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Transcript Profiles In Longissimus Dorsi Muscle And Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: A Comparison Of Pigs With Different Postweaning Growth Rates, C. M. Pilcher, C. K. Jones, M. Schroyen, A. J. Severin, J. F. Patience, C. K. Tuggle, J. E. Koltes 2017 Iowa State University

Transcript Profiles In Longissimus Dorsi Muscle And Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: A Comparison Of Pigs With Different Postweaning Growth Rates, C. M. Pilcher, C. K. Jones, M. Schroyen, A. J. Severin, J. F. Patience, C. K. Tuggle, J. E. Koltes

Andrew Severin

Although most pigs recover rapidly from stresses associated with the transition of weaning, a portion of the population lags behind their contemporaries in growth performance. The underlying biological and molecular mechanisms involved in postweaning differences in growth performance are poorly understood. The objective of this experiment was to use transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to develop a better understanding of the metabolic basis for poor weaned-pig transition. A total of 1,054 pigs was reared in commercial conditions and weighed at birth, weaning, and 3 wk postweaning. Transition ADG (tADG) was calculated as the ADG for the ...


Added Sugar Consumption Among College Students, Maram Murad 2017 University of the Incarnate Word

Added Sugar Consumption Among College Students, Maram Murad

Theses & Dissertations

Added sugar consumption has been increasing in all age groups in the United States and worldwide, with the greatest increase in young adults. College-age years are a critical period in the young adult's life where many habits develop, including nutrition and food choices. An understanding of college-age students’ attitudes and behaviors toward added sugar consumption might help predict added sugar consumption within this population. This was a quantitative study of traditional-aged college students' added sugar consumption through a convenience sample at a private university in San Antonio, TX. A survey was administrated to undergraduate students at different classes. Subjects ...


Veganism As An Aspiration, Lori Gruen, Robert C. Jones 2017 California State University - Chico

Veganism As An Aspiration, Lori Gruen, Robert C. Jones

Robert C. Jones, Ph.D.

iven the violence, objectification, domination, commodification, and oppression inherent in industrialized food production, some conscientious consumers have adopted vegan practices. This chapter discusses two conceptions of veganism, lifestyle/identity veganism, VI, and veganism as a goal/aspiration, VA. It argues that due to conceptual and practical flaws with VI, conscientious consumers should adopt VA. It considers and rejects the so-called compassionate carnivore movement. It then explores arguments denying the casual efficacy of adopting any form of veganism. It concludes that VA can make a difference, and those in consumer cultures are obligated to adopt and practice it.


Dietary Red And Processed Meat Intake And Markers Of Adiposity And Inflammation: The Multiethnic Cohort Study, Weiwen Chai, Yukiko Morimoto, Robert V. Cooney, Adrian A. Franke, Yurii B. Shvetsov, Loïc Le Marchand, Christopher A. Haiman, Laurence N. Kolonel, Marc T. Goodman, Gertraud Maskarinec 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Dietary Red And Processed Meat Intake And Markers Of Adiposity And Inflammation: The Multiethnic Cohort Study, Weiwen Chai, Yukiko Morimoto, Robert V. Cooney, Adrian A. Franke, Yurii B. Shvetsov, Loïc Le Marchand, Christopher A. Haiman, Laurence N. Kolonel, Marc T. Goodman, Gertraud Maskarinec

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Objective—The potential influence of dietary factors on inflammation is important for cancer prevention. Utilizing data from control participants (312 men, 911 women) in two nested case-control studies of cancer within the Multiethnic Cohort, we examined the associations of red and processed meat intake with serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 and the mediator effect of body mass index (BMI) on the above associations (if present).

Methods—Multivariable linear models were applied to assess the association between red and processed meat intake at cohort entry and serum biomarker levels ...


Relationships Between Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, And Behavior For Fifth Grade Students Attending Title I And Non-Title I Schools, Elisha M. Hall, Weiwen Chai, Julie A. Albrecht 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Relationships Between Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, And Behavior For Fifth Grade Students Attending Title I And Non-Title I Schools, Elisha M. Hall, Weiwen Chai, Julie A. Albrecht

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a widely used theory for nutrition education programming. Better understanding the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among children of various income levels can help to form and improve nutrition programs, particularly for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among fifth grade students attending Title I (≥ 40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals) and non-Title I schools (< 40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals). A validated survey was completed by 55 fifth grade students from Title I and 122 from non-Title I schools. Differences in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior scores between groups were assessed using t test and adjusted for variations between participating schools. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior. In adjusted models, the Title I group had significantly lower scores on several knowledge items and summary knowledge (P = 0.04). The Title I group had significantly lower scores on several behavior variables including intakes of fruits (P = 0.02), vegetables (P = 0.0005), whole grains (P = 0.0003), and lean protein (P = 0.047), physical activity (P = 0.002) and summary behavior (P = 0.001). However the Title I group scored higher on self-efficacy for meal planning (P = 0.04) and choosing healthy snacks (P = 0.036). Both self-efficacy (β = 0.70, P < 0.0001) and knowledge (β = 0.35, P = 0.002) strongly predicted behavior; however, only self-efficacy remained significant in the Title I group (self-efficacy, β = 0.82, P = 0.0003; knowledge, β = 0.11, P = 0.59). Results demonstrate disparities in nutrition knowledge and behavior outcomes between students surveyed from Title I and non-Title I schools, suggesting more resources may be necessary for lower income populations. Findings suggest that future nutrition interventions should focus on facilitating the improvement of children's self-efficacy


The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lards And Other Fats In Relation To Their Culinary Value Ii. Use In Plain Cake, Belle Lowe, P. Mabel Nelson 2017 Iowa State College

The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lards And Other Fats In Relation To Their Culinary Value Ii. Use In Plain Cake, Belle Lowe, P. Mabel Nelson

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

These studies on the use of lards in plain cake were initiated in the fall of 1932 and completed during the summer of 1936. The major results of these investigations with cake have been included in a series of four theses by Martin (11), Buel (2), Minard (13) and Myers (15) .

Cakes containing fat may be divided into two types:

1. The pound cake, named from the proportions formerly used by our great-grandmothers, consists of a pound each of fat, sugar, flour and eggs, with no baking powder or soda. The volume of the cake depends upon the expansion of ...


The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lards And Other Fats In Relation To Their Culinary Value I. Shortening Value In Pastry And Cookies, Belle Lowe, P. Mabel Nelson, J. H. Buchanan 2017 Iowa State College

The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lards And Other Fats In Relation To Their Culinary Value I. Shortening Value In Pastry And Cookies, Belle Lowe, P. Mabel Nelson, J. H. Buchanan

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

These studies on the relationship of the physical and chemical characteristics and constants of lards and other fats to their culinary value were started during the fall of 1932 and completed during the summer of 1937.

The culinary tests were divided into three groups as follows: 1. The shortening power of lards and other fats in pastry and cookies. 2. the use of lards and other fats in plain cake, 3. the frying life of lards compared with other fats.

This section of the report presents the studies relating to the shortening value of lards as compared with other fats ...


Skeptics And “The White Stuff” : Promotion Of Cows’ Milk And Other Nonhuman Animal Products In The Skeptic Community As Normative Whiteness, Corey Lee Wrenn 2017 Monmouth University

Skeptics And “The White Stuff” : Promotion Of Cows’ Milk And Other Nonhuman Animal Products In The Skeptic Community As Normative Whiteness, Corey Lee Wrenn

Dietary Choice and Foods of Animal Origin

This article discusses a dairy advertising campaign featuring skeptic Derren Brown. I explore the various health claims made in the ads as well as a report Brown featured on his website that claimed consumption of cow’s milk is linked to longevity. I discuss how dairy consumption is largely linked to race and ethnicity. It is a practice enjoyed primarily by European whites as most nonwhites are lactose intolerant. Lactose intolerance is a normal biological process associated with weaning, but it is medicalized and made deviant because it is not part of the white experience. I also mention comments made ...


Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel 2017 University of California, Davis

Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel

Science Seminar Series

Peter J. Havel of the School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis will speak on his research on Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical and clinical studies at this Science Seminar Series lecture.


Athyrium Multidentatum (Doll.) Ching Extract Induce Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Oxidative Stress In Hepg2 Cells, Guoyuan Qi, Zhigang Liu, Rong Fan, Ziru Yin, Yashi Mi, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu 2017 Northwest A&F University

Athyrium Multidentatum (Doll.) Ching Extract Induce Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Oxidative Stress In Hepg2 Cells, Guoyuan Qi, Zhigang Liu, Rong Fan, Ziru Yin, Yashi Mi, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching (AMC), a unique and nutritious potherb widely distributed in china, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies indicated that AMC extract exhibited antioxidant and antitumor properties. However, the chemical composition of AMC and molecular mechanism of AMC toxicity to HepG2 cells have not yet been elucidated. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the chemical compositions and the underlying mechanisms of the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of AMC on HepG2. HPLC-MS analysis showed that AMC contain five compounds with chlorogenic acid accounting for 43 percent. Also, AMC strongly inhibited the cell growth and induced ...


Beyond Capture: Development And Validation Of A Method To Assess Body Condition In Mule Deer (Odocoileus Hemionus) Using Camera Traps, Rachel A. Smiley 6820420 2017 University of Connecticut

Beyond Capture: Development And Validation Of A Method To Assess Body Condition In Mule Deer (Odocoileus Hemionus) Using Camera Traps, Rachel A. Smiley 6820420

Honors Scholar Theses

Advances in technology and availability associated with camera traps have resulted in a rapid rise in their use to monitor wildlife distribution, abundance, and behavior. We focus on assessing body condition, a new application of camera traps. Body condition indices must relate to the percent body fat if they are to be useful. To acquire measurements of body fat, most body condition indices require capture or mortality of animals to estimate, which has limitations when applied to free-ranging animals. We developed a non-invasive, visual body condition index (VBCI) to assess body condition of mule deer that can be applied to ...


Limiting Food Waste In Child Care Facilities Through Implementation Of Portion Sizes, Margaret E. Wright 2017 University of Arkansas Dale Bumpers College of Agriculture, Food and Life Sciences

Limiting Food Waste In Child Care Facilities Through Implementation Of Portion Sizes, Margaret E. Wright

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Food waste in child care facilities is both a monetary waste and a danger to the environment. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of portion control in a child care facility on the amount of food wasted and the costs associated with food waste. It was hypothesized that establishment of portion control will result in a reduction in the amount of food waste of lunches and afternoon snacks generated by preschool children attending the Jean Tyson Child Development Study Center (JTCDSC). A four-week study was conducted where two trials were introduced: 1 two-week trial using the ...


The Efficacy And Safety Of Six-Weeks Of Pre-Workout Supplementation In Resistance Trained Rats, Justin P. Canakis 2017 College of William and Mary

The Efficacy And Safety Of Six-Weeks Of Pre-Workout Supplementation In Resistance Trained Rats, Justin P. Canakis

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pre-workout supplements (PWSs) contain a cocktail of ingredients that are marketed to increase energy levels, endurance, and muscle power. PWSs are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have a history of causing adverse side effects. The goal of this study is to independently analyze the efficacy and safety of Pro Supps Mr. Hyde (MH) in resistance trained rats. Data suggest that six weeks of pre-workout supplementation in rats undergoing resistance training results in modest efficacy with improvement in amount lifted but no change in muscle mass. Urinary creatine tests and vascular reactivity tests were selected as ...


Efficacy Of A Mobile Application For Improving Gait Performance In Community-Dwelling Older Adults, Dustin Glenn Falls 2017 Western Kentucky University

Efficacy Of A Mobile Application For Improving Gait Performance In Community-Dwelling Older Adults, Dustin Glenn Falls

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The United States is a rapidly aging nation. Older adults have higher rates of falls than any other age group. One in four older adults fall each year. Many of these falls are associated with sedentary lifestyles and decreased muscular strength effecting balance and gait performance. Physical activity (exercise) can reduce the risk of falls among older adults, yet adherence remains low. Exergames can increase adherence to interventions that promote health and physical activity. Social engagement can increase self-efficacy and motivation to exercise. By design, the Bingocize® health promotion mobile application (app) increases social engagement, while providing a multi-factorial fall ...


Aberrant Expression Of Microrna Induced By High-Fructose Diet: Implications In The Pathogenesis Of Hyperlipidemia And Hepatic Insulin Resistance, Nettu Sud, Hanyuan Zhang, Kaichao Pan, Xiao Cheng, Juan Cui, Qiaozhu Su 2017 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Aberrant Expression Of Microrna Induced By High-Fructose Diet: Implications In The Pathogenesis Of Hyperlipidemia And Hepatic Insulin Resistance, Nettu Sud, Hanyuan Zhang, Kaichao Pan, Xiao Cheng, Juan Cui, Qiaozhu Su

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Fructose is a highly lipogenic sugar that can alter energy metabolism and trigger metabolic disorders. In the current study, microRNAs (miRNAs) altered by a high-fructose diet were comprehensively explored to elucidate their significance in the pathogenesis of chronic metabolic disorders. miRNA expression profiling using small noncoding RNA sequencing revealed that 19 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and 26 were downregulated in the livers of high-fructose-fed mice compared to chow-fed mice. Computational prediction and functional analysis identified 10 miRNAs, miR-19b-3p, miR-101a-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-378a-3p, miR-33-5p, miR-145a-3p, miR-128-3p, miR-125b-5p and miR-582-3p, assembled as a regulatory network to potentially target key genes in lipid ...


A Potential Tool For Clinicians; Evaluating A Computer-Led Dietary Assessment Method In Overweight And Obese Women During Weight Loss, Adrianne Widaman, Nancy Keim, Dustin Burnett, Beverly Miller, Megan Witbracht, Keith Widaman, Kevin Laugero 2017 San Jose State University

A Potential Tool For Clinicians; Evaluating A Computer-Led Dietary Assessment Method In Overweight And Obese Women During Weight Loss, Adrianne Widaman, Nancy Keim, Dustin Burnett, Beverly Miller, Megan Witbracht, Keith Widaman, Kevin Laugero

Faculty Publications

Many Americans are attempting to lose weight with the help of healthcare professionals. Clinicians can improve weight loss results by using technology. Accurate dietary assessment is crucial to effective weight loss. The aim of this study was to validate a computer-led dietary assessment method in overweight/obese women. Known dietary intake was compared to Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) reported intake in women (n = 45), 19–50 years, with body mass index of 27–39.9 kg/m2. Participants received nutrition education and reduced body weight by 4%–10%. Participants completed one unannounced dietary recall and their responses were compared ...


The Effects Of Beetroot Juice On Vo2max And Blood Pressure During Submaximal Exercise, Jose M. Perez 2017 Georgia Southern University

The Effects Of Beetroot Juice On Vo2max And Blood Pressure During Submaximal Exercise, Jose M. Perez

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Supplementation with beetroot juice (BR) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) at rest and improve several performance parameters during submaximal and maximal exercise. BR effects on BP during submaximal exercise have not been investigated. Furthermore, the effects of BR on VO2max are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BR on VO2max and BP during submaximal exercise. 20 healthy, recreationally trained volunteers (age 21.8±2.35 years, weight 75.10±10.62 kg, height 177.4±6.39 cm) participated in this study, which had a double-blind placebo ...


Association Between Energy Balance And Metabolic Hormone Suppression During Ultra-Endurance Exercise, Bjoern Geesmann, Jenna C. Gibbs, Joachim Mester, Karsten Koehler 2017 German Sport University, Cologne, Germany

Association Between Energy Balance And Metabolic Hormone Suppression During Ultra-Endurance Exercise, Bjoern Geesmann, Jenna C. Gibbs, Joachim Mester, Karsten Koehler

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Ultra-endurance athletes often accumulate an energy deficit when engaging in ultra-endurance exercise, and upon completion of the exercise, they exhibit endocrine changes that are reminiscent of starvation. However, it remains unclear whether these endocrine changes are a result of the exercise per se or secondary to the energy deficit, and more importantly, whether these changes can be attenuated by increased dietary intake. Our goal was to assess the relationship between changes in key metabolic hormones following ultra-endurance exercise and measures of energy balance. Metabolic hormones as well as energy intake and expenditure were assessed in 14 well-trained male cyclists who ...


Prediction Of Human Dietary Δ15N Intake From Standardized Food Records: Validity And Precision Of Single Meal And 24-H Diet Data, Frank Hülsemann, Karsten Koehler, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Michael Wilhelm, Annett Hilbig, Mathilde Kersting, Hans Braun, Ulrich Flenker, Wilhelm Schänzer 2017 German Sport University Cologne

Prediction Of Human Dietary Δ15N Intake From Standardized Food Records: Validity And Precision Of Single Meal And 24-H Diet Data, Frank Hülsemann, Karsten Koehler, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Michael Wilhelm, Annett Hilbig, Mathilde Kersting, Hans Braun, Ulrich Flenker, Wilhelm Schänzer

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Natural stable isotope ratios (δ15N) of humans can be used for nutritional analyses and dietary reconstruction of modern and historic individuals and populations. Information about an individual’s metabolic state can be obtained by comparison of tissue and dietary δ15N. Different methods have been used to estimate dietary δ15N in the past; however, the validity of such predictions has not been compared to experimental values. For a total of 56 meals and 21 samples of 24-h diets, predicted and experimental δ15N values were compared. The δ15N values were predicted from self-recorded food ...


Less-Than-Expected Weight Loss In Normal-Weight Women Undergoing Caloric Restriction And Exercise Is Accompanied By Preservation Of Fat-Free Mass And Metabolic Adaptations, Karsten Koehler, M. J. De Souza, N. I. Williams 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Less-Than-Expected Weight Loss In Normal-Weight Women Undergoing Caloric Restriction And Exercise Is Accompanied By Preservation Of Fat-Free Mass And Metabolic Adaptations, Karsten Koehler, M. J. De Souza, N. I. Williams

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Background/Objectives: Normal-weight women frequently restrict their caloric intake and exercise, but little is known about the effects on body weight, body composition and metabolic adaptations in this population.

Subjects/Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in sedentary normal-weight women. Women were assigned to a severe energy deficit (SEV: –1062 ± 80 kcal per day; n = 9), a moderate energy deficit (MOD: –633 ± 71 kcal per day; n = 7) or energy balance (BAL; n = 9) while exercising five times per week for 3 months. Outcome variables included changes in body weight, body composition, resting ...


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