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Behavioral Neurobiology Commons

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Adult Neurogenesis In Avian Auditory Cortex, Caudomedial Nidopallium (Ncm): Lateralization And Effects Of Statins, Shuk C. Tsoi 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Adult Neurogenesis In Avian Auditory Cortex, Caudomedial Nidopallium (Ncm): Lateralization And Effects Of Statins, Shuk C. Tsoi

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the first part of this paper, we investigated the basic relationship between learning, memory and adult neurogenesis using zebra finches. We found that in the auditory cortex, the left hemisphere had more new neurons than the right hemisphere. This lateralization was correlated with song learning and memory. In the second part, we used juvenile zebra finches as a model organism to study the effects of Lipitor on learning, memory and neurogenesis. We found that Lipitor impaired song learning and memory storage. Lipitor treatments also changed the morphology of new neurons and size of old neurons, suggesting statins may affect ...


The Evolutionary History Of Consciousness, Eirik Søvik, Clint Perry 2016 Volda University College

The Evolutionary History Of Consciousness, Eirik Søvik, Clint Perry

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Klein & Barron argue that insects are capable of subjective experience, i.e., sentience. Whereas we mostly agree with the conclusion of their arguments, we think there is an even more important message to be learned from their work. The line of reasoning opened by Klein & Barron proves instructive for how neuroscientists can and should explore the biological phenomenon of consciousness.


Dyslexia And Language Impairment Associated Genetic Markers Influence Cortical Thickness And White Matter In Typically Developing Children, John D. Eicher, Jean A. Frazier, David N. Kennedy, Jeffrey R. Gruen 2016 Yale University

Dyslexia And Language Impairment Associated Genetic Markers Influence Cortical Thickness And White Matter In Typically Developing Children, John D. Eicher, Jean A. Frazier, David N. Kennedy, Jeffrey R. Gruen

Jean A. Frazier

Dyslexia and language impairment (LI) are complex traits with substantial genetic components. We recently completed an association scan of the DYX2 locus, where we observed associations of markers in DCDC2, KIAA0319, ACOT13, and FAM65B with reading-, language-, and IQ-related traits. Additionally, the effects of reading-associated DYX3 markers were recently characterized using structural neuroimaging techniques. Here, we assessed the neuroimaging implications of associated DYX2 and DYX3 markers, using cortical volume, cortical thickness, and fractional anisotropy. To accomplish this, we examined eight DYX2 and three DYX3 markers in 332 subjects in the Pediatrics Imaging Neurocognition Genetics study. Imaging-genetic associations were examined by ...


Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron 2016 Macquarie University, Australia

Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

To what degree are non-human animals conscious? We propose that the most meaningful way to approach this question is from the perspective of functional neurobiology. Here we focus on subjective experience, which is a basic awareness of the world without further reflection on that awareness. This is considered the most basic form of consciousness. Tellingly, this capacity is supported by the integrated midbrain and basal ganglia structures, which are among the oldest and most highly conserved brain systems in vertebrates. A reasonable inference is that the capacity for subjective experience is both widespread and evolutionarily old within the vertebrate lineage ...


Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a key function of somatosensory systems. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of motor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in trigeminal networks associated with mechanosensory inputs to the face, or the consequences of movement.

High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilateral saltatory pneumotactile inputs to perioral hairy skin in 20 healthy adults. A custom multichannel, scalable ...


Examination Of Methamphetamine Reinstatement In Female And Male Rats: A Pre-Clinical Model Of Relapse, Steven T. Pittenger 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examination Of Methamphetamine Reinstatement In Female And Male Rats: A Pre-Clinical Model Of Relapse, Steven T. Pittenger

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Methamphetamine (meth) dependence is often characterized by persistent and chronic relapse (i.e., return to drug use). There is growing pre-clinical and human evidence suggesting females are at greater risk to relapse. The set of studies presented in this dissertation extended this limited evidence by identifying sex-dependent neural substrates correlated with meth-triggered reinstatement (Experiment 1) and by examining sex-differences in reinstatement triggered by drugs of abuse that are commonly co-abused with meth (Experiment 2). Female and male rats were trained to self-administer meth, received subsequent extinction sessions, and then tested for reinstatement. In Experiment 1, rats were perfused following reinstatement ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


Comparative Evolutionary Approach To Pain Perception In Fishes, Culum Brown 2016 Macquarie University

Comparative Evolutionary Approach To Pain Perception In Fishes, Culum Brown

Culum Brown

Arguments against the fact that fish feel pain repeatedly appear even in the face of growing evidence that they do. The standards used to judge pain perception keep moving as the hurdles are repeatedly cleared by novel research findings. There is undoubtedly a vested commercial interest in proving that fish do not feel pain, so the topic has a half-life well past its due date. Key (2016) reiterates previous perspectives on this topic characterised by a black-or-white view that is based on the proposed role of the human cortex in pain perception. I argue that this is incongruent with our ...


Histological Verification Of Electrode Placement In Single Unit Recorded Rats, Dana Lew 2016 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Histological Verification Of Electrode Placement In Single Unit Recorded Rats, Dana Lew

Honors Scholar Theses

The hippocampus is a region of the brain which plays a major role in encoding spatial and episodic memory. The hippocampus is divided in to two main subregions, dorsal and ventral. These subregions are connected, but their functional organization remains widely unknown. Place cells are cells of the hippocampus which fire in a specific spatial area and help create a mental map of our surroundings. Place cells have been seen to remain constant during slight fluctuations in surroundings, but completely remap in response to large fluctuations in the environment. There is little known about the relatively few place cells in ...


Sexism Goes Underground: The Development Of A Neosexism Scale Catered To College Student Populations, Kayla A. Huber 2016 Lake Forest College

Sexism Goes Underground: The Development Of A Neosexism Scale Catered To College Student Populations, Kayla A. Huber

Senior Theses

Cultural and political changes in the last century have made it largely socially unacceptable to overtly discriminate against women. Such pressures may have forced sexist beliefs to be expressed in more covert forms. This study aimed to develop a psychometric scale that assesses such covert, or neosexist, beliefs in college student populations and to analyze the relationship between neosexism and gender egalitarian beliefs, feminist awareness, social desirability, and an existing scale of neosexism. Similar to previous research, a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a one-factor model of neosexism. This model was invariant across gender and race. Scores ...


Avt And Bromodeoxyuridine Cells And Aggressive Behavior In Anolis Carolines, Anandhi Martin 2016 Georgia State University

Avt And Bromodeoxyuridine Cells And Aggressive Behavior In Anolis Carolines, Anandhi Martin

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Artificial Flavorings Enhance Attractability And Palatability Of Plant Protein Sources For Litopenaeusvannamei, Mi Choe 2016 Georgia State University

Artificial Flavorings Enhance Attractability And Palatability Of Plant Protein Sources For Litopenaeusvannamei, Mi Choe

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Introducing White Noise Training For Cocaine Self-Administration, Extinction, And Cue-Induced Reinstatement In Adolescent And Adult Male Wistar Rats, Julia Dave 2016 Georgia State University

Introducing White Noise Training For Cocaine Self-Administration, Extinction, And Cue-Induced Reinstatement In Adolescent And Adult Male Wistar Rats, Julia Dave

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Prenatal Exposure To Social Stress Alters Adult Behavior In Syrian Hamsters, Genna Jones 2016 Neuroscience

Prenatal Exposure To Social Stress Alters Adult Behavior In Syrian Hamsters, Genna Jones

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of Cues And Beacons On Route Memory, Obaiy Fahmy 2016 Lake Forest College

The Influence Of Cues And Beacons On Route Memory, Obaiy Fahmy

Senior Theses

Part-set cueing facilitation refers to the retrieval advantage when part of the set of to-be-remembered information is provided as cues at test. The present experiments were designed to explore part-set cueing in the context of map and route memory. In two experiments, we set out to find how cues and beacons would affect the recall of routes, as well as to see if presentation during the memorization phase changed the outcome in the recall task. The use of both beacons and part-set cues facilitates the recall of routes, but to varying degrees. Implications of these findings will be discussed.


Cannabinoid Cb1 Transmission In The Mesolimbic Reward Pathway, Tasha Ahmad 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Cannabinoid Cb1 Transmission In The Mesolimbic Reward Pathway, Tasha Ahmad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) transmission within the mesocorticolimbic system plays an important role in forming associative memories, and processing both positive and negative experiences. Opiates generally produce potent rewarding effects and previous evidence suggests that CB1 transmission may modulate the neural reward circuitry involved in opiate reward processing. The ventral tegmental area (VTA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and Nucleus Accumbens (NA) are all implicated in opiate-reward processing, contain high levels of CB1 receptors, and are all modulated by dopamine (DA). Although, CB1 transmission within these areas has been heavily implicated in associative memory and learning, the potential ...


The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation On Alcohol Consumption And Delta Fos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder 2016 James Madison University

The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation On Alcohol Consumption And Delta Fos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder

Graduate Showcase of Scholarship and Creative Activities

The present study explores the relation between sleep restriction and alcohol use and the neural substrates that result from chronic behaviors, such as transcription factors. Transcription factor activity is suggested as a possible outcome of chronic behaviors, such as addiction. Sleep is discussed as possible mediating factor in the relationship between specific transcription factors and alcohol. Analysis will focus on brain areas related to both sleep and reward.


Feeling And Speaking: The Role Of Sensory Feedback In Speech, Francesca R. Marino 2016 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

Feeling And Speaking: The Role Of Sensory Feedback In Speech, Francesca R. Marino

Senior Theses and Projects

Sensory feedback allows talkers to accurately control speech production, and auditory information is the predominant form of speech feedback. When this sensory stream is degraded, talkers have been shown to rely more heavily on somatosensory information. Furthermore, perceptual speech abilities are greatest when both auditory and visual feedback are available. In this study, we experimentally degraded auditory feedback using a cochlear implant simulation and somatosensory feedback using Orajel. Additionally, we placed a mirror in front of the talkers to introduce visual feedback. Participants were prompted to speak under a baseline, feedback degraded, and visual condition; audiovisual speech recordings were taken ...


Circadian Effects Of The Conditional Knockdown Of Serotonin In The Midbrain Raphe Nuclear Complex Of Adult Mice, Robert W. Woodruff III, Ashley Shemery, Alex Yaw, J. David Glass 2016 Kent State University

Circadian Effects Of The Conditional Knockdown Of Serotonin In The Midbrain Raphe Nuclear Complex Of Adult Mice, Robert W. Woodruff Iii, Ashley Shemery, Alex Yaw, J. David Glass

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Hypothesis: The brain serotonin (5-HT) system is known to play a key role in regulating critical processes such as circadian clock timing, motivation, reward response and sleep. 5-HT knockout (SKO) mouse models have previously been used to understand 5-HT actions, but such global 5-HT depletion has profound non-targeted neurophysiological and developmental consequences. Therefore, conditional SKOs are needed. Here, we performed preliminary behavioral phenotyping in a conditional 5-HT knock down model where 5-HT synthesis blockade was targeted specifically to the midbrain raphe nuclear complex (site of hypothalamic serotonergic innervation) in adult mice.

Methods: Male Tph2-floxed mice were injected with AAV-Cre (experimental ...


Effects Of Insular Cortex Lesions On Conditioned Taste Aversion And Latent Inhibition In The Rat, Christopher Roman, Steve Reilly 2016 Butler University

Effects Of Insular Cortex Lesions On Conditioned Taste Aversion And Latent Inhibition In The Rat, Christopher Roman, Steve Reilly

Christopher Roman

The present study tested the hypothesis that lesions of the insular cortex of the rat retard the acquisition of conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) because of an impairment in the detection of the novelty of taste stimuli. Demonstrating the expected latent inhibition effect, nonlesioned control subjects acquired CTAs more rapidly when the conditioned stimulus (0.15% sodium saccharin) was novel rather than familiar (achieved by pre-exposure to the to-be-conditioned taste cue). However, rats with insular cortex lesions acquired taste aversions at the same slow rate regardless of whether the saccharin was novel or familiar. The pattern of behavioural deficits obtained cannot ...


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