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The Effects Of Astrocytic Derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) On Cognition And Astrocytes, Destiny Wilson 2022 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Astrocytic Derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) On Cognition And Astrocytes, Destiny Wilson

Honors Theses

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a neuroendocrine signaling hormone that plays a vital role in growth and development, as well as learning and memory. Inhibition of this hormone results in cognitive impairments like those seen with age-related decline. While a majority of research has focused on the role of IGF-1 on neurons, the role of astrocytes still needs to be explored. Our research investigates how astrocytes and cognition are affected as a result of direct regulation of localized IGF-1 production in early development and after puberty. Preliminary studies in our laboratory established a connection between IGF-1 and glial fibrillary ...


Effects Of Storage Conditions On Bpa Leaching From Infant Oral Hygiene Products Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Emma Bynum 2022 Ouachita Baptist University

Effects Of Storage Conditions On Bpa Leaching From Infant Oral Hygiene Products Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Emma Bynum

Honors Theses

Infants are at the highest risk of BPA exposure compared to any other stage of life. Because an infant’s endocrine system is developing, exposure to an endocrine-disruptor, such as BPA, can be especially harmful. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a structural component in many plastic products, which acts as an endocrine-disruptor mimicking estrogen. This hormonal disruption has been linked to obesity, reproductive issues, cardiovascular problems, and the neurodevelopment disorders. While the FDA monitors things like baby bottles, canned goods, and plastic containers for BPA, infantile oral hygiene products are not closely monitored. Previous research tested infant toothbrushes on the market using ...


Identification Of Dna Methylation Episignatures For Classification And Phenotype/Genotype Correlation In Mendelian Neurodevelopmental Disorders, John Reilly 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Identification Of Dna Methylation Episignatures For Classification And Phenotype/Genotype Correlation In Mendelian Neurodevelopmental Disorders, John Reilly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ABSTRACT: Diagnosis for neurodevelopmental disorders poses numerous challenges, related to the lack of specific findings and limited understanding of clinical impact of the majority of genetic variation. Epigenomics mechanisms involve chemical modifications in DNA that involve a range of cellular mechanisms. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism involving addition and removal of methyl groups to cytosine residues. These methylation signals form episignatures; patterns of methylation that can be used as biomarkers capable of differentiating neurodevelopmental disorders. EpiSigns have enabled molecular diagnosis of a number of genetic conditions, classification of variants of unknown significance, and provided insights into the pathophysiology of ...


Self-Conscious Emotions And The Right Fronto-Temporal And Right Temporal Parietal Junction, Adriana LaVarco, Nathira Ahmad, Qiana Archer, Matthew Pardillo, Ray Nunez Castaneda, Anthony Minervini, Julian Keenan 2022 Montclair State University

Self-Conscious Emotions And The Right Fronto-Temporal And Right Temporal Parietal Junction, Adriana Lavarco, Nathira Ahmad, Qiana Archer, Matthew Pardillo, Ray Nunez Castaneda, Anthony Minervini, Julian Keenan

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

For more than two decades, research focusing on both clinical and non-clinical populations has suggested a key role for specific regions in the regulation of self-conscious emotions. It is speculated that both the expression and the interpretation of self-conscious emotions are critical in humans for action planning and response, communication, learning, parenting, and most social encounters. Empathy, Guilt, Jealousy, Shame, and Pride are all categorized as self-conscious emotions, all of which are crucial components to one’s sense of self. There has been an abundance of evidence pointing to the right Fronto-Temporal involvement in the integration of cognitive processes underlying ...


The Lognometer: A New Normalized And Computerized Device For Assessing The Neurodevelopment Of Fine Motor Control In Children, Christian O'Reilly, Rejean Plamondon, Nadir Faci 2022 University of South Carolina - Columbia

The Lognometer: A New Normalized And Computerized Device For Assessing The Neurodevelopment Of Fine Motor Control In Children, Christian O'Reilly, Rejean Plamondon, Nadir Faci

Faculty Publications

Motor skills are fundamental for the development of children. Neurodevelopmental tests currently used by professionals for measuring motor control maturity exhibit several limitations. To address some of these, we have designed the Lognometer, a tablet-based device that can run computerized neuromotor tests. To normalize this tool against a representative population, we collected handwritten triangles from 780 children. We used the Sigma-Lognormal model and a prototype-based parameter estimation algorithm to analyze these movements. To ensure clinical acceptance, we developed an explainable solution relying on statistical regression. We evaluated how well the proposed lognormal decomposition captures the motor control maturation between 6 ...


Chronic Adolescent Stress As A Predictive Factor For The Risk Of Developing Ptsd-Like Symptoms In Adulthood, Grace K. Young 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Chronic Adolescent Stress As A Predictive Factor For The Risk Of Developing Ptsd-Like Symptoms In Adulthood, Grace K. Young

Theses and Dissertations

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a stress and trauma based psychological disorder that is defined by the DSM-IV as an anxiety disorder that affects approximately 7.8% of people in the United States. PTSD is when those who suffer a traumatic event have intense and distressing feelings, emotions, and memories for a prolonged period of time after the event. A prominent feature of PTSD is the impaired ability to properly extinguish a fear response after a dangerous trigger or stressor is no longer present, also known as safety learning. Stressors are threats perceived within the environment that activate a response within ...


Gradient Generating Microfluidic Coculture System For Disease Modeling And Neural Development, Phaneendra Chennampally 2021 University of Maine

Gradient Generating Microfluidic Coculture System For Disease Modeling And Neural Development, Phaneendra Chennampally

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cellular microenvironment or cell niche plays an important role in developmental biology and disease pathophysiology. Physical or chemical signals in microenvironment drive the cellular activity. These signaling molecules are generated from the surrounding cells/tissues as part of intercellular communication; a fundamental property of a cell. Dynamic profile of these signaling molecules in the microenvironment plays a pivotal role in transfer of molecular information from cell to cell in disease proliferation or fate determination. Recapitulating these signaling cues in an in vitro study is difficult to achieve using standard cell culture techniques. However microfluidic systems are capable of addressing these ...


Modeling Fetal Brain Development: A Semi-Automated Platform For Localization, Reconstruction, And Segmentation Of The Fetal Brain On Mri, Jianan Wang 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Modeling Fetal Brain Development: A Semi-Automated Platform For Localization, Reconstruction, And Segmentation Of The Fetal Brain On Mri, Jianan Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With advances in fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), research in neonatal neuroscience has shifted to identify in utero brain-based biomarkers for outcome prediction in high-risk fetuses, particularly those impacted by growth restriction. Volumetric segmentation of the fetal brain can provide better understanding of the trajectories of brain development and may aid in predicting functional outcomes. The current thesis aimed to develop semi-automatic methods to target deep brain structures in the fetal brain identified on MR images in fetuses with and without growth restriction. In this study, pregnant women (35-39 weeks gestational age [n=9]) with growth appropriate (n=8) and ...


The Predictive Influence Of Challenging Behavior On Parent Stress In Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Paige Weir 2021 Louisiana State University

The Predictive Influence Of Challenging Behavior On Parent Stress In Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Paige Weir

LSU Master's Theses

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication, restricted interest, and repetitive patterns of behavior. Individuals with ASD also exhibit challenging behaviors that affect parent and caregiver stress directly. However, researchers have not yet examined the predictive influence of specific challenging behaviors on parent stress, particularly in young children (i.e., infants and toddlers) with ASD. Therefore, the current study expands existing literature by a) investigating the influence that challenging behaviors of young children with ASD have on parent stress and b) examining the unique contribution that each behavior (i.e., aggressive/disruptive behavior ...


Meaningful Associations In The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, Anthony Steven Dick, David N. Kennedy, Terry L. Jernigan, Wesley K. Thompson 2021 Florida International University

Meaningful Associations In The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, Anthony Steven Dick, David N. Kennedy, Terry L. Jernigan, Wesley K. Thompson

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is the largest single-cohort prospective longitudinal study of neurodevelopment and children's health in the United States. A cohort of n = 11,880 children aged 9-10 years (and their parents/guardians) were recruited across 22 sites and are being followed with in-person visits on an annual basis for at least 10 years. The study approximates the US population on several key sociodemographic variables, including sex, race, ethnicity, household income, and parental education. Data collected include assessments of health, mental health, substance use, culture and environment and neurocognition, as well as geocoded exposures, structural ...


The Effects Of Alcohol On The Developing Drosophila Nervous System, Erica E. Hassoun 2021 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Alcohol On The Developing Drosophila Nervous System, Erica E. Hassoun

The Cardinal Edge

Ethanol is the most common human teratogen, contributing to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) when effects are the most severe. Key effects of fetal alcohol syndrome are observed in the nervous system. The high prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure necessitates novel treatment and prevention methods. However, ethical issues prevent researching humans in utero. For this reason, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a model organism for studying FAS. Because Drosophila is a small and non-placental organism, its environment can be easily controlled, allowing for specific doses and time periods of ethanol exposure to be studied. This review discusses findings ...


Intergenerational Transmission Of Functional Connectivity Profiles In Isolated Reading And Math Networks: A Scoping Review And Study Proposal, Ashini Peiris, Ira Gupta, Lien Peters, Eric D. Wilkey 2021 Western University

Intergenerational Transmission Of Functional Connectivity Profiles In Isolated Reading And Math Networks: A Scoping Review And Study Proposal, Ashini Peiris, Ira Gupta, Lien Peters, Eric D. Wilkey

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The scoping review surveyed the existing literature on the topic of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and mathematical cognition. The review revealed that rsFC is indicative of distinct long-term developmental trends in mathematical processing, alluding to individual differences in math abilities. Though there have been multiple studies that investigate individual differences in functional connectivity patterns related to math development and math learning disorders, no study has directly investigated to what degree these neurobiological factors are heritable. To address this topic, the following intergenerational transmission (IT) study is proposed. IT is the transfer of personal values, abilities, behaviours, and traits, from parents ...


Task-Based And Resting-State Functional Connectivity In Children With Dyscalculia, Ira Gupta 2021 Western University

Task-Based And Resting-State Functional Connectivity In Children With Dyscalculia, Ira Gupta

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) is a unique method in neuroimaging that measures the spontaneous neural activity as the brain is at rest, not actively undergoing any task. It is important in investigating brain patterns that result from brain regions working together throughout an individual’s development. The application of this technique has been limited in the mathematical cognition field, and thus, should be explored further. This preregistration poster focuses on the depth of the literature and studies available in regards to RSFC and math cognition through a scoping review, and then proposes a study in which task-based and resting-state functional ...


Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe 2021 University Of New Orleans

Having A High-Activity Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Allele Is Associated With Elevated Anxiety And Lower Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone But Also Lower Alpha Amylase In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome., Jessie Beebe

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from a hemizygous deletion located on the long arm of chromosome 22. The most common deletion sizes affect between 30 and 90 genes. Individuals with 22q11.2DS may develop serious developmental and psychiatric disorders. The phenotype is highly variable, however, and may be influenced by allelic variation of the retained copies of genes covered by the deletion. I set out to examine the effects of two genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), in relation to anxiety in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS. Individuals with the major COMT allele (higher activity ...


Neuronal Migration In Developmental Hyperserotonmia: Assessment Of Vesicular Glutamate In The Raphe Nuclei, Trey M. Shupp 2021 Missouri State University

Neuronal Migration In Developmental Hyperserotonmia: Assessment Of Vesicular Glutamate In The Raphe Nuclei, Trey M. Shupp

MSU Graduate Theses

The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in the early development of the central nervous system and the organization of neurons throughout the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. It is proposed that serotonin indirectly interacts with cells in the marginal zone of the cerebral cortex known as Cajal-Retizus (CR) cells. These cells secrete the extracellular matrix protein reelin, which is known for its role in neuronal organization and migration during early neural development. It has been observed that low levels of serotonin are associated with similarly low levels of reelin during development and have been reported to result in disorganization of neurons in ...


Biallelic Variants In Pcdhgc4 Cause A Novel Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Progressive Microcephaly, Seizures, And Joint Anomalies, Maria Iqbal, Reza Maroofian, Büşranur Çavdarlı, Florence Riccardi, Michael Field, Siddharth Banka, Dalal K. Bubshait, Yun Li, Jozef Hertecant, Shahid Mahmood Baig 2021 University of Cologne and University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany

Biallelic Variants In Pcdhgc4 Cause A Novel Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Progressive Microcephaly, Seizures, And Joint Anomalies, Maria Iqbal, Reza Maroofian, Büşranur Çavdarlı, Florence Riccardi, Michael Field, Siddharth Banka, Dalal K. Bubshait, Yun Li, Jozef Hertecant, Shahid Mahmood Baig

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Purpose: We aimed to define a novel autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder, characterize its clinical features, and identify the underlying genetic cause for this condition.
Methods: We performed a detailed clinical characterization of 19 individuals from nine unrelated, consanguineous families with a neurodevelopmental disorder. We used genome/exome sequencing approaches, linkage and cosegregation analyses to identify disease-causing variants, and we performed three-dimensional molecular in silico analysis to predict causality of variants where applicable.
Results: In all affected individuals who presented with a neurodevelopmental syndrome with progressive microcephaly, seizures, and intellectual disability we identified biallelic disease-causing variants in Protocadherin-gamma-C4 (PCDHGC4). Five variants ...


The Transcription Factor Lag-1/Csl Plays A Notch-Independent Role In Controlling Terminal Differentiation, Fate Maintenance, And Plasticity Of Serotonergic Chemosensory Neurons, Miren Maicas, Angela Jimeno-Martin, Andrea Millan-Trejo, Mark J. Alkema, Nuria Flames 2021 Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia IBV-CSIC

The Transcription Factor Lag-1/Csl Plays A Notch-Independent Role In Controlling Terminal Differentiation, Fate Maintenance, And Plasticity Of Serotonergic Chemosensory Neurons, Miren Maicas, Angela Jimeno-Martin, Andrea Millan-Trejo, Mark J. Alkema, Nuria Flames

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

During development, signal-regulated transcription factors (TFs) act as basal repressors and upon signalling through morphogens or cell-to-cell signalling shift to activators, mediating precise and transient responses. Conversely, at the final steps of neuron specification, terminal selector TFs directly initiate and maintain neuron-type specific gene expression through enduring functions as activators. C. elegans contains 3 types of serotonin synthesising neurons that share the expression of the serotonin biosynthesis pathway genes but not of other effector genes. Here, we find an unconventional role for LAG-1, the signal-regulated TF mediator of the Notch pathway, as terminal selector for the ADF serotonergic chemosensory neuron ...


Neuronal And Glial 3d Chromatin Architecture Informs The Cellular Etiology Of Brain Disorders, Benxia Hu, Hyejung Won, Won Mah, Royce B. Park, Bibi Kassim, Keeley Spiess, Alexey Kozlenkov, Cheynna A. Crowley, Sirisha Pochareddy, Yun Li, Stella Dracheva, Nenad Sestan, Schahram Akbarian, Daniel H. Geschwind, PsychENCODE Consortium, Eugenio Mattei, Michael J. Purcaro, Zhiping Weng, Jill E. Moore, Henry E. Pratt, Jack Huey, Tyler M. Borrman 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Neuronal And Glial 3d Chromatin Architecture Informs The Cellular Etiology Of Brain Disorders, Benxia Hu, Hyejung Won, Won Mah, Royce B. Park, Bibi Kassim, Keeley Spiess, Alexey Kozlenkov, Cheynna A. Crowley, Sirisha Pochareddy, Yun Li, Stella Dracheva, Nenad Sestan, Schahram Akbarian, Daniel H. Geschwind, Psychencode Consortium, Eugenio Mattei, Michael J. Purcaro, Zhiping Weng, Jill E. Moore, Henry E. Pratt, Jack Huey, Tyler M. Borrman

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Cellular heterogeneity in the human brain obscures the identification of robust cellular regulatory networks, which is necessary to understand the function of non-coding elements and the impact of non-coding genetic variation. Here we integrate genome-wide chromosome conformation data from purified neurons and glia with transcriptomic and enhancer profiles, to characterize the gene regulatory landscape of two major cell classes in the human brain. We then leverage cell-type-specific regulatory landscapes to gain insight into the cellular etiology of several brain disorders. We find that Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated epigenetic dysregulation is linked to neurons and oligodendrocytes, whereas genetic risk factors ...


The Neurological Asymmetry Of Self-Face Recognition, Aleksandra Janowska, Brianna Balugas, Matthew Pardillo, Victoria Mistretta, Katherine Chavarria, Janet Brenya, Taylor Shelansky, Vanessa Martinez, Kitty Pagano, Nathira Ahmad, Samantha Zorns, Abigail Straus, Sarah Sierra, Julian Keenan 2021 Montclair State University

The Neurological Asymmetry Of Self-Face Recognition, Aleksandra Janowska, Brianna Balugas, Matthew Pardillo, Victoria Mistretta, Katherine Chavarria, Janet Brenya, Taylor Shelansky, Vanessa Martinez, Kitty Pagano, Nathira Ahmad, Samantha Zorns, Abigail Straus, Sarah Sierra, Julian Keenan

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

While the desire to uncover the neural correlates of consciousness has taken numerous directions, self-face recognition has been a constant in attempts to isolate aspects of self-awareness. The neuroimaging revolution of the 1990s brought about systematic attempts to isolate the underlying neural basis of self-face recognition. These studies, including some of the first fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) examinations, revealed a right-hemisphere bias for self-face recognition in a diverse set of regions including the insula, the dorsal frontal lobe, the temporal parietal junction, and the medial temporal cortex. In this systematic review, we provide confirmation of these data (which are ...


Targeting Ampa Receptor Modulation During Early Life Adversity: A Mediator For Threat Associated Memories, Roseanna M. Zanca 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Targeting Ampa Receptor Modulation During Early Life Adversity: A Mediator For Threat Associated Memories, Roseanna M. Zanca

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Early life adversity (ELA) is the exposure to a single or to multiple traumatic events before the age of 18 that go beyond the child’s coping. These adverse events are often exacerbated during adolescence particularly when cognitive performance is compromised. Adolescents who experienced ELA may show symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while not vividly recalling the early life trauma. These individuals show atypical connectivity between prefrontal-amygdala and hippocampus, all of which is associated with an increased risk of experiencing a traumatic event again later in life. While clinical research has increasingly stressed the importance in addressing the long-lasting ...


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