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Characterization Of G-Protein Coupled Receptors In Pain, Depression And Anxiety, Neil Lax 2018 Duquesne University

Characterization Of G-Protein Coupled Receptors In Pain, Depression And Anxiety, Neil Lax

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain and major depressive disorder are widespread conditions in the world. Interestingly, these conditions often occur comorbidly, with each individual disease amplifying the symptoms of the other. A significant amount of preclinical research in pain and depression focuses on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), implying that GPCRs may be useful in treating this comorbidity. Our efforts have sought to characterize several poorly understood GPCRs, including the serotonin receptor subtypes 2C and 7 (5-HT2CR and 5-HT7R) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), along with more well-known GPCRs such as the mu opioid receptor (MOR), and the role that they play in ...


Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Feeding results from the integration of both nutritional and affective states, and is guided by complex neural circuitry in the brain. The hypothalamus is a critical center controlling feeding and motivated behaviors. We found that targeted photostimulation of projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) in mice elicited voracious feeding and repetitive self-grooming behavior. GABA neurotransmission in the LH->PVH circuit mediated the evoked feeding behavior, and elicited behavioral approach, whereas glutamate release promoted repetitive self-grooming, which was stress-related in nature. Optogenetic inhibition of LHGABA ->PVH circuit reduced feeding after fasting, whereas photostimulation abruptly stopped ...


Pornography’S Effect On The Brain: A Review Of Modifications In The Prefrontal Cortex, Kendra J. Muller 2018 Brigham Young University

Pornography’S Effect On The Brain: A Review Of Modifications In The Prefrontal Cortex, Kendra J. Muller

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal in Psychology

Pornography use has exponentially increased in the past 10 years. Most believe pornography use is largely a harmless behavior. Although sexuality is innate, hyper-sexual behavior, such as pornography use, has become increasingly commonplace. Addiction research has found that long-term substance addiction contributes to changes in brain volume (Hong et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2011). Recent studies have shown that behavioral addictions also have similar volume loss as substance abuse (Hong et al., 2013). Research has shown that the particular area most affected is the prefrontal cortex (Hong et al., 2013). The prefrontal cortex, which oversees regulating self-control, decreases in ...


Cannabinoid Transmission In The Basolateral Amygdala Modulates Prefrontal Cortex And Ventral Hippocampal Activity, Brian J. Pereira 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Cannabinoid Transmission In The Basolateral Amygdala Modulates Prefrontal Cortex And Ventral Hippocampal Activity, Brian J. Pereira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cannabinoid system is important for maintaining neuron-to-neuron communication within the mammalian brain. One of the most commonly used substances to alter the cannabinoid system is cannabis. Individuals who are exposed to cannabis report having dissociable effects; both positive and negative. High amounts of THC have been commonly associated with the negative effects of cannabis, whereas CBD can be used to counter these. Pre-clinical evidence suggests that the combination of the two compounds can produce a therapeutic benefit for individuals who are susceptible to the effects of THC. The present study investigates whether the combination of THC+CBD can prevent ...


Measuring The Impact Of A Weeklong Fall Break On Stress Physiology In First Year Engineering Students, Ayesha Khan, Heather Poole, Elliott A. Beaton 2018 McMaster University

Measuring The Impact Of A Weeklong Fall Break On Stress Physiology In First Year Engineering Students, Ayesha Khan, Heather Poole, Elliott A. Beaton

The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

Canadian post-secondary institutions are increasingly introducing a fall break into their term calendars, with the stated goal of reducing student stress and improving academic success. We conducted a pilot study around the time of this fall break during which we collected saliva samples to measure the ratio of two metabolic hormones (cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) from first-year male engineering students in order to document possible changes in their stress levels before and after the break. Participants self-identified a particular day in the week prior to the break that they considered to be most stressful, followed by a day in the ...


Dietary Curcumin Promotes Resilience To Chronic Social Defeat Stress In A Highly Susceptible Mouse Strain, Antonio V. Aubry 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Dietary Curcumin Promotes Resilience To Chronic Social Defeat Stress In A Highly Susceptible Mouse Strain, Antonio V. Aubry

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chronic exposure to stress is a risk factor for the development of major depression and post traumatic stress disorder in humans and induces depressive- and anxiety-like phenotypes in rodents. However, there are few pharmacological interventions available that effectively treat maladaptive responses to chronic stress in the clinical setting. One therapeutic agent that has recently shown promise in treating psychiatric disorders is curcumin, a yellow-pigmented polyphenol compound found in the turmeric plant. Curcumin has been shown to prevent the development of stressed-induced depressive-like behavior in rodents and reduce symptoms of depression in clinically diagnosed patients. In this dissertation, I investigated whether ...


Curcumin Inhibits The Ikk:Nf-Kappa B Pathway In Neural Fear Circuits, Miguel A. Briones 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Curcumin Inhibits The Ikk:Nf-Kappa B Pathway In Neural Fear Circuits, Miguel A. Briones

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The study of how the brain acquires fearful memories has attracted considerable experimental attention, due in part to the promise of discovering novel therapeutic approaches for psychiatric disorders that are characterized by unusually strong and persistent traumatic memories. In recent years, extensive research has focused on studying the neural and molecular mechanisms by which fear memories are acquired, stored, and retrieved in the brain. Once acquired, fear memories may be attenuated using one of 2 procedures: 1) fear extinction, which involves repeated presentation of the fear-arousing stimulus in the absence of an aversive consequence, or 2) interference with the reconsolidation ...


Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...


An Investigation Of Vocal Learning Propensity In Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata), Tatsuya Hayashi 2018 CUNY Hunter College

An Investigation Of Vocal Learning Propensity In Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata), Tatsuya Hayashi

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The investigator attempted to predict the vocal learning propensity from either family pedigree or early vocal babbling (subsong). Pedigree trees suggest the possibility that vocal learning ability may depend on family. We failed to predict vocal learning propensity from subsong, but suggested that subsong may influence vocal learning outcome.


Examining The Associative Learning And Accumbal Dopaminergic Mechanisms Of Caffeine Reinforcement, Curtis Bradley 2018 East Tennessee State University

Examining The Associative Learning And Accumbal Dopaminergic Mechanisms Of Caffeine Reinforcement, Curtis Bradley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world, and most caffeine consumption in coffee and energy drinks is intended to produce a psychoactive effect. However, caffeine is not a primary reinforcer in preclinical paradigms – non-human species do not reliably take the drug to produce a psychoactive effect. However, caffeine is a ‘reinforcement enhancer’ in preclinical models; the effects of caffeine increase the motivation to obtain other non-drug reinforcers. The overall goal of this project was to determine if these reinforcement enhancing effects of caffeine could promote caffeine self-administration and to subsequently investigate the behavioral and neurochemical underpinnings of ...


Chemosensory Communication And Neural Substrates Of Social Behavior In The African Cichlid Fish, Astatotilapia Burtoni, Karen Elizabeth Field 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Chemosensory Communication And Neural Substrates Of Social Behavior In The African Cichlid Fish, Astatotilapia Burtoni, Karen Elizabeth Field

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Social animals must constantly assess their environment to make appropriate decisions. In several fish species, chemosensory signaling is crucial for social communication, conveying information on sex, reproductive state, and social status. Despite its importance in fishes, relatively little is known about how they employ chemical signaling, with only a few of the over 30,000 extant species investigated thus far. Further, there is a scarcity of information about where and how socially-relevant chemosensory signals are processed in the brain of fishes, or how chemosensory signals are integrated with other senses to elicit appropriate behaviors. For my doctoral research, I examined ...


Neural Network Interactions Modulate Cry-Dependent Photoresponses In Drosophila, Pallavi Lamba, Lauren E. Foley, Patrick Emery 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Neural Network Interactions Modulate Cry-Dependent Photoresponses In Drosophila, Pallavi Lamba, Lauren E. Foley, Patrick Emery

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

Light is one of the chief environmental cues that reset circadian clocks. In Drosophila, CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates acute photic resetting of circadian clocks by promoting the degradation of TIMELESS in a cell-autonomous manner. Thus, even circadian oscillators in peripheral organs can independently perceive light in Drosophila However, there is substantial evidence for nonautonomous mechanisms of circadian photoreception in the brain. We have previously shown that the morning (M) and evening (E) oscillators are critical light-sensing neurons that cooperate to shift the phase of circadian behavior in response to light input. We show here that light can efficiently phase delay or ...


Processing Emotional Expression In The Dance Of A Foreign Culture: Gestural Responses Of Germans And Koreans To Ballet And Korean Dance, Zi Hyun Kim, Hedda Lausberg 2018 German Sport University Cologne

Processing Emotional Expression In The Dance Of A Foreign Culture: Gestural Responses Of Germans And Koreans To Ballet And Korean Dance, Zi Hyun Kim, Hedda Lausberg

Journal of Movement Arts Literacy

Artistic dance differs between cultures with regard to the formal movement repertoire and methods to represent dancer's emotions. The present study explores how differently the spectators perceive the dance scenes of their own and foreign cultures. We showed German and Korean participants sad and happy dance scenes of the French ballet Giselle and Korean dance Sung-Mu. To learn the perceived thoughts and feelings of the participant from the dance scenes, we analyzed the frequency of their hand movements and gestures, which were accompanied by verbal descriptions of the participant's appreciation immediately after observation of the dance stimuli. The ...


Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy 2018 California State University, San Bernardino

Defining The Radioresponse Of Mossy Cells, Devon Ivy

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Clinical radiotherapy is used to treat a variety of brain tumors within the central nervous system. While effective, it can result in progressive and debilitating cognitive impairment that can diminish quality of life. These impairments have been linked to hippocampal dysfunction and corresponding deficits in spatial learning and memory. Mossy cells are a major population of excitatory neurons located within the dentate hilus and highly involved in hippocampal circuitry. They play critical roles in spatial navigation, neurogenesis, memory, and are particularly vulnerable to a variety of neurotoxic insults. However, their sensitivity to ionizing radiation has yet to be investigated in ...


Genetic Activation, Inactivation, And Deletion Reveal A Limited And Nuanced Role For Somatostatin-Containing Basal Forebrain Neurons In Behavioral State Control, Christelle Anaclet, Roberto De Luca, Anne Venner, Olga Malyshevskaya, Michael Lazarus, Elda Arrigoni, Patrick M. Fuller 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Genetic Activation, Inactivation, And Deletion Reveal A Limited And Nuanced Role For Somatostatin-Containing Basal Forebrain Neurons In Behavioral State Control, Christelle Anaclet, Roberto De Luca, Anne Venner, Olga Malyshevskaya, Michael Lazarus, Elda Arrigoni, Patrick M. Fuller

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

Recent studies have identified an especially important role for basal forebrain GABAergic (BF(VGAT)) neurons in the regulation of behavioral waking and fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. However, BF(VGAT) neurons comprise several neurochemically and anatomically distinct subpopulations, including parvalbumin-containing BF(VGAT) neurons and somatostatin-containing BF(VGAT) neurons (BF(SOM) neurons), and it was recently reported that optogenetic activation of BF(SOM) neurons increases the probability of a wakefulness to non-rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep transition when stimulated during the rest period of the animal. This finding was unexpected given that most BF(SOM) neurons are not NREM sleep active ...


Contextual Fear Retrieval-Induced Fos Expression Across Early Development In The Rat: An Analysis Using Established Nervous System Nomenclature Ontology, Anthony J. Santarelli, Arshad M. Khan, Andrew M. Poulos 2018 University at Albany, State University of New York

Contextual Fear Retrieval-Induced Fos Expression Across Early Development In The Rat: An Analysis Using Established Nervous System Nomenclature Ontology, Anthony J. Santarelli, Arshad M. Khan, Andrew M. Poulos

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Acute Social Defeat Stress Induces Microglial Activation In Key Limbic Regions, Thomas Clarity 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Acute Social Defeat Stress Induces Microglial Activation In Key Limbic Regions, Thomas Clarity

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Research suggests a causal relationship between neuroinflammation and stress-related psychopathologies. Exposure to moderate psychological stress in rodent models leads to elevated markers of immune activity in the brain, for example, microglia. Research has shown that tail shock stress can prime the subsequent, immune-challenged activation of microglia, which can lead to a degradative, proinflammatory response. Although social defeat is an ethologically relevant model of acute stress, there has been little research investigating the effects of acute social defeat stress on immune activity. Here, we used an acute social defeat paradigm in Syrian hamsters consisting of three, 5-minute aggressive encounters in the ...


Addictions, Behavioral Addictions, And Pathological Internet Use As Internet Addiction - A Literature Review, Vy K. Nguyen 2018 CUNY Bernard M Baruch College

Addictions, Behavioral Addictions, And Pathological Internet Use As Internet Addiction - A Literature Review, Vy K. Nguyen

Publications and Research

Excessive and pathological uses of the Internet are observed and discussed often in our modern conversations. Access to the Internet has become so convenient that these behaviors can lead to consequences in many areas of our lives from social relationships to academic and professional work performance. A common term that people use to address this pattern of behaviors is “Internet Addiction” or more specific ones, such as “Social Media Addiction” or “Online Gaming Addiction.” However, in clinical psychology, addiction has its own specific definitions. It refers to a category and set of criteria that are distinguished from other mental disorders ...


Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. DeMarco 2018 East Tennessee State University

Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. Demarco

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quantifying individual differences in behavior and the extent that behavior is influenced by circadian control is of paramount importance in behavioral ecology. In addition, the proximate mechanisms underlying behavior are also critical in order to obtain a more complete picture of how behavior evolves. Biogenic amines (BAs) are simple nitrogenous compounds derived from amino acids and have been consistently and extensively linked to behavior. For this study, we analyzed temporal patterns of BAs in relation to the antipredator (boldness) and aggressive behavior in female Agelenopsis pennsylvanica, a funnel-web spider. Using HPLC-ED, we compared behavioral responses to temporal patterns of octopamine ...


A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman 2018 University of Pennsylvania

A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Fnirs) Replication Of The Sunscreen Persuasion Paradigm, Shannon M. Burns, Lianne N. Barnes, Perri L. Katzman, Daniel L. Ames, Emily B. Falk, Matthew D. Lieberman

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during persuasive messages predicts future message-consistent behavior change, but there are significant limitations to the types of persuasion processes that can be invoked inside an MRI scanner. For instance, real world persuasion often involves multiple people in conversation. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows us to move out of the scanner and into more ecologically valid contexts. As a first step, the current study used fNIRS to replicate an existing fMRI persuasion paradigm (i.e. the sunscreen paradigm) to determine if mPFC shows similar predictive value with this technology. Consistent with prior fMRI work ...


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