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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Key Differences Between Hepatic And Intestinal Apoc3 Regulation And Expression, And Implications For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Gabrielle West, Cayla Rodia, Diana Li, Hongli Dong MS, Zania Johnson, Alison B. Kohan PhD 2017 University Of Connecticut

Key Differences Between Hepatic And Intestinal Apoc3 Regulation And Expression, And Implications For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Gabrielle West, Cayla Rodia, Diana Li, Hongli Dong Ms, Zania Johnson, Alison B. Kohan Phd

Gabrielle West

In the intestine, apoC-III delays chylomicron secretion, and causes a decrease in chylomicron size. Once apoC-III is in circulation, apoC-III delays triglyceride-rich remnants clearance by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase and liver low-density lipoprotein receptor. In humans, high levels of plasma apoC-III directly result in hypertriglyceridemia. ApoC-III is a critical cardiovascular risk factor, and humans expressing null mutations in apoC-III are robustly protected from cardiovascular disease. Because of its critical role in elevating plasma lipids and CVD risk, the factors that regulate apoC-III expression in the liver have been determined, and include glucose, insulin (through FoxO1), and dietary fat. Considerably less is ...


Dietary Red And Processed Meat Intake And Markers Of Adiposity And Inflammation: The Multiethnic Cohort Study, Weiwen Chai, Yukiko Morimoto, Robert V. Cooney, Adrian A. Franke, Yurii B. Shvetsov, Loïc Le Marchand, Christopher A. Haiman, Laurence N. Kolonel, Marc T. Goodman, Gertraud Maskarinec 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dietary Red And Processed Meat Intake And Markers Of Adiposity And Inflammation: The Multiethnic Cohort Study, Weiwen Chai, Yukiko Morimoto, Robert V. Cooney, Adrian A. Franke, Yurii B. Shvetsov, Loïc Le Marchand, Christopher A. Haiman, Laurence N. Kolonel, Marc T. Goodman, Gertraud Maskarinec

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Objective—The potential influence of dietary factors on inflammation is important for cancer prevention. Utilizing data from control participants (312 men, 911 women) in two nested case-control studies of cancer within the Multiethnic Cohort, we examined the associations of red and processed meat intake with serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 and the mediator effect of body mass index (BMI) on the above associations (if present).

Methods—Multivariable linear models were applied to assess the association between red and processed meat intake at cohort entry and serum biomarker levels ...


Relationships Between Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, And Behavior For Fifth Grade Students Attending Title I And Non-Title I Schools, Elisha M. Hall, Weiwen Chai, Julie A. Albrecht 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationships Between Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, And Behavior For Fifth Grade Students Attending Title I And Non-Title I Schools, Elisha M. Hall, Weiwen Chai, Julie A. Albrecht

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a widely used theory for nutrition education programming. Better understanding the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among children of various income levels can help to form and improve nutrition programs, particularly for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among fifth grade students attending Title I (≥ 40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals) and non-Title I schools (< 40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals). A validated survey was completed by 55 fifth grade students from Title I and 122 from non-Title I schools. Differences in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior scores between groups were assessed using t test and adjusted for variations between participating schools. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior. In adjusted models, the Title I group had significantly lower scores on several knowledge items and summary knowledge (P = 0.04). The Title I group had significantly lower scores on several behavior variables including intakes of fruits (P = 0.02), vegetables (P = 0.0005), whole grains (P = 0.0003), and lean protein (P = 0.047), physical activity (P = 0.002) and summary behavior (P = 0.001). However the Title I group scored higher on self-efficacy for meal planning (P = 0.04) and choosing healthy snacks (P = 0.036). Both self-efficacy (β = 0.70, P < 0.0001) and knowledge (β = 0.35, P = 0.002) strongly predicted behavior; however, only self-efficacy remained significant in the Title I group (self-efficacy, β = 0.82, P = 0.0003; knowledge, β = 0.11, P = 0.59). Results demonstrate disparities in nutrition knowledge and behavior outcomes between students surveyed from Title I and non-Title I schools, suggesting more resources may be necessary for lower income populations. Findings suggest that future nutrition interventions should focus on facilitating the improvement of children's self-efficacy


Red Grain Sorghum Whole Kernel Crude Lipid Protects Energy Metabolism And Short Chain Fatty Acid Profile In A Hamster Model To Minimize Intestinal Stress Caused By A High Fat Diet, Haowen Qiu 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Red Grain Sorghum Whole Kernel Crude Lipid Protects Energy Metabolism And Short Chain Fatty Acid Profile In A Hamster Model To Minimize Intestinal Stress Caused By A High Fat Diet, Haowen Qiu

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Multiple studies have shown throughout the past 10+ years that grain sorghum (GS) lipid extract protects against high plasma and hepatic cholesterol and, to a lesser degree, positively modulate the gut microbiota in response to a high fat (HF) diet. However, the impact of GS lipids on intestinal stress induced by such a diet remains largely unknown. The objective of this project was to determine the ability of GS crude lipid (GS-CL) obtained from the surface of GS whole kernel to protect energy metabolism and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile produced by the gut microbiome that may be negatively ...


Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel 2017 University of California, Davis

Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel

Science Seminar Series

Peter J. Havel of the School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis will speak on his research on Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical and clinical studies at this Science Seminar Series lecture.


Athyrium Multidentatum (Doll.) Ching Extract Induce Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Oxidative Stress In Hepg2 Cells, Guoyuan Qi, Zhigang Liu, Rong Fan, Ziru Yin, Yashi Mi, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu 2017 Northwest A&F University

Athyrium Multidentatum (Doll.) Ching Extract Induce Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Oxidative Stress In Hepg2 Cells, Guoyuan Qi, Zhigang Liu, Rong Fan, Ziru Yin, Yashi Mi, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching (AMC), a unique and nutritious potherb widely distributed in china, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies indicated that AMC extract exhibited antioxidant and antitumor properties. However, the chemical composition of AMC and molecular mechanism of AMC toxicity to HepG2 cells have not yet been elucidated. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the chemical compositions and the underlying mechanisms of the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of AMC on HepG2. HPLC-MS analysis showed that AMC contain five compounds with chlorogenic acid accounting for 43 percent. Also, AMC strongly inhibited the cell growth and induced ...


The Role Of Sr-B1 In Lipid Metabolism And Inflammation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Christina Jiang 2017 University of Connecticut

The Role Of Sr-B1 In Lipid Metabolism And Inflammation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Christina Jiang

University Scholar Projects

Obesity is associated with a number of complications that may increase the risk for chronic disease, including inflammation and dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-B1) is an HDL receptor found in the cell plasma membrane involved in cholesterol exchange and the initiation of intracellular signaling cascades. During the process of adipocyte (fat cell) formation (adipogenesis), there is a delicate balance of transcriptional programs that affect cholesterol transport and facilitate lipid accumulation. Mice fed a high fat diet have increased SR-B1 mRNA expression in adipose tissue depots. Furthermore, SR-B1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in ...


Butyrate, A Major Bacterial-Derived Metabolite: Understanding Of Butyrate Metabolism In Cancerous Colonocytes, Anna Han 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Butyrate, A Major Bacterial-Derived Metabolite: Understanding Of Butyrate Metabolism In Cancerous Colonocytes, Anna Han

Doctoral Dissertations

The prohibitory effects of dietary fiber in colorectal cancer have been identified, although the detailed mechanism of this beneficial effect remain unclear. Butyrate, a fermentation metabolite of fiber, has anti-cancer properties by inhibiting cell proliferation and increasing cell apoptosis in cancer cells. A major mechanism, whereby butyrate exerts anti-cancer effects in colorectal cancer, is its role as an HDAC inhibitor. Moreover, it has been suggested that the metabolic fate of butyrate is significantly related to its role as an HDAC inhibitor. Therefore, understanding butyrate metabolism in cancerous colonocytes sheds important light on how butyrate has its selective and inhibitory effects ...


The Effect Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids On Energy Metabolism, Energy Intake, And Metabolic Response In Normal Weight And Overweight And Obese School Aged Children (8-12 Years), Charlayne Mitchell 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids On Energy Metabolism, Energy Intake, And Metabolic Response In Normal Weight And Overweight And Obese School Aged Children (8-12 Years), Charlayne Mitchell

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Obesity is a major health concern in the United States. Omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) have been observed to improve metabolic health and therefore might be useful in treatment of obesity. However, little is known regarding the effect of O3FA on school aged normal weight and overweight children.

Objective: The objective of this thesis was to determine if habitual intake of O3FA at breakfast improves energy metabolism, appetite, and metabolic response in overweight and obese school-aged children.

Design: Twenty healthy, normal weight (NW; n = 11) and overweight (OW; n = 9) children aged 8-12 years were randomly assigned to receive either ...


Genetic Variation In Concentration Of The 33-Mer Protein Subcomponent In Wheat, Robert L. Paris, Kaleb M. Pauley, Ryan K. Lokkesmoe, Sarah E. Lyon, James C. Dunlap, Julia M. Pierre, Timothy VanWingerden, Finny J. Johns, Kyle J. Kilchrist, Tyler J. Reid, Caleb M. Winn 2017 Cedarville University

Genetic Variation In Concentration Of The 33-Mer Protein Subcomponent In Wheat, Robert L. Paris, Kaleb M. Pauley, Ryan K. Lokkesmoe, Sarah E. Lyon, James C. Dunlap, Julia M. Pierre, Timothy Vanwingerden, Finny J. Johns, Kyle J. Kilchrist, Tyler J. Reid, Caleb M. Winn

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Celiac Disease is a hypersensitive response to gluten caused by HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 T-cell presentation, initiating destruction of intestinal epithelial cells. Currently, the only remedy for those suffering from celiac disease is elimination of all gluten from the diet. Studies indicate that an indigestible fragment of the gluten molecule, alpha-gliadin subcomponent 33-mer, rich in proline and glutamine, is responsible for the hypersensitivity response. Determination of 33-mer concentration in wheat lines could be beneficial to future development of wheat lines with reduced 33-mer concentration. Protein from wheat flour was extracted and subjected to ELISA techniques in order to quantify the concentration ...


The Dangers Of Fat Metabolism And Pufa: Why You Don’T Want To Be A Fat Burner, Kyle J. Mamounis 2017 Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway

The Dangers Of Fat Metabolism And Pufa: Why You Don’T Want To Be A Fat Burner, Kyle J. Mamounis

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Aberrant Expression Of Microrna Induced By High-Fructose Diet: Implications In The Pathogenesis Of Hyperlipidemia And Hepatic Insulin Resistance, Nettu Sud, Hanyuan Zhang, Kaichao Pan, Xiao Cheng, Juan Cui, Qiaozhu Su 2017 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Aberrant Expression Of Microrna Induced By High-Fructose Diet: Implications In The Pathogenesis Of Hyperlipidemia And Hepatic Insulin Resistance, Nettu Sud, Hanyuan Zhang, Kaichao Pan, Xiao Cheng, Juan Cui, Qiaozhu Su

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Fructose is a highly lipogenic sugar that can alter energy metabolism and trigger metabolic disorders. In the current study, microRNAs (miRNAs) altered by a high-fructose diet were comprehensively explored to elucidate their significance in the pathogenesis of chronic metabolic disorders. miRNA expression profiling using small noncoding RNA sequencing revealed that 19 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and 26 were downregulated in the livers of high-fructose-fed mice compared to chow-fed mice. Computational prediction and functional analysis identified 10 miRNAs, miR-19b-3p, miR-101a-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-378a-3p, miR-33-5p, miR-145a-3p, miR-128-3p, miR-125b-5p and miR-582-3p, assembled as a regulatory network to potentially target key genes in lipid ...


Amphetamine-Like Compounds In Pre-Workout Supplements, Andy Hsien Wei Koh 2017 Bond University

Amphetamine-Like Compounds In Pre-Workout Supplements, Andy Hsien Wei Koh

Theses

Pre-workout supplements (PWS), like most nutritional supplements, are classified by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia as complementary medicines and are therefore subject to much less stringent regulation compared to pharmaceuticals. Complementary medicines (also known as 'traditional' or 'alternative' medicines) include vitamin, mineral, herbal, aromatherapy and homoeopathic products. The overall goal of this thesis was to determine the amounts of stimulants in PWS, both the biogenic amines derived from Citrus aurantium (CA) extracts as well as caffeine and its dimethylxanthine (DMX) derivatives. Research questions have been put forward relating to the components within PWS and whether they comply with ...


The Effects Of Adaptogens On The Physical And Psychological Symptoms Of Chronic Stress, Tosin O. Ajala 2017 Georgia State University

The Effects Of Adaptogens On The Physical And Psychological Symptoms Of Chronic Stress, Tosin O. Ajala

DISCOVERY: Georgia State Honors College Undergraduate Research Journal

Stress is a state of disharmony or threatened homeostasis. The maintenance of homeostasis in stages of internal or external challenges, called stressors, requires constant adjustments of hormonal, behavioral, and autonomic functions. The nuances of life may bring about unwanted stress to the human body. Some of the top causes of stress in America include work, finances, relationships, and health. There are numerous physical and psychological symptoms associated with long-term “chronic” stress, which include chronic fatigue, frustration, irritability, insomnia, frequent headaches, chest and back pain, weakness, and weight gain or weight loss. These symptoms of chronic stress are associated with depression ...


Press-Pulse: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy For The Metabolic Management Of Cancer, Thomas Seyfried, George Yu, Joseph Maroon, Dominic D'Agostino 2017 George Washington University

Press-Pulse: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy For The Metabolic Management Of Cancer, Thomas Seyfried, George Yu, Joseph Maroon, Dominic D'Agostino

Urology Faculty Publications

Background

A shift from respiration to fermentation is a common metabolic hallmark of cancer cells. As a result, glucose and glutamine become the prime fuels for driving the dysregulated growth of tumors. The simultaneous occurrence of “Press-Pulse” disturbances was considered the mechanism responsible for reduction of organic populations during prior evolutionary epochs. Press disturbances produce chronic stress, while pulse disturbances produce acute stress on populations. It was only when both disturbances coincide that population reduction occurred.

Methods

This general concept can be applied to the management of cancer by creating chronic metabolic stresses on tumor cell energy metabolism (press disturbance ...


Association Between Energy Balance And Metabolic Hormone Suppression During Ultra-Endurance Exercise, Bjoern Geesmann, Jenna C. Gibbs, Joachim Mester, Karsten Koehler 2017 German Sport University, Cologne, Germany

Association Between Energy Balance And Metabolic Hormone Suppression During Ultra-Endurance Exercise, Bjoern Geesmann, Jenna C. Gibbs, Joachim Mester, Karsten Koehler

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Ultra-endurance athletes often accumulate an energy deficit when engaging in ultra-endurance exercise, and upon completion of the exercise, they exhibit endocrine changes that are reminiscent of starvation. However, it remains unclear whether these endocrine changes are a result of the exercise per se or secondary to the energy deficit, and more importantly, whether these changes can be attenuated by increased dietary intake. Our goal was to assess the relationship between changes in key metabolic hormones following ultra-endurance exercise and measures of energy balance. Metabolic hormones as well as energy intake and expenditure were assessed in 14 well-trained male cyclists who ...


The Effects Of Work-To-Rest Ratios On Torque, Electromyographic, And Mechanomyographic Responses To Fatiguing Workbouts, Ethan C. Hill, Terry J. Housh, Cory M. Smith, Kristen C. Cochrane, Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Work-To-Rest Ratios On Torque, Electromyographic, And Mechanomyographic Responses To Fatiguing Workbouts, Ethan C. Hill, Terry J. Housh, Cory M. Smith, Kristen C. Cochrane, Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 2 different work-to-rest ratios, but the same mean load, cycle time, and total duration of the exercise bout, on maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque and neuromuscular responses to fatiguing, intermittent, submaximal, isometric, forearm flexion muscle actions. Ten men performed 2 fatiguing protocols with different work-to-rest ratios (4 s contraction, 4 s rest vs. 4 s contraction, alternating 6 and 2 s rest) that consisted of 50 intermittent, submaximal (65% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction), isometric, forearm flexion muscle actions. Electromyographic and mechanomyographic signals from the biceps brachii were ...


Time Course Of Changes In Neuromuscular Responses At 30% Versus 70% 1 Repetition Maximum During Dynamic Constant External Resistance Leg Extensions To Failure, Cory M. Smith, Terry J. Housh, Ethan C. Hill, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Time Course Of Changes In Neuromuscular Responses At 30% Versus 70% 1 Repetition Maximum During Dynamic Constant External Resistance Leg Extensions To Failure, Cory M. Smith, Terry J. Housh, Ethan C. Hill, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The purpose of the current study was to examine the time course of changes in neuromuscular responses from the vastus medialis (VM) during low versus high intensity dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) leg extension muscle actions to failure. Thirteen men performed DCER leg extensions to failure at 30% and 70% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) as well as 1-RM measurements pretest and posttest. Electromyogaphy and mechanomyographic signals were measured from the VM. There were no differences in neuromuscular responses pretest versus posttest 1-RM. There were timedependent differences between the 30% and 70% 1-RM protocols. The initial phase of the 30% 1- RM ...


Parental Views Of Promoting Fruit And Vegetable Intake Among Overweight Preschoolers And School-Aged Children, Martha J. Nepper, Weiwen Chai 2017 Methodist Health System, Omaha, Nebraska

Parental Views Of Promoting Fruit And Vegetable Intake Among Overweight Preschoolers And School-Aged Children, Martha J. Nepper, Weiwen Chai

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Given the importance of parental influence on children’s eating habits, we explored perceptions of parents of overweight (body mass index–for-age percentile ≥85%) preschoolers (3-5 years) and overweight school-aged children (6-12 years) regarding challenges in promoting fruit and vegetable intake and how they and other family members influence their overweight children’s dietary habits. Focus groups were conducted with 13 parents of overweight preschoolers and 14 parents of overweight school-aged children. Codes and themes were developed by inductive data analysis. Four common themes were identified: short shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables prohibiting parents from purchasing, children’s ...


Web-Based Interventions Alone Or Supplemented With Peer-Led Support Or Professional Email Counseling For Weight Loss And Weight Maintenance In Women From Rural Communities: Results Of A Clinical Trial, Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen, Melody Hertzog, Bunny J. Pozehl, Christine Eisenhauer, Linda Boeckner 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Web-Based Interventions Alone Or Supplemented With Peer-Led Support Or Professional Email Counseling For Weight Loss And Weight Maintenance In Women From Rural Communities: Results Of A Clinical Trial, Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen, Melody Hertzog, Bunny J. Pozehl, Christine Eisenhauer, Linda Boeckner

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Objective. This trial compared the effectiveness of a web-based only (WO) intervention with web-based supplemented by peer-led discussion (WD) or professional email counseling (WE) across 3 phases to achieve weight loss and weight maintenance in women from underserved rural communities.

Methods. 301 women (BMI of 28–45 kg/m2) randomly assigned to groups participated in guided weight loss (baseline to 6 months), guided weight loss and maintenance (6 to 18 months), and self-managed weight maintenance (18 to 30 months).

Results. Retention was 88.7%, 76.5%, and 71.8% at 6, 18, and 30 months, respectively. Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated ...


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