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Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition Commons

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Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Prenatal Choline Supplementation During Maternal Obesity Alters Offspring Response To Western Diets, Hunter W. Korsmo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Maternal obesity has led to an increase in adverse offspring developmental outcomes and a greater risk for long-term metabolic diseases. Choline, a semi-essential nutrient, can be incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as sphingomyelin (SM) and donate its labile methyl group for the remethylation of homocysteine after choline is oxidized to betaine. Prenatal choline insufficiency has been related to maternal obesity and metabolic diseases, such as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Choline may interact with maternal obesity to influence the programming offspring.

Chapter 1 presents an introduction of choline and the various clinical outcomes associated with choline supplementation during ...


Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Marks A Novel Population Of Adult Stem Cells In The Mouse Brain That Respond To Metabolic Interventions By Modulating Adult Brain Plasticity, Gabriel S. Jensen 2022 University of Maine

Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Marks A Novel Population Of Adult Stem Cells In The Mouse Brain That Respond To Metabolic Interventions By Modulating Adult Brain Plasticity, Gabriel S. Jensen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is expressed by quiescent adult stem cells (qASC) in numerous adult murine and human tissues but has never been explored in the adult brain. Here, these data demonstrate that TERT+ cells in the adult mouse brain represent a novel population of multipotent qASCs. TERT+ cells were localized to numerous classical neuro/gliogenic niches including the ventricular-subventricular zone, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb, as well as newly discovered regions of adult tissue plasticity such as the meninges and choroid plexus. TERT+ cells expressed neural stem cell markers such as Nestin and Sox2, but not markers of activated stem ...


Differential Progression Of Unhealthy Dietinduced Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Obese And Non-Obese Mice, Emma Hymel, Elizabeth Vlock, Kurt W. Fisher, Paraskevi A. Farazi 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Differential Progression Of Unhealthy Dietinduced Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Obese And Non-Obese Mice, Emma Hymel, Elizabeth Vlock, Kurt W. Fisher, Paraskevi A. Farazi

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranks first among liver diseases in Western countries. NAFLD is typically associated with obesity and diabetes, however it also develops in lean individuals without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of lean NAFLD is 7 percent in the U.S. and 25–30 percent in some Asian countries. NAFLD starts with excess liver fat accumulation (NAFL), progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pathogenesis of lean NASH-HCC and how it differs from obese NASH-HCC is not well understood.

Methods In this work, we generated a mouse model of lean and obese NASH-HCC ...


Markers Of Fungal Translocation Are Elevated During Post-Acute Sequelae Of Sars-Cov-2 And Induce Nf-Κb Signaling, Leila B. Giron, Michael J. Peluso, Jianyi Ding, Grace Kenny, Netanel F. Zilberstein, Jane Koshy, Kai Ying Hong, Heather Rasmussen, Gregory E. Miller, Faraz Bishehsari, Robert A. Balk, James N. Moy, Rebecca Hoh, Scott Lu, Aaron R. Goldman, Hsin Yao Tang, Brandon C. Yee, Ahmed Chenna, John W. Winslow, Christos J. Petropoulos, J. Daniel Kelly, Haimanot Wasse, Jeffrey N. Martin, Qin Liu, Ali Keshavarzian, Alan Landay, Steven G. Deeks, Timothy J. Henrich, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen 2022 The Wistar Institute

Markers Of Fungal Translocation Are Elevated During Post-Acute Sequelae Of Sars-Cov-2 And Induce Nf-Κb Signaling, Leila B. Giron, Michael J. Peluso, Jianyi Ding, Grace Kenny, Netanel F. Zilberstein, Jane Koshy, Kai Ying Hong, Heather Rasmussen, Gregory E. Miller, Faraz Bishehsari, Robert A. Balk, James N. Moy, Rebecca Hoh, Scott Lu, Aaron R. Goldman, Hsin Yao Tang, Brandon C. Yee, Ahmed Chenna, John W. Winslow, Christos J. Petropoulos, J. Daniel Kelly, Haimanot Wasse, Jeffrey N. Martin, Qin Liu, Ali Keshavarzian, Alan Landay, Steven G. Deeks, Timothy J. Henrich, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Long COVID, a type of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), has been associated with sustained elevated levels of immune activation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms that drive this inflammation remain unknown. Inflammation during acute coronavirus disease 2019 could be exacerbated by microbial translocation (from the gut and/or lung) to blood. Whether microbial translocation contributes to inflammation during PASC is unknown. We did not observe a significant elevation in plasma markers of bacterial translocation during PASC. However, we observed higher levels of fungal translocation - measured as β-glucan, a fungal cell wall polysaccharide - in the plasma of individuals experiencing PASC compared ...


Switching Palmitoyl And Oleoyl Positions In Sn-2 And Sn-3 Of A Triacylglycerol Led To Differential Body Weight Gain Rates And Hepatic Gene Expressions In Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet, Xinge Hu 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Switching Palmitoyl And Oleoyl Positions In Sn-2 And Sn-3 Of A Triacylglycerol Led To Differential Body Weight Gain Rates And Hepatic Gene Expressions In Mice Fed A High-Fat Diet, Xinge Hu

Masters Theses

Alterations of triacylglycerol (TAG) are associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The fatty acyl groups in a TAG molecule determine its characteristics from melting temperature to digestion and absorption. We hypothesize that the TAG fatty acyl position affects the body weight (BW) gain and lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 36 % w/w diet). Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoylglycerol (PPO), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP), and chow control. The food intake and BW were measured daily during 6 weeks of treatment. The PPO group had significantly higher ...


Sweet Taste Signaling: The Core Pathways And Regulatory Mechanisms, Sunil Kumar Sukumaran, Salin Raj Palayyan 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sweet Taste Signaling: The Core Pathways And Regulatory Mechanisms, Sunil Kumar Sukumaran, Salin Raj Palayyan

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Sweet taste, a proxy for sugar-derived calories, is an important driver of food intake, and animals have evolved robust molecular and cellular machinery for sweet taste signaling. The overconsumption of sugar-derived calories is a major driver of obesity and other metabolic diseases. A fine-grained appreciation of the dynamic regulation of sweet taste signaling mechanisms will be required for designing novel noncaloric sweeteners with better hedonic and metabolic profiles and improved consumer acceptance. Sweet taste receptor cells express at least two signaling pathways, one mediated by a heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor encoded by taste 1 receptor members 2 and 3 (TAS1R2 ...


The Relationship Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism In Taste Receptor Genes And Body Composition, Energy Intake, And Macronutrient Consumption In Young Adults​, Manal Abbas Sunbul 2022 Mississippi State University

The Relationship Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism In Taste Receptor Genes And Body Composition, Energy Intake, And Macronutrient Consumption In Young Adults​, Manal Abbas Sunbul

Theses and Dissertations

Genetic variations in taste receptor genes play a notable role in human taste perception and food preferences and intake, which may affect nutritional and health status. Understanding how genetic variations in taste receptor genes influence food perception, preferences, and intake can play an important role in designing effective interventions to improve the quality of peoples' nutrition and minimize the risk of diet-related diseases such as obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of umami taste receptor gene TAS1R1 and GRM4 and sweet taste receptor gene TAS1R3 and percentage of body fat mass (BF%) among ...


The Effect Of Different Feeding Regimes On Recent Nutritional And Growth Measurements In Juvenile California Killifish (Fundulus Parvipinnis), Emily Parks 2022 University of San Diego

The Effect Of Different Feeding Regimes On Recent Nutritional And Growth Measurements In Juvenile California Killifish (Fundulus Parvipinnis), Emily Parks

Theses

Gaining a deeper understanding of in-situ growth approximations for juvenile fishes is one way to understand how food consumption may affect fish growth. If variations in growth rate are strongly mirrored by past food status, then the condition (degree of well-being) of fish can be potentially used as a reference for relative prey availability. Furthermore, confirming that there is a positive relationship between food availability and fish growth rate is a critical first step to deepen our understanding of growth rate variation as well as examining if growth can be a proxy for habitat quality.

The California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis ...


Small Extracellular Vesicles In Milk Cross The Blood-Brain Barrier In Murine Cerebral Cortex Endothelial Cells And Promote Dendritic Complexity In The Hippocampus And Brain Function In C57bl/6j Mice, Fang Zhou, Pearl Ebea, Ezra Mutai, Haichuan Wang, Sonal Sukreet, Shya Navazesh, Haluk Dogan, Wenhao Li, Juan Cui, Peng Ji, Denise M.O. Ramirez, Janos Zempleni 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Small Extracellular Vesicles In Milk Cross The Blood-Brain Barrier In Murine Cerebral Cortex Endothelial Cells And Promote Dendritic Complexity In The Hippocampus And Brain Function In C57bl/6j Mice, Fang Zhou, Pearl Ebea, Ezra Mutai, Haichuan Wang, Sonal Sukreet, Shya Navazesh, Haluk Dogan, Wenhao Li, Juan Cui, Peng Ji, Denise M.O. Ramirez, Janos Zempleni

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Human milk contains large amounts of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and their microRNA cargos, whereas infant formulas contain only trace amounts of sEVs and microRNAs. We assessed the transport of sEVs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and sEV accumulation in distinct regions of the brain in brain endothelial cells and suckling mice. We further assessed sEV-dependent gene expression profiles and effects on the dendritic complexity of hippocampal granule cells and phenotypes of EV depletion in neonate, juvenile and adult mice. The transfer of sEVs across the BBB was assessed by using fluorophore-labeled bovine sEVs in brain endothelial bEnd.3 monolayers ...


Metabolism In The Colonocyte: Where Bacteria And Diet Meet, Bohye Park 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Metabolism In The Colonocyte: Where Bacteria And Diet Meet, Bohye Park

Doctoral Dissertations

The host-microbiome interaction and the functions of microbial-derived metabolites, including butyrate, are important in colon health. Butyrate is the preferred energy source in colonocytes and has multiple physiological functions in the colon. A metabolic shift in colonocytes toward increased glucose utilization from butyrate oxidation is followed by several critical genetic modifications in cancerous colonocytes. Moreover, it has been suggested that the gut-microbiota composition is influenced by environmental factors, such as diets and the host's physiological status. Therefore, an understanding of the role of colonocyte metabolism toward impacting the host-microbiota commensal relationship would be an important step in understanding the ...


Essential Amino Acid (Eaa) Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover With Age, Mary Komp 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Essential Amino Acid (Eaa) Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Protein Turnover With Age, Mary Komp

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Skeletal muscle (SM) is vital for both long term health and quality of life. Recent research suggests an increase in catabolic signals with age triggers pathologic conditions, such as sarcopenia. Although results from in vitro studies model how EAA can regulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS), the relevance of these models to muscle protein breakdown (MPB) and the presence of physiological EAA concentrations remains to be established. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a low, normal, and supra physiological dose of EAA (0.2, 1.0, and 3.0 x EAA) in a young (passages ...


Efficacy Of Multivitamin-Mineral Supplementation On Measures Of Anxiety, Depression, Self-Esteem, Dysregulation, And Perceived Stress In Young Adults, Courtney Gorden 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Efficacy Of Multivitamin-Mineral Supplementation On Measures Of Anxiety, Depression, Self-Esteem, Dysregulation, And Perceived Stress In Young Adults, Courtney Gorden

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mental health in the United States is at an all-time low with 21% of adults 18+ suffering from depression or anxiety. When compared with other categories, emerging adults (18-25 years old) have the highest prevalence of mental health disorders at 30%. Young adults face an inordinate amount of stress given the COVID-19 pandemic, being in a unique developmental stage, experiencing new relationships, and transitioning from high school to their professional lives. Vitamins and minerals have roles in neurobiochemistry and have been investigated for effects on mental health with mixed results. Few studies factor in the unique emerging adult developmental stage ...


Influence Of Acute Water Ingestion And Prolonged Standing On Raw Bioimpedance And Subsequent Body Fluid And Composition Estimates, Grant M. Tinsley, Matthew T. Stratton, Patrick S. Harty, Abegale D. Williams, Sarah J. White, Christian Rodriguez, Jacob R. Dellinger, Baylor A. Johnson, Robert W. Smith, Eric T. Trexler 2022 Texas Tech University

Influence Of Acute Water Ingestion And Prolonged Standing On Raw Bioimpedance And Subsequent Body Fluid And Composition Estimates, Grant M. Tinsley, Matthew T. Stratton, Patrick S. Harty, Abegale D. Williams, Sarah J. White, Christian Rodriguez, Jacob R. Dellinger, Baylor A. Johnson, Robert W. Smith, Eric T. Trexler

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

This study evaluated the influence of acute water ingestion and maintaining an upright posture on raw bioimpedance and subsequent estimates of body fluids and composition. Twenty healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. In both conditions, an overnight food and fluid fast was followed by an initial multi-frequency bioimpedance assessment (InBody 770). Participants then ingested 11 mL/kg of water (water condition) or did not (control condition) during a 5-minute period. Thereafter, bioimpedance assessments were performed every 10 minutes for one hour with participants remaining upright throughout. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the influence of condition ...


Recent Advances In Probiotic Application In Animal Health And Nutrition: A Review, Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel Nahashon 2022 University of Kentucky

Recent Advances In Probiotic Application In Animal Health And Nutrition: A Review, Sarayu Bhogoju, Samuel Nahashon

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Biotechnological advances in animal health and nutrition continue to play a significant role in the improvement of animal health, growth, and production performance. These biotechnological advancements, especially the use of direct-fed microbials, also termed probiotics, those genetically modified and otherwise, have minimized many challenges facing livestock production around the world. Such advancements result in healthy animals and animal products, such as meat, for a growing population worldwide. Increasing demand for productivity, healthy animals, and consumer food safety concerns, especially those emanating from excessive use of antibiotics or growth promoters, are a driving force for investing in safer alternatives, such as ...


Tissue Losses And Metabolic Adaptations Both Contribute To The Reduction In Resting Metabolic Rate Following Weight Loss, Alexandra Martin, Darius Fox, Chaise A. Murphy, Hande Hofmann, Karsten Koehler 2022 Technical University Munich

Tissue Losses And Metabolic Adaptations Both Contribute To The Reduction In Resting Metabolic Rate Following Weight Loss, Alexandra Martin, Darius Fox, Chaise A. Murphy, Hande Hofmann, Karsten Koehler

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contributions of the loss of energy-expending tissues and metabolic adaptations to the reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR) following weight loss.

METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted on data from the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy study. Changes in RMR, body composition, and metabolic hormones were examined over 12 months of calorie restriction in 109 individuals. The contribution of tissue losses to the decline in RMR was determined by weighing changes in the size of energy-expending tissues and organs (skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, bone, brain, inner organs, residual mass) assessed by ...


Association Of Diet Qualitymeasured By Three A Priori-Defined Dietary Patterns With Gut Microbiota And Intestinal Permeability Among Obese Individuals, Sarah Eaton, Heather Rasmussen, Weiwen Chai 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Association Of Diet Qualitymeasured By Three A Priori-Defined Dietary Patterns With Gut Microbiota And Intestinal Permeability Among Obese Individuals, Sarah Eaton, Heather Rasmussen, Weiwen Chai

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Objectives: The human gastrointestinal tract (GI)may play a critical role in the prevention of obesity and metabolic diseases. Considering the importance of a healthy diet for optimal health, this study examined associations of diet quality assessed by three a priori-defined dietary patterns (Healthy Eating Index 2010 [HEI-2010],Mediterranean Eating Pattern for Americans [MEPA], and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] with gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and intestinal permeabilitymarkers in adult obese participants.

Conclusions: Blautia abundance and inversely associated with intestinal permeability markers such as urinary 24-h sucralose levels suggesting diet quality may have positive impact on the ...


Intracellular Fate Of Bovine Milk Exosomes In Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages, Afsana Khanam, Janos Zempleni 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Intracellular Fate Of Bovine Milk Exosomes In Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages, Afsana Khanam, Janos Zempleni

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Milk exosomes (MEs) and their microRNA cargos constitute novel bioactive food compounds, and bovine MEs (BMEs) are being considered for use in drug delivery. The internalization of MEs by macrophages and degradation in lysosomes (in all cells) limit biological activities. Here, we determined whether BMEs internalized by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) retrofuse with the intralumenal membrane in the multivesicular body (MVB) for subsequent release into the extracellular space or whether BMEs are destined for degradation in lysosomes.

Conclusions: The retrofusion of BME-derived intralumenal MVBs and secretion of BME into the extracellular space is quantitatively minor in BMDMs. The majority ...


Γ-Glutamyl Valine, Found In Dry Edible Beans, Is Anti-Diabetic In Db/Db Mice, Bikram Upadhyaya, Kaustav Majumder, Regis Moreau 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Γ-Glutamyl Valine, Found In Dry Edible Beans, Is Anti-Diabetic In Db/Db Mice, Bikram Upadhyaya, Kaustav Majumder, Regis Moreau

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Objectives: Dietary γ -glutamyl peptides (γ -GPs) found in dry edible beans exhibit biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory) with potential benefits against chronic metabolic disorders. γ -GPs are responsible for the desirable Kokumi flavor through allosteric activation of the Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR) present in multiple mammalian tissues. In this study, we investigated the metabolic effects of γ -glutamyl valine (γ -EV) in diabetic obese mice.

Conclusions: γ -EV improved the diabetic condition of db/db mice via modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.


Genetically Altered Bovine Milk Exosomes (Bmes) Evade Elimination Bymurine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (Bmdms), Alice Ngu, Janos Zempleni 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genetically Altered Bovine Milk Exosomes (Bmes) Evade Elimination Bymurine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (Bmdms), Alice Ngu, Janos Zempleni

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Objectives: To develop BMEs that evade elimination by BMDMs.

Conclusions: The elimination of BMEs UNL1 and UNL2 is significantly reduced compared unmodified BMEs in BMDM cultures. This is of great importance when using BMEs for delivering therapeutics.


Barriers To Summer Food Service Program (Sfsp) Implementation Before And After Covid-19: A Qualitative, Collective Case Study, Masoomeh Hajizadeh Oghaz, Falah N. Rashoka, Megan S. Kelley 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Barriers To Summer Food Service Program (Sfsp) Implementation Before And After Covid-19: A Qualitative, Collective Case Study, Masoomeh Hajizadeh Oghaz, Falah N. Rashoka, Megan S. Kelley

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Objectives: SFSP, as a federal food assistance program, could ensure that children have sufficient nutritious food during summer. According to a 2016 USDA report, only 0.4–0.6% of eligible children participated in this program in Nebraska, which makes for one of the lowest SFSP participation rates in the U.S. This study aims to better understand how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted SFSP implementation in urban and rural settings across the state.

Conclusions: Insights from this study may inform the development of policies that expand food access to vulnerable families. On the organizational level, this includes providing participating ...


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