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Biomarker Exploration In Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells For Monitoring Sulforaphane Treatment Responses In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Hua Liu, Andrew W. Zimmerman, Kanwaljit Singh, Susan Connors, Eileen Diggins, Katherine K. Stephenson, Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova, Jed W. Fahey 2020 Johns Hopkins University

Biomarker Exploration In Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells For Monitoring Sulforaphane Treatment Responses In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Hua Liu, Andrew W. Zimmerman, Kanwaljit Singh, Susan Connors, Eileen Diggins, Katherine K. Stephenson, Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova, Jed W. Fahey

Open Access Articles

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders with no drugs treating the core symptoms and no validated biomarkers for clinical use. The multi-functional phytochemical sulforaphane affects many of the biochemical abnormalities associated with ASD. We investigated potential molecular markers from three ASD-associated physiological pathways that can be affected by sulforaphane: redox metabolism/oxidative stress; heat shock response; and immune dysregulation/inflammation, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and patients with ASD. We first analyzed the mRNA levels of selected molecular markers in response to sulforaphane ex vivo treatment in PBMCs from healthy ...


Marrying Science And Experience: An Exploration Of How Multilinguals Interact With And Between Languages And Cultures, Allie Heeg Polzin 2020 SIT Graduate Institute

Marrying Science And Experience: An Exploration Of How Multilinguals Interact With And Between Languages And Cultures, Allie Heeg Polzin

MA TESOL Collection

This paper will begin exploring bi- and multilingualism at an individual level. The author will explore previous research written on how the brain processes several languages, how languages might affect individuals emotionally, and how one switches between languages as well as the effects of this, if any. Beyond this, the experience of navigating languages between discourse communities and balancing two or more cultures will be considered. As the title suggests, the science of multilingualism will be married with the diverse individual experience while considering both intrapersonal and interpersonal relations. The author will look at her own experience as well as ...


Glycine Inhibition Of On-Off Directionally Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells, Madeline C Mitchell, Maureen McCall Ph.D 2020 University of Louisville

Glycine Inhibition Of On-Off Directionally Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells, Madeline C Mitchell, Maureen Mccall Ph.D

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are a group of over 40 different types that use both GABAergic and Glycenergic inhibition. There are four different types of Glycine receptors (GlyRs) known as GlyRα1, GlyRα2, GlyRα3, and GlyRα4 (Sanes & Masland, 2015; C. Zhang & McCall, 2012). Electrophysiological data has supported the theory that the RGC cell type On-Off directionally selective (ooDS) cells express both GlyRα4 and GlyRα2. If ooDS cells do express only GlyRα4 and GlyRα2, an immunohistochemical analysis of these cells should support this theory. By comparing the expression of GlyRα4 and GlyRα2 in Glra4-/- , Glra2-/- Glra4-/- , and Glra2-/- the expression we can support or ...


Alexithymia Symptoms Are Not Associated With Childhood Trauma Or Crhr1 Rs110402 Genotype, Emily Wiatr, Grace Sullivan, Scott Stoltenberg 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Alexithymia Symptoms Are Not Associated With Childhood Trauma Or Crhr1 Rs110402 Genotype, Emily Wiatr, Grace Sullivan, Scott Stoltenberg

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Alexithymia is associated with difficulties in emotional self-regulation, and alexithymia is specifically associated with an absence of emotional experience and cognition of emotion. Past research has indicated a potential association between alexithymia and the CRHR1 gene . Situational factors may also impact the expression of the CRHR1 gene within an individual. Berenbaum (1996) found associations between PTSD/childhood trauma and alexithymia. This study examined these associations using the Online Alexithymia Questionnaire-G2 (OAQ-G2) as well as DNA samples gathered from 657 participants at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (72% women; 78.6% white; mean age= 20.34; standard deviation of 2.6). It ...


Effect Of Reduced Neurogenesis On Microglial Activation, Amelia Smith 2020 Belmont University

Effect Of Reduced Neurogenesis On Microglial Activation, Amelia Smith

Honors Theses

The geriatric population of America has grown exponentially in the past century. Health degradations and expensive medical care are characteristic of this population with many of these costs due to age-related cognitive decline. It is essential to completely understand the mechanisms of normal and abnormal aging in the search for treatments for cognitive decline. A reduction of neurogenesis is a common factor in aging, but this reduction is even more drastic in individuals experiencing cognitive decline. It is unclear what effect reduced neurogenesis has on the extracellular environment, including glial cells. In particular, changes in microglial activation could be related ...


Individual Differences In Ultrasonic Vocalizations And Freezing Behavior During Fear Learning And Extinction In Female Rats, Iris M. Sakamoto 2020 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Individual Differences In Ultrasonic Vocalizations And Freezing Behavior During Fear Learning And Extinction In Female Rats, Iris M. Sakamoto

Senior Theses

Although many people experience traumatic events, only 10%-20% go on to develop post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women are particularly susceptible, with a prevalence rate double that of men, even when controlling for type of trauma exposure. This disparity suggests the existence of distinct neurobiological processes, particularly related to sex, that predispose some individuals to be more resistant to extinguishing learned fear. Similar differences exist in rodent fear conditioning and extinction, though female rodents are considerably understudied. We hypothesized that female rodents would exhibit individual differences in fear extinction similar to those that we have observed previously in males ...


The Expression Of Mtor And Trib3 In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Katie Lazur 2020 Trinity College

The Expression Of Mtor And Trib3 In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Katie Lazur

Senior Theses and Projects

Oligodendrocytes are a type of glial cell in the central nervous system that are responsible for producing the myelin sheath which allows for faster neuronal firing rates. Myelin production is a metabolically expensive process, which requires the oligodendrocytes to be aware of the nutrients are available to them. It has been demonstrated that the mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is required for the later stages of maturation in oligodendrocytes. However, when mTOR is inhibited by Rapamycin in the early stages of oligodendrocyte development, the oligodendrocytes are still able to fully differentiate. Tribbles Homolog 3 (Trib3) is a pseudo kinase that ...


Amino Acid Sensing Ability By The Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin In Oligodendrocytes, Emma England 2020 Trinity College

Amino Acid Sensing Ability By The Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin In Oligodendrocytes, Emma England

Senior Theses and Projects

Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are a type of glial cell in the central nervous system that require substantial nutrients such as lipids and amino acids to create the extensive, metabolically expensive myelin sheath surrounding the axons of neurons. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a regulatory kinase that is necessary for the maturation of progenitor OLs through their distinct oligo-lineage phases. Amino acids are vital for the functioning of cells. The focus of this study was to determine if mTOR activity is dependent on the availability of leucine, methionine, and alanine. This was assessed by examining the phosphorylation level of the ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


Electrophysiological Response To Classical Music In Instrumentalists, Vocalists, And Non-Musicians, Brielle McDonald 2020 Trinity College

Electrophysiological Response To Classical Music In Instrumentalists, Vocalists, And Non-Musicians, Brielle Mcdonald

Senior Theses and Projects

Musical experience has been shown to impact electrophysiological response in response to sudden changes in music. The purpose of this exploratory case study is to investigate responses to a variety of continuous classical music stimuli in individuals with varying musical backgrounds, through the use of electroencephalography (EEG). Individuals were categorized as instrumentalists (5+ years of instrumental training), vocalists (5+ years of vocal training), or non-musicians (training). Participants were played a variety of classical vocal and instrumental music while an EEG was recorded. Data were then collected and analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA) and time/frequency analysis through EEGLAB. It ...


Beta-Amyloid Clustering Around Asc Fibrils Boosts Its Toxicity In Microglia, Lea L. Friker, Hannah Scheiblich, Inga V. Hochheiser, Rebecca Brinkschulte, Dietmar Riedel, Eicke Latz, Matthias Geyer, Michael T. Heneka 2020 University of Bonn Medical Center

Beta-Amyloid Clustering Around Asc Fibrils Boosts Its Toxicity In Microglia, Lea L. Friker, Hannah Scheiblich, Inga V. Hochheiser, Rebecca Brinkschulte, Dietmar Riedel, Eicke Latz, Matthias Geyer, Michael T. Heneka

Open Access Articles

Alzheimer's disease is the world's most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is associated with neuroinflammation involving activation of microglia by beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits. Based on previous studies showing apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) binding and cross-seeding extracellular Abeta, we investigate the propagation of ASC between primary microglia and the effects of ASC-Abeta composites on microglial inflammasomes and function. Indeed, ASC released by a pyroptotic cell can be functionally built into the neighboring microglia NOD-like receptor protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. Compared with protein-only application, exposure to ASC-Abeta composites amplifies the proinflammatory response, resulting in pyroptotic cell death, setting free ...


Quench Assisted (Quest) Mri Used As A Novel Approach To Identify Reactive Oxygen Species As A Result Of Experimental Tbi, Ethan M. Cohen, Eric Chang, Michael C. Schneider, Abigail Teitelbaum, Alexander R. Woznicki, Rachel E. Godfrey, Robert H. Podolsky, Karen L. Childers, Robin Roberts, Bruce A. Berkowitz, Kelly E. Bosse, Alana C. Conti 2020 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Quench Assisted (Quest) Mri Used As A Novel Approach To Identify Reactive Oxygen Species As A Result Of Experimental Tbi, Ethan M. Cohen, Eric Chang, Michael C. Schneider, Abigail Teitelbaum, Alexander R. Woznicki, Rachel E. Godfrey, Robert H. Podolsky, Karen L. Childers, Robin Roberts, Bruce A. Berkowitz, Kelly E. Bosse, Alana C. Conti

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), promoting inflammatory processes and impeding TBI recovery. Within the VA population, over 70% of military personnel that sustain a TBI receive opioid-based pain relief, however, opiates may actually exacerbate post-TBI complications through its documented recruitment of oxidative and inflammatory systems. Thus, we hypothesize that TBI and opioid treatment act synergistically to worsen post-TBI oxidative stress.

Methods:

Mice were exposed to either TBI or sham injury and administered morphine or saline in the acute post-injury period. Afterwards, neuroimaging was conducted using a novel technique, QUEnch assiSTed (QUEST) MRI, which compares standard ...


Premature Termination Codon Readthrough Upregulates Progranulin Expression And Improves Lysosomal Function In Preclinical Models Of Grn Deficiency, Jonathan Frew, Fen-Biao Gao, Haakon B. Nygaard 2020 University of British Columbia

Premature Termination Codon Readthrough Upregulates Progranulin Expression And Improves Lysosomal Function In Preclinical Models Of Grn Deficiency, Jonathan Frew, Fen-Biao Gao, Haakon B. Nygaard

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a devastating and progressive disorder, and a common cause of early onset dementia. Progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency due to autosomal dominant mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) is an important cause of FTLD (FTLD-GRN), and nearly a quarter of these genetic cases are due to a nonsense mutation. Premature termination codons (PTC) can be therapeutically targeted by compounds allowing readthrough, and aminoglycoside antibiotics are known to be potent PTC readthrough drugs. Restoring endogenous PGRN through PTC readthrough has not previously been explored as a therapeutic intervention in FTLD.

METHODS: We studied whether the aminoglycoside G418 ...


Pornography: Adolescent Brain Development & Addiction, William K. Canady 2020 Dublin City Schools

Pornography: Adolescent Brain Development & Addiction, William K. Canady

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight three segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention.


Do Social Networks Impact Perceived Loneliness In Caregivers To Older Adults With Chronic Conditions?, Janelle N. Beadle, Hayley Fouche, Angela Gifford 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Do Social Networks Impact Perceived Loneliness In Caregivers To Older Adults With Chronic Conditions?, Janelle N. Beadle, Hayley Fouche, Angela Gifford

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The abstract is not published at this time to protect intellectual property.


Effects Of Novel Tool Use: Cortical And Functional Measures In Children Using A Prosthetic Simulator, Chris Copeland 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Effects Of Novel Tool Use: Cortical And Functional Measures In Children Using A Prosthetic Simulator, Chris Copeland

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

As of 2005, there were a total of 1.6 million people living with the loss of a limb, with this population projected to double to 3.6 million by 2050 [1]. While prostheses aim to enhance the function of these individuals, it is estimated that 45% of pediatric prosthetic users reject their prosthesis [2]. The literature which describes the neurological control mechanisms of prosthetic use is sparse and often low-powered due to an inadequate number of participants. However, prosthetic simulators may be a solution to chronically low-powered prosthetic-centric studies by serving as functional homologues, though this has yet to ...


Neural Mechanisms Underlying Sensorimotor Synchronization With Different Forms Of Rhythms, Ryan Meidinger 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Sensorimotor Synchronization With Different Forms Of Rhythms, Ryan Meidinger

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Neural activity exhibits non-periodic rhythm [2] but it is unknown if neural activity synchronizes with non-periodic rhythms, as it does with periodic rhythms [1]. The purpose of this research is to determine the neural mechanisms present leading to synchronized finger tapping to varying rhythms. Twenty healthy young adults tapped their finger on a pressure sensitive pad, listened to metronomes, and wore a electroencephalogram (EEG) during synchronized finger tapping tasks (periodic, fractal, and random). Inter-tap intervals (ITIs), inter-beat intervals (IBIs), and frequency tags were used as the behavioral and cortical synchronization with the metronome. One-way ANOVAs were used to determine differences ...


Dopamine Transporter Trafficking And Rit2 Gtpase: Mechanism Of Action And In Vivo Impact, Rita R. Fagan, Patrick Kearney, Carolyn G. Sweeney, Dino Luethi, Florianne E. Schoot Uiterkamp, Klaus Schicker, Brian S. Alejandro, Lauren C. O'Connor, Harald H. Sitte, Haley Melikian 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dopamine Transporter Trafficking And Rit2 Gtpase: Mechanism Of Action And In Vivo Impact, Rita R. Fagan, Patrick Kearney, Carolyn G. Sweeney, Dino Luethi, Florianne E. Schoot Uiterkamp, Klaus Schicker, Brian S. Alejandro, Lauren C. O'Connor, Harald H. Sitte, Haley Melikian

Open Access Articles

Following its evoked release, DA signaling is rapidly terminated by presynaptic reuptake, mediated by the cocaine-sensitive DAT. DAT surface availability is dynamically regulated by endocytic trafficking, and direct PKC activation acutely diminishes DAT surface expression by accelerating DAT internalization. Previous cell line studies demonstrated that PKC-stimulated DAT endocytosis requires both Ack1 inactivation, which releases a DAT-specific endocytic brake, and the neuronal GTPase, Rit2, which binds DAT. However, it is unknown whether Rit2 is required for PKC-stimulated DAT endocytosis in DAergic terminals, or whether there are region- and/or sex-dependent differences in PKC-stimulated DAT trafficking. Moreover, the mechanisms by which Rit2 ...


Serum Vitamin B12, And Related Mtrr And Cubilin Genotypes, Predict Neural Outcomes Across The Ad Spectrum, K. E. McLiman, A. D. Collazo Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Karin D. Allenspach, Auriel A. Willette 2020 Iowa State University and Viterbo University

Serum Vitamin B12, And Related Mtrr And Cubilin Genotypes, Predict Neural Outcomes Across The Ad Spectrum, K. E. Mcliman, A. D. Collazo Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Karin D. Allenspach, Auriel A. Willette

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Epidemiological studies show mixed findings for serum vitamin B12 and both cognitive and regional volume outcomes. No studies to date have comprehensively examined, in non-supplemented individuals, serum B12 level associations with neurodegeneration, hypometabolism, and cognition across the Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum. Serum vitamin B12 was assayed from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Australian Imaging, Biomarker & Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL). Voxel-wise analyses regressed B12 levels against regional gray matter (GM) volume and glucose metabolism (p


Hif-1 Has A Central Role In Caenorhabditis Elegans Organismal Response To Selenium, Laura Romanelli-Credrez, Maria Doitsidou, Mark J. Alkema, Gustavo Salinas 2020 University of the Republic, Uruguay

Hif-1 Has A Central Role In Caenorhabditis Elegans Organismal Response To Selenium, Laura Romanelli-Credrez, Maria Doitsidou, Mark J. Alkema, Gustavo Salinas

Neurobiology Publications

Selenium is a trace element for most organisms; its deficiency and excess are detrimental. Selenium beneficial effects are mainly due to the role of the 21(st) genetically encoded amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Selenium also exerts Sec-independent beneficial effects. Its harmful effects are thought to be mainly due to non-specific incorporation in protein synthesis. Yet the selenium response in animals is poorly understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, Sec is genetically incorporated into a single selenoprotein. Similar to mammals, a 20-fold excess of the optimal selenium requirement is harmful. Sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) excess causes development retardation, impaired growth, and neurodegeneration of motor ...


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