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Dental Topographic Analysis Of Maxillary And Mandibular Phyllostomid Bat Dentitions: Implications For Dietary Prediction In The Fossil Record, Colin Pellegrom 2019 Grand Valley State University

Dental Topographic Analysis Of Maxillary And Mandibular Phyllostomid Bat Dentitions: Implications For Dietary Prediction In The Fossil Record, Colin Pellegrom

Masters Theses

Mammalian dental anatomy has evolved in accordance with the physical properties of its diet, and multiple features on each tooth have specific functions related to the breakdown of food during mastication and ingestion. Tooth structure is under tight genetic control and much of the anatomical variation in dentition across species is related to adaptation to a specific dietary regime. This diet-dentition relationship can be exploited to reconstruct mammalian diets from fossil specimens through calculation of dental topographic metrics. To date, most studies of dietary reconstruction using dental topography have focused on mandibular molars; thus, this study seeks to test whether ...


Growth Performance, Metabolic And Rumen Profile, Nutrient Utilization, And Health Of Calves Fed Condensed Whey Solubles With Starter Pellets, Michaela Joy Della 2019 South Dakota State University

Growth Performance, Metabolic And Rumen Profile, Nutrient Utilization, And Health Of Calves Fed Condensed Whey Solubles With Starter Pellets, Michaela Joy Della

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A study was conducted for this thesis to evaluate the effectiveness of a new product’s ability to improve calf health and growth performance. In addition to the results from the study, this thesis also includes a literature review of immune and rumen maturation in calves and a discussion of ways to protect and encourage those fundamental progressions. For the main research project 48 dairy calves were used in a randomized complete block design study to evaluate the growth performance, rumen fermentation and metabolic profiles, nutrient utilization, and health scores when calves were supplemented Condensed Whey Solubles (CWS) with their ...


Evaluation Of Flax Oil Supplementation On Performance Of Growing Dairy Heifer Calves And Lactating Cows, Chelsea Rose Schossow 2019 South Dakota State University

Evaluation Of Flax Oil Supplementation On Performance Of Growing Dairy Heifer Calves And Lactating Cows, Chelsea Rose Schossow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Utilization of flax oil is new to the livestock industry, and limited research has been done to see the benefits of feeding the highly unsaturated oil to both dairy calves and lactating cows. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the potential benefits of flax oil as a lipid supplement. The first study compared the supplementation of two plant based oils to growing dairy calves. Thirty-six female Holstein calves in individual hutches were used in a 12-wk randomized complete block design study. Treatments were: 1) control (CON) with no oil, 2) 80 g/d of flax oil (FLAX), and 3) and ...


The Impact Of School Nutrition Education And Physical Education Programs On Weight Status Of Obese Children Aged 5- 12 Years, Lamia Ayed Alotaibi 2019 Eastern Illinois University

The Impact Of School Nutrition Education And Physical Education Programs On Weight Status Of Obese Children Aged 5- 12 Years, Lamia Ayed Alotaibi

Masters Theses

Epidemiological studies indicate that 12.5 million children and adolescents are considered obese (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). Obesity is on the rise globally, and while it affects both children and adults, early measures can be taken to reduce the number of children who are obese, and therefore, come into adulthood at a higher risk for obesity-related diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and sleep apnea. There are many studies in which programs are implemented and tested for effectiveness; therefore, a systematic review of these studies that examine which factors play into overall obesity prevention and health improvements ...


Evaluation Of Effects Of Methods Used For Forage Analysis And Dietary Inclusion Of Buffer On Fiber Digestibility And Rumen Fermentation In Diets High In Distillers Grains, Lydia Kehinde Olagunju 2019 South Dakota State University

Evaluation Of Effects Of Methods Used For Forage Analysis And Dietary Inclusion Of Buffer On Fiber Digestibility And Rumen Fermentation In Diets High In Distillers Grains, Lydia Kehinde Olagunju

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Forage quality is an important factor affecting intake and utilization of forage, thus making it imperative to evaluate the methods used to determine the nutritive values of forage in order to predict animal performance. Additionally, fibrous feeds for ruminants are less subject to competitive demand. The plant cell wall is the largest hindrance to complete digestion of feeds, particularly forages and by-products and to the utilization of the nutrients and energy they contain, necessitating effective strategies for increasing the rate and efficiency of utilization of forage fiber and the energy therein. It is critically important to increase fiber digestion for ...


Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell 2018 California Polytechnic State University – San Luis Obispo

Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Captive insectivores may consume invertebrates as all, or part of their overall diet. The challenge with feeding captive insectivores involves the limited number of invertebrate species that are commercially available, and the lack of key nutrients provided by these insects. Among these insects, a naturally occurring low concentration of calcium and an inverse calcium to phosphorus ratio may put insectivores at the risk of developing hypocalcemia. A strategy to correct this nutrient imbalance involves supplementing the insect diet with high concentrations of targeted nutrients – a term referred to as gut-loading. Current industry guidelines recommend feeding a supplemented diet for 48 ...


Using A Model To Design Activity-Based Educational Experiences To Improve Cultural Competency Among Graduate Students, Yeon Bai, Kathleen D. Bauer 2018 Montclair State University

Using A Model To Design Activity-Based Educational Experiences To Improve Cultural Competency Among Graduate Students, Yeon Bai, Kathleen D. Bauer

Department of Nutrition and Food Studies Scholarship and Creative Works

To improve the cultural competency of 34 students participating in graduate nutrition counseling classes, the Campinha-Bacote Model of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Health Care Services was used to design, implement, and evaluate counseling classes. Each assignment and activity addressed one or more of the five constructs of the model, i.e., knowledge, skill, desire, encounters, and awareness. A repeated measure ANOVA evaluated pre- and post-test cultural competence scores (Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence among Healthcare Professionals). The overall cultural competence score significantly improved (p < 0.001) from “culturally aware” (68.7 at pre-test) to “culturally competent” (78.7 at post-test). Students significantly improved (p < 0.001) in four constructs of the model including awareness, knowledge, skill, and encounter. Factor analysis indicated that course activities accounted for 83.2% and course assignments accounted for 74.6% of the total variance of cultural competence. An activity-based counseling course encouraging self-evaluation and reflection and addressing Model constructs significantly improved the cultural competence of students. As class activities and assignments aligned well with the Campinha-Bacote Model constructs, the findings of this study can help guide health educators to design effective cultural competence training and education programs.


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


The Role Of A High-Sugar Refined Diet On Food And Energy Intake, Body Weight, Exercise, And Motivation In Rats, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2018 University of California, Los Angeles

The Role Of A High-Sugar Refined Diet On Food And Energy Intake, Body Weight, Exercise, And Motivation In Rats, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite, And Food Intake In Young Versus Older Men, Allie Murphy 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Appetite, And Food Intake In Young Versus Older Men, Allie Murphy

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

As life expectancy continues to rise, it is important to consider optimal nutrition recommendations to improve health outcomes, quality of life, and physical independence in older adults. Previous studies have focused on the impact of breakfast on postprandial appetite in younger adults. Research on the effects of breakfast on appetite in older adults is limited. Several studies have identified protein as a key nutrient for older adults. Protein has been shown to increase satiety for longer periods of time and decrease cravings later in the day when compared to high carbohydrate meals. However, more research is needed to determine the ...


Nutrition And Physical Activity Recall To Assess The Health Status Of Commuters And Residents On A College Campus, Holly Scott 2018 Merrimack College

Nutrition And Physical Activity Recall To Assess The Health Status Of Commuters And Residents On A College Campus, Holly Scott

Health Sciences Student Work

Introduction: Behavioral patterns acquired in college may contribute to overweight and obesity later in life. Food found in college dormitories and dining halls are those of convenience. Physical activity and a healthy diet are important components to maintaining a healthy weight. Research Questions: The purpose of this study is to investigate if residency during college and access to kitchen appliances impacts students’ dietary composition and physical activity levels and other health behaviors. Methodology: 38 students (27 residents and 11 commuters) from Merrimack College participated in the study. These participants were recruited through convenience sampling on campus. All participants completed a ...


Glycemic Response To Black Beans And Chickpeas As Part Of A Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins, Sharon V. Thompson 2017 Iowa State University

Glycemic Response To Black Beans And Chickpeas As Part Of A Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial, Donna M. Winham, Andrea M. Hutchins, Sharon V. Thompson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Legumes, such as black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.), have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has been documented, few studies have examined the glycemic response to traditional food combinations such as black beans and rice or chickpeas and rice. This randomized cross-over study examined the glycemic and insulinemic impact of 50 grams of available carbohydrate from three test meals: plain white rice (control), black beans with rice, and chickpeas with rice among healthy adult women ...


The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, a global generalist lepidopteran pest, has developed resistance to many synthetic and biological insecticides, requiring effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. One possibility is the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). This baculovirus is highly infectious for T. ni, with potential as a biocontrol agent, however, its effectiveness is strongly influenced by dietary context. In this study, microscopy and transcriptomics were used to examine how the efficacy of this virus was affected when T. ni larvae were raised on different diets. Larvae raised on potato host plants had lower chitinase and chitin deacetylase transcript levels and thickened ...


How Income And Food Prices Influence Global Dietary Intakes By Age And Sex: Evidence From 164 Countries, Andrew Muhammad, Anna D'Souza, Birgit Meade, Renata Micha, Dariush Mozaffarian 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

How Income And Food Prices Influence Global Dietary Intakes By Age And Sex: Evidence From 164 Countries, Andrew Muhammad, Anna D'Souza, Birgit Meade, Renata Micha, Dariush Mozaffarian

Publications and Research

Background While income and prices are key drivers of dietary choices, how their influence varies by food category, nation, and demographics is not well established. Based on intake data for 164 countries and 11 food categories, we examined how income and food prices relate to food intake globally, including by world region, age, and sex.

Methods We used 2010 intake data from the Global Dietary Database, the first database of consumption estimates for major food categories by country, age, and sex. We combined these data with national per capita GDP and food price data. We estimated intake responsiveness to income ...


Whole Egg Consumption Attenuates Weight Gain In Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Kaylee Hahn, Caitlyn Coonts, Carter Reed 2017 Iowa State University

Whole Egg Consumption Attenuates Weight Gain In Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Kaylee Hahn, Caitlyn Coonts, Carter Reed

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Obesity is a national epidemic that can increase an individual's risk for a multitude of health complications, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). In individuals already diagnosed with the disease, even small amounts of weight loss can help prevent diabetic complications. Due to the relationship between obesity and T2D, and the link between obesity and diet, a better understanding of how dietary factors affect those with T2D is necessary. Currently, the consumption of whole eggs by those with T2D is controversial. Here, we investigated the relationship between the consumption of whole eggs and obesity in both a genetic-mediated and diet-induced ...


The Long Haul: Migratory Flight Preparation And Performance In Songbirds, Morag F. Dick 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Long Haul: Migratory Flight Preparation And Performance In Songbirds, Morag F. Dick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Migration requires birds to sustain high intensity endurance exercise for periods lasting from hours to days. Similar to athletes, preparation and nutrition is key to success. Birds seasonally prepare for migration, which includes increasing the capacity to oxidize fat in the flight muscles. Beyond fuelling migration, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are hypothesized to be natural doping agents and increase endurance and fatty acid oxidative capacity. I examined how birds prepare for and sustain migratory flight and directly tested the role of n-3 PUFA. Using yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata) as a model species, I first examined the effects of ...


Effects Of A Carbohydrate And Protein Recovery Beverage On Performance In Trained Weightlifters, Christopher B. Taber, Brad H. Deweese, Kimitake Soto, Charles A. Stuart, Michael H. Stone 2017 Sacred Heart University

Effects Of A Carbohydrate And Protein Recovery Beverage On Performance In Trained Weightlifters, Christopher B. Taber, Brad H. Deweese, Kimitake Soto, Charles A. Stuart, Michael H. Stone

All PTHMS Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: Previous investigations have examined nutrient timing with untrained subject and less is known about effects in trained subjects.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a carbohydrate and protein supplement (CHO+PROT) on performance measures in trained weightlifters.

METHODS: 10 trained weightlifters (30.8±5.1 years, 177.4 ±4.0 cm, 94.3 ± 12.4 kg, training age = 5.3 ± 2.9 years) completed a 12 week training program utilizing block periodization. Using a double blind placebo design, jump height, scaled peak power measured in vertical jumps and peak force and rate of ...


Synthesis Of Some Glucose-Fatty Acid Esters By Lipase From Candida Antarctica And Their Emulsion Functions, Kangzi Ren, Buddhi P. Lamsal 2017 Iowa State University

Synthesis Of Some Glucose-Fatty Acid Esters By Lipase From Candida Antarctica And Their Emulsion Functions, Kangzi Ren, Buddhi P. Lamsal

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The synthesis of glucose esters with palmitic acid, lauric acid and hexanoic acid using lipase enzyme was studied and their emulsion functionality in oil-in-water system were compared. Reactions at 3:1 M ratio of fatty acids-to-glucose had the highest conversion percentages (over 90% for each of the fatty acid). Initial conversion rate increased as substrate solubility increased. Ester bond formation was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance technique that the chemical shifts of glucose H-6 and α-carbon protons of fatty acids in the ester molecules shifted to the higher fields. Contact angle of water on esters’ pelleted surface increased as the ...


Polyphenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity Of White, Green, Black, And Herbal Teas: A Kinetic Study, Emer Shannon, Amit Kumar Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam 2017 Technological University Dublin

Polyphenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity Of White, Green, Black, And Herbal Teas: A Kinetic Study, Emer Shannon, Amit Kumar Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

Camellia sinensis teas, and tisanes derived from herbs or fruit, are rich in polyphenolic, antioxidant compounds. This study compared the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH radical scavenging capacity, and caffeine content of teas (black, green, white, chamomile, and mixed berry/hibiscus) over a range of infusion times (0.5–10 mins) at 90°C. Green, followed by black tea, respectively, had the greatest TPC (557.58 and 499.19µg GAE/g), TFC (367.84 and 325.18µg QE/g), FRAP (887.38 and 209.38µg TE/g), and DPPH radical scavenging ...


Effect Of Varying Rumen Degradable And Undegradable Protein On Milk Production And Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows Under Summer Conditions, Jeffrey D. Kaufman 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effect Of Varying Rumen Degradable And Undegradable Protein On Milk Production And Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows Under Summer Conditions, Jeffrey D. Kaufman

Masters Theses

The objective is to determine the effect of reducing nitrogen input through feeding low rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) proportions on milk production, nitrogen efficiency and metabolism in heat-stressed cows. Forty-eight mid-lactating, Holstein cows were assigned to treatments using a randomized block design in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments (n = 12/treatment). Treatments included two levels of RDP (10 and 8%) and two levels of RUP (8 and 6%). From d 1 to 21, a common diet (10% RDP-8% RUP) was fed to cows followed with their respective treatment diets fed from d 22 to ...


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