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Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose 2020 Lesley University

Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Associations are formed in our minds based upon three elements: sensory experience, emotions, and memories. These associations, unique to each individual, dictate thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, and actions. Some are necessary and supportive, while others can be maladaptive. Established associations can be changed, and new associations can be formed, to align with a client’s goals. The literature presents a strong history of associationism, as well as a body of research that demonstrates the neurological processes of how mental associations are formed. There are also studies showing how music activates the brain. However, there is a lack of research which draws ...


Hiv-1 Tat Interactions With Opioids Are Modulated By Progesterone And Estradiol, Dejun Jackson 2020 University of Mississippi

Hiv-1 Tat Interactions With Opioids Are Modulated By Progesterone And Estradiol, Dejun Jackson

Honors Theses

HIV infection and combined substance abuse are comorbid epidemics. Previous studies show that concurrent opioid drug use may potentiate HIV-1-mediated neurotoxicity partly via interactions with opioids. Preclinical studies suggest that the HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat), an HIV regulatory protein, can synergize with opioids to exacerbate its already neurotoxic effects. However, its interactions with clinical opioids, such as oxycodone, have yet to be elucidated. Additionally, Tat disrupts a number of systems including the dopaminergic system, which contribute to its capacity to potentiate the rewarding effects of abused drugs. Although the neurotoxic effects of Tat may be inhibited by gonadal steroids ...


Effects Of Repeated Intermittent Episodes Of Social Stress On The Acquisition And Extinction Of A Reward-Seeking Task, Nikki Sullivan 2020 University of Mississippi

Effects Of Repeated Intermittent Episodes Of Social Stress On The Acquisition And Extinction Of A Reward-Seeking Task, Nikki Sullivan

Honors Theses

Repeated exposure to stress is known to have a myriad of effects on the brain, contributing to the development of psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. For example, rats undergoing repeated social stress develop increased cocaine self-administration. These effects of stress are not well-understood and are related to changes in the brain reward system. This study investigated the effects of repeated social stress on reward-seeking behavior via the acquisition and extinction of a discriminative stimulus (DS) task and on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Male rats underwent intermittent social defeat (4 sessions in 10 ...


The Role Of Time And Nicotine Dose On Anxiety Measured With Light Enhanced Startle, Ross Fladeland 2020 William & Mary

The Role Of Time And Nicotine Dose On Anxiety Measured With Light Enhanced Startle, Ross Fladeland

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Two experiments using Light-enhanced startle (LES) examined dose-dependent and time- dependent effects of acute nicotine on anxiety. In Experiment 1 rats were exposed to saline, .15 mg/kg, or .40 mg/kg (i.p.) nicotine and 5 minutes later were behaviorally tested in LES. Data suggested that nicotine at both doses was anxiolytic in males but not anxiolytic in females. In females, the higher nicotine dose, .40 mg/kg, was anxiogenic but only during later portions of the test session. In both males and females, within-session variation in LES provided evidence that LES increased in magnitude as time since nicotine ...


Safe Sleep: Developmental Implications For Hospitalized Infants, Katherine Kohlsaat 2020 University of Rhode Island

Safe Sleep: Developmental Implications For Hospitalized Infants, Katherine Kohlsaat

Senior Honors Projects

The rate at which an infant develops both physically and cognitively is significant during sleep, as this is the time when the entire body can dedicate its efforts to this cause. Parents of healthy infants follow the guidelines set by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) relating to safe sleep, and since their introduction in 1992, the rate of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has decreased by 40% (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). However, if an infant has been hospitalized since birth due to necessary invasive procedures such as open-heart surgery, these protocols cannot be initially implemented. Common ...


The Effect Of Intranasal Orexin A On The Interaction Between Social Isolation Stress And Attention, Saurav Pattanayak 2020 William & Mary

The Effect Of Intranasal Orexin A On The Interaction Between Social Isolation Stress And Attention, Saurav Pattanayak

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Orexins are neuropeptides that have been shown to have an association with processes such as stress and attention. However, limited studies have been done on orexin’s role in the intersection of stress and attention. In this experiment, Sprague Dawley rats were isolated at 21 postnatal days, isolated at 35 postnatal days, or placed into group-housing. Varying doses of orexin A or saline were administered intranasally into the rats. Their attentional performance was measured in a sustained attention task. An ANOVA was carried out on the hit rates, correct rejection rates, and omissions of socially isolated rats and group-housed rats ...


Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn 2020 William & Mary

Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The orexin (also called hypocretin) system projects to a wide array of brain regions and is activated by drugs of abuse. The orexin system is best known for its function in wakefulness and arousal, but recent research has suggested that orexins play a vital role in attentional processing. The orexin-1 receptor has been implicated in crucial mechanisms of attention, specifically the transmission of acetylcholine to the cortex. Nicotine is a commonly administered psychoactive drug that has been shown to have cognitive-enhancing effects. Nicotine appears to target the orexin system, suggesting a potential role of the orexin system in mediating the ...


Alcohol Consumption In A Preclinical Model Of Schizophrenia, Liza Hernandez 2020 East Tennessee State University

Alcohol Consumption In A Preclinical Model Of Schizophrenia, Liza Hernandez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 1% of the global population. Schizophrenia is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders such as Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) with a prevalence rate of 27% - 65%, which is significantly higher than AUD exhibited by the general population (6%). Research indicates that a higher rate of AUD in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be related to the common neuronal pathways that underlie the expression of both disorders. The present study will determine whether the neonatal quinpirole (NQ) rodent model of schizophrenia will approximate the human condition and exhibit increased EtOH consumption. Rats ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers 2020 University of San Diego

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


Socially-Facilitated Antipredator Responses In The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Kaitlyn Herron 2020 Susquehanna University

Socially-Facilitated Antipredator Responses In The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Kaitlyn Herron

Senior Scholars Day

Animals use diverse sources of information to assess predation risk. Many may use direct information such as visual or odor cues associated with a predator. Additionally, social species may use indirect sources of information such as observing antipredator responses of nearby conspecifics even when they themselves have no direct information about risk. The relative value and interaction of direct predator cues and indirect social information about predation risk is unclear, particularly when these sources provide conflicting information. The wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, displays effective antipredator behavior (freezing) when detecting silk from adults of another co-occurring wolf spider, Tigrosa helluo. Pardosa ...


130— Reducing Stereotypic Behavior With A Ketogenic Diet, Anna Beltramini, Andrew Guido, Alicia Bauers, Joe Spano 2020 SUNY Geneseo

130— Reducing Stereotypic Behavior With A Ketogenic Diet, Anna Beltramini, Andrew Guido, Alicia Bauers, Joe Spano

GREAT Day

Now a popular fad diet, the ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carb diet that for decades has been used for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Recent therapeutic applications of KD in animal models include treatment of dementia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism. These disorders are associated with stereotypic behaviors (repetitive, invariant behaviors with no apparent function) that are life-impairing and stigmatizing. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms and no effective pharmacological treatments are available. Here, we present a novel application of KD to reduce stereotypic behavior in an inbred strain of mice (FVBN/J) that displays a prominent repetitive ...


161— The Effects Of Environment On The Development Of Cocaine-Seeking, Gavin Vaughan, Akane Ichiki, Shreyya Malik, Allison R. Bechard 2020 SUNY Geneseo

161— The Effects Of Environment On The Development Of Cocaine-Seeking, Gavin Vaughan, Akane Ichiki, Shreyya Malik, Allison R. Bechard

GREAT Day

Cocaine addiction is a major individual and societal issue. This study aimed to investigate the environmental and social factors that influence the development of cocaine addiction. Mice were reared in either standard housing or enriched housing. Cocaine preference was measured using the Conditioned Place Preference paradigm, in which subjects are conditioned to associate an injection of cocaine (20mg/kg. I.P.) with a particular side of a 3 chambered arena. Subjects reared in enriched environments displayed increased preference for cocaine in cue primed tests. All subjects displayed cocaine preference in cocaine primed tests. This may be attributed to the enhanced ...


159— The Effects Of Trauma On The Response To Cocaine, Gavin Vaughan, Melissa Herman, Katie Kompanijec, Maren Hogan, AnnaClaire Modico, Keara Mullin, Allison R. Bechard Ph.D. 2020 SUNY Geneseo

159— The Effects Of Trauma On The Response To Cocaine, Gavin Vaughan, Melissa Herman, Katie Kompanijec, Maren Hogan, Annaclaire Modico, Keara Mullin, Allison R. Bechard Ph.D.

GREAT Day

Exposure to adverse events is a risk factor for substance use disorder. We modeled this in an inbred strain of mice by exposing adult males to a predator odor (a synthetic fox pheromone, TMT) and then assessing 1. Cocaine-induced locomotion, and 2. Conditioned place preference (CPP) of cocaine. TMT was an effective stressor as indicated by freezing behavior, an absence of movement that is an instinctive fear response in mice. Interestingly, in a 1-hour baseline locomotor test, TMT-exposed (TMT+) mice were more active than non-exposed (TMT-) mice. In addition, following a cocaine (10 mg/kg) injection (i.p.) TMT+ mice ...


Individual Differences In Ultrasonic Vocalizations And Freezing Behavior During Fear Learning And Extinction In Female Rats, Iris M. Sakamoto 2020 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Individual Differences In Ultrasonic Vocalizations And Freezing Behavior During Fear Learning And Extinction In Female Rats, Iris M. Sakamoto

Senior Theses

Although many people experience traumatic events, only 10%-20% go on to develop post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women are particularly susceptible, with a prevalence rate double that of men, even when controlling for type of trauma exposure. This disparity suggests the existence of distinct neurobiological processes, particularly related to sex, that predispose some individuals to be more resistant to extinguishing learned fear. Similar differences exist in rodent fear conditioning and extinction, though female rodents are considerably understudied. We hypothesized that female rodents would exhibit individual differences in fear extinction similar to those that we have observed previously in males ...


Carbon Dioxide Attracts Nesting Behavior In Captive African Naked Mole-Rats, Dan McCloskey 2020 CUNY College of Staten Island

Carbon Dioxide Attracts Nesting Behavior In Captive African Naked Mole-Rats, Dan Mccloskey

Publications and Research

This dataset contains raw Radio Frequency Identification data for a 185 hour gas infusion study conducted in the TT-2 colony at the College of Staten Island in May-June 2019. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether colony members would be attracted to a chamber with elevated carbon dioxide levels matching the highest values recorded in the typical colony nest. The results show a significant attraction to the CO2-infused chamber during and after the period of CO2 in=fusion, with the relocation of the colony nest to this site for the first time in the history of this colony ...


Experience-Dependent Changes In Nucleus Accumbens Activity Predict Cued Approach Learning: Contribution Of Nmda Receptors, Mercedes Vega Villar 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Experience-Dependent Changes In Nucleus Accumbens Activity Predict Cued Approach Learning: Contribution Of Nmda Receptors, Mercedes Vega Villar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Animals learn associations between environmental cues and the natural rewards they predict (e.g., food, water, sex). As a result, reward-predictive cues come to trigger vigorous reward-seeking responses. Many neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) become excited upon presentation of an already-learned reward-predictive cue. These NAc responses encode the motivational value of the cue and are necessary for the expression of the subsequent approach behavior. However, the precise temporal relationship between the emergence of cue-evoked excitations in the NAc and the acquisition of cued approach behavior remains unknown. In Experiment 1, NAc activity was recorded as rats learned to approach ...


Activation Of The Sonic Hedgehog Effector Smoothened Counteracts L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia By Restoring Cholinergic Interneuron Function, Lauren Malave 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Activation Of The Sonic Hedgehog Effector Smoothened Counteracts L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia By Restoring Cholinergic Interneuron Function, Lauren Malave

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Many types of neurons act as multimodal signaling centers. Yet, we have only limited insight into the regulation and functional consequences of neuronal co-transmission. For example, dopamine (DA) neurons, whose degeneration causes motor deficits characteristic of Parkinson’s Diseases (PD), communicate with all their targets by DA but only a selective subset of their targets using GABA, Glutamate, and the secreted cell signaling protein Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). It is unknown whether Levo-dopamine (L-Dopa) induced dyskinesia (LIDs), a severely debilitating side effect of DA supplementation in PD, might appear because DA neuron targets are exposed to high DA- but low Shh- ...


Implicit Bias Through The Lens Of Electroencephalography, Hope Cooper 2020 Connecticut College

Implicit Bias Through The Lens Of Electroencephalography, Hope Cooper

Behavioral Neuroscience Honors Papers

Unconscious or implicit bias is a part of everyday life. All human beings both exhibit implicit bias and (some more than others) are also the victims of it. Due to the way humans have evolved implicit bias will never be something that ceases to exist. Thus, it is important that neuroscience and social science closely study how it works and how to curb the behaviors caused by implicit bias. In the following research EEG (electroencephalography) was used alongside a weapons IAT (Implicit Association Test) to examine specific neural components that may correlate with higher bias scores on the IAT. Specific ...


Moderators Of Depression And Self-Management In Type 2 Diabetes Patients, Cynthia Elaine Fraser 2020 Walden University

Moderators Of Depression And Self-Management In Type 2 Diabetes Patients, Cynthia Elaine Fraser

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although Type 2 diabetes can be reversed or controlled, many individuals choose not to adhere to treatment regimens, nor do they engage in self-management practices. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore self-management among individuals with Type 2 diabetes, examining whether some psychosocial variables have a moderating effect on self-management. The psychosocial variables explored in this research were perception of body image, fear of hypoglycemia, level of family support, and depression. The biopsychosocial model was the theoretical framework. Using the Body Appreciation Scale, Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire, The Family Relationship Scale, Hypoglycemic Fear Survey (HFS-II), and the Beck Depression ...


Young African American Men's Conception Of Fatherhood Among Survivors Of Childhood Abuse, Ohan Patricia Carter 2020 Walden University

Young African American Men's Conception Of Fatherhood Among Survivors Of Childhood Abuse, Ohan Patricia Carter

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Male survivors of abuse who become fathers themselves face challenges different from female survivors, such as conceptualizing their roles as providers and heads of households after the traumatic and often belittling experiences of abuse. However, very few researchers have studied the connection between child abuse and fatherhood, and none specific to young African American fathers. An interpretative phenomenological approach enabled exploration of how African American fathers who were abused as children, conceptualized and perceived their own experiences with fatherhood. The theoretical framework for this study was identity theory, which indicates that how people conceptualize a social role influences their actions ...


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