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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Long-Term Treatment With Insulin And Retinoic Acid Increased Glucose Usage In L6 Muscle Cells Via Glycogenesis, Matthew Ray Goff

Doctoral Dissertations

Skeletal muscle glucose metabolism can affect whole body glucose homeostasis significantly. Vitamin A (VA) plays a role in a number of physiological functions including glucose metabolism. However, its role in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism has not been well established. Insulin controls glucose metabolism in the skeletal muscle via the regulations of glucose uptake, glycogenesis, and glycolysis. We hypothesize that insulin and VA signaling pathways may converge to regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Here, the effects of retinoic acid (RA) alone and in combination with insulin on glucose utilization in rat L6 muscle cells were studied. L6 cells were treated ...


Mechanism Of Triglyceride Lowering Action Of Akkermansia Muciniphila And Fenugreek In A Genetic Induced Hyperlipidemia, Jing Shen 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanism Of Triglyceride Lowering Action Of Akkermansia Muciniphila And Fenugreek In A Genetic Induced Hyperlipidemia, Jing Shen

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Hyperlipidemia is a condition of abnormally elevated levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood circulation. It is usually accompanied with obesity, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and has become a great threat to human health. New therapeutic strategies are needed for the prevention and treatment of both genetic intervention-induced hyperlipidemia and environmentally induced hyperlipidemia. In this study, we determined the therapeutic effects of a diseaseprotecting gut bacteria, Akkermansia muciniphila, and an annual legume, fenugreek, on hypertriglyceridemia induced by genetic depletion of cAMP responsive binding protein H (CREBH KO) in mice. We ...


Nutrigenomics Study In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Novel Diets Supplemented With Marine By-Products, Nellie Gagné 2016 Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Nutrigenomics Study In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Novel Diets Supplemented With Marine By-Products, Nellie Gagné

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Delta Tocotrienol Attenuates Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Via Inhibition Of Nf-Κb Priming And Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Teresa Buckner 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Delta Tocotrienol Attenuates Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Via Inhibition Of Nf-Κb Priming And Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Teresa Buckner

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Chronic, low-grade inflammation during obesity is associated with the development of metabolic dysfunction. The NLRP3 inflammasome is assembled in response to cellular stressors and leads to cytotoxic cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 production, which implicates the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammatory conditions, including type 2 diabetes. Tocotrienols are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory forms of vitamin E. Delta-tocotrienol (dT3) displays NF-κB inhibitory and anti-oxidant abilities, and is easily isolated from the Annatto plant. My primary aim was to determine whether dT3 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and to compare the extent to which dT3 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome with other tocotrienol forms, i.e. alpha-tocotrienol (aT3 ...


Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Black beans contain high phenolic contents that are considered potent antioxidants. Relatively little is known about their ability to inhibit the carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase from releasing glucose from starch and/or disaccharides. The objective of this project was to determine the optimum procedures for extracting total phenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and total condensed tannins (TCT) from black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and then to determine the ability of the phenolic rich extracts to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Due to their high phenolic levels, it was hypothesized that black beans would be an effective inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun 2016 University of Connecticut

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


Examining Maternal Obesity Effects On Oogenesis, Follicular Development, And Embryonic Myogenesis, Chris Lindeman, Jennifer Wood 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examining Maternal Obesity Effects On Oogenesis, Follicular Development, And Embryonic Myogenesis, Chris Lindeman, Jennifer Wood

UCARE Research Products

The CDC estimates that more than one-third of U.S. adults (approximately 78.6 million) are obese. Despite national efforts to combat this with diet and exercise, the number of obese adults and children continues to climb. It is critical to emphasize that obesity can lead to lifelong, chronic complications and health risks including hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes.

Diet and obesity also have important impacts on the reproductive health of female including the ability to become pregnant (fertility) and risk for complications during pregnancy. Furthermore, for women who do become pregnant, obesity can affect the development of the embryo ...


The Impact Of Depleting Dietary Microrna In A High-Fat Diet, Briley Moates, Sonia Manca, Janos Zempleni 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Depleting Dietary Microrna In A High-Fat Diet, Briley Moates, Sonia Manca, Janos Zempleni

UCARE Research Products

We tested the hypothesis that a highfat diet would increase the difference in body weight between C57BL/6J mice provided dietary microRNA (Exo +) and mice which were fed the same diet depleted of microRNA (Exo-).

• The data demonstrate that depleting miRNAs from a high-fat diet does not impact the difference in body weight between Exo+ and Exo- subjects. • Depleting dietary miRNAs from normal low-fat diets do result in differences in body weight, fat, fecundity, purine metabolism, and gut microbiome.


Role Of Acetyl-Coa Synthetase 2 And Acetyl-Coa Precursors, Acetate And Ethanol, On Hepatocyte Gene Expression, Noel Bruner, Anjeza Erickson,, Mengna Xia, Bo He, Regis Moreau 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Role Of Acetyl-Coa Synthetase 2 And Acetyl-Coa Precursors, Acetate And Ethanol, On Hepatocyte Gene Expression, Noel Bruner, Anjeza Erickson,, Mengna Xia, Bo He, Regis Moreau

UCARE Research Products

Abnormally high blood and tissue lipid levels observed in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are associated with extensive gene expression changes. Gene expression is modulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which include modifications of DNA-bound protein histones without alteration of DNA sequence. Histone hyperacetylation is observed in the setting of metabolic disorders but the causes have not been described in any detail. We know that histone acetylation is positively correlated with the abundance of acetyl-coenzyme A. This study tests the hypothesis that acetyl-coenzyme A metabolizing enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2 (ACSS2, cytoplasmic, aka AceCS1) impacts liver function through histone acetylation, and that ...


Biotechnology And The Law: A Consideration Of Intellectual Property Rights And Related Social Issues, Michael D. Mehta 2016 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada

Biotechnology And The Law: A Consideration Of Intellectual Property Rights And Related Social Issues, Michael D. Mehta

University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] "Recent advances in biotechnology are expected by many to improve crop yield, reduce reliance on agricultural inputs like pesticides and herbicides, alleviate world hunger, improve the safety and effectiveness of pharmaceuticals, assist in the discovery of genes that trigger diseases like cancer, and make more efficient our legal institutions through DNA testing. Clearly, innovations in biotechnology are a powerful force for social change, and they pose unique challenges and opportunities for legal scholars and institutions. This section of the Pierce Law Review focuses on the interface between law and technology by examining how innovations in biotechnology accelerate debates about ...


Suppression Of Nlrp3 Inflammasome By Γ-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes, Yongeun Kim, Wei Wang, Meshail Okla, Inhae Kang, Regis Moreau, Soonkyu Chung 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Suppression Of Nlrp3 Inflammasome By Γ-Tocotrienol Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes, Yongeun Kim, Wei Wang, Meshail Okla, Inhae Kang, Regis Moreau, Soonkyu Chung

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular sensor that sets off the innate immune system in response to microbial-derived and endogenous metabolic danger signals. We previously reported that γ-tocotrienol (γT3) attenuated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity, but the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of γT3 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attendant consequences on type 2 diabetes. γT3 repressed inflammasome activation, caspase-1 cleavage, and interleukin (IL) 1β secretion in murine macrophages, implicating the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome in the anti-inflammatory and antipyroptotic properties of γT3. Furthermore, supplementation of leptin-receptor KO mice ...


Disparities In Access To Preventive Health Care Services Among Insured Children In A Cross Sectional Study, Christian King 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Disparities In Access To Preventive Health Care Services Among Insured Children In A Cross Sectional Study, Christian King

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Children with insurance have better access to care and health outcomes if their parents also have insurance. However, little is known about whether the type of parental insurance matters. This study attempts to determine whether the type of parental insurance affects the access to health care services of children. I used data from the 2009–2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and estimated multivariate logistic regressions (N=26,152). I estimated how family insurance coverage affects the probability that children have a usual source of care, well-child visits in the past year, unmet medical and prescription needs, less than 1 dental ...


The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is partially attributed to perturbations in lipid metabolism. Xenobiotics, such as pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals, have been associated with increased risk of CVD in multiple large-scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We and others have identified several xenobiotics as potent agonists for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that can be activated by numerous drugs as well as environmental and dietary chemicals. However, the role of PXR in mediating the pathophysiological effects of xenobiotic exposure in humans and animals remains elusive ...


Mechanisms By Which Dietary Ellagic Acid Attenuates Obesity And Obesity-Mediated Metabolic Complications, Inhae Kang 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanisms By Which Dietary Ellagic Acid Attenuates Obesity And Obesity-Mediated Metabolic Complications, Inhae Kang

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol found in various fruits and plants, such as berries, pomegranates, muscadine grapes, nuts and bark of oak tree. EA has been known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in various types of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of EA on obesity. Herein, 1) the lipid-lowering role of EA was identified in primary human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and human hepatoma Huh7 cells; 2) the molecular mechanisms by which EA attenuates adipogenesis by epigenetic modification were identified; 3) the effects of EA on high fat and high sucrose-mediated obesity was determined ...


Improving Extraction Of Allergenic Soy Proteins From Soy Products, Amma Konadu Amponsah 2015 University of Maine

Improving Extraction Of Allergenic Soy Proteins From Soy Products, Amma Konadu Amponsah

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With recent increase in the utilization of soy proteins, there are mounting concerns of the escalation of soy allergies. It is, therefore, important to improve current methods of allergen detection to ensure accurate labeling of foods, produce more reliable and representative results in studies to create hypoallergenic food and establish allergen thresholds. The conditions used to extract proteins from foods are important determinants for appropriate detection and interpretation of the allergenicity of food materials. The extraction of soy proteins for soy allergen detections is conventionally performed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer for an extraction period of at least 2 ...


Activation Of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (Tlr4) Attenuates Adaptive Thermogenesis Via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Meshail Okla, Wei Wang, Inhae Kang, Anjeza Pashaj, Timothy P. Carr, Soonkyu Chung 2015 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Activation Of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (Tlr4) Attenuates Adaptive Thermogenesis Via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Meshail Okla, Wei Wang, Inhae Kang, Anjeza Pashaj, Timothy P. Carr, Soonkyu Chung

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background: Human obesity is associated with defective brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation.

Results: Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) activation by high fat diet or lipopolysaccharide impairs adaptive thermogenesis.

Conclusion: Obesity-mediated TLR4 activation represses adaptive thermogenesis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction.

Significance: Inhibition of TLR4/ER stress axis is a novel target to augment BAT activity.

Abstract: Adaptive thermogenesis is the cellular process transforming chemical energy into heat in response to cold. A decrease in adaptive thermogenesis is a contributing factor to obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the compromised adaptive thermogenesis in obese subjects have not yet been ...


Exploring Novel Environmental Link To Obesity: Role Of Parabens In Adipogenesis In Vitro And In Vivo, Pan Hu 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Exploring Novel Environmental Link To Obesity: Role Of Parabens In Adipogenesis In Vitro And In Vivo, Pan Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

Parabens are a group of alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Paraben esters and their salts are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, toiletries, food, and pharmaceuticals. Humans are exposed to parabens through the use of such products from dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation. The extent of the exposure is reflected by the frequent detection of these compounds in urine samples in the general population. Moreover, parabens have been detected in human serum, milk, placental tissues and breast tumor tissues. Parabens have been shown to preserve estrogenic/antiandrogenic effects, and can activate peroxisome ...


The Effect Of Polyphenol-Rich Black Currant Extract On Lipogenic And Inflammatory Gene Expression In Diet Induced Obesity Mice, Ellen Harness 2015 University of Connecticut

The Effect Of Polyphenol-Rich Black Currant Extract On Lipogenic And Inflammatory Gene Expression In Diet Induced Obesity Mice, Ellen Harness

Honors Scholar Theses

Hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia frequently occur in obese population. As chronic, low-grade inflammation is closely associated with obesity, we investigated if polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent inflammation and diet-induced metabolic disturbances in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a modified AIN-93M control diet containing high fat/high cholesterol (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol by weight) or the same diet supplemented with 0.1% BCE (wt/wt) for 12 weeks. No significant differences in total body weight or liver weight occurred between the two groups. BCE-fed mice had fewer crown-like structures (CLS) with concomitant decreases in mRNA abundance of F4 ...


Attenuation Of Mtorc1-Driven Secretion Of Lipoproteins And Triacylglycerides By Short Chain Fatty Acids: Mechanistic Insight Into The Pathogenesis Of Hypertriglyceridemia, Joseph L. Roberts 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Attenuation Of Mtorc1-Driven Secretion Of Lipoproteins And Triacylglycerides By Short Chain Fatty Acids: Mechanistic Insight Into The Pathogenesis Of Hypertriglyceridemia, Joseph L. Roberts

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a serine/threonine kinase that drives several anabolic processes including lipid synthesis, protein synthesis, and adipogenesis. mTORC1 is highly active in the livers of obese rodents, in overnutrition, and is implicated in the development of obesity related metabolic disorders, including the overproduction of atherogenic lipoproteins. Direct inhibition of mTORC1 is not a viable treatment strategy because it prevents feedback inhibition of the insulin-signaling cascade, leading to increased lipid synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins. Thus, therapeutic approaches that drive catabolic pathways are considered promising mechanisms for overcoming mTORC1-driven anabolism. Human liver HepG2 ...


Gmo Vs. Non-Gmo: Comparing The Addictiveness Of Corn In Rats, Christian A. Carroll, Sara L. Hill, Kelly A. Huston, Tyler Michael, Courtney Noll, Melissa J. Beck, Ginger D. Cameron 2015 Cedarville University

Gmo Vs. Non-Gmo: Comparing The Addictiveness Of Corn In Rats, Christian A. Carroll, Sara L. Hill, Kelly A. Huston, Tyler Michael, Courtney Noll, Melissa J. Beck, Ginger D. Cameron

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) refer to organisms whose DNA has been altered to produce a certain characteristic. GMOs account for a significant proportion of the crops produced in the United States. Specifically, GMO corn accounted for approximately 88% of all corn grown for human and animal consumption in the year 2012. Previously conducted studies have not uniformly demonstrated the safe use of GMO corn, and no studies have been conducted to analyze the addictiveness of GMO corn.

The idea of addiction refers to more than just a physical dependence, but to a psychological dependence on something as well. Addiction is ...


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