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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Effects Of Mitochondrial Nadp+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency On Fructose-Induced Obesity In Mice, Allison Michelle Montalbano, Kaleigh Elizabeth Beane 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Mitochondrial Nadp+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency On Fructose-Induced Obesity In Mice, Allison Michelle Montalbano, Kaleigh Elizabeth Beane

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Obesity prevalence in the United States continues to increase and is associated with health consequences such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia. Among many contributing factors to obesity, fructose may be one of the major reasons as it disrupts the antioxidant system thereby resulting in an accumulation of reactive oxidative species and leading to obese conditions. The enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate from the TCA Cycle, hence might be implicated with not only energy metabolism but also cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, the hypothesis was that IDH2 deficiency in mice would exacerbate hepatic lipid ...


Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Forshee 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Forshee

Scholar Week 2016 - present

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...


Eating Crickets? Nutrient Mineral Content Of Two Cricket Species And Chapul Cricket Protein Bars Using Mp-Aes, Nathan Hopkins 2018 Lynchburg College

Eating Crickets? Nutrient Mineral Content Of Two Cricket Species And Chapul Cricket Protein Bars Using Mp-Aes, Nathan Hopkins

Student Scholar Showcase

Global agriculture is beset by numerous challenges which must be surmounted to feed a developing world, from combating climate change to the cultivation of sustainable food products. This, in addition to protein and nutrient deficiencies in the developing world, makes considering alternative protein sources, such as a crickets, an attractive option. Crickets use a fraction of the land and water that protein sources like beef cattle do, and can be cultivated in urban environments in stacked boxes. This research investigation aims to quantify the nutrient mineral content (Iron, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium) of two cricket species (Acheta domesticus & Gryllodes ...


Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson 2018 Iowa State University

Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Six fluorescein-labeled peptide nucleic acid oligomers targeting Listeria-specific sequences on the 16S ribosomal subunit were evaluated for their abilities to hybridize to whole cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Four of these probes yielded weak or no fluorescent signals after hybridization and were not investigated further. The remaining two FISH-compatible probes, LisUn-3 and LisUn-11, were evaluated for their reactivities against 22 Listeria strains and 17 other bacterial strains belonging to 10 closely related genera. Hybridization with BacUni-1, a domain-specific eubacterial probe, was used as a positive control for target accessibility in both Listeria spp. and nontarget cells. RNase ...


Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 University of Wyoming

Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc.) have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1) of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present ...


Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 Iowa State University

Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Candida albicans is an important cause of systemic fungal infections, and rapid diagnostics for identifying and differentiating C. albicans from other Candida species are critical for the timely application of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, improved patient outcomes, and pharmaceutical cost savings. In this work, two 28S rRNA-directed peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) probes, P-Ca726 (targeting a novel region of the ribosome) and P-CalB2208 (targeting a previously reported region), were evaluated. Hybridization conditions were optimized by using both fluorescence microscopy (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM), and probes were screened for specificity and discriminative ability against a panel of C. albicans ...


Wide-Spectrum Biomimetic Antimicrobial Systems, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher 2018 Iowa State University

Wide-Spectrum Biomimetic Antimicrobial Systems, Heidi A. Wright, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effective components of the host immune response and are widely distributed throughout nature. Recently, nontoxic antimicrobial polymers that mimic the structures of naturally occurring AMPs have been designed and are under development commercially as novel therapeutics. These compounds have several potential advantages over natural AMPs, including greater stability and reduced immunogenicity compared to natural peptides, relatively simple and scalable syntheses and the ability to tailor or “fine tune” their activities through combinatorial approaches. In previous work, we demonstrated the utility of certain generally regarded as safe (GRAS) flavorant and aroma compounds as enhancers of uptake and ...


Glycemic Response To Black Beans And Chickpeas As Part Of A Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins, Sharon V. Thompson 2018 Iowa State University

Glycemic Response To Black Beans And Chickpeas As Part Of A Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins, Sharon V. Thompson

Donna Winham

Legumes, such as black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.), have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has been documented, few studies have examined the glycemic response to traditional food combinations such as black beans and rice or chickpeas and rice. This randomized cross-over study examined the glycemic and insulinemic impact of 50 grams of available carbohydrate from three test meals: plain white rice (control), black beans with rice, and chickpeas with rice among healthy adult women ...


Knowledge Gaps Of The Health Benefits Of Beans Among Low-Income Women, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna Winham, Christine A. Hradek MPH 2018 Iowa State University

Knowledge Gaps Of The Health Benefits Of Beans Among Low-Income Women, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna Winham, Christine A. Hradek Mph

Donna Winham

Objectives: We determined knowledge of the health benefits of consuming beans, and assessed if awareness varied by acculturation status among Hispanic and non-Hispanic low-income women. Methods: We used a self-administered survey with Iowa women aged 18-65 years who were eligible to receive income-based services through 2 healthcare clinics, a WIC clinic, and Extension Outreach. Chi-square and ANOVA were used to compare bean health benefit knowledge, demographics, health-risk factors, nutrition information seeking, and self-efficacy by acculturation categories. Results: Of the 158 women who completed the survey, 58% were Hispanic, with a mean age of 36 years. In terms of acculturation, 24 ...


Enhanced Destruction Of Salmonella Enterica In Carrot And Berry Juices By A Combination Of Cinnamaldehyde And High Pressure Processing, aura Darabe, Aubrey F. Mendonca, David Manu, James S. Dickson, Joseph G. Sebranek, Angela M. Shaw, Alan A. DiSpirito 2018 Iowa State University

Enhanced Destruction Of Salmonella Enterica In Carrot And Berry Juices By A Combination Of Cinnamaldehyde And High Pressure Processing, Aura Darabe, Aubrey F. Mendonca, David Manu, James S. Dickson, Joseph G. Sebranek, Angela M. Shaw, Alan A. Dispirito

Angela M. Shaw

Statement of the Problem: In recent years several disease outbreaks were linked to unpasteurized juices contaminated with human enteric pathogens such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CDC 2011; EFSA 2015). While heat pasteurization and canning can inactivate vegetative pathogens, such processes can destroy heat labile nutrients and negatively alter sensory characteristics of juices. Also growing consumer demands for foods which are nutritious, fresh-like, and devoid of synthetic preservatives, have forced juice manufacturers to explore non-thermal processes and natural antimicrobials for pathogen control in juices. The present study investigated the effect of low concentrations of cinnamaldehyde combined with ...


"Clickers" And Haccp: Educating A Diverse Food Industry Audience With Technology, Angela M. Shaw, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Aura Daraba 2018 Iowa State University

"Clickers" And Haccp: Educating A Diverse Food Industry Audience With Technology, Angela M. Shaw, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Aura Daraba

Angela M. Shaw

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to food safety education for the food industry. To receive a HACCP certificate, participants must receive an 80% or higher on the final examination. Language barriers, educational levels, and age have been noted as primary reasoning's for not passing the final examination. Clicker technology has been shown to improve knowledge transfer to students in various classroom settings. Incorporation of mock final examination questions using Clickers into a traditional HACCP course has been shown in a small pilot study to increase the pass rate.


Knowledge Gaps Of The Health Benefits Of Beans Among Low-Income Women, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna Winham, Christine A. Hradek MPH 2018 Iowa State University

Knowledge Gaps Of The Health Benefits Of Beans Among Low-Income Women, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna Winham, Christine A. Hradek Mph

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Objectives: We determined knowledge of the health benefits of consuming beans, and assessed if awareness varied by acculturation status among Hispanic and non-Hispanic low-income women. Methods: We used a self-administered survey with Iowa women aged 18-65 years who were eligible to receive income-based services through 2 healthcare clinics, a WIC clinic, and Extension Outreach. Chi-square and ANOVA were used to compare bean health benefit knowledge, demographics, health-risk factors, nutrition information seeking, and self-efficacy by acculturation categories. Results: Of the 158 women who completed the survey, 58% were Hispanic, with a mean age of 36 years. In terms of acculturation, 24 ...


Armms As A Versatile Platform For Intracellular Delivery Of Macromolecules, Qiyu Wang, Jiujiu Yu, Tatenda Kadungure, Joseph Beyene, Hong Zhang, Quan Lu 2018 Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Armms As A Versatile Platform For Intracellular Delivery Of Macromolecules, Qiyu Wang, Jiujiu Yu, Tatenda Kadungure, Joseph Beyene, Hong Zhang, Quan Lu

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Majority of disease-modifying therapeutic targets are restricted to the intracellular space and are therefore not druggable using existing biologic modalities. The ability to efficiently deliver macromolecules inside target cells or tissues would greatly expand the current landscape of therapeutic targets for future generations of biologic drugs, but remains challenging. Here we report the use of extracellular vesicles, known as arrestin domain containing protein 1 [ARRDC1]-mediated microvesicles (ARMMs), for packaging and intracellular delivery of a myriad of macromolecules, including the tumor suppressor p53 protein, RNAs, and the genome-editing CRISPR-Cas9/guide RNA complex. We demonstrate selective recruitment of these macromolecules into ...


Role Of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity In Acute Fatty Liver Of Pregnancy, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Jamal A. Ibdah 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Role Of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity In Acute Fatty Liver Of Pregnancy, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Jamal A. Ibdah

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), a catastrophic illness for both the mother and the unborn offspring, develops in the last trimester of pregnancy with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. AFLP is also recognized as an obstetric and medical emergency. Maternal AFLP is highly associated with a fetal homozygous mutation (1528G>C) in the gene that encodes for mitochondrial long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD). The mutation in LCHAD results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, such as 3-hydroxy myristic acid, 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid in the placenta, which are then shunted to the maternal circulation leading ...


Gardening Experience Is Associated With Increased Fruit And Vegetable Intake Among First-Year College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination, Jennifer Loso, Daniel Staub, Sarah E. Colby, Melissa D. Olfert, Kendra Kattelmann, Melissa Vilaro, James Colee, Wenjun Zhou, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Anne E. Matthews 2018 University of Florida

Gardening Experience Is Associated With Increased Fruit And Vegetable Intake Among First-Year College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination, Jennifer Loso, Daniel Staub, Sarah E. Colby, Melissa D. Olfert, Kendra Kattelmann, Melissa Vilaro, James Colee, Wenjun Zhou, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Anne E. Matthews

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background Gardening interventions have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake among school-aged children. It is unknown whether these effects persist into later adolescence or adulthood, and little is known about whether gardening in later adolescence is related to F/V intake. Objective To identify the relationship between both childhood and recent (within the past 12 months) gardening experiences and current F/V intake among college students. Design/participants A cross-sectional evaluation of 1,121 college freshmen with suboptimal F/V consumption from eight US universities. Main outcome measures Participants completed the National Cancer Institute Fruit and ...


Effects Of Vagotomy And Fenugreek On Hyperlipidemia And Insulin Resistance, Rituraj Khound 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effects Of Vagotomy And Fenugreek On Hyperlipidemia And Insulin Resistance, Rituraj Khound

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Hyperlipidemia is the impairment of lipid metabolism marked by abnormally high levels of lipid in circulation. This has been implicated in a number of metabolic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is the impairment of insulin action, which leads to several diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. New clinical and therapeutic approaches are warranted for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. In our study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the effect of complete disruption of the sub-diaphragmatic vagus nerve (vagotomy) on hyperlipidemia and insulin sensitivity. We observed that vagotomy ...


Effect Of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Toxins On Growth Performance And The Microbial Community In The Rumen And Feces In Pregnant Ewes, Saleh Alrashedi 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Toxins On Growth Performance And The Microbial Community In The Rumen And Feces In Pregnant Ewes, Saleh Alrashedi

Theses and Dissertations

Fifty pregnant Katahdin ewes grazed pastures with high (HE) and moderate (MI) levels of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue between February 1 and May 24 to determine the impacts of tall fescue toxins on body weight (BW), body condition scores, FAMACHA scores, fecal egg counts (FEC), and serum Cu, Zn, prolactin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Within those 50 ewes, 15 were selected randomly for fecal and rumen sampling to assess the impacts of HE and MI on the microbiome community. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from rumen and fecal samples, and alpha and beta diversities were used to relate microbiome ...


Stature, Body Mass, And Bmi In High School American Football Players: Appropriate Determinants Of Obesity Prevalence?, Alegra I. Mendez, Amelia A. Miramonti, Zachary M. Gillen, Brianna D. McKay, Todd J. Leutzinger, Joel T. Cramer 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Stature, Body Mass, And Bmi In High School American Football Players: Appropriate Determinants Of Obesity Prevalence?, Alegra I. Mendez, Amelia A. Miramonti, Zachary M. Gillen, Brianna D. Mckay, Todd J. Leutzinger, Joel T. Cramer

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study was to evaluate stature (HT), weight (WT), body mass index (BMI), and obesity prevalence based on BMI categories in a large sample (n = 7,175) of high school American football players enrolled as freshmen, sophomores, or juniors. Players were categorized by their positions: offensive linemen (OL), defensive linemen (DL), tight end (TE), defensive end (DE), linebacker (LB), running back (RB), quarterback (QB), defensive back (DB), and wide receiver (WR). HT, WT, and BMI increased as grade increased among all positions. OL and DL had the greatest HT, WT, and BMI (p≤0.05). Obesity prevalence ...


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