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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Mechanical Overload-Induced Muscle-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Adipose Tissue Lipolysis, Ivan J. Vechetti jr, Bailey D. Peck, Yuan Wen, R Grace Walton, Taylor R. Valentino, Alexander P. Alimov, Cory M. Dungan, Douglas W. Van Pelt, Ferdinand von Walden, Bjorn Alkner, Charlotte A. Peterson, John J. McCarthy 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanical Overload-Induced Muscle-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Adipose Tissue Lipolysis, Ivan J. Vechetti Jr, Bailey D. Peck, Yuan Wen, R Grace Walton, Taylor R. Valentino, Alexander P. Alimov, Cory M. Dungan, Douglas W. Van Pelt, Ferdinand Von Walden, Bjorn Alkner, Charlotte A. Peterson, John J. Mccarthy

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

How regular physical activity is able to improve health remains poorly understood. The release of factors from skeletal muscle following exercise has been proposed as a possible mechanism mediating such systemic benefits. We describe a mechanism wherein skeletal muscle, in response to a hypertrophic stimulus induced by mechanical overload (MOV), released extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing muscle-specific miR-1 that were preferentially taken up by epidydimal white adipose tissue (eWAT). In eWAT, miR-1 promoted adrenergic signaling and lipolysis by targeting Tfap2α, a known repressor of Adrβ3 expression. Inhibiting EV release prevented the MOV-induced increase in eWAT miR-1 abundance and expression of lipolytic ...


Investigating Therapeutic Strategies To Target Metabolic Vulnerabilities Of Nsclc Tumors With Mutant Keap1 Gene, Pranavi Koppula 2021 The Texas Medical Center Library

Investigating Therapeutic Strategies To Target Metabolic Vulnerabilities Of Nsclc Tumors With Mutant Keap1 Gene, Pranavi Koppula

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The metabolic vulnerability of cancers has long been envisaged as an attractive window to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Metabolic flexibility at the cellular level encompasses the efficient rerouting of anabolic and catabolic pathways in response to varying environmental stimuli to maintain cellular homeostasis and sustain proliferation. The primary objective of this study is to identify metabolic vulnerabilities bestowed by KEAP1/NRF2 signaling axis through SLC7A11. SLC7A11 is a transcriptional target of NRF2, an essential regulator of cellular anti-oxidant response. Under unstressed basal conditions, NRF2 interacts with KEAP1, a tumor suppressor gene and a substrate adaptor protein of the Cullin3-dependent ubiquitin ...


The Studies Of Effects Of Vitamin A Status On Type 2 Diabetes In Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats And Retinoic Acid On Glucose Transporter 4 Expression In L6 Cells, Tiannan Wang 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Studies Of Effects Of Vitamin A Status On Type 2 Diabetes In Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats And Retinoic Acid On Glucose Transporter 4 Expression In L6 Cells, Tiannan Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

The epidemic of metabolic diseases such as diabetes has become a public health concern. Previous research data from our lab have shown that vitamin A (VA) status and retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of VA, contribute to the glucose and lipid metabolism in the body and cells. As the skeletal muscle contributes to metabolic homeostasis, the effects of VA signaling system on its glucose metabolism are worth to be investigated. Here in this dissertation, the following two projects were carried out to study the VA’s role in the control of metabolism. (1) The effects of VA status on the ...


Exercise Is Medicine: Health And Fitness At The U Of A And Beyond, Erin Howie Hickey 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exercise Is Medicine: Health And Fitness At The U Of A And Beyond, Erin Howie Hickey

Seminars

Dr. Howie Hickey will discuss the latest research on the benefits of physical activity for physical and mental health, from COVID-19 to depression, including what the science can say about the optimal dose and intensity. She will share recent data collected by the Exercise is Medicine team on physical activity, fitness and wellness in the University of Arkansas community and discuss future directions and opportunities.


The Importance Of Exercise And Nutrition In Early Life, Elisabet Borsheim 2021 University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

The Importance Of Exercise And Nutrition In Early Life, Elisabet Borsheim

Seminars

Dr. Børsheim will present her research on the important of exercise and nutrition in early life. In her presentation Dr. Børsheim will focus on childhood obesity and show that this can increase risk for later life metabolic dysfunction. She will discuss if physical fitness can attenuate negative effects of obesity in children and if there are critical windows of development where physical activity is of specific importance. Finally, she will present data on impact on early physical activity and nutrition on response to exercise later in life.


Therapeutic Potential Of Garlic Chive-Derived Vesicle-Like Nanoparticles In Nlrp3 Inflammasome-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases, Baolong Liu, Xingzhi Li, Han Yu, Xuan Shi, You Zhou, Sophie Alvarez, Michael J. Naldrett, Stephen D. Kachman, Seung-Hyun Ro, Xinghui Sun, Soonkyu Chung, Lili Jing, Jiujiu Yu 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Therapeutic Potential Of Garlic Chive-Derived Vesicle-Like Nanoparticles In Nlrp3 Inflammasome-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases, Baolong Liu, Xingzhi Li, Han Yu, Xuan Shi, You Zhou, Sophie Alvarez, Michael J. Naldrett, Stephen D. Kachman, Seung-Hyun Ro, Xinghui Sun, Soonkyu Chung, Lili Jing, Jiujiu Yu

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Aberrant activation of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat related (NLR) family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome drives the development of many complex inflammatory diseases, such as obesity, Alzheimer’s disease, and atherosclerosis. However, no medications specifically targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome have become clinically available. Therefore, we aim to identify new inhibitors of the NLRP3 inflammasome in this study. Methods: Vesicle-like nanoparticles (VLNs) were extracted from garlic chives and other Allium vegetables and their effects on the NLRP3 inflammasome were evaluated in primary macrophages. After garlic chive-derived VLNs (GC-VLNs) were found to exhibit potent anti-NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cell ...


Associations Of Dietary Lipid-Soluble Micronutrients With Hepatic Steatosis Among Adults In The United States, Weiwen Chai, Sarah Eaton, Heather E. Rasmussen, Meng Hua Tao 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Associations Of Dietary Lipid-Soluble Micronutrients With Hepatic Steatosis Among Adults In The United States, Weiwen Chai, Sarah Eaton, Heather E. Rasmussen, Meng Hua Tao

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Lipid-soluble micronutrients may be beneficial to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease due to their important roles in metabolism and maintaining tissue functions. Utilizing 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, this study examined the potential overall and race/ethnicity-specific (black, Hispanic and white) associations of dietary lipid-soluble micronutrients (α-tocopherol, retinol, vitamin D, β-carotene and total carotenoids) with hepatic steatosis. The analysis included 4376 adults (1037 blacks, 981 Hispanics, 1549 whites) aged ≥20 years who completed the transient elastography examination with dietary data available. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regressions. The age-adjusted prevalence ...


Skeletal Muscle Cell Growth Alters The Lipid Composition Of Extracellular Vesicles, Taylor R. Valentino, Blake D. Rule, C Brooks Mobley, Mariana Nikolova-Karakashian, Ivan Jose Vechetti Jr 2021 Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Lexington, KY

Skeletal Muscle Cell Growth Alters The Lipid Composition Of Extracellular Vesicles, Taylor R. Valentino, Blake D. Rule, C Brooks Mobley, Mariana Nikolova-Karakashian, Ivan Jose Vechetti Jr

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

We sought to characterize the lipid profile of skeletal muscle cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) to determine if a hypertrophic stimulus would affect the lipid composition of C2C12 myotube-derived EVs. Analyses included C2C12 murine myoblasts differentiated into myotubes and treated with Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) for 24 h to induce hypertrophic growth. EVs were isolated from cell culture media, quantified using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and analyzed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). EVs were homogenized and lipids extracted for quantification by Mass Spectrometry followed by downstream lipid class enrichment and lipid chain analysis. IGF-1 treatment elicited an increase in CD63 ...


Sars-Cov-2 Concentrations In A Wastewater Collection System Indicated Potential Covid-19 Hotspots At The Zip Code Level, Renys E. Barrios, Chin Lim, Megan S. Kelley, Xu Li 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Sars-Cov-2 Concentrations In A Wastewater Collection System Indicated Potential Covid-19 Hotspots At The Zip Code Level, Renys E. Barrios, Chin Lim, Megan S. Kelley, Xu Li

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Wastewater based epidemiology (WBE) has been successfully applied for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance at the city and building levels. However, sampling at the city level does not provide sufficient spatial granularity to identify COVID-19 hotspots, while data from building-level sampling are too narrow in scope for broader public health application. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using wastewater from wastewater collection systems (WCSs) to monitor COVID-19 hotspots at the zip code level. In this study, 24-hr composite wastewater samples were collected from five manholes and two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the City of Lincoln, Nebraska. By ...


Bovine Mammary Alveolar Mac-T Cells Afford A Tool For Studies Of Bovine Milk Exosomes In Drug Delivery., Mojisola Ogunnaike 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Bovine Mammary Alveolar Mac-T Cells Afford A Tool For Studies Of Bovine Milk Exosomes In Drug Delivery., Mojisola Ogunnaike

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Bovine milk exosomes (BMEs) have attracted attention as vehicles for delivering RNA therapeutics. BMEs originate in mammary alveolar cells. Here, we determined whether bovine mammary alveolar MAC-T cells are a promising tool to assess RNA delivery by BMEs. MAC-T cells exosomes (MAC-T BMEs) and BMEs were harvested by differential ultracentrifugation. Exosome size, morphology, microRNA content and marker proteins were assessed using nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively. MAC-T cells were genetically engineered to secrete MAC-T BMEs endogenously labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent protein and tissue distribution was compared to fluorophore-labeled BMEs following intravenous injection ...


Ruminant Milk-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: A Nutritional And Therapeutic Opportunity?, Siew Ling Ong, Cherie Blenkiron, Stephen Haines, Alejandra Acevedo-Fani, Juliana A.S. Leite, Janos Zempleni, Rachel C. Anderson, Mark J. McCann 2021 Massey University Campus

Ruminant Milk-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: A Nutritional And Therapeutic Opportunity?, Siew Ling Ong, Cherie Blenkiron, Stephen Haines, Alejandra Acevedo-Fani, Juliana A.S. Leite, Janos Zempleni, Rachel C. Anderson, Mark J. Mccann

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Milk has been shown to contain a specific fraction of extracellular particles that are reported to resist digestion and are purposefully packaged with lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids to exert specific biological effects. These findings suggest that these particles may have a role in the quality of infant nutrition, particularly in the early phase of life when many of the foundations of an infant’s potential for health and overall wellness are established. However, much of the current research focuses on human or cow milk only, and there is a knowledge gap in how milk from other species, which may ...


Carotenoid-Rich Brain Nutrient Pattern Is Positively Correlated With Higher Cognition And Lower Depression In The Oldest Old With No Dementia, Jirayu Tanprasertsuk, Tammy M. Scott, Aron K. Barbey, Kathryn Barger, Xiang-Dong Wang, Mary Ann Johnson, Leonard W. Poon, Rohini Vishwanathan, Nirupa R. Matthan, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Guylaine Ferland, Elizabeth J. Johnson 2021 Tufts University

Carotenoid-Rich Brain Nutrient Pattern Is Positively Correlated With Higher Cognition And Lower Depression In The Oldest Old With No Dementia, Jirayu Tanprasertsuk, Tammy M. Scott, Aron K. Barbey, Kathryn Barger, Xiang-Dong Wang, Mary Ann Johnson, Leonard W. Poon, Rohini Vishwanathan, Nirupa R. Matthan, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Guylaine Ferland, Elizabeth J. Johnson

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background: Healthy dietary patterns are related to better cognitive health in aging populations. While levels of individual nutrients in neural tissues are individually associated with cognitive function, the investigation of nutrient patterns in human brain tissue has not been conducted. Methods: Brain tissues were acquired from frontal and temporal cortices of 47 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Fat-soluble nutrients (carotenoids, vitamins A, E, K, and fatty acids [FA]) were measured and averaged from the two brain regions. Nutrient patterns were constructed using principal component analysis. Cognitive composite scores were constructed from cognitive assessment from the time point closest to ...


Carotenoid-Rich Brain Nutrient Pattern Is Positively Correlated With Higher Cognition And Lower Depression In The Oldest Old With No Dementia, Jirayu Tanprasertsuk, Tammy M. Scott, Aron K. Barbey, Kathryn Barger, Xiang-Dong Wang, Mary Ann Johnson, Leonard W. Poon, Rohini Vishwanathan, Nirupa R. Matthan, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Guylaine Ferland, Elizabeth R. Johnson 2021 Tufts University

Carotenoid-Rich Brain Nutrient Pattern Is Positively Correlated With Higher Cognition And Lower Depression In The Oldest Old With No Dementia, Jirayu Tanprasertsuk, Tammy M. Scott, Aron K. Barbey, Kathryn Barger, Xiang-Dong Wang, Mary Ann Johnson, Leonard W. Poon, Rohini Vishwanathan, Nirupa R. Matthan, Alice H. Lichtenstein, Guylaine Ferland, Elizabeth R. Johnson

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background: Healthy dietary patterns are related to better cognitive health in aging populations. While levels of individual nutrients in neural tissues are individually associated with cognitive function, the investigation of nutrient patterns in human brain tissue has not been conducted.

Methods: Brain tissues were acquired from frontal and temporal cortices of 47 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study. Fat-soluble nutrients (carotenoids, vitamins A, E, K, and fatty acids [FA]) were measured and averaged from the two brain regions. Nutrient patterns were constructed using principal component analysis. Cognitive composite scores were constructed from cognitive assessment from the time point closest to ...


Effect Of The Lysosomotropic Agent Chloroquine On Mtorc1 Activation And Protein Synthesis In Human Skeletal Muscle, Michael S. Borack, Jared M. Dickinson, Christopher S. Fry, Paul T. Reidy, Melissa M. Markofski, Rachel R. Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen 2021 Duke University

Effect Of The Lysosomotropic Agent Chloroquine On Mtorc1 Activation And Protein Synthesis In Human Skeletal Muscle, Michael S. Borack, Jared M. Dickinson, Christopher S. Fry, Paul T. Reidy, Melissa M. Markofski, Rachel R. Deer, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of Education and Professional Studies

Background

Previous work in HEK-293 cells demonstrated the importance of amino acid-induced mTORC1 translocation to the lysosomal surface for stimulating mTORC1 kinase activity and protein synthesis. This study tested the conservation of this amino acid sensing mechanism in human skeletal muscle by treating subjects with chloroquine—a lysosomotropic agent that induces in vitro and in vivo lysosome dysfunction.

Methods

mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) were determined in vivo in a randomized controlled trial of 14 subjects (10 M, 4 F; 26 ± 4 year) that ingested 10 g of essential amino acids (EAA) after receiving 750 mg of chloroquine ...


Palmitoleate Protects Against Zika Virus-Induced Placental Trophoblast Apoptosis, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Aryamav Pattnaik, Prakash K. Sahoo, Md Torikul Islam, Asit K. Pattnaik, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Corrine K. Hanson, Ann Anderson Berry, Stephen D. Kachman, Sathish Kumar Natarajan 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Palmitoleate Protects Against Zika Virus-Induced Placental Trophoblast Apoptosis, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Aryamav Pattnaik, Prakash K. Sahoo, Md Torikul Islam, Asit K. Pattnaik, Siddappa N. Byrareddy, Corrine K. Hanson, Ann Anderson Berry, Stephen D. Kachman, Sathish Kumar Natarajan

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the development of microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and ocular damage in the fetus. ZIKV infection of the placenta plays a crucial role in the vertical transmission from the maternal circulation to the fetus. Our previous study suggested that ZIKV induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis of placental trophoblasts. Here, we showed that palmitoleate, an omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid, prevents ZIKV-induced ER stress and apoptosis in placental trophoblasts. Human trophoblast cell lines (JEG-3 and JAR) and normal immortalized trophoblasts (HTR-8) were used. We observed that ZIKV infection of the trophoblasts resulted ...


An Intron Variant Of The Gli Family Zinc Finger 3 (Gli3) Gene Differentiates Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy In Younger Men, Christopher G. Vann, Robert W. Morton, Christopher B. Mobley, Ivan J. Vechetti, Brian K. Ferguson, Cody T. Haun, Shelby C. Osburn, Casey L. Sexton, Carlton D. Fox, Matthew A. Romero, Paul A. Roberson, Sara Y. Oikawa, Chris McGlory, Kaelin C. Young, John J. McCarthy, Stuart M. Phillips, Michael D. Roberts 2021 Auburn University

An Intron Variant Of The Gli Family Zinc Finger 3 (Gli3) Gene Differentiates Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy In Younger Men, Christopher G. Vann, Robert W. Morton, Christopher B. Mobley, Ivan J. Vechetti, Brian K. Ferguson, Cody T. Haun, Shelby C. Osburn, Casey L. Sexton, Carlton D. Fox, Matthew A. Romero, Paul A. Roberson, Sara Y. Oikawa, Chris Mcglory, Kaelin C. Young, John J. Mccarthy, Stuart M. Phillips, Michael D. Roberts

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

We examined the association between genotype and resistance training-induced changes (12 wk) in dual x-ray energy absorptiometry (DXA)-derived lean soft tissue mass (LSTM) as well as muscle fiber cross-sectional area (fCSA; vastus lateralis; n = 109; age = 22 ± 2 y, BMI = 24.7 ± 3.1 kg/m2). Over 315 000 genetic polymorphisms were interrogated from muscle using DNA microarrays. First, a targeted investigation was performed where single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) identified from a systematic literature review were related to changes in LSTM and fCSA. Next, genome-wide association (GWA) studies were performed to reveal associations between novel SNP targets with pre- ...


The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu 2021 Liberty University

The Analysis Of Folate-Dependent Transcription Factor Zinc Finger Protein 410, Feifan Xu

Senior Honors Theses

A previous study that introduced dietary folate to mice in the form of folic acid to determine if gene activity would be altered based on this biological molecule demonstrated that mice without folic acid had cognition deficits, and this phenomenon was correlated with altered gene expression in their brains. The included bioinformatic analysis revealed two main transcription factors that bind to proteins in the nucleus, and one is known as the Zinc Finger Protein 410 (Zfp410). Due to the lack of literature explaining the function of this transcription factor, this project is intended to analyze Zfp410 in detail from scratch ...


Early Satellite Cell Communication Creates A Permissive Environment For Long-Term Muscle Growth, Kevin A. Murach, Bailey D. Peck, Robert A. Policastro, Ivan J. Vechetti, Douglas W. Van Pelt, Cory M. Dungan, Lance T. Denes, Xu Fu, Camille R. Brightwell, Gabriel E. Zentner, Esther E. Dupont-Versteegden, Christopher I. Richards, Jeramiah J. Smith, Christopher S. Fry, John J. McCarthy, Charlotte A. Peterson 2021 University of Kentucky

Early Satellite Cell Communication Creates A Permissive Environment For Long-Term Muscle Growth, Kevin A. Murach, Bailey D. Peck, Robert A. Policastro, Ivan J. Vechetti, Douglas W. Van Pelt, Cory M. Dungan, Lance T. Denes, Xu Fu, Camille R. Brightwell, Gabriel E. Zentner, Esther E. Dupont-Versteegden, Christopher I. Richards, Jeramiah J. Smith, Christopher S. Fry, John J. Mccarthy, Charlotte A. Peterson

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Using in vivo muscle stem cell (satellite cell)-specific extracellular vesicle (EV) tracking, satellite cell depletion, in vitro cell culture, and single-cell RNA sequencing, we show satellite cells communicate with other cells in skeletal muscle during mechanical overload. Early satellite cell EV communication primes the muscle milieu for proper long-term extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and is sufficient to support sustained hypertrophy in adult mice, even in the absence of fusion to muscle fibers. Satellite cells modulate chemokine gene expression across cell types within the first few days of loading, and EV delivery of miR 206 to fibrogenic cells represses Wisp1 ...


Saturated Free Fatty Acids Induce Placental Trophoblast Lipoapoptosis, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Taylor Bruett, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Prakash K. Sahoo, Jillian Power, Justin L. Mott, Corrine Hanson, Ann Anderson-Berry 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Saturated Free Fatty Acids Induce Placental Trophoblast Lipoapoptosis, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Taylor Bruett, Philma Glora Muthuraj, Prakash K. Sahoo, Jillian Power, Justin L. Mott, Corrine Hanson, Ann Anderson-Berry

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Obesity during pregnancy increases the risk for maternal complications like gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and maternal inflammation. Maternal obesity also increases the risk of childhood obesity, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and diabetes to the offspring. Increased circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) in obesity due to adipose tissue lipolysis induces lipoapoptosis to hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and pancreatic-β-cells. During the third trimester of human pregnancy, there is an increase in maternal lipolysis and release of FFAs into the circulation. It is currently unknown if increased FFAs during gestation as a result of maternal obesity cause placental cell lipoapoptosis. Increased exposure of FFAs during maternal ...


Ketogenic Diet As A Preventative Measure Or Treatment Option For Osteoarthritistargeting Nfl Athletes As A High-Risk Group, Kelsi J. Smith 2021 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Ketogenic Diet As A Preventative Measure Or Treatment Option For Osteoarthritistargeting Nfl Athletes As A High-Risk Group, Kelsi J. Smith

Selected Honors Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent joint disease that results from the degradation of articular cartilage, leading to inflammation, pain, and eventual joint failure. At one time, it was thought that OA was only the result of the natural decline experienced in old age; however, various risk factors have now been identified that may contribute to an increased risk for developing OA. Risk factors may include joint loading, altered biomechanics, obesity, and joint injury, to which athletes are exposed at a high rate. NFL athletes are one group of athletes that have continued to show a high prevalence of arthritis in ...


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