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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Reporter Bacteriophage T7nlc Utilizes A Novel Nanoluc::Cbm Fusion For The Ultrasensitive Detection Of Escherichia Coli In Water., T.C. Hinkley, S. Garing, S. Singh, A-L. M. Le Ny, K.P. Nichols, J.E. Peters, Joey N. Talbert, S.R. Nugen 2018 Cornell University

Reporter Bacteriophage T7nlc Utilizes A Novel Nanoluc::Cbm Fusion For The Ultrasensitive Detection Of Escherichia Coli In Water., T.C. Hinkley, S. Garing, S. Singh, A-L. M. Le Ny, K.P. Nichols, J.E. Peters, Joey N. Talbert, S.R. Nugen

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Rapid detection of bacteria responsible for foodborne diseases is a growing necessity for public health. Reporter bacteriophages (phages) are robust biorecognition elements uniquely suited for the rapid and sensitive detection of bacterial species. The advantages of phages include their host specificity, ability to distinguish viable and non-viable cells, low cost, and ease of genetic engineering. Upon infection with reporter phages, target bacteria express reporter enzymes encoded within the phage genome. In this study, the T7 coliphage was genetically engineered to express the newly developed luceriferase, NanoLuc (NLuc), as an indicator of bacterial contamination. While several genetic approaches were employed to ...


Biology Of Exosomes And Their Microrna Cargos In Human And Bovine Milk, Amy Lynn Leiferman 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Biology Of Exosomes And Their Microrna Cargos In Human And Bovine Milk, Amy Lynn Leiferman

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Exosomes are small, cargo-containing vesicles secreted by cells to facilitate intercellular communication. Of exosome cargos, microRNAs are especially interesting because of their involvement in gene regulation. Recently, our lab has shown that exosomes and their microRNA cargo are absorbed through the diet and elicit effects exogenously. Human and animal milk contain exosomes, which may have implications in infant and adult nutrition. There is evidence that bovine milk exosomes enhance growth of murine C2C12 myotube cell cultures, but whether this translates to muscle in vivo is unknown. The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference is lacking up-to-date information about human ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Mitochondrial Nadp+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency On Fructose-Induced Obesity In Mice, Allison Michelle Montalbano, Kaleigh Elizabeth Beane 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Mitochondrial Nadp+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Deficiency On Fructose-Induced Obesity In Mice, Allison Michelle Montalbano, Kaleigh Elizabeth Beane

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Obesity prevalence in the United States continues to increase and is associated with health consequences such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia. Among many contributing factors to obesity, fructose may be one of the major reasons as it disrupts the antioxidant system thereby resulting in an accumulation of reactive oxidative species and leading to obese conditions. The enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate from the TCA Cycle, hence might be implicated with not only energy metabolism but also cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, the hypothesis was that IDH2 deficiency in mice would exacerbate hepatic lipid ...


The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Forshee 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Forshee

Scholar Week 2016 - present

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...


Eating Crickets? Nutrient Mineral Content Of Two Cricket Species And Chapul Cricket Protein Bars Using Mp-Aes, Nathan Hopkins 2018 Lynchburg College

Eating Crickets? Nutrient Mineral Content Of Two Cricket Species And Chapul Cricket Protein Bars Using Mp-Aes, Nathan Hopkins

Student Scholar Showcase

Global agriculture is beset by numerous challenges which must be surmounted to feed a developing world, from combating climate change to the cultivation of sustainable food products. This, in addition to protein and nutrient deficiencies in the developing world, makes considering alternative protein sources, such as a crickets, an attractive option. Crickets use a fraction of the land and water that protein sources like beef cattle do, and can be cultivated in urban environments in stacked boxes. This research investigation aims to quantify the nutrient mineral content (Iron, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium) of two cricket species (Acheta domesticus & Gryllodes ...


Daily Dietary Intake Patterns Improve After Visiting A Food Pantry Among Food-Insecure Rural Midwestern Adults, Breanne N. Wright, Regan L. Bailey, Bruce A. Craig, Richard D. Mattes, Lacey McCormack, Suzanne Stluka, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Dan Remley, Heather A. Eicher-Miller 2018 Purdue University

Daily Dietary Intake Patterns Improve After Visiting A Food Pantry Among Food-Insecure Rural Midwestern Adults, Breanne N. Wright, Regan L. Bailey, Bruce A. Craig, Richard D. Mattes, Lacey Mccormack, Suzanne Stluka, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Dan Remley, Heather A. Eicher-Miller

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Emergency food pantries provide food at no cost to low-resource populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-day dietary intake patterns before and after visiting a food pantry among food-secure and food-insecure pantry clients. This observational cohort study comprised a paired, before-and-after design with a pantry visit as the intervention. Participants (n = 455) completed a demographic and food security assessment, and two 24-h dietary recalls. Adult food security was measured using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake patterns were assessed using Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall data and classified by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) scores ...


Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick

Masters Theses

Obesity has reached an epidemic level in the United States. A number of epidemiological studies have established obesity as a critical risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (post-BC), whereas a reverse association holds prior to menopause. A significant scientific gap exists in understanding the mechanism(s) underpinning this epidemiological phenomenon, particularly the reverse association between obesity and premenopausal breast cancer (pre-BC). This study aimed to understand how folate metabolism and DNA methylation informs the association between obesity and pre-BC. Fifty normal breast tissue samples were collected from premenopausal women who underwent reduction mammoplasty. We developed and measured the breast tissue ...


Health Disparities Score Composite Of Youth And Parent Dyads From An Obesity Prevention Intervention: Icook 4-H, Melissa D. Olfert, Makenzie L. Barr, Rebecca L. Hagedorn, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah E. Colby, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Adrienne A. White 2018 West Virginia University

Health Disparities Score Composite Of Youth And Parent Dyads From An Obesity Prevention Intervention: Icook 4-H, Melissa D. Olfert, Makenzie L. Barr, Rebecca L. Hagedorn, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah E. Colby, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Adrienne A. White

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

iCook 4-H is a lifestyle intervention to improve diet, physical activity and mealtime behavior. Control and treatment dyads (adult primary meal preparer and a 9–10-year-old youth) completed surveys at baseline and 4, 12, and 24 months. A Health Disparity (HD) score composite was developed utilizing a series of 12 questions (maximum score = 12 with a higher score indicating a more severe health disparity). Questions came from the USDA short form U.S. Household Food Security Survey (5), participation in food assistance programs (1), food behavior (2), level of adult education completed (1), marital status (1), and race (1 adult ...


Knowledge Gaps Of The Health Benefits Of Beans Among Low-Income Women, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna Winham, Christine A. Hradek MPH 2018 Iowa State University

Knowledge Gaps Of The Health Benefits Of Beans Among Low-Income Women, Shelly M. Palmer, Donna Winham, Christine A. Hradek Mph

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Objectives: We determined knowledge of the health benefits of consuming beans, and assessed if awareness varied by acculturation status among Hispanic and non-Hispanic low-income women. Methods: We used a self-administered survey with Iowa women aged 18-65 years who were eligible to receive income-based services through 2 healthcare clinics, a WIC clinic, and Extension Outreach. Chi-square and ANOVA were used to compare bean health benefit knowledge, demographics, health-risk factors, nutrition information seeking, and self-efficacy by acculturation categories. Results: Of the 158 women who completed the survey, 58% were Hispanic, with a mean age of 36 years. In terms of acculturation, 24 ...


Probiotic Bifidobacterium Strains And Galactooligosaccharides Improve Intestinal Barrier Function In Obese Adults But Show No Synergism When Used Together As Synbiotics, Janina A. Krumbeck, Heather E. Rasmussen, Robert W. Hutkins, Jennifer L. Clarke, Krista Shawron, Ali Keshavarzian, Jens Walter 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Probiotic Bifidobacterium Strains And Galactooligosaccharides Improve Intestinal Barrier Function In Obese Adults But Show No Synergism When Used Together As Synbiotics, Janina A. Krumbeck, Heather E. Rasmussen, Robert W. Hutkins, Jennifer L. Clarke, Krista Shawron, Ali Keshavarzian, Jens Walter

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Background: One way to improve both the ecological performance and functionality of probiotic bacteria is by combining them with a prebiotic in the form of a synbiotic. However, the degree to which such synbiotic formulations improve probiotic strain functionality in humans has not been tested systematically. Our goal was to use a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm clinical trial in obese humans to compare the ecological and physiological impact of the prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and the probiotic strains Bifidobacterium adolescentis IVS-1 (autochthonous and selected via in vivo selection) and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 (commercial probiotic allochthonous to the human gut) when used ...


Discovery Of Bioactive Natural Products From Sugarcane, Rory Patrick Taylor 2018 Southern Cross University

Discovery Of Bioactive Natural Products From Sugarcane, Rory Patrick Taylor

Theses

This research was undertaken to discover new potential products (with a focus on flavonoids) from sugarcane and sugar production by-products that have pharmaceutical, nutraceutical or functional food applications. Specifically, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory/immune modulation and glycaemic index (GI) activities were surveyed. The results suggest that there are potentially novel anti-inflammatory and α-amylase inhibiting compound(s) present. These extracts or compounds may have use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 or inflammation-related diseases such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis. Further research such as compound identification and in vivo testing is warranted.


Inhibitory Effects Of Toll-Like Receptor 4, Nlrp3 Inflammasome, And Interleukin-1Β On White Adipocyte Browning, Meshail Okla, Walid Zaher, Musaad Alfayez, Soonkyu Chung 2018 King Saud University

Inhibitory Effects Of Toll-Like Receptor 4, Nlrp3 Inflammasome, And Interleukin-1Β On White Adipocyte Browning, Meshail Okla, Walid Zaher, Musaad Alfayez, Soonkyu Chung

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Adipose tissue expansion is accompanied by infiltration and accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages, which links obesity to pathologic conditions such as type 2 diabetes. However, little is known regarding the role of pro-inflammatory adipose tissue remodeling in the thermogenic activation of brown/beige fat. Here, we investigated the effect of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) activation in macrophages, especially the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3), on white adipocyte browning. We report that TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide repressed white adipocyte browning in response to β3-adrenergic receptor activation and caused ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction, while genetic deletion of TLR4 ...


Epigenetic Modification Of Vitamin D-Induced Gene Expression In Human Colorectal And Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Sharmin Hossain 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Epigenetic Modification Of Vitamin D-Induced Gene Expression In Human Colorectal And Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Sharmin Hossain

Doctoral Dissertations

Epigenetics is the study of the regulation of genes that is not dependent on nucleotide sequence. This may include heritable changes in gene activity and expression but also those that are not heritable. In recent years, epigenetic researchers have made great strides in understanding the molecular mechanisms behind cellular functions in response to diet, exercise, and other lifestyle modifications, like methylation, histone modification etc. It is now known that the epigenome is critical to healthy human development in addition to genetics, and dietary factors can modulate epigenetic alterations in cells. The classic view of cancer etiology is that genetic alterations ...


Teens Implementing A Childhood Obesity Prevention Program In The Community: Feasibility And Perceptions Of A Partnership With Hsta And Icook 4-H, Rebecca L. Hagedorn, Jade A. White, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah E. Colby, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Adrienne A. White, Melissa D. Olfert 2018 West Virginia University

Teens Implementing A Childhood Obesity Prevention Program In The Community: Feasibility And Perceptions Of A Partnership With Hsta And Icook 4-H, Rebecca L. Hagedorn, Jade A. White, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah E. Colby, Kendra K. Kattelmann, Adrienne A. White, Melissa D. Olfert

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

High school student researchers and teen leaders from the Health Science Technology Academy (HSTA), under the supervision of HSTA teachers, led a childhood obesity prevention (COP) program (iCook 4-H). The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and perceptions of having teen leaders implement a COP program for dyads of youth (9–10 years old) and their primary adult food preparer. Behavior change and perceptions were assessed through surveys and open-ended interviews. Across eight HSTA organizations, 43 teen leaders participated in teaching the iCook 4-H program to 24 dyads. Increased frequency of culinary skills, physical activity and mealtime behavior were reported ...


St. John’S Wort Regulates Proliferation And Apoptosis In Mcf-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells By Inhibiting Ampk/Mtor And Activating The Mitochondrial Pathway, Mi-Kyoung You, Hwa-Jin Kim, Ji Hyun Kook, Hyeon-A Kim 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

St. John’S Wort Regulates Proliferation And Apoptosis In Mcf-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells By Inhibiting Ampk/Mtor And Activating The Mitochondrial Pathway, Mi-Kyoung You, Hwa-Jin Kim, Ji Hyun Kook, Hyeon-A Kim

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

St. John’s Wort (SJW) has been used as an estrogen agonist in the systems affected by menopause. Also, hypericin, a bioactive compound of SJW, has been used as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy. In the present study, we investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of SJWto demonstrate the chemo-preventive effect in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cellswere culturedwith DMSO or various concentrations of SJWethanol extract (SJWE). Cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, the expression of proteins involved in cell growth and apoptosis, and caspase-3/7 activity were examined. SJWE dose-dependently suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis ofMCF-7 cells. Mechanistically, SJWE enhanced ...


Armms As A Versatile Platform For Intracellular Delivery Of Macromolecules, Qiyu Wang, Jiujiu Yu, Tatenda Kadungure, Joseph Beyene, Hong Zhang, Quan Lu 2018 Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Armms As A Versatile Platform For Intracellular Delivery Of Macromolecules, Qiyu Wang, Jiujiu Yu, Tatenda Kadungure, Joseph Beyene, Hong Zhang, Quan Lu

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Majority of disease-modifying therapeutic targets are restricted to the intracellular space and are therefore not druggable using existing biologic modalities. The ability to efficiently deliver macromolecules inside target cells or tissues would greatly expand the current landscape of therapeutic targets for future generations of biologic drugs, but remains challenging. Here we report the use of extracellular vesicles, known as arrestin domain containing protein 1 [ARRDC1]-mediated microvesicles (ARMMs), for packaging and intracellular delivery of a myriad of macromolecules, including the tumor suppressor p53 protein, RNAs, and the genome-editing CRISPR-Cas9/guide RNA complex. We demonstrate selective recruitment of these macromolecules into ...


Role Of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity In Acute Fatty Liver Of Pregnancy, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Jamal A. Ibdah 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Role Of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipotoxicity In Acute Fatty Liver Of Pregnancy, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Jamal A. Ibdah

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), a catastrophic illness for both the mother and the unborn offspring, develops in the last trimester of pregnancy with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. AFLP is also recognized as an obstetric and medical emergency. Maternal AFLP is highly associated with a fetal homozygous mutation (1528G>C) in the gene that encodes for mitochondrial long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD). The mutation in LCHAD results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxy fatty acids, such as 3-hydroxy myristic acid, 3-hydroxy palmitic acid and 3-hydroxy dicarboxylic acid in the placenta, which are then shunted to the maternal circulation leading ...


Gardening Experience Is Associated With Increased Fruit And Vegetable Intake Among First-Year College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination, Jennifer Loso, Daniel Staub, Sarah E. Colby, Melissa D. Olfert, Kendra Kattelmann, Melissa Vilaro, James Colee, Wenjun Zhou, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Anne E. Matthews 2018 University of Florida

Gardening Experience Is Associated With Increased Fruit And Vegetable Intake Among First-Year College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination, Jennifer Loso, Daniel Staub, Sarah E. Colby, Melissa D. Olfert, Kendra Kattelmann, Melissa Vilaro, James Colee, Wenjun Zhou, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Anne E. Matthews

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background Gardening interventions have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake among school-aged children. It is unknown whether these effects persist into later adolescence or adulthood, and little is known about whether gardening in later adolescence is related to F/V intake. Objective To identify the relationship between both childhood and recent (within the past 12 months) gardening experiences and current F/V intake among college students. Design/participants A cross-sectional evaluation of 1,121 college freshmen with suboptimal F/V consumption from eight US universities. Main outcome measures Participants completed the National Cancer Institute Fruit and ...


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