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Behavioral Neurobiology Commons

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Processing Emotional Expression In The Dance Of A Foreign Culture: Gestural Responses Of Germans And Koreans To Ballet And Korean Dance, Zi Hyun Kim, Hedda Lausberg 2018 German Sport University Cologne

Processing Emotional Expression In The Dance Of A Foreign Culture: Gestural Responses Of Germans And Koreans To Ballet And Korean Dance, Zi Hyun Kim, Hedda Lausberg

Journal of Movement Arts Literacy

Artistic dance differs between cultures with regard to the formal movement repertoire and methods to represent dancer's emotions. The present study explores how differently the spectators perceive the dance scenes of their own and foreign cultures. We showed German and Korean participants sad and happy dance scenes of the French ballet Giselle and Korean dance Sung-Mu. To learn the perceived thoughts and feelings of the participant from the dance scenes, we analyzed the frequency of their hand movements and gestures, which were accompanied by verbal descriptions of the participant's appreciation immediately after observation of the dance stimuli. The ...


Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...


Contextual Fear Retrieval-Induced Fos Expression Across Early Development In The Rat: An Analysis Using Established Nervous System Nomenclature Ontology, Anthony J. Santarelli, Arshad M. Khan, Andrew M. Poulos 2018 University at Albany, State University of New York

Contextual Fear Retrieval-Induced Fos Expression Across Early Development In The Rat: An Analysis Using Established Nervous System Nomenclature Ontology, Anthony J. Santarelli, Arshad M. Khan, Andrew M. Poulos

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Acute Social Defeat Stress Induces Microglial Activation In Key Limbic Regions, Thomas Clarity 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Acute Social Defeat Stress Induces Microglial Activation In Key Limbic Regions, Thomas Clarity

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Research suggests a causal relationship between neuroinflammation and stress-related psychopathologies. Exposure to moderate psychological stress in rodent models leads to elevated markers of immune activity in the brain, for example, microglia. Research has shown that tail shock stress can prime the subsequent, immune-challenged activation of microglia, which can lead to a degradative, proinflammatory response. Although social defeat is an ethologically relevant model of acute stress, there has been little research investigating the effects of acute social defeat stress on immune activity. Here, we used an acute social defeat paradigm in Syrian hamsters consisting of three, 5-minute aggressive encounters in the ...


Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. DeMarco 2018 East Tennessee State University

Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. Demarco

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quantifying individual differences in behavior and the extent that behavior is influenced by circadian control is of paramount importance in behavioral ecology. In addition, the proximate mechanisms underlying behavior are also critical in order to obtain a more complete picture of how behavior evolves. Biogenic amines (BAs) are simple nitrogenous compounds derived from amino acids and have been consistently and extensively linked to behavior. For this study, we analyzed temporal patterns of BAs in relation to the antipredator (boldness) and aggressive behavior in female Agelenopsis pennsylvanica, a funnel-web spider. Using HPLC-ED, we compared behavioral responses to temporal patterns of octopamine ...


A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman 2018 University of Pennsylvania

A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i.e. the sunscreen paradigm) to determine if mPFC shows similar predictive value with this technology. Consistent with prior fMRI work ...


The Characterization Of Behavioral Abnormalities In Bdnf Loxp Transgenic Mice, Ryan Brandt 2018 Northern Michigan University

The Characterization Of Behavioral Abnormalities In Bdnf Loxp Transgenic Mice, Ryan Brandt

All NMU Master's Theses

BDNF homozygous floxed mice (BDNF lox+/+) are a transgenic mouse strain used to study the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through Cre-Lox recombination when crossed with the appropriate Cre-expressing strain. BDNF lox+/+ mice contain two artificially inserted LoxP sites located upstream and downstream from the BDNF coding region. This strain was originally described as physiologically normal and fertile by Rios et al., (2001). However, current literature lacks sufficient characterization and description of its behavioral phenotype. We utilized a three-stage behavioral protocol which included home cage monitoring observations, open-field, tail suspension, and acoustic PPI to provide a detailed behavioral phenotype for ...


Inhibition Of Tnf-Alpha Decreases Microglia Activation In Rats Neonatally Treated With Poly I:C, Heath W. Shelton, Russell W. Brown 2018 East Tennessee State University

Inhibition Of Tnf-Alpha Decreases Microglia Activation In Rats Neonatally Treated With Poly I:C, Heath W. Shelton, Russell W. Brown

Appalachian Student Research Forum

Introduction: Current medical treatment for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCHZ) primarily relies on the inhibition of the dopamine D2 receptor that has been shown to be supersensitive in these patients. Treatment occurs through the use of antipsychotic medication which leads to a number of debilitating dose-dependent side effects, such as weight gain, agranulocytosis, and seizures. Patients diagnosed with SCHZ have also been shown to have increased inflammation in their central nervous system (CNS), particularly within specific brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. This is in large part due to the interaction between a pro-inflammatory cytokine called ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On The Nervous System Of Aplysia Californica, Victor Escalona, Lynne Annette Fieber, Joseph Serafy 2018 University of Miami

The Effect Of Hypoxia On The Nervous System Of Aplysia Californica, Victor Escalona, Lynne Annette Fieber, Joseph Serafy

2018 Entries

The intertidal zone of California’s Pacific coast is home to the marine snail known as Aplysia californica, an organism that has found use as a model in experiments focused on understanding the basis of learning and memory. Its simple nervous system consisting of easily identifiable neurons, its life span of a year, and a readily-accessed aquacultured source from the National Resource for Aplysia make it an excellent model for ontogenetic, neural, and behavioral studies. Here, however, the focus was on strategies this species uses to survive in an environment rife with risks of hypoxia and desiccation during the tidal ...


Differences In Habenula Kisspeptin Expression And Its Effects On Stress Coping Styles In Zebrafish, Danio Rerio, Andrew Wahl 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Differences In Habenula Kisspeptin Expression And Its Effects On Stress Coping Styles In Zebrafish, Danio Rerio, Andrew Wahl

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Two particular styles of stress coping behaviors have been identified as evolutionarily conserved across vertebrate species and are referred to as proactive and reactive. Reactive and proactive stress coping styles have distinct 5-HT expression profiles with greater expression of 5-HT found in proactive individuals. It was previously shown that kiss1 expression in the ventral habenula (vHb) presynaptically activates kiss-r1 which can alter glutamatergic levels in co-localizing cells in the vHb that terminate in the median raphe (MR). This can directly or indirectly increase 5-HT expression in the MR via glutamate. It is unknown whether kisspeptin expression in the vHb can ...


Contextual Fear Learning And Memory In Alternative Stress Coping Styles, Matthew R. Baker, Ryan Y. Wong 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Contextual Fear Learning And Memory In Alternative Stress Coping Styles, Matthew R. Baker, Ryan Y. Wong

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Animals frequently must overcome stressors, and the ability to encode and recall these salient experiences is essential to an individual’s survival. Across many taxa, studies have documented two alternative stress coping styles (proactive and reactive) that differ in behavior, cognition, stress physiology, and underlying neuromolecular mechanisms. The role of stress in cognitive traits (e.g. learning and memory) has been well documented, however, the influence of an animal’s stress coping style on learning and memory capabilities is only beginning to be understood. Here, we developed a contextual fear learning paradigm to characterize learning and memory differences between proactive ...


The Convergence Of Psychology And Neurobiology In Flavor-Nutrient Learning, Kevin P. Myers 2018 Bucknell University

The Convergence Of Psychology And Neurobiology In Flavor-Nutrient Learning, Kevin P. Myers

Faculty Journal Articles

Flavor evaluation is influenced by learning from experience with foods. One main influence is flavor-nutrient learning (FNL), a Pavlovian process whereby a flavor acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS) that becomes associated with the postingestive effects of ingested nutrients (the US). As a result that flavor becomes preferred and intake typically increases. This learning powerfully influences food choice and meal patterning. This paper summarizes how research elucidating the physiological and neural substrates of FNL has progressed in parallel with work characterizing how FNL affects perception, motivation, and behavior. The picture that emerges from this work is of a robust system ...


Validating The Use Of Dreadds In The Study Of The Paraventricular Thalamus (Pvt) And Its Role As In Interface Of Circadian Information, Luke Millisor 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Validating The Use Of Dreadds In The Study Of The Paraventricular Thalamus (Pvt) And Its Role As In Interface Of Circadian Information, Luke Millisor

Undergraduate Honors Theses

How the brain and body coordinate the phase of their internal clocks has remained elusive despite years of study. The discovery of clock genes showed how individual cells can keep time. The establishment of the suprachiasmatic nucleus as the master clock showed that in normal circumstances the brain relies on one nucleus to communicate time of day information to the rest of the body and brain. By what method the SCN accomplishes this is largely unknown. Glucocorticoid hormones are known to have a role in this communication, but evidence remains for a neuronal pathway between the SCN and extra SCN ...


Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, Nathan Plattner 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, Nathan Plattner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Clinical research studies show that chronic pain is a prevalent, difficult affliction to manage. The most common management for chronic pain is opioids, which research is showing to paradoxically induce persistent, worsened pain states as well as potentially having negative effects on memory. The necessity for understanding chronic pain and drug management options is apparent, and research is aiming to do just that. Exercise is one potential preventative measure or post hoc treatment possibility for chronic pain, as abundant research has shown. Knowledge of the interactions between exercise, morphine dosing, and peripheral nerve injury is nonexistent. As such, we desired ...


Using Values To Communicate Agricultural Science: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach, Allison Arp 2018 Iowa State University

Using Values To Communicate Agricultural Science: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach, Allison Arp

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study explored how preexisting values influence attitudes about GMOs and if aligning messages about GMOs with these values would lead to a greater chance of central processing, and subsequently, greater alignment with message-congruent attitudes. Utilizing the Elaboration Likelihood Model as a theoretical foundation, an online experiment was used to measure several values of participants, including altruistic, biospheric and egoistic value orientations as well as agricultural identity. Attitude accessibility and pre- and post-opinions were also measured in order to determine how much of an effect the presented stimuli had on the participants. All participants were presented with a stimulus that ...


Sentience In Fishes: More On The Evidence, Michael L. Woodruff 2018 East Tennessee State University

Sentience In Fishes: More On The Evidence, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

In my target article, I argued that the brains of ray-finned fishes of the teleost subclass (Actinopterygii) are sufficiently complex to support sentience — that these fishes have subjective awareness of interoceptive and exteroceptive sense experience. Extending previous theories centered on the tectum, I focused on the organization of the fish pallium. In this Response to the commentaries, I clarify that I do not propose that the fish pallium is, or must be, homologous to the mammalian neocortex to play a role in sentience. Some form of a functionalist approach to explaining the neural basis of sentience across taxa is probably ...


Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy 2017 University of New Orleans

Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The model of basal ganglia function proposed by Albin, Young and Penney (1989) describes two anatomically independent motor pathways, the direct and indirect. However, under normal conditions striatal dopamine (DA) is required for the expression of motor behavior, and DAergic control of the two pathways (via D1 and D2 receptors, respectively) is dependent on co-activation. We tested for a possible breakdown of D1/D2 synergism using transgenic R6/1 mice bearing the human huntingtin allele (Htt). Motor stereotypy, observed prior to the onset of HD-related symptoms, was rated on a 5-point scale following activation of: A) D1 receptors alone, B ...


Virtual Reality As A Training Tool To Treat Physical Inactivity In Children, Adam W. Kiefer, David Pincus, Michael J. Richardson, Gregory D. Myer 2017 Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center

Virtual Reality As A Training Tool To Treat Physical Inactivity In Children, Adam W. Kiefer, David Pincus, Michael J. Richardson, Gregory D. Myer

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Lack of adequate physical activity in children is an epidemic that can result in obesity and other poor health outcomes across the lifespan. Physical activity interventions focused on motor skill competence continue to be developed, but some interventions, such as neuromuscular training (NMT), may be limited in how early they can be implemented due to dependence on the child’s level of cognitive and perceptual-motor development. Early implementation of motor-rich activities that support motor skill development in children is critical for the development of healthy levels of physical activity that carry through into adulthood. Virtual reality (VR) training may be ...


Characterizing Mekk1: Candidate Behavioural Isolation Gene, Caryn Dooner 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing Mekk1: Candidate Behavioural Isolation Gene, Caryn Dooner

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Behavioural isolation can occur due to divergence in aspects of courtship and mating, and can contribute to reproductive isolation. The purpose of this study is to determine how a gene, Mekk1, contributes to female rejection behaviour between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Unique polymorphisms were identified within D. simulans Mekk1 that could contribute to behaviour, most of which are non-coding. Both transcripts of Mekk1 appear to be expressed at similar levels in D. simulans and D. melanogaster. These data also indicate that Mekk1 may be expressed in a specific region of the brain called the mushroom body, which has previously ...


Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman

Psychology and Neuroscience Undergraduate Contributions

Traumatic spinal cord injury affects 282,000 people in the United States alone. Individuals often suffer from partial paralysis and chronic pain along with physiological impairments, such as abnormal thermoregulation, decreased motor function, and poor sleep quality. Current clinical therapies focus on symptomatic treatments. Despite extensive research, all of the physiologic effects and the molecular mechanism underlying spinal cord injury, and how they affect each other, remains elusive. Here, we tested whether spinal cord injury disrupted circadian rhythms, which could prolong the recovery process. We used implanted transmitters in male and female rats to measure a marker, body temperature, and ...


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