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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Public Perceptions Of Genetically Engineered Foods: Playing God Or Trusting Science, Michael D. Mehta 2017 University of New Hampshire

Public Perceptions Of Genetically Engineered Foods: Playing God Or Trusting Science, Michael D. Mehta

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author considers whether levels of religiosity or scientism affect public perceptions of genetically engineered foods.


3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid Induce Trophoblast And Hepatocyte Lipoapoptosis, Taylor Bruett, Taylor Heng, Sathish Kumar Natarajan 2016 University of Nebraska Lincoln

3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid Induce Trophoblast And Hepatocyte Lipoapoptosis, Taylor Bruett, Taylor Heng, Sathish Kumar Natarajan

UCARE Research Products

Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (AFLP) is a very rare and fatal condition for both the mother and the unborn offspring accompanied by severe maternal liver dysfunction. AFLP usually develops during the third trimester of pregnancy with symptoms of liver disease. AFLP is associated with a mutation in the enzyme, long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) which is involved in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Defective beta-oxidation of fatty acids results in the individual unable to metabolize fatty acids which then causes fatty infiltration in their organs, such as the liver. This interferes with normal function of the liver ...


Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff

Doctoral Dissertations

Skeletal muscle glucose metabolism can affect whole body glucose homeostasis significantly. Vitamin A (VA) plays a role in a number of physiological functions including glucose metabolism. However, its role in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism has not been well established. Insulin controls glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle via the regulations of glucose uptake, glycogenesis, and glycolysis. We hypothesize that insulin and VA signaling pathways may converge to regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Here, the effects of retinoic acid (RA) alone and in combination with insulin on glucose utilization in rat L6 muscle cells were studied. L6 cells were treated ...


Mechanism Of Triglyceride Lowering Action Of Akkermansia Muciniphila And Fenugreek In A Genetic Induced Hyperlipidemia, Jing Shen 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanism Of Triglyceride Lowering Action Of Akkermansia Muciniphila And Fenugreek In A Genetic Induced Hyperlipidemia, Jing Shen

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Hyperlipidemia is a condition of abnormally elevated levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood circulation. It is usually accompanied with obesity, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and has become a great threat to human health. New therapeutic strategies are needed for the prevention and treatment of both genetic intervention-induced hyperlipidemia and environmentally induced hyperlipidemia. In this study, we determined the therapeutic effects of a diseaseprotecting gut bacteria, Akkermansia muciniphila, and an annual legume, fenugreek, on hypertriglyceridemia induced by genetic depletion of cAMP responsive binding protein H (CREBH KO) in mice. We ...


Nutrigenomics Study In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Novel Diets Supplemented With Marine By-Products, Nellie Gagné 2016 Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Nutrigenomics Study In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Novel Diets Supplemented With Marine By-Products, Nellie Gagné

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Delta Tocotrienol Attenuates Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Via Inhibition Of Nf-Κb Priming And Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Teresa Buckner 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Delta Tocotrienol Attenuates Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Via Inhibition Of Nf-Κb Priming And Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Teresa Buckner

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Chronic, low-grade inflammation during obesity is associated with the development of metabolic dysfunction. The NLRP3 inflammasome is assembled in response to cellular stressors and leads to cytotoxic cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 production, which implicates the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammatory conditions, including type 2 diabetes. Tocotrienols are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory forms of vitamin E. Delta-tocotrienol (dT3) displays NF-κB inhibitory and anti-oxidant abilities, and is easily isolated from the Annatto plant. My primary aim was to determine whether dT3 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and to compare the extent to which dT3 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome with other tocotrienol forms, i.e. alpha-tocotrienol (aT3 ...


Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Black beans contain high phenolic contents that are considered potent antioxidants. Relatively little is known about their ability to inhibit the carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase from releasing glucose from starch and/or disaccharides. The objective of this project was to determine the optimum procedures for extracting total phenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and total condensed tannins (TCT) from black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and then to determine the ability of the phenolic rich extracts to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Due to their high phenolic levels, it was hypothesized that black beans would be an effective inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun 2016 University of Connecticut

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


Examining Maternal Obesity Effects On Oogenesis, Follicular Development, And Embryonic Myogenesis, Chris Lindeman, Jennifer Wood 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examining Maternal Obesity Effects On Oogenesis, Follicular Development, And Embryonic Myogenesis, Chris Lindeman, Jennifer Wood

UCARE Research Products

The CDC estimates that more than one-third of U.S. adults (approximately 78.6 million) are obese. Despite national efforts to combat this with diet and exercise, the number of obese adults and children continues to climb. It is critical to emphasize that obesity can lead to lifelong, chronic complications and health risks including hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes.

Diet and obesity also have important impacts on the reproductive health of female including the ability to become pregnant (fertility) and risk for complications during pregnancy. Furthermore, for women who do become pregnant, obesity can affect the development of the embryo ...


The Impact Of Depleting Dietary Microrna In A High-Fat Diet, Briley Moates, Sonia Manca, Janos Zempleni 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Depleting Dietary Microrna In A High-Fat Diet, Briley Moates, Sonia Manca, Janos Zempleni

UCARE Research Products

We tested the hypothesis that a highfat diet would increase the difference in body weight between C57BL/6J mice provided dietary microRNA (Exo +) and mice which were fed the same diet depleted of microRNA (Exo-).

• The data demonstrate that depleting miRNAs from a high-fat diet does not impact the difference in body weight between Exo+ and Exo- subjects. • Depleting dietary miRNAs from normal low-fat diets do result in differences in body weight, fat, fecundity, purine metabolism, and gut microbiome.


Role Of Acetyl-Coa Synthetase 2 And Acetyl-Coa Precursors, Acetate And Ethanol, On Hepatocyte Gene Expression, Noel Bruner, Anjeza Erickson,, Mengna Xia, Bo He, Regis Moreau 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Role Of Acetyl-Coa Synthetase 2 And Acetyl-Coa Precursors, Acetate And Ethanol, On Hepatocyte Gene Expression, Noel Bruner, Anjeza Erickson,, Mengna Xia, Bo He, Regis Moreau

UCARE Research Products

Abnormally high blood and tissue lipid levels observed in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are associated with extensive gene expression changes. Gene expression is modulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which include modifications of DNA-bound protein histones without alteration of DNA sequence. Histone hyperacetylation is observed in the setting of metabolic disorders but the causes have not been described in any detail. We know that histone acetylation is positively correlated with the abundance of acetyl-coenzyme A. This study tests the hypothesis that acetyl-coenzyme A metabolizing enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2 (ACSS2, cytoplasmic, aka AceCS1) impacts liver function through histone acetylation, and that ...


Biotechnology And The Law: A Consideration Of Intellectual Property Rights And Related Social Issues, Michael D. Mehta 2016 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada

Biotechnology And The Law: A Consideration Of Intellectual Property Rights And Related Social Issues, Michael D. Mehta

University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] "Recent advances in biotechnology are expected by many to improve crop yield, reduce reliance on agricultural inputs like pesticides and herbicides, alleviate world hunger, improve the safety and effectiveness of pharmaceuticals, assist in the discovery of genes that trigger diseases like cancer, and make more efficient our legal institutions through DNA testing. Clearly, innovations in biotechnology are a powerful force for social change, and they pose unique challenges and opportunities for legal scholars and institutions. This section of the Pierce Law Review focuses on the interface between law and technology by examining how innovations in biotechnology accelerate debates about ...


Effect Of Green Tea On Interaction Of Lipid Oxidation Products With Sarcoplasmic And Myofibrillar Protein Homogenates Extracted From Bovine Top Round Muscle, Nahathai Stapornkul, Tatiana Prytkova, Lilian Were 2016 California State University - Northridge

Effect Of Green Tea On Interaction Of Lipid Oxidation Products With Sarcoplasmic And Myofibrillar Protein Homogenates Extracted From Bovine Top Round Muscle, Nahathai Stapornkul, Tatiana Prytkova, Lilian Were

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

The interaction between lipid oxidation products and bovine sarcoplasmic (SP) and myofibrillar protein (MP) homogenates in the presence of green tea was investigated. To monitor the effect of green tea on lipid oxidation, aldehydes were measured while effect on protein was monitored via changes in myoglobin, thiols, and tryptophan fluorescence over nine days of refrigerated storage. The presence of SP and MP decreased free aldehydes in the buffers. The SP bound more aldehydes than MP. The tea compounds exhibited more favorable binding energies than aldehydes near histidine 64 close to the heme moiety of myoglobin. Addition of tea lowered tryptophan ...


The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is partially attributed to perturbations in lipid metabolism. Xenobiotics, such as pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals, have been associated with increased risk of CVD in multiple large-scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We and others have identified several xenobiotics as potent agonists for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that can be activated by numerous drugs as well as environmental and dietary chemicals. However, the role of PXR in mediating the pathophysiological effects of xenobiotic exposure in humans and animals remains elusive ...


Suppression Of Nlrp3 Inflammasome By Γ-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes, Yongeun Kim, Wei Wang, Meshail Okla, Inhae Kang, Regis Moreau, Soonkyu Chung 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Suppression Of Nlrp3 Inflammasome By Γ-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes, Yongeun Kim, Wei Wang, Meshail Okla, Inhae Kang, Regis Moreau, Soonkyu Chung

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular sensor that sets off the innate immune system in response to microbial-derived and endogenous metabolic danger signals. We previously reported that γ-tocotrienol (γT3) attenuated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity, but the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of γT3 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attendant consequences on type 2 diabetes. γT3 repressed inflammasome activation, caspase-1 cleavage, and interleukin (IL) 1β secretion in murine macrophages, implicating the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome in the anti-inflammatory and antipyroptotic properties of γT3. Furthermore, supplementation of leptin-receptor KO mice ...


Disparities In Access To Preventive Health Care Services Among Insured Children In A Cross Sectional Study, Christian King 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Disparities In Access To Preventive Health Care Services Among Insured Children In A Cross Sectional Study, Christian King

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Children with insurance have better access to care and health outcomes if their parents also have insurance. However, little is known about whether the type of parental insurance matters. This study attempts to determine whether the type of parental insurance affects the access to health care services of children. I used data from the 2009–2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and estimated multivariate logistic regressions (N=26,152). I estimated how family insurance coverage affects the probability that children have a usual source of care, well-child visits in the past year, unmet medical and prescription needs, less than 1 dental ...


The Apoa5 Rs662799 Polymorphism Is Associated With Dyslipidemia And The Severity Of Coronary Heart Disease In Chinese Women, Yanmei Wang, Zhan Lu, Jingxiao Zhang, Yang Yang, Jing Shen, Xiaoming Zhang, Yongyan Song 2016 Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College

The Apoa5 Rs662799 Polymorphism Is Associated With Dyslipidemia And The Severity Of Coronary Heart Disease In Chinese Women, Yanmei Wang, Zhan Lu, Jingxiao Zhang, Yang Yang, Jing Shen, Xiaoming Zhang, Yongyan Song

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background: The APOA5 rs662799 polymorphism has been widely reported regarding its associations with the plasma lipid levels and the occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD), whereas its relationship with the severity of CHD has not yet been explored.

Methods: Four hundred and seventy-eight angiografically defined subjects (325 CHD patients and 153 CHD-free controls) were enrolled in this study. The rs662799 polymorphism was genotyped, and the fasting lipid data were collected for all participants. The severity of CHD was evaluated for the CHD patients by using Gensini scores.

Results: The variant C allele of the rs662799 polymorphism was associated with lower ...


Glucagon Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Via Camp And Insig-2 Signaling: Implication For The Pathogenesis Of Hypertriglyceridemia And Hepatic Steatosis, Hai Wang, Miaoyun Zhao, Neetu Sud, Patricia Christian, Jing Shen, Yongyan Song, Anjeza Pashaj, Kezhong Zhang, Timothy Carr, Qiaozhu Su 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Glucagon Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Via Camp And Insig-2 Signaling: Implication For The Pathogenesis Of Hypertriglyceridemia And Hepatic Steatosis, Hai Wang, Miaoyun Zhao, Neetu Sud, Patricia Christian, Jing Shen, Yongyan Song, Anjeza Pashaj, Kezhong Zhang, Timothy Carr, Qiaozhu Su

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Insulin induced gene-2 (Insig-2) is an ER-resident protein that inhibits the activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). However, cellular factors that regulate Insig-2 expression have not yet been identified. Here we reported that cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein H (CREBH) positively regulates mRNA and protein expression of a liver specific isoform of Insig-2, Insig-2a, which in turn hinders SREBP-1c activation and inhibits hepatic de novo lipogenesis. CREBH binds to the evolutionally conserved CRE-BP binding elements located in the enhancer region of Insig-2a and upregulates its mRNA and protein expression. Metabolic hormone glucagon and nutritional fasting activated CREBH, which upregulated expression ...


Four Weeks Of High- Versus Low-Load Resistance Training To Failure On The Rate Of Torque Development, Electromechanical Delay, And Contractile Twitch Properties, N.D.M. Jenkins, Terry J. Housh, S.L. Buckner, H.C. Bergstrom, C.M. Smith, Kristen C. Cochrane, E.C. Hill, Amelia A. Miramonti, R.J. Schmidt, G.O. Johnson, Joel T. Cramer 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Four Weeks Of High- Versus Low-Load Resistance Training To Failure On The Rate Of Torque Development, Electromechanical Delay, And Contractile Twitch Properties, N.D.M. Jenkins, Terry J. Housh, S.L. Buckner, H.C. Bergstrom, C.M. Smith, Kristen C. Cochrane, E.C. Hill, Amelia A. Miramonti, R.J. Schmidt, G.O. Johnson, Joel T. Cramer

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 4-weeks of high- versus low-load resistance training to failure on rate of torque development (RTD), electromechanical delay (EMD), and contractile twitch characteristics. Fifteen men (mean±SD; age=21.7±2.4 yrs) were randomly assigned to either a high- (80% 1RM; n=7) or low-load (30% 1RM; n=8) training group and completed elbow flexion resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The participants were tested at baseline, 2-, and 4-weeks of training. Peak RTD (pRTDV) and RTD at 0-30 (RTD30V), 0-50 (RTD50V), 0-100 (RTD100V ...


Food Insecurity And Housing Instability In Vulnerable Families, Christian King 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Food Insecurity And Housing Instability In Vulnerable Families, Christian King

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Reducing the prevalence of household food insecurity has been a long-standing objective of the federal government. Previous research has found many negative consequences of food insecurity for families and households but has not examined its relationship with housing instability. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, difference-in-difference models show that food insecurity is associated with housing instability. The association remains statistically significant after accounting for potential selection and unobserved heterogeneity using propensity score matching and excluding households that experienced prior housing instability from the sample. Examining potential mediating factors, I find that material hardship explains about ...


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