Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
Feeding results from the integration of both nutritional and affective states, and is guided by complex neural circuitry in the brain. The hypothalamus is a critical center controlling feeding and motivated behaviors. We found that targeted photostimulation of projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) in mice elicited voracious feeding and repetitive self-grooming behavior. GABA neurotransmission in the LH->PVH circuit mediated the evoked feeding behavior, and elicited behavioral approach, whereas glutamate release promoted repetitive self-grooming, which was stress-related in nature. Optogenetic inhibition of LHGABA ->PVH circuit reduced feeding after fasting, whereas photostimulation abruptly stopped ...
Pornography’S Effect On The Brain: A Review Of Modifications In The Prefrontal Cortex, 2018 Brigham Young University
Pornography’S Effect On The Brain: A Review Of Modifications In The Prefrontal Cortex, Kendra J. Muller
Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal in Psychology
Pornography use has exponentially increased in the past 10 years. Most believe pornography use is largely a harmless behavior. Although sexuality is innate, hyper-sexual behavior, such as pornography use, has become increasingly commonplace. Addiction research has found that long-term substance addiction contributes to changes in brain volume (Hong et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2011). Recent studies have shown that behavioral addictions also have similar volume loss as substance abuse (Hong et al., 2013). Research has shown that the particular area most affected is the prefrontal cortex (Hong et al., 2013). The prefrontal cortex, which oversees regulating self-control, decreases in ...
Measuring The Impact Of A Weeklong Fall Break On Stress Physiology In First Year Engineering Students, 2018 McMaster University
Measuring The Impact Of A Weeklong Fall Break On Stress Physiology In First Year Engineering Students, Ayesha Khan, Heather Poole, Elliott A. Beaton
The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
Canadian post-secondary institutions are increasingly introducing a fall break into their term calendars, with the stated goal of reducing student stress and improving academic success. We conducted a pilot study around the time of this fall break during which we collected saliva samples to measure the ratio of two metabolic hormones (cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) from first-year male engineering students in order to document possible changes in their stress levels before and after the break. Participants self-identified a particular day in the week prior to the break that they considered to be most stressful, followed by a day in the ...
Curcumin Inhibits The Ikk:Nf-Kappa B Pathway In Neural Fear Circuits, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Curcumin Inhibits The Ikk:Nf-Kappa B Pathway In Neural Fear Circuits, Miguel A. Briones
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The study of how the brain acquires fearful memories has attracted considerable experimental attention, due in part to the promise of discovering novel therapeutic approaches for psychiatric disorders that are characterized by unusually strong and persistent traumatic memories. In recent years, extensive research has focused on studying the neural and molecular mechanisms by which fear memories are acquired, stored, and retrieved in the brain. Once acquired, fear memories may be attenuated using one of 2 procedures: 1) fear extinction, which involves repeated presentation of the fear-arousing stimulus in the absence of an aversive consequence, or 2) interference with the reconsolidation ...
Dietary Curcumin Promotes Resilience To Chronic Social Defeat Stress In A Highly Susceptible Mouse Strain, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Dietary Curcumin Promotes Resilience To Chronic Social Defeat Stress In A Highly Susceptible Mouse Strain, Antonio V. Aubry
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Chronic exposure to stress is a risk factor for the development of major depression and post traumatic stress disorder in humans and induces depressive- and anxiety-like phenotypes in rodents. However, there are few pharmacological interventions available that effectively treat maladaptive responses to chronic stress in the clinical setting. One therapeutic agent that has recently shown promise in treating psychiatric disorders is curcumin, a yellow-pigmented polyphenol compound found in the turmeric plant. Curcumin has been shown to prevent the development of stressed-induced depressive-like behavior in rodents and reduce symptoms of depression in clinically diagnosed patients. In this dissertation, I investigated whether ...
Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...
An Investigation Of Vocal Learning Propensity In Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata), 2018 CUNY Hunter College
An Investigation Of Vocal Learning Propensity In Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata), Tatsuya Hayashi
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
The investigator attempted to predict the vocal learning propensity from either family pedigree or early vocal babbling (subsong). Pedigree trees suggest the possibility that vocal learning ability may depend on family. We failed to predict vocal learning propensity from subsong, but suggested that subsong may influence vocal learning outcome.
Examining The Associative Learning And Accumbal Dopaminergic Mechanisms Of Caffeine Reinforcement, 2018 East Tennessee State University
Examining The Associative Learning And Accumbal Dopaminergic Mechanisms Of Caffeine Reinforcement, Curtis Bradley
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world, and most caffeine consumption in coffee and energy drinks is intended to produce a psychoactive effect. However, caffeine is not a primary reinforcer in preclinical paradigms – non-human species do not reliably take the drug to produce a psychoactive effect. However, caffeine is a ‘reinforcement enhancer’ in preclinical models; the effects of caffeine increase the motivation to obtain other non-drug reinforcers. The overall goal of this project was to determine if these reinforcement enhancing effects of caffeine could promote caffeine self-administration and to subsequently investigate the behavioral and neurochemical underpinnings of ...
Chemosensory Communication And Neural Substrates Of Social Behavior In The African Cichlid Fish, Astatotilapia Burtoni, 2018 Louisiana State University
Chemosensory Communication And Neural Substrates Of Social Behavior In The African Cichlid Fish, Astatotilapia Burtoni, Karen Elizabeth Field
LSU Doctoral Dissertations
Social animals must constantly assess their environment to make appropriate decisions. In several fish species, chemosensory signaling is crucial for social communication, conveying information on sex, reproductive state, and social status. Despite its importance in fishes, relatively little is known about how they employ chemical signaling, with only a few of the over 30,000 extant species investigated thus far. Further, there is a scarcity of information about where and how socially-relevant chemosensory signals are processed in the brain of fishes, or how chemosensory signals are integrated with other senses to elicit appropriate behaviors. For my doctoral research, I examined ...
Processing Emotional Expression In The Dance Of A Foreign Culture: Gestural Responses Of Germans And Koreans To Ballet And Korean Dance, 2018 German Sport University Cologne
Processing Emotional Expression In The Dance Of A Foreign Culture: Gestural Responses Of Germans And Koreans To Ballet And Korean Dance, Zi Hyun Kim, Hedda Lausberg
Journal of Movement Arts Literacy
Artistic dance differs between cultures with regard to the formal movement repertoire and methods to represent dancer's emotions. The present study explores how differently the spectators perceive the dance scenes of their own and foreign cultures. We showed German and Korean participants sad and happy dance scenes of the French ballet Giselle and Korean dance Sung-Mu. To learn the perceived thoughts and feelings of the participant from the dance scenes, we analyzed the frequency of their hand movements and gestures, which were accompanied by verbal descriptions of the participant's appreciation immediately after observation of the dance stimuli. The ...
Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, 2018 California State University, San Bernardino
Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy
Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations
Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...
Contextual Fear Retrieval-Induced Fos Expression Across Early Development In The Rat: An Analysis Using Established Nervous System Nomenclature Ontology, 2018 University at Albany, State University of New York
Contextual Fear Retrieval-Induced Fos Expression Across Early Development In The Rat: An Analysis Using Established Nervous System Nomenclature Ontology, Anthony J. Santarelli, Arshad M. Khan, Andrew M. Poulos
Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.
No abstract provided.
Acute Social Defeat Stress Induces Microglial Activation In Key Limbic Regions, 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Acute Social Defeat Stress Induces Microglial Activation In Key Limbic Regions, Thomas Clarity
EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement
Research suggests a causal relationship between neuroinflammation and stress-related psychopathologies. Exposure to moderate psychological stress in rodent models leads to elevated markers of immune activity in the brain, for example, microglia. Research has shown that tail shock stress can prime the subsequent, immune-challenged activation of microglia, which can lead to a degradative, proinflammatory response. Although social defeat is an ethologically relevant model of acute stress, there has been little research investigating the effects of acute social defeat stress on immune activity. Here, we used an acute social defeat paradigm in Syrian hamsters consisting of three, 5-minute aggressive encounters in the ...
Addictions, Behavioral Addictions, And Pathological Internet Use As Internet Addiction - A Literature Review, 2018 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College
Addictions, Behavioral Addictions, And Pathological Internet Use As Internet Addiction - A Literature Review, Vy K. Nguyen
Publications and Research
Excessive and pathological uses of the Internet are observed and discussed often in our modern conversations. Access to the Internet has become so convenient that these behaviors can lead to consequences in many areas of our lives from social relationships to academic and professional work performance. A common term that people use to address this pattern of behaviors is “Internet Addiction” or more specific ones, such as “Social Media Addiction” or “Online Gaming Addiction.” However, in clinical psychology, addiction has its own specific definitions. It refers to a category and set of criteria that are distinguished from other mental disorders ...
Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), 2018 East Tennessee State University
Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. Demarco
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Quantifying individual differences in behavior and the extent that behavior is influenced by circadian control is of paramount importance in behavioral ecology. In addition, the proximate mechanisms underlying behavior are also critical in order to obtain a more complete picture of how behavior evolves. Biogenic amines (BAs) are simple nitrogenous compounds derived from amino acids and have been consistently and extensively linked to behavior. For this study, we analyzed temporal patterns of BAs in relation to the antipredator (boldness) and aggressive behavior in female Agelenopsis pennsylvanica, a funnel-web spider. Using HPLC-ED, we compared behavioral responses to temporal patterns of octopamine ...
A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, 2018 University of Pennsylvania
A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman
Departmental Papers (ASC)
Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i.e. the sunscreen paradigm) to determine if mPFC shows similar predictive value with this technology. Consistent with prior fMRI work ...
Chasing The Androgen Receptor: Expression And Localization, 2018 Lehigh University
Chasing The Androgen Receptor: Expression And Localization, Garrett Santini
Eckardt Scholars Projects
No abstract provided.
What Good Are Models For Neuroscience? An Example From Modelling The Thalamic Reticular Nucleus, 2018 Lehigh University
What Good Are Models For Neuroscience? An Example From Modelling The Thalamic Reticular Nucleus, Tuan Pham
Eckardt Scholars Projects
Generally, modelling in the sciences bring out many benefits. It is taking the known relationships about different physical parameters in order to develop new hypothesis due to the ability to scan through different possibilities systematically. Since my field is in neuroscience, I will focus my efforts on explaining to you how modelling can be useful to understanding the brain in a theoretical manner, as well as assisting experimentalists develop new experiments (Fig.1A), via two specific examples of modelling the network involving the thalamic reticular nucleus in Dr. Julie Haas' lab.
Modelling can never achieve realistic results that experiments can ...
The Characterization Of Behavioral Abnormalities In Bdnf Loxp Transgenic Mice, 2018 Northern Michigan University
The Characterization Of Behavioral Abnormalities In Bdnf Loxp Transgenic Mice, Ryan Brandt
All NMU Master's Theses
BDNF homozygous floxed mice (BDNF lox+/+) are a transgenic mouse strain used to study the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through Cre-Lox recombination when crossed with the appropriate Cre-expressing strain. BDNF lox+/+ mice contain two artificially inserted LoxP sites located upstream and downstream from the BDNF coding region. This strain was originally described as physiologically normal and fertile by Rios et al., (2001). However, current literature lacks sufficient characterization and description of its behavioral phenotype. We utilized a three-stage behavioral protocol which included home cage monitoring observations, open-field, tail suspension, and acoustic PPI to provide a detailed behavioral phenotype for ...
Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Performance In An Object-Place-Paired-Associate Task, 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus
Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Performance In An Object-Place-Paired-Associate Task, Lilliana May Sanchez
Memory impairments, including spatial and object processing, are often observed in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Much attention has been directed towards the hippocampus, which displays significant alterations after moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). In the present study, we tested a moderate PAE rat model in an object-place-paired-associate (OPPA) task, previously shown to require hippocampal processing. The OPPA task was composed of training rats to discriminate between an identical pair of objects presented in 180° opposite arms of a radial arm maze. Animals were given a total of 10 trials per day over 14 consecutive days of training and ...