexion tasks to failure at fatiguing joint angles (FJA) of 75o and 125o anchored to RPE = 8. The amplitude and frequency of the electromyographic and mechanomyographic signals were recorded. Neuromuscular efficiency was calculated by dividing normalized torque by normalized electromyographic amplitude. A dependent …


Auricularia Auricula Polysaccharides Attenuate Obesity In Mice Through Gut Commensal Papillibacter Cinnamivorans, Xin Zong, Hao Zhang, Luoyi Zhu, Edward C. Deehan, Jie Fu, Yizhen Wang, Mingliang Jin 2023 Zhejiang University

Auricularia Auricula Polysaccharides Attenuate Obesity In Mice Through Gut Commensal Papillibacter Cinnamivorans, Xin Zong, Hao Zhang, Luoyi Zhu, Edward C. Deehan, Jie Fu, Yizhen Wang, Mingliang Jin

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

Introduction: Auricularia auricula is a well-known traditional edible and medical fungus with high nutritional and pharmacological values, as well as metabolic and immunoregulatory properties. Nondigestible fermentable polysaccharides are identified as primary bioactive constituents of Auricularia auricula extracts. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the effects of Auricularia auricula polysaccharides (AAP) on obesity and related metabolic endpoints, including the role of the gut microbiota, remain insufficiently understood.

Methods: The effects of AAP on obesity were assessed within high-fat diet (HFD)-based mice through obesity trait analysis and metabolomic profiling. To determine the mechanistic role of the gut microbiota in observed anti-obesogenic …


Retinoic Acid, Insulin, And Cycloheximide Alter Glycogen Homeostasis In Differentiating L6 Myoblasts, Aaron Armstrong 2023 University of Tennessee College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences

Retinoic Acid, Insulin, And Cycloheximide Alter Glycogen Homeostasis In Differentiating L6 Myoblasts, Aaron Armstrong

Doctoral Dissertations

Glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle (SM) is responsible for the majority of post-prandial glucose disposal in healthy individuals. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), compromised skeletal muscle glycogen synthesis contributes to hyperglycemia. L6 rat SM cells can develop insulin resistance with prolonged insulin stimulation and provide an in vitro model for mechanistic dysfunction in glycogen homeostasis. SM glycogen is synthesized by glycogen synthase (GS) in response to insulin stimulation. Canonically, insulin signaling increases GS activity through inhibition of its Ser641 regulator glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) by protein kinase B (AKT). Proximal insulin signaling activates AKT via Ser473 phosphorylation which proceeds …


Performance Fatigability And Neuromuscular Responses Are Not Joint Angle Specific Following A Sustained Isometric Forearm Flexion Task Anchored To A High Perceptual Intensity In Women, Jocelyn E. Arnett, Robert W. Smith, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Dolores G. Ortega, Terry J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson 2023 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Performance Fatigability And Neuromuscular Responses Are Not Joint Angle Specific Following A Sustained Isometric Forearm Flexion Task Anchored To A High Perceptual Intensity In Women, Jocelyn E. Arnett, Robert W. Smith, Tyler J. Neltner, John Paul V. Anders, Dolores G. Ortega, Terry J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

Objectives: To examine the effects of joint angle (JA) on maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and neuromuscular responses following a sustained, isometric forearm flexion task anchored to a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 8 (RPE=8). Methods: Nine women (age: 20.7±2.9 yrs; height: 168.8±7.2 cm; body mass: 66.3±6.8 kg) performed 2,3s forearm flexion MVICs at JAs of 75°, 100°, and 125° prior to and following a sustained, isometric forearm flexion task anchored to RPE=8 to task failure (torque reduced to zero) at JA100. Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) signals were recorded from the biceps brachii. Results: The …


Homeobox Transcription Factor Hbxa Influences Expression Of Over One Thousand Genes In The Model Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Sandesh S. Pandit, Jinfang Zheng, Yanbin Yin, Sophie Lorber, Olivier Puel, Sourabh Dhingra, Eduardo A. Espeso, Ana M. Calvo 2023 Northern Illinois University

Homeobox Transcription Factor Hbxa Influences Expression Of Over One Thousand Genes In The Model Fungus Aspergillus Nidulans, Sandesh S. Pandit, Jinfang Zheng, Yanbin Yin, Sophie Lorber, Olivier Puel, Sourabh Dhingra, Eduardo A. Espeso, Ana M. Calvo

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

In fungi, conserved homeobox-domain proteins are transcriptional regulators governing development. In Aspergillus species, several homeobox-domain transcription factor genes have been identified, among them, hbxA/hbx1. For instance, in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, hbxA is involved in conidial production and germination, as well as virulence and secondary metabolism, including production of fumigaclavines, fumiquinazolines, and chaetominine. In the agriculturally important fungus Aspergillus flavus, disruption of hbx1 results in fluffy aconidial colonies unable to produce sclerotia. hbx1 also regulates production of aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem. Furthermore, transcriptome studies revealed that hbx1 has a broad effect on the A. flavus …


Sesame Eliciting And Safe Doses In A Large Sesame Allergic Population, Liat Nachshon, Joost Westerhout, W. Marty Blom, Benjamin Remington, Michael B. Levy, Michael R. Goldberg, Naama Epstein-Rigbi, Yitzhak Katz, Arnon Elizur 2023 Yitzhak Shamir Medical Center, Tel Aviv University

Sesame Eliciting And Safe Doses In A Large Sesame Allergic Population, Liat Nachshon, Joost Westerhout, W. Marty Blom, Benjamin Remington, Michael B. Levy, Michael R. Goldberg, Naama Epstein-Rigbi, Yitzhak Katz, Arnon Elizur

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

Background: Sesame is a significant food allergen causing severe and even fatal reactions. Given its increasing prevalence in western diet, sesame is listed as an allergenic food requiring labeling in the United States and EU. However, data on the population reaction doses to sesame are limited.

Methods: All sesame oral food challenges (OFCs), performed either for diagnosis or for threshold identification before the beginning of sesame oral immunotherapy (OIT) between November 2011 and July 2021 in Shamir medical center were analyzed for reaction threshold distribution. Safe-dose challenges with 90–120 min intervals were also analyzed.

Results: Two hundred …


Assessment Of The Immune Response In Patients With Insulin Resistance, Obesity, And Diabetes To Covid-19 Vaccination, Jędrzej Warpechowski, Paula Leszczyńska, Dominika Juchnicka, Adam Olichwier, Łukasz Szczerbiński, Adam Jacek Krętowski 2023 Medical University of Bialystok

Assessment Of The Immune Response In Patients With Insulin Resistance, Obesity, And Diabetes To Covid-19 Vaccination, Jędrzej Warpechowski, Paula Leszczyńska, Dominika Juchnicka, Adam Olichwier, Łukasz Szczerbiński, Adam Jacek Krętowski

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences: Faculty Publications

The SARS-CoV-19 pandemic overwhelmed multiple healthcare systems across the world. Patients with underlying medical conditions such as obesity or diabetes were particularly vulnerable, had more severe symptoms, and were more frequently hospitalized. To date, there have been many studies on the severity of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with metabolic disorders, but data on the efficiency of vaccines against COVID-19 are still limited. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in individuals with diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity. A comparison is made between the immune response after vaccination in patients with and without metabolic comorbidities. …


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