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A Multiplex Visibility Graph Motif-Based Convolutional Neural Network For Characterizing Sleep Stages Using Eeg Signals, Qing Cai, Jianpeng An, Zhongke Gao 2021 School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China

A Multiplex Visibility Graph Motif-Based Convolutional Neural Network For Characterizing Sleep Stages Using Eeg Signals, Qing Cai, Jianpeng An, Zhongke Gao

Brain Science Advances

Sleep is an essential integrant in everyone’s daily life; therefore, it is an important but challenging problem to characterize sleep stages from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The network motif has been developed as a useful tool to investigate complex networks. In this study, we developed a multiplex visibility graph motif-based convolutional neural network (CNN) for characterizing sleep stages using EEG signals and then introduced the multiplex motif entropy as the quantitative index to distinguish the six sleep stages. The independent samples t-test shows that the multiplex motif entropy values have significant differences among the six sleep stages. Furthermore, we developed ...


Tumor-Associated Macrophages As Treatment Targets In Glioma, Yichen Peng, Feng Chen, Shenglan Li, Xiu Liu, Can Wang, Chunna Yu, Wenbin Li 2021 Department of Neuro-Oncology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China

Tumor-Associated Macrophages As Treatment Targets In Glioma, Yichen Peng, Feng Chen, Shenglan Li, Xiu Liu, Can Wang, Chunna Yu, Wenbin Li

Brain Science Advances

Gliomas, the most common primary tumors in the central nervous system (CNS), can be categorized into 4 grades according to the World Health Organization. The most malignant glioma type is grade Ⅳ, also named glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, the standard treatment of concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy and radiotherapy after maximum resection does not improve overall survival in patients with GBM. Targeting components of the CNS microenvironment represents a new strategy for improving the efficacy of glioma treatment. Most recent studies focused on T cells. However, there is a growing body of evidence that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role ...


Diffuse Optical Tomography In The Human Brain: A Briefly Review From The Neurophysiology To Its Applications, Estefania Hernandez-Martin, José Luis Gonzalez-Mora 2021 Department of Basic Medical Science, Faculty of Health Science, Medicine Section, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071, Spain

Diffuse Optical Tomography In The Human Brain: A Briefly Review From The Neurophysiology To Its Applications, Estefania Hernandez-Martin, José Luis Gonzalez-Mora

Brain Science Advances

The present work describes the use of noninvasive diffuse optical tomography (DOT) technology to measure hemodynamic changes, providing relevant information which helps to understand the basis of neurophysiology in the human brain. Advantages such as portability, direct measurements of hemoglobin state, temporal resolution, non-restricted movements as occurs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices mean that DOT technology can be used in research and clinical fields. In this review we covered the neurophysiology, physical principles underlying optical imaging during tissue-light interactions, and technology commonly used during the construction of a DOT device including the source-detector requirements to improve the image quality ...


Video-Triggered Eeg-Emotion Public Databases And Current Methods: A Survey, Wanrou Hu, Gan Huang, Linling Li, Li Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Zhen Liang 2021 School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Guangdong, China;Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Shenzhen 518060, Guangdong, China

Video-Triggered Eeg-Emotion Public Databases And Current Methods: A Survey, Wanrou Hu, Gan Huang, Linling Li, Li Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Zhen Liang

Brain Science Advances

Emotions, formed in the process of perceiving external environment, directly affect human daily life, such as social interaction, work efficiency, physical wellness, and mental health. In recent decades, emotion recognition has become a promising research direction with significant application values. Taking the advantages of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals (i.e., high time resolution) and video-based external emotion evoking (i.e., rich media information), video-triggered emotion recognition with EEG signals has been proven as a useful tool to conduct emotion-related studies in a laboratory environment, which provides constructive technical supports for establishing real-time emotion interaction systems. In this paper, we will focus ...


An Introduction And Review On Innovative Silicon Implementations Of Implantable/Scalp Eeg Chips For Data Acquisition, Seizure/Behavior Detection, And Brain Stimulation, Weiwei Shi, Jinyong Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Lizhi Hu, Yongqian Su 2021 College of Information Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong, China

An Introduction And Review On Innovative Silicon Implementations Of Implantable/Scalp Eeg Chips For Data Acquisition, Seizure/Behavior Detection, And Brain Stimulation, Weiwei Shi, Jinyong Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Lizhi Hu, Yongqian Su

Brain Science Advances

Technological advances in the semiconductor industry and the increasing demand and development of wearable medical systems have enabled the development of dedicated chips for complex electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing with smart functions and artificial intelligence-based detections/classifications. Around 10 million transistors are integrated into a 1 mm2 silicon wafer surface in the dedicated chip, making wearable EEG systems a powerful dedicated processor instead of a wireless raw data transceiver. The reduction of amplifiers and analog-digital converters on the silicon surface makes it possible to place the analog front-end circuits within a tiny packaged chip; therefore, enabling high-count EEG acquisition channels ...


Subject Inefficiency Phenomenon Of Motor Imagery Brain- Computer Interface: Influence Factors And Potential Solutions, Rui Zhang, Fali Li, Tao Zhang, Dezhong Yao, Peng Xu 2021 Henan Key Laboratory of Brain Science and Brain-Computer Interface Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China

Subject Inefficiency Phenomenon Of Motor Imagery Brain- Computer Interface: Influence Factors And Potential Solutions, Rui Zhang, Fali Li, Tao Zhang, Dezhong Yao, Peng Xu

Brain Science Advances

Motor imagery brain-computer interfaces (MI-BCIs) have great potential value in prosthetics control, neurorehabilitation, and gaming; however, currently, most such systems only operate in controlled laboratory environments. One of the most important obstacles is the MI-BCI inefficiency phenomenon. The accuracy of MI-BCI control varies significantly (from chance level to 100% accuracy) across subjects due to the not easily induced and unstable MI-related EEG features. An MI-BCI inefficient subject is defined as a subject who cannot achieve greater than 70% accuracy after sufficient training time, and multiple survey results indicate that inefficient subjects account for 10%-50% of the experimental population. The ...


Thoughts On Neurophysiological Signal Analysis And Classification, Junhua Li 2021 Laboratory for Brain-Bionic Intelligence and Computational Neuroscience, Wuyi University, Jiangmen 529020, Guangdong, China;Centre for Multidisciplinary Convergence Computing, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, Shaanxi, China;School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, CO4 3SQ, UK

Thoughts On Neurophysiological Signal Analysis And Classification, Junhua Li

Brain Science Advances

Neurophysiological signals are crucial intermediaries, through which brain activity can be quantitatively measured and brain mechanisms are able to be revealed. In particular, non-invasive neurophysiological signals, such as electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are welcomed and frequently utilised in various studies since these signals can be non-invasively recorded without harming the human brain while they convey abundant information pertaining to brain activity. The recorded neurophysiological signals are analysed to mine meaningful information for the understanding of brain mechanisms or are classified to distinguish different patterns (e.g., different cognitive states, brain diseases versus healthy controls). To date ...


Demystifying Signal Processing Techniques To Extract Resting- State Eeg Features For Psychologists, Zhenjiang Li, Libo Zhang, Fengrui Zhang, Ruolei Gu, Weiwei Peng, Li Hu 2021 School of Psychology, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, Jiangxi, China

Demystifying Signal Processing Techniques To Extract Resting- State Eeg Features For Psychologists, Zhenjiang Li, Libo Zhang, Fengrui Zhang, Ruolei Gu, Weiwei Peng, Li Hu

Brain Science Advances

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful tool for investigating the brain bases of human psychological processes non-invasively. Some important mental functions could be encoded by resting-state EEG activity; that is, the intrinsic neural activity not elicited by a specific task or stimulus. The extraction of informative features from resting-state EEG requires complex signal processing techniques. This review aims to demystify the widely used resting-state EEG signal processing techniques. To this end, we first offer a preprocessing pipeline and discuss how to apply it to resting-state EEG preprocessing. We then examine in detail spectral, connectivity, and microstate analysis, covering the oft-used EEG ...


Demystifying Signal Processing Techniques To Extract Task- Related Eeg Responses For Psychologists, Libo Zhang, Zhenjiang Li, Fengrui Zhang, Ruolei Gu, Weiwei Peng, Li Hu 2021 CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing 100101, China;Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Demystifying Signal Processing Techniques To Extract Task- Related Eeg Responses For Psychologists, Libo Zhang, Zhenjiang Li, Fengrui Zhang, Ruolei Gu, Weiwei Peng, Li Hu

Brain Science Advances

To investigate neural mechanisms of human psychology with electroencephalography (EEG), we typically instruct participants to perform certain tasks with simultaneous recording of their brain activities. The identification of task-related EEG responses requires data analysis techniques that are normally different from methods for analyzing resting-state EEG. This review aims to demystify commonly used signal processing methods for identifying task-related EEG activities for psychologists. To achieve this goal, we first highlight the different preprocessing pipelines between task-related EEG and resting-state EEG. We then discuss the methods to extract and visualize event-related potentials in the time domain and event-related oscillatory responses in the ...


A Review Of Artificial Intelligence For Eeg-Based Brain−Computer Interfaces And Applications, Zehong Cao 2021 School of ICT, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia

A Review Of Artificial Intelligence For Eeg-Based Brain−Computer Interfaces And Applications, Zehong Cao

Brain Science Advances

The advancement in neuroscience and computer science promotes the ability of the human brain to communicate and interact with the environment, making brain-computer interface (BCI) top interdisciplinary research. Furthermore, with the modern technology advancement in artificial intelligence (AI), including machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) methods, there is vast growing interest in the electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCIs for AI-related visual, literal, and motion applications. In this review study, the literature on mainstreams of AI for the EEG-based BCI applications is investigated to fill gaps in the interdisciplinary BCI field. Specifically, the EEG signals and their main applications in BCI ...


Gwas-Associated Variants, Non-Genetic Factors, And Transient Transcriptome In Multiple Sclerosis Etiopathogenesis: A Colocalization Analysis [Preprint], Renato Umeton, Gianmarco Bellucci, Rachele Bigi, Silvia Romano, Maria Chiara Buscarinu, Roberta Reniè, Virginia Rinaldi, Raffaella Pizzolato Umeton, Emanuele Morena, Carmela Romano, Rosella Mechelli, Marco Salvetti, Giovanni Ristori 2021 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Gwas-Associated Variants, Non-Genetic Factors, And Transient Transcriptome In Multiple Sclerosis Etiopathogenesis: A Colocalization Analysis [Preprint], Renato Umeton, Gianmarco Bellucci, Rachele Bigi, Silvia Romano, Maria Chiara Buscarinu, Roberta Reniè, Virginia Rinaldi, Raffaella Pizzolato Umeton, Emanuele Morena, Carmela Romano, Rosella Mechelli, Marco Salvetti, Giovanni Ristori

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

A clinically actionable understanding of multiple sclerosis (MS) etiology goes through GWAS interpretation, prompting research on new gene regulatory models. Our previous works on these topics suggested a stochastic etiologic model where small-scale random perturbations could eventually reach a threshold for MS onset and progression. A new sequencing technology has mapped the transient transcriptome (TT), including intergenic RNAs, and antisense intronic RNAs. Through a rigorous colocalization analysis, here we show that genomic regions coding for the TT were significantly enriched for both MS-associated GWAS variants, and DNA binding sites for molecular transducers mediating putative, non-genetic, etiopathogenetic factors for MS (e ...


Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady 2021 Dublin City Schools

Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight four segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention. 4- A review of interventions available to assist clients in navigating a lifestyle away from pornography.


Physiology, Rem Sleep, Joshua Feriante, John F. Araujo 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Physiology, Rem Sleep, Joshua Feriante, John F. Araujo

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Sleep is a reversible state of disconnection from the environment, including reduced consciousness, skeletal muscle mobility, and metabolism. All forms of sensory responses are markedly decreased to varying degrees depending on the sleep cycle stage. Although this phenomenon is observed in all species that have been studied and occupies a significant fraction of the human lifespan, the purpose and function of sleep remain poorly understood.

Sleep is measured primarily by polysomnography (PSG) which is considered the gold standard for diagnosing sleep disorders.. PSG reveals that sleep architecture has several distinct stages that vacillate between the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stages ...


The Genomics Of Ecological Flexibility, Large Brains, And Long Lives In Capuchin Monkeys Revealed With Fecalfacs., Joseph D Orkin, Michael J Montague, Daniela Tejada-Martinez, Marc de Manuel, Javier Del Campo, Saul Cheves Hernandez, Anthony Di Fiore, Claudia Fontsere, Jason A Hodgson, Mareike C Janiak, Lukas F K Kuderna, Esther Lizano, Maria Pia Martin, Yoshihito Niimura, George H Perry, Carmen Soto Valverde, Jia Tang, Wesley C Warren, João Pedro de Magalhães, Shoji Kawamura, Tomàs Marquès-Bonet, Roman Krawetz, Amanda D Melin 2021 University of Calgary

The Genomics Of Ecological Flexibility, Large Brains, And Long Lives In Capuchin Monkeys Revealed With Fecalfacs., Joseph D Orkin, Michael J Montague, Daniela Tejada-Martinez, Marc De Manuel, Javier Del Campo, Saul Cheves Hernandez, Anthony Di Fiore, Claudia Fontsere, Jason A Hodgson, Mareike C Janiak, Lukas F K Kuderna, Esther Lizano, Maria Pia Martin, Yoshihito Niimura, George H Perry, Carmen Soto Valverde, Jia Tang, Wesley C Warren, João Pedro De Magalhães, Shoji Kawamura, Tomàs Marquès-Bonet, Roman Krawetz, Amanda D Melin

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Ecological flexibility, extended lifespans, and large brains have long intrigued evolutionary biologists, and comparative genomics offers an efficient and effective tool for generating new insights into the evolution of such traits. Studies of capuchin monkeys are particularly well situated to shed light on the selective pressures and genetic underpinnings of local adaptation to diverse habitats, longevity, and brain development. Distributed widely across Central and South America, they are inventive and extractive foragers, known for their sensorimotor intelligence. Capuchins have among the largest relative brain size of any monkey and a lifespan that exceeds 50 y, despite their small (3 to ...


Quantifying And Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced By Antisense Oligonucleotides In The Central Nervous System [Preprint], Michael P. Moazami, Julia M. Rembetsy-Brown, Feng Wang, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandra Weiss, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Mona Motwani, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Robert H. Brown Jr., Jonathan K. Watts 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Quantifying And Mitigating Motor Phenotypes Induced By Antisense Oligonucleotides In The Central Nervous System [Preprint], Michael P. Moazami, Julia M. Rembetsy-Brown, Feng Wang, Pranathi Meda Krishnamurthy, Alexandra Weiss, Miklos G. Marosfoi, Robert M. King, Mona Motwani, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Robert H. Brown Jr., Jonathan K. Watts

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are emerging as a promising class of therapeutics for neurological diseases. When injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, ASOs distribute broadly across brain regions and exert long-lasting therapeutic effects. However, many phosphorothioate (PS)-modified gapmer ASOs show transient motor phenotypes when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid, ranging from reduced motor activity to ataxia or acute seizure-like phenotypes. The effect of sugar and phosphate modifications on these phenotypes has not previously been systematically studied. Using a behavioral scoring assay customized to reflect the timing and nature of these effects, we show that both sugar and phosphate modifications influence ...


Evaluating Anesthetic Protocols For Non-Human Primate Functional Neuroimaging, Megha Verma 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Evaluating Anesthetic Protocols For Non-Human Primate Functional Neuroimaging, Megha Verma

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to measure a proxy of neural activity in vivo with high spatial specificity. One subject can be followed for a long period of time to assess changes in functional brain organization. However, fMRI is extremely sensitive to motion. The challenges of training non-human primates to reduce motion in an MRI scanner motivate the study of anesthesia which is commonly used to substitute for this training. In this thesis, I compare three different commonly used anesthetic protocols: isoflurane, propofol-fentanyl in combination, and fentanyl alone, to test which of ...


Is Motor Excitability Modulated By Isochronous Rhythms?, Syed Z. Raza 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Is Motor Excitability Modulated By Isochronous Rhythms?, Syed Z. Raza

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Humans perceive and synchronize to regularity in auditory temporal sequences. Auditory regularity activates motor areas, but how the timing of motor responses relates to the regularity is unclear. Thus, we examined whether motor excitability, an index of motor activity, fluctuated to an isochronous sequence and characterized the timing of these fluctuations. Participants heard isochronous tones followed by a short silence, during which they imagined the tones continuing. Using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we indexed excitability throughout the sequence. Cosine models were fit to constructed excitability timecourses to quantify periodicity of the excitability fluctuations. Motor excitability did not fluctuate ...


Effects Of Mindfulness Meditation On Selective, Sustained Attention, Brain Neural Oscillations, And Short-Term Memory, Anamaria Guzman 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Mindfulness Meditation On Selective, Sustained Attention, Brain Neural Oscillations, And Short-Term Memory, Anamaria Guzman

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The following extended literature review and research proposal study started initially as a complete research proposal but, due to the challenges COVID-19 has brought, it has become a stand-alone piece of work without data collection. The goal is to synthesize a broad range of literature and previous research on mindfulness meditation and its effects on attention, memory, and brain activity and thus, offering a new perspective and a proposed research path on this subject. This proposed research study, besides previous studies, indicates that mindfulness meditation is expected to improve and enhance selective and sustained attention, which results in better attentional ...


Cognitive Changes Caused By Lps-Induced Neuroinflammation, Nancy De La Torre 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cognitive Changes Caused By Lps-Induced Neuroinflammation, Nancy De La Torre

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The brain performs cognitive processes finely orchestrated by timely precise action of neurons. Neurons functioning at their highest standard communicate with each other through perfectly functioning synapses. Microglia, as part of the immune system assist synaptic processing and have the ability to affect cognition. Indeed, microglia play a role in cognition. To investigate the link between microglia and cognition we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to pharmacologically activate microglia. LPS, normally present in the environment on the wall of Gram-negative bacteria is a pharmacological agent used to cause microglia activation in mice. LPS is a typical model to study changes induced by ...


Caffeine Modulation Of Attention And Focus In Task Performance, Claudia R. Berger 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Caffeine Modulation Of Attention And Focus In Task Performance, Claudia R. Berger

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Caffeine has been a heavily researched drug for decades given its prevalence in global consumption, as well as its large impacts on metabolic and executive function research alike. The present study aims to combine a behavioral study (Experiment 1) with a feasibility study (Experiment 2) to test the impacts of variable caffeine consumption on task performance. For both studies, participants filled out a questionnaire regarding caffeine use. Experiment 1 examined whether caffeine modulated attention in an online behavioral task in which participants were asked to identify a target (e.g., female “ahpa”). Participants were tested twice once after consuming 12 ...


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