8 Institutions 28 Full-Text Articles 55 Authors 6,169 Downloads
Recent Articles in Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition
Role Of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (Hmb) In Leucine Stimulation Of Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Fatty Acid Oxidation, Renee Ashley Stancliffe University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Role Of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (Hmb) In Leucine Stimulation Of Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Fatty Acid Oxidation, Renee Ashley Stancliffe
Mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting oxidative stress is widely recognized as a contributing factor to the development of numerous pathophysiologies including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, sarcopenia, liver disease, dementia, amongst others. Mitochondrial dysfunction results in a reduced mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity, causing an increase in free radical production and consequently oxidative stress. As such, the characterization of compounds that can upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function could provide the foundation for the development of therapeutic nutraceuticals that promote mitochondrial health, and consequently reduce oxidative stress. Leucine is well recognized to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and we have recently demonstrated that ...
The Effects Of Leucine On Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Cell Cycle In A-375 Melanoma Cells, Tia Marie Filhiol University of Tennessee, Knoxville
The Effects Of Leucine On Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Cell Cycle In A-375 Melanoma Cells, Tia Marie Filhiol
Most cancer cells undergo the Warburg effect, a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism accompanied by suppression of p53. We have demonstrated leucine stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and p53 expression in both muscle and fat cells. Accordingly, we now sought to determine if leucine stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and exit from cell cycle in A-375 melanoma cells. Because these cells use glucose as their primary substrate, cells were grown under both standard (11.1 mM) and reduced (5.5 mM) glucose conditions. Increasing glucose reduced mitochondrial mass 50-60%, and accelerated cell proliferation by ~20%. Leucine (0.25, 0 ...
Effects Of Folate Availability On Expression Of Adipocyte Metabolic Genes Via Modulation Of Dna Methylation, Julia Stair Gouffon University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Effects Of Folate Availability On Expression Of Adipocyte Metabolic Genes Via Modulation Of Dna Methylation, Julia Stair Gouffon
Epigenetic modifications serve as a means of intermediate gene expression control and nutritional inputs may modify methylation patterns in regulatory regions of genes. Therefore, we proposed that specific nutrient availability of folate affects adipocyte development and metabolism through impacting the one-carbon cycle and subsequent DNA methylation patterns. Accordingly, we sought to determine if the methylation level of CpG islands could be influenced in adipocytes and if so, how this might affect gene signaling in mature adipocytes. We treated adipocytes with 0 to 0.9 millimolar [mM] folate, the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) and the methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2-deoxycitidine (2-DC) both during ...
Angiotensinogen Gene Silencing Reduces Lipid Accumulation And Inflammation In Cultured 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wenting Xin Carroll University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Angiotensinogen Gene Silencing Reduces Lipid Accumulation And Inflammation In Cultured 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wenting Xin Carroll
Obesity is characterized by metabolic complications which are related to several life-threatening diseases. Dysregulated inflammatory adipokines secretion from adipose tissue is believed as the major contributor to obesity-associated local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and other metabolic dysfunctions.
Numerous studies in our lab and others pointed to the role of local adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that adipocytes-derived angiotensinogen (Agt) played a critical role in adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis as well as adipose inflammation. To test, we established 3T3-L1 preadipocytes stably transfected with Agt-shRNA or scrambled sequence (Sc-shRNA). Transfected ...
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Holocarboxylase Synthetase-Dependent Biotinylation Of Histone H4, Luisa Rios Avila
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