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Androidal Fat Dominates In Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk In Postmenopausalwomen, O. A. Matvienko, D. L. Alekel, S. N. Bhupathiraju, Heike Hofmann, L. M. Ritland, M. B. Reddy, M. D. Van Loan, C. D. Perry 2016 University of Northern Iowa

Androidal Fat Dominates In Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk In Postmenopausalwomen, O. A. Matvienko, D. L. Alekel, S. N. Bhupathiraju, Heike Hofmann, L. M. Ritland, M. B. Reddy, M. D. Van Loan, C. D. Perry

Manju B. Reddy

We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and homocysteine. We collected data on 224 healthy postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis (45.8–65 y, median BMI 24.5) who consumed placebo or soy isoflavones (80 or 120 mg/d) for 36 months and used longitudinal analysis to examine the contribution of isoflavone treatment, androidal fat mass, other biologic factors, and dietary quality to cardiometabolic outcomes. Except ...


Echinacea Sanguinea And Echinacea Pallida Extracts Stimulate Glucuronidation And Basolateral Transfer Of Bauer Alkamides 8 And 10 And Ketone 24 And Inhibit P-Glycoprotein Transporter In Caco-2 Cells, Zhiyi Qiang, Catharine Hauck, Joe-Ann McCoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Manju B. Reddy, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich 2016 Iowa State University

Echinacea Sanguinea And Echinacea Pallida Extracts Stimulate Glucuronidation And Basolateral Transfer Of Bauer Alkamides 8 And 10 And Ketone 24 And Inhibit P-Glycoprotein Transporter In Caco-2 Cells, Zhiyi Qiang, Catharine Hauck, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Manju B. Reddy, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich

Manju B. Reddy

The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit the P-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Using HPLC analysis, the permeation rate of Bauer alkamides by passive diffusion across Caco-2 cells corresponded with compound hydrophilicity (alkamide 8 > 10 > 11), independent of the plant extract matrix. Both ...


Metabolism Of Glycitein (7,4-Dihydroxy-6-Methoxy-Isoflavone) By Human Gut Microflora, Andrean L. Simons, Mathieu Renouf, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy 2016 Iowa State University

Metabolism Of Glycitein (7,4-Dihydroxy-6-Methoxy-Isoflavone) By Human Gut Microflora, Andrean L. Simons, Mathieu Renouf, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy

Suzanne Hendrich

Gut microbial disappearance and metabolism of the soy isoflavone glycitein, 7,4‘-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone, were investigated by incubating glycitein anaerobically with feces from 12 human subjects. The subjects' ages ranged from 24 to 53 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 20.9−25.8 kg/m2 (mean BMI = 24.0 ± 1.1 kg/m2). Glycitein disappearance followed an apparent first-order rate loss. Fecal glycitein disappearance rates for the subjects segregated into three different groups described as high (k = 0.67 ± 0.14/h), moderate (k = 0.34 ± 0.04/h), and low (k = 0.15 ± 0.07/h) glycitein ...


Effects Of Biodiesel On Plastics, David A. Grewell, Tong Wang, Melissa Montalbo-Lomboy, Linxing Yao, Paul Gramann, Javier Cruz 2016 Iowa State University

Effects Of Biodiesel On Plastics, David A. Grewell, Tong Wang, Melissa Montalbo-Lomboy, Linxing Yao, Paul Gramann, Javier Cruz

Tong Wang

Many chemicals have the ability to attack on plastics as solvents and can lead to failure. In some cases, the source of the solvent is not well defined. In this study, the effect of biodiesel, a fatty acid methyl ester, on various plastics, namely polyamide 6 (PA 6), polycarbonate (PC), acrylonitrile-butadiene- styrene (ABS) and ABS/PC plastic blends was studied. Various feedstocks of biodiesel were also studied, including, soy bean oil (new and used), animal fat (tallow), corn oil as well as choice white grease. The plastics samples were tested under ASTM standard where a predefined strain is applied to ...


Effects Of Glycerin Antifreeze On Cpvc, Paul J. Gramann, Javier C. Cruz, David A. Grewell, Melissa Montablo-Lomboy, Tong Wang Professor 2016 The Madison Group

Effects Of Glycerin Antifreeze On Cpvc, Paul J. Gramann, Javier C. Cruz, David A. Grewell, Melissa Montablo-Lomboy, Tong Wang Professor

Tong Wang

There are multiple applications where chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (CPVC) may come in contact with glycerin. One common application is in fire suppression systems that could be subjected to subfreezing temperatures. Chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) is increasingly being used for these systems in place of metal because of its many advantages, including the ease of installation, weight reduction, cost benefits and chemical resistance. When CPVC piping is used in an area that has the potential to freeze, an antifreeze solution must be used in the fire suppression systems to suppress the freezing temperature of the water and reduce possibility of ...


The Relationship Among Fifth Grade Physical Education Students' Body Size Perception, Fitnessgram Scores, And Physical Activity Level, Ashley N. Cleveland 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Relationship Among Fifth Grade Physical Education Students' Body Size Perception, Fitnessgram Scores, And Physical Activity Level, Ashley N. Cleveland

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Purpose: This study aims to explore the correlation between students’ self-perception of body image and FITNESSGRAM scores, the relationship between children’s body perceptions and their actual body mass index (BMI), and to see if body image in children affects their physical activity level.

Methods: FITNESSGRAM fitness testing protocol and a survey developed for the KidQuest nutrition intervention program by South Dakota State University (SDSU) was used to assess the correlation between students’ (n= 319) self-perception of body image and FITNESSGRAM scores. In addition accelerometers were used to assess the physical activity level of a subsample (n=57) of ...


Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Extracts From Black Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) That Inhibit Alpha-Amylase And Alpha-Glucosidase Using Response Surface Approaches, Mazen Alharbi

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

Black beans contain high phenolic contents that are considered potent antioxidants. Relatively little is known about their ability to inhibit the carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase from releasing glucose from starch and/or disaccharides. The objective of this project was to determine the optimum procedures for extracting total phenols (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and total condensed tannins (TCT) from black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and then to determine the ability of the phenolic rich extracts to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Due to their high phenolic levels, it was hypothesized that black beans would be an effective inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase ...


Exploration Of Malnutrition Coding Practices At Nebraska Medicine, Frances C. Becker 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Exploration Of Malnutrition Coding Practices At Nebraska Medicine, Frances C. Becker

Theses & Dissertations

Background: Malnutrition is present in 25-50% of hospitalized patients. Patients identified as malnourished are assigned a code based on the type and severity of malnutrition in order to gain the necessary reimbursement to care for the patients. There is a current gap in the research regarding the characteristics that define the difference between malnourished patients classified with a major complications and comorbidities (MCC) code versus a complications and comorbidities (CC) code.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which malnutrition codes are being used at Nebraska Medicine. Additionally, this study obtained clinical factors that are associated with malnutrition ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun 2016 University of Connecticut

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Over 30% of adults in the US are obese. A primary contributor to obesity is an unhealthy diet related to imbalanced macronutrients. Diets higher in protein (PRO) are associated with increased energy expenditure (EE) and reduced food intake. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if protein source at breakfast influences EE in young men (n=4; ages 18-35). Participants consumed three isocaloric (whey (WP), pea (PP), beef (BP); 275 kcal, 62% PRO, 23% CHO, 15% Fat) drinks in randomized, crossover design with a one-week washout period. Each test day EE, appetite, and cravings were assessed at ...


How The U.S. Low-Fat Diet Recommendations Of 1977 Contributed To The Declining Health Of Americans, Julia Reedy 2016 University of Connecticut - Storrs

How The U.S. Low-Fat Diet Recommendations Of 1977 Contributed To The Declining Health Of Americans, Julia Reedy

Honors Scholar Theses

In 1977, the first edition of The Dietary Goals for the United States (“The Recommendations”) was published in attempts to reduce incidence of diet-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. While numerous dietary adjustments were recommended in order to improve health, fat was identified as the most instrumental factor. However there exist many confounders of The Recommendations, including Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT), fat from dairy products, eggs and the high-fat Mediterranean Diet. Nonetheless, the food industry made adjustments to acclimate to the anti-fat mentality The Recommendations initiated. Linoleic acid- (LA) rich soybean oil became heavily used, drastically altering the ...


Mini Series Presentations, Robert L. Moody IV, Natasha S. Natraj 2016 Otterbein University

Mini Series Presentations, Robert L. Moody Iv, Natasha S. Natraj

SYE Legacies: Student Group Projects

For the month of March, we implemented a mini education program at both EmblemHealth sites to engage, educate and empower members of the fitness center and weight management program. The program was designed to be fifteen minutes in length, allowing for more sessions over the course of 3 hours with one session a week alternating between topics. Upon survey evaluation of the 60 participants, they reported satisfaction with the overall program and validated the worth of EmblemHealth’s Fitness Center. The survey also showed that 10 out of 10 participants recognized sitting disease as a primary health concern after the ...


How Microbial Communities Differ In Ruminants On A Glycerin Vs Common Diet, Makala Muller, Nirosh D. Aluthge, Allison L. Knoell, Morgan Kaiser, Samodha C. Fernando 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

How Microbial Communities Differ In Ruminants On A Glycerin Vs Common Diet, Makala Muller, Nirosh D. Aluthge, Allison L. Knoell, Morgan Kaiser, Samodha C. Fernando

UCARE Research Products

Can we reduce methane by using dietary interventions to reduce carbon footprint and increase feed efficiency? Ruminant livestock account for a significant amount of the anthropogenic methane produced in the U.S. All ruminant livestock produce 28% of the earth’s methane emissions. The methane within ruminants is produced by a microbial fermentation, especially by a group of bacteria known as the methanogens. However, the different species of methanogens and their pathways of methane production within ruminants are not fully understood. Cattle are considered one of the main producers of methane. They produce 20% of the U.S. methane emissions ...


Relationships Between Behavioral Measures And Productivity In Finishing Beef Cattle, Jasmyn Mimiko 2016 University of Kentucky

Relationships Between Behavioral Measures And Productivity In Finishing Beef Cattle, Jasmyn Mimiko

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The relationship between measures of temperament, growth performance, and social hierarchy in finishing beef cattle were explored in two experiments. In experiment 1, high OCS (objective chute score) steers had periods of significantly higher ADG (P < 0.01), but OCS had no relationship with dominance ranking (P > 0.47). Conversely, slow exit velocity (EV) correlated with higher ranking (P ≤ 0.06), but EV had no relationship with performance (P > 0.37) in a competitive environment. Rank showed no relationship with performance (P > .58). In experiment 2, steers with fast EV had periods of decreased growth (P ≤ .06), intake (P ≤ .06), and gain:feed (G:F; P = 0.02). There were no ...


The Apoa5 Rs662799 Polymorphism Is Associated With Dyslipidemia And The Severity Of Coronary Heart Disease In Chinese Women, Yanmei Wang, Zhan Lu, Jingxiao Zhang, Yang Yang, Jing Shen, Xiaoming Zhang, Yongyan Song 2016 Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College

The Apoa5 Rs662799 Polymorphism Is Associated With Dyslipidemia And The Severity Of Coronary Heart Disease In Chinese Women, Yanmei Wang, Zhan Lu, Jingxiao Zhang, Yang Yang, Jing Shen, Xiaoming Zhang, Yongyan Song

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background: The APOA5 rs662799 polymorphism has been widely reported regarding its associations with the plasma lipid levels and the occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD), whereas its relationship with the severity of CHD has not yet been explored.

Methods: Four hundred and seventy-eight angiografically defined subjects (325 CHD patients and 153 CHD-free controls) were enrolled in this study. The rs662799 polymorphism was genotyped, and the fasting lipid data were collected for all participants. The severity of CHD was evaluated for the CHD patients by using Gensini scores.

Results: The variant C allele of the rs662799 polymorphism was associated with lower ...


Disparities In Access To Preventive Health Care Services Among Insured Children In A Cross Sectional Study, Christian King 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Disparities In Access To Preventive Health Care Services Among Insured Children In A Cross Sectional Study, Christian King

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Children with insurance have better access to care and health outcomes if their parents also have insurance. However, little is known about whether the type of parental insurance matters. This study attempts to determine whether the type of parental insurance affects the access to health care services of children. I used data from the 2009–2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and estimated multivariate logistic regressions (N=26,152). I estimated how family insurance coverage affects the probability that children have a usual source of care, well-child visits in the past year, unmet medical and prescription needs, less than 1 dental ...


Glucagon Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Via Camp And Insig-2 Signaling: Implication For The Pathogenesis Of Hypertriglyceridemia And Hepatic Steatosis, Hai Wang, Miaoyun Zhao, Neetu Sud, Patricia Christian, Jing Shen, Yongyan Song, Anjeza Pashaj, Kezhong Zhang, Timothy Carr, Qiaozhu Su 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Glucagon Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Via Camp And Insig-2 Signaling: Implication For The Pathogenesis Of Hypertriglyceridemia And Hepatic Steatosis, Hai Wang, Miaoyun Zhao, Neetu Sud, Patricia Christian, Jing Shen, Yongyan Song, Anjeza Pashaj, Kezhong Zhang, Timothy Carr, Qiaozhu Su

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Insulin induced gene-2 (Insig-2) is an ER-resident protein that inhibits the activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). However, cellular factors that regulate Insig-2 expression have not yet been identified. Here we reported that cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein H (CREBH) positively regulates mRNA and protein expression of a liver specific isoform of Insig-2, Insig-2a, which in turn hinders SREBP-1c activation and inhibits hepatic de novo lipogenesis. CREBH binds to the evolutionally conserved CRE-BP binding elements located in the enhancer region of Insig-2a and upregulates its mRNA and protein expression. Metabolic hormone glucagon and nutritional fasting activated CREBH, which upregulated expression ...


Utilizing Nutritive Sweeteners To Control Lipid Oxidation In Low Moisture Baked Goods, Samantha Vieira 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Utilizing Nutritive Sweeteners To Control Lipid Oxidation In Low Moisture Baked Goods, Samantha Vieira

Masters Theses May 2014 - current

In this study, we determined the effect of nutritive sweeteners at 0 to 0.50 moles/kg on lipid oxidation in a model cookie system. Confocal microscopy using Bodipy 493 as a fat soluble dye showed that the fat formed a continuous phase surrounding the starch granules regardless of sugar type. The impact of glucose concentration on lipid oxidation was monitored by lipid hydroperoxides and headspace hexanal during storage at 55°C. Low concentrations of glucose (0.09) were strong inhibitors. At equal molar concentrations, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) inhibited lipid oxidation, greater than a two months increase in ...


Nutrition & Physical Activity Newsletters, Dianne Dwyer 2016 University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Nutrition & Physical Activity Newsletters, Dianne Dwyer

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Capstone Projects

Background: School-age children in Kettering, Ohio are at risk of morbidity from chronic disease indicated by the percentage of overweight children in the state compared to national averages. A food program has been established to provide children of low-income families free and reduced meals. Currently the food program does not include education on nutrition and physical activity as recommended by national guidelines. Purpose: The purpose of this project is to add an educational intervention for nutrition and physical activity to the current food program in order to meet the current guidelines for nutrition and physical activity. Methods: Monthly newsletters were ...


Promoting Healthy Home-Cooked Family Meals: Evaluation Of A Social Marketing Program Targeting Low-Income Mothers, Mollie Y. Dawahare 2016 University of Kentucky

Promoting Healthy Home-Cooked Family Meals: Evaluation Of A Social Marketing Program Targeting Low-Income Mothers, Mollie Y. Dawahare

Theses and Dissertations--Dietetics and Human Nutrition

Objective: Evaluate how a social marketing approach compares to traditional nutrition education curriculum for promoting behavioral changes related to eating and food.

Design: Nonequivalent comparison group, entry-exit design. Participants from 12 Kentucky counties assigned either comparison or pilot group. Comparison group received traditional nutrition education curriculum and pilot group received the social marketing program, Cook Together, Eat Together (CTET) curriculum. EFNEP’s Behavior Checklist and 24-Hour Dietary Recall were administered at entry and exit of the 8-week programs.

Participants: Females (18-72 years of age) from families eligible to receive SNAP benefits (n=64 comparison group participants, n=60 pilot group ...


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