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Behavioral Neurobiology Commons

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Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor 2023 West Virginia University

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical interface between the systemic circulation and the brain. It is a specialized multicellular unit composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, a basement membrane, and astrocytic end foot processes. BMECs are a principal component of the BBB that provide the structural framework needed for the stringent transport of molecules into the brain. BMEC dysfunction permits the trafficking of neurotoxins from systemic circulation into the brain, which ultimately exacerbates BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that BBB dysfunction is a key determinant of cognitive decline in sepsis. However, there are critical knowledge ...


Mirnas Levels In A Streptozocin Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Nada Moustafa 2022 American University in Cairo

Mirnas Levels In A Streptozocin Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Nada Moustafa

Theses and Dissertations

Dementia entails a progressive decrease in cognitive functions, with 50%-75% of cases attributed to Alzheimer’s disease (AD); an aging-associated condition characterized by the build-up of tangled phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) protein and beta-amyloid (Aβ) depositions. Sporadic AD (sAD) is multifactorial in nature, resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic predisposing factors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading risk factor for dementia, and deregulation of brain glucose metabolism is associated with early cognitive affection in sAD. Thus, the diabetogenic agent Streptozotocin (STZ) is used to experimentally create an AD model in animals (STZ-induced sAD), in which abnormalities ...


Norepinephrine Regulation Of Spatial Memory Using The Barnes Maze In Male And Female Rats, Serena Simpson, Ali Gheidi PhD, Nareen Sadik, Cameron J. Davidson PhD, Shane A. Perrine PhD 2022 Wayne State University

Norepinephrine Regulation Of Spatial Memory Using The Barnes Maze In Male And Female Rats, Serena Simpson, Ali Gheidi Phd, Nareen Sadik, Cameron J. Davidson Phd, Shane A. Perrine Phd

Medical Student Research Symposium

The role of norepinephrine (NE) in learning and memory has been extensively studied, yet its contribution remains to be clarified. This study aimed to investigate the role of NE on spatial learning and memory in female and male rats using a Barnes maze assay. We used N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), a specific noradrenergic neurotoxin that can cross the blood brain barrier, to deplete NE stores. We hypothesized that brain NE ablation would attenuate spatial learning and memory in rats. Loss of NE by DSP-4 was determined by measuring NE (and dopamine and serotonin) levels in several brain regions using HPLC ...


The Effects Of Floral Attributes And Conspecifics On Bumble Bee Forager Memory, Lucas Lauter, Tiffany Dinh 2022 University of Missouri, St. Louis

The Effects Of Floral Attributes And Conspecifics On Bumble Bee Forager Memory, Lucas Lauter, Tiffany Dinh

Undergraduate Research Symposium

What do bees remember about flowers? These memories are important for both bees and flowers. The bees have better foraging success and gain more nectar and pollen from flowers when they remember the most rewarding flower types. More memorable flowers will be visited more frequently, resulting in more successful pollination for the plant. At the same time, bees can also learn about flowers from other bees and may remember this information differently. We are training and testing three floral cues and a single social cue to see how the different types of cues affect their learning and memory of rewarding ...


Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

MA is a potent, highly addictive psychomotor stimulant known to produce neurotoxic effects on the brain leading to neurological impairments1-6 characterized by neurodegeneration of dopaminergic fibers, cell bodies and pathways, as well as brain regions such as the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and midbrain1,5.

In MA addiction, women are more vulnerable to the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA compared to men. Adult human literature reveals gender differences in usage patterns and women demonstrate increased vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects and health effects of MA use. Women begin drug use at an earlier age, escalate drug use quicker ...


The Effects Of Astrocytic Derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) On Cognition And Astrocytes, Destiny Wilson 2022 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Astrocytic Derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) On Cognition And Astrocytes, Destiny Wilson

Honors Theses

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a neuroendocrine signaling hormone that plays a vital role in growth and development, as well as learning and memory. Inhibition of this hormone results in cognitive impairments like those seen with age-related decline. While a majority of research has focused on the role of IGF-1 on neurons, the role of astrocytes still needs to be explored. Our research investigates how astrocytes and cognition are affected as a result of direct regulation of localized IGF-1 production in early development and after puberty. Preliminary studies in our laboratory established a connection between IGF-1 and glial fibrillary ...


Use Of Intramodal Odor Cues In Shelter Recognition By An Amblypygid, Nathan Bostelman 2022 Bowling Green State University

Use Of Intramodal Odor Cues In Shelter Recognition By An Amblypygid, Nathan Bostelman

Honors Projects

Amblypygids are nocturnal arthropods which live in cluttered habitats and possess the ability to navigate home after displacements of up to ten meters. Homing amblypygids rely on olfactory and tactile information gathered by their antenniform legs to navigate successfully. Given that odor signals encountered in nature are complex and dynamic, navigation via olfaction presents unique challenges related to signal uncertainty. To understand how amblypygids perceive perceive complex odors and what they learn from them, individuals of the subtropical amblypygid P. marginemaculatus were trained to associate a blend of two odors with a shelter and tested on three treatments: the reinforced ...


Buprenorphine Effects On Anxiety-Like Behavior In B6 Mice, Megan K. Thibert 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Buprenorphine Effects On Anxiety-Like Behavior In B6 Mice, Megan K. Thibert

Select or Award-Winning Individual Scholarship

Buprenorphine, a semi-synthetic opioid prescribed for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD), has been suggested as a potential pharmacological treatment for anxiety. Some preclinical and clinical studies provide support for the anxiolytic effects of buprenorphine, but research in this area is scarce, and findings to date have been mixed. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that buprenorphine alters anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/IJ (B6) mice measured using the elevated zero maze (EZM). Adult, male mice (n=10) were given subcutaneous injections of saline (control) and three doses of buprenorphine (0.3, 1, and 10 mg/kg ...


Classical Conditioning Of Cognitive States, Arthur Burns 2022 Ursinus College

Classical Conditioning Of Cognitive States, Arthur Burns

Neuroscience Honors Papers

Classical conditioning has been a fundamental concept and practice throughout the history of psychology. While classical conditioning traditionally seeks to elicit target behaviors in correlation to specific stimuli, we sought to do the same with cognitive states in place of behaviors. Specifically, we wanted to determine the effectiveness of conditioning states of cognitive arousal in human participants in conjunction with cues presented in a designed learning task. We designed a cognitive task specifically for this research, referred to as “the Tone Pitching Task”, which utilized a combination of working memory and mental processing in order to elicit cognitive arousal and ...


Pursuing Faith In Good Science: A Neuroscience Student's Argument For Including Science In Spirituality, Savannah A. Hastings 2022 Western Washington University

Pursuing Faith In Good Science: A Neuroscience Student's Argument For Including Science In Spirituality, Savannah A. Hastings

WWU Honors College Senior Projects

Everyone can enhance their sense of spirituality by embracing science. This point is argued by referencing the science of emotions, consciousness, and perceptual learning, as well as the correlation between a strong a sense of meaning and physical health. The way that the brain produces our experience of being human is particularly emphasized. We have electrochemical brains that can do good in the world.


Alzheimer's And Patient Caregiver Burnout: A Review Of The Literature, Madeline Hekeler 2022 James Madison University

Alzheimer's And Patient Caregiver Burnout: A Review Of The Literature, Madeline Hekeler

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

The term “silent epidemic” is fitting for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as its negative impact is widely felt but rarely discussed. Burnout among AD caregivers has become an epidemic of its own as caregivers experience an increase in health risks, stress, and financial burden. This literature review focuses on caregiver burnout and how imperative it is that caregivers are better supported in their role. Researchers have developed instruments to assess and intervene in caregiver burnout that have shown effectiveness among caregivers and their families.Nevertheless, further longitudinal research is warranted regarding more effective interventions, including stress management and social support ...


Whole-Body Vibration Alleviates Symptoms Of Morphine Withdrawal, Gavin C. Jones, Dallin Z. Otteson, Christina A. Small, Taylor Purcell, Nathaniel Hill, Tyler Alger, Arren Hill, David W. Sant, Scott C. Steffensen, Kyle B. Bills 2022 Brigham Young University

Whole-Body Vibration Alleviates Symptoms Of Morphine Withdrawal, Gavin C. Jones, Dallin Z. Otteson, Christina A. Small, Taylor Purcell, Nathaniel Hill, Tyler Alger, Arren Hill, David W. Sant, Scott C. Steffensen, Kyle B. Bills

Annual Research Symposium

Whole-body vibration at 80 Hz has previously been shown to blunt neuropathological markers and behavioral symptoms of alcohol dependence. Here, we evaluate its ability to ameliorate symptoms of morphine use and withdrawal. Behavioral and neurophysiological symptoms of withdrawal were reduced significantly by whole-body vibration treatment.


Trkb Activity Alters Voluntary Alcohol Consumption In Nondependent Mice, Alfred Amendolara 2022 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

Trkb Activity Alters Voluntary Alcohol Consumption In Nondependent Mice, Alfred Amendolara

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Novel Methodology For The Investigation Of Dmrt3a Interneurons In Larval Zebrafish, Alfred Amendolara 2022 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

Novel Methodology For The Investigation Of Dmrt3a Interneurons In Larval Zebrafish, Alfred Amendolara

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Sex Differences In Myelin Deficits And Neuroinflammatory Responses To Adolescent Drinking In Rats, Andrea Silva-Gotay 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Sex Differences In Myelin Deficits And Neuroinflammatory Responses To Adolescent Drinking In Rats, Andrea Silva-Gotay

Doctoral Dissertations

Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence is associated with higher risk of developing alcohol use disorders later in life. Alcohol can lead to decreased white matter volume, myelin damage, and neuroinflammation in animal models of adolescent binge alcohol exposure. These deficits in turn are associated with cognitive disfunctions that are long-lasting and could contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism later in life. Importantly, human males are more likely to develop alcohol use disorders than females, thus the mechanisms underlying this might be different between the sexes. Understanding how alcohol impacts the developing adolescent brain can help us identify molecular and cellular ...


Co-Transmission Of Neuropeptides And Monoamines Choreograph The C. Elegans Escape Response, Jeremy T. Florman, Mark J. Alkema 2022 UMass Chan Medical School

Co-Transmission Of Neuropeptides And Monoamines Choreograph The C. Elegans Escape Response, Jeremy T. Florman, Mark J. Alkema

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Co-localization and co-transmission of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides is a core property of neural signaling across species. While co-transmission can increase the flexibility of cellular communication, understanding the functional impact on neural dynamics and behavior remains a major challenge. Here we examine the role of neuropeptide/monoamine co-transmission in the orchestration of the C. elegans escape response. The tyraminergic RIM neurons, which coordinate distinct motor programs of the escape response, also co-express the neuropeptide encoding gene flp-18. We find that in response to a mechanical stimulus, flp-18 mutants have defects in locomotory arousal and head bending that facilitate the omega turn ...


Self-Conscious Emotions And The Right Fronto-Temporal And Right Temporal Parietal Junction, Adriana LaVarco, Nathira Ahmad, Qiana Archer, Matthew Pardillo, Ray Nunez Castaneda, Anthony Minervini, Julian Keenan 2022 Montclair State University

Self-Conscious Emotions And The Right Fronto-Temporal And Right Temporal Parietal Junction, Adriana Lavarco, Nathira Ahmad, Qiana Archer, Matthew Pardillo, Ray Nunez Castaneda, Anthony Minervini, Julian Keenan

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

For more than two decades, research focusing on both clinical and non-clinical populations has suggested a key role for specific regions in the regulation of self-conscious emotions. It is speculated that both the expression and the interpretation of self-conscious emotions are critical in humans for action planning and response, communication, learning, parenting, and most social encounters. Empathy, Guilt, Jealousy, Shame, and Pride are all categorized as self-conscious emotions, all of which are crucial components to one’s sense of self. There has been an abundance of evidence pointing to the right Fronto-Temporal involvement in the integration of cognitive processes underlying ...


Investigating Distractor-Induced Effects In Visual Search Utilizing Eye-Tracking, Anjum Shaikh 2022 Connecticut College

Investigating Distractor-Induced Effects In Visual Search Utilizing Eye-Tracking, Anjum Shaikh

Behavioral Neuroscience Honors Papers

The present study provides an insightful look into the effects of distractors using behavioral and eye-tracking measures. In this study, two eye-tracking experiments utilizing a feature search task were conducted to investigate the distractor-induced early quitting effect with a target prevalence of 50% rather than the 100% target prevalence typical of attentional capture studies. In Experiment 1, two independent variables of target (present/absent) and distractor (target/present) were examined with behavioral measures (accuracy and response time) as well as eye-tracking methods (total fixations, total fixation durations, and total distractor saccade percentages). Distractors were categorized as salient due to their ...


Stress And The City: The Impacts Of City Living And Urbanization On Mental Health, Natalie Akins 2022 Claremont Colleges

Stress And The City: The Impacts Of City Living And Urbanization On Mental Health, Natalie Akins

Scripps Senior Theses

Urbanization is causing a demographic and cultural shift to the landscape of cities across the globe. Although urban living can be advantageous for both individual and societal growth, it can negatively affect mental health and wellbeing. Individuals living in urban environments have an increased risk for mental disorders like depression and schizophrenia. Certain challenges common in urban environments and associated with increased stress, may be causing the increase with mental illness. Chronic stress and the subsequent hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sustained synthesis of glucocorticoids is detrimental to metabolic, endocrine, and immunologic processes. The overexposure to glucocorticoids can lead ...


A Study Of Limited Bedding And Nesting On Maternal Behavior For Postpartum Depression, Emma Brezoczky 2022 Claremont Colleges

A Study Of Limited Bedding And Nesting On Maternal Behavior For Postpartum Depression, Emma Brezoczky

CMC Senior Theses

Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 20% of mothers in the US and can detrimentally affect both the mother and psychosocial development of the child (Pearlstein et al, 2009). So far, research on PPD is limited and the underlying neuropathology remains unclear. Low socioeconomic status is one risk factor that increases the risk of PPD tenfold (Goyal et al, 2010). The low resource limited bedding and nesting (LBN) paradigm used for rodents has the potential to model this risk factor. LBN has not previously been studied with PPD, but observations of disrupted maternal behaviors and depressive phenotypes makes it a ...


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