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Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Early Life Immune And Physical Stress Directly Influences Anxiety-Like Behaviour In Adolescent Rats: Examining Sex Differences, Jordan M. Ward 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Early Life Immune And Physical Stress Directly Influences Anxiety-Like Behaviour In Adolescent Rats: Examining Sex Differences, Jordan M. Ward

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examined the effects of neonatal acute immune activation with the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal days 3 and 5 on adolescent anxiety-like behaviour in rats before and after a stress period. Previous research has shown that adults rats exposed to LPS during the neonatal stage show anxiety-like behaviour following a period of stress. This thesis investigated this effect in adolescence. The present results showed significantly higher anxiety-like behaviour in saline controls, and a potential neuroprotective effect of low dose LPS (15 µg/kg) contrary to what was reported in adult rats. As well, a phase of stressful, aversive ...


Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Environmental conditions imposed onto organisms during certain phases of their life cycles such as embryogenesis or puberty can not only impact the organisms’ own health, but also affect subsequent generations. The underlying mechanisms causing intergenerational phenotypes are not encoded in the genome, but the result of reversible epigenetic modifications. This work investigates in a mouse model the impact of paternal nicotine exposure on the next generation regarding addictive behavior modulation, metabolic changes, and molecular mechanisms. It provides evidence that male offspring from nicotine-exposed fathers (NIC offspring) is more resistant to lethal doses of nicotine. This phenotype is gender-specific and depends ...


Molecular And Pathological Analyses Of Three New Mouse Mutations That Affect Ear Development And Function, Cong Tian 2017 University of Maine

Molecular And Pathological Analyses Of Three New Mouse Mutations That Affect Ear Development And Function, Cong Tian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents three new mouse models that help to study the functions of Enpp1, Atp6v1b1, and Tbx1 for ear development and function. asj (aging with stiffened joints) carries a missense mutation in the mouse Enpp1 gene. Enpp1 encodes the enzyme ENPP1 that regulate soft-tissue calcification and bone mineralization, and is associated with generalized arterial calcification of infancy and hypophosphatemic rickets in human patients. asj mutant mice show severe middle ear infection and tissue calcification, which provide a new mouse model to study otitis media and tympanoscleorosis. Atp6v1b1 encode a protein that is a subunit of the V-ATPase pump, which ...


Understanding The Structure Of Amyloid Fibrils Using Atomic Force Microscopy (Afm) To Design New Therapeutic Strategies For Neurodegenerative Diseases, Sumeyra Gokalp, Michelle Foster 2017 University of Massachusetts Boston

Understanding The Structure Of Amyloid Fibrils Using Atomic Force Microscopy (Afm) To Design New Therapeutic Strategies For Neurodegenerative Diseases, Sumeyra Gokalp, Michelle Foster

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Amyloid fibrils are misfolded proteins that are irreversible once they are formed. In human beings, there are different kinds of proteins that form into amyloid fibrils and are associated with several degenerative diseases. For example, insulin, Huntington, Amyloid β-42 and α- synuclein proteins are linked with Type-2 Diabetes, Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, respectively. The mechanism for the misfolding and creation of the fibrils is thought to be the same for all of these proteins. Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL) is a low-cost and widely recognized model protein to work with to help us understand the mechanisms ...


Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith 2017 Abilene Christian University

Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

More than 40% of nurses reported experiencing significant burnout. Burnout is characterized by disengagement, cynicism, negative views of personal accomplishment and ability, and emotional exhaustion. The healthcare providers that experience burnout can possibly expect a decrease in ability to recognize/report errors, increase of negative feelings toward the patient, and decrease levels of patient satisfaction (Ernest, 2014). One of the ways Schub (2015) suggested to regulate burnout for employees was to provide psychosocial support to colleagues to reduce stress. This study is one of the first attempts to bridge the gap between the unknown correlation between qualitative and quantitative benefits ...


Neurostructural Organization And Neocortical Projecting Neuron Distribution In A Mouse Model Of Timothy Syndrome-Mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder, Aiden L. Ford 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Neurostructural Organization And Neocortical Projecting Neuron Distribution In A Mouse Model Of Timothy Syndrome-Mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder, Aiden L. Ford

Honors Scholar Theses

Aims: This study investigates the nuanced effect of the CACNA1C mutation on neurocognition and neurodevelopment via an extended study of the Timothy Syndrome (TS) mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) mouse model – TS2-neo. It includes: (1) an expanded assessment of the TS2-neo behavioral phenotype, and (2) a comprehensive histological analysis of cortical structural and laminar features.

Methods: 24 age-matched male mice – 12 TS2-neo (B6.Cg-Cacna1ctm2Itl, knock-in G406R mutation), 12 WT (C57BL/6J) – were tested on paradigms examining motor, socio-communicative and cognitive abilities. Neural tissue was processed for either volumetric analysis through Nissl stain (8 TS2-neo, 8 WT) or immunohistochemical ...


Do Microglia Play An Active Role In Developmental Neuronal Cell Death?, Andrew Jacobs 2017 Georgia State University

Do Microglia Play An Active Role In Developmental Neuronal Cell Death?, Andrew Jacobs

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Observing The Functional Maturation Of The Female Prefrontal Cortex Using Ventral Hippocampal Stimulation, Lily E. Veldran 2017 Lake Forest College

Observing The Functional Maturation Of The Female Prefrontal Cortex Using Ventral Hippocampal Stimulation, Lily E. Veldran

Senior Theses

Adolescence is a time when the brain continues to mature. Specifically the prefrontal cortex (PFC) goes through a process of disinhibition to inhibition as we age. Inputs to this region have a frequency dependent maturation pattern in male rats, but this has not been studied in females. We focused on frequency dependent responses in the medial PFC that are evoked by stimulation to the ventral hippocampus. This was conducted by measuring Local Field Potential responses in the medial PFC via in vivo electrophysiology. We found that stimulating with a 10 Hz train response showed no difference across age groups. In ...


Insights Into Electrosensory Organ Development, Physiology And Evolution From A Lateral Line-Enriched Transcriptome, Melinda S. Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R. Carr, Harold H. Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S. Campbell, Marcus C. Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare VH Baker 2017 Kennesaw State University

Insights Into Electrosensory Organ Development, Physiology And Evolution From A Lateral Line-Enriched Transcriptome, Melinda S. Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R. Carr, Harold H. Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S. Campbell, Marcus C. Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare Vh Baker

Marcus C Davis

The anamniote lateral line system, comprising mechanosensory neuromasts and
electrosensory ampullary organs, is a useful model for investigating the developmental and
evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. Zebrafish neuromast development is
increasingly well understood, but neither zebrafish nor Xenopus is electroreceptive and our
molecular understanding of ampullary organ development is rudimentary. We have used RNA-seq
to generate a lateral line-enriched gene-set from late-larval paddlefish (Polyodon spathula).
Validation of a subset reveals expression in developing ampullary organs of transcription factor
genes critical for hair cell development, and genes essential for glutamate release at hair cell
ribbon synapses, suggesting close ...


P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad 2017 Western University

P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad

Western Research Forum

Background

Altered brain development is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Environmental insults can interfere with neurodevelopment, and a prominent example is maternal infection during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies show that children born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy display a higher risk of developing ASD and schizophrenia, and this effect is mainly due to the maternal immune response. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) is a double stranded RNA molecule that mimics viral markers and elicits an immune response. When injected in pregnant rodents, this model produces offspring that exhibit core symptoms of ASD ...


Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl 2017 University of New Mexico

Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl

Gina M. Vincent

Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n=100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV ...


Brain Microvasculature Defects And Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome Averted By Early Repletion Of The Glucose Transporter-1 Protein, Maoxue Tang, Guangping Gao, Huapeng Li, Qin Su, Darryl C. De Vivo, Umrao R. Monani 2017 Columbia University Medical Center

Brain Microvasculature Defects And Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome Averted By Early Repletion Of The Glucose Transporter-1 Protein, Maoxue Tang, Guangping Gao, Huapeng Li, Qin Su, Darryl C. De Vivo, Umrao R. Monani

Open Access Articles

Haploinsufficiency of the SLC2A1 gene and paucity of its translated product, the glucose transporter-1 (Glut1) protein, disrupt brain function and cause the neurodevelopmental disorder, Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). There is little to suggest how reduced Glut1 causes cognitive dysfunction and no optimal treatment for Glut1 DS. We used model mice to demonstrate that low Glut1 protein arrests cerebral angiogenesis, resulting in a profound diminution of the brain microvasculature without compromising the blood-brain barrier. Studies to define the temporal requirements for Glut1 reveal that pre-symptomatic, AAV9-mediated repletion of the protein averts brain microvasculature defects and prevents disease, whereas augmenting the ...


Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs And The Impact On Fetal Growth And Brain Development, Andrew Ghaly 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs And The Impact On Fetal Growth And Brain Development, Andrew Ghaly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs results in placental structural abnormalities that reduce nutrient transport contributing to fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether brain weights are similarly reduced, or preserved by “brain sparing” mechanisms, and whether energy levels are depleted leading to membrane failure and overt injury remains unknown. Guinea pig sows were fed ad libitum (Controls) or 70% of the control diet pre-pregnant switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Animals were necropsied near term for fetal growth measures and fetal brains were assessed for markers of necrotic cell injury, apoptotic cell injury, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and altered development ...


Functional Requirements For Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis In Morphogenesis And Nervous System Development In C. Elegans, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N. Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y. Benard 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Functional Requirements For Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis In Morphogenesis And Nervous System Development In C. Elegans, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N. Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y. Benard

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation. In humans, mutations in either of the exostosin genes EXT1 and EXT2 lead to osteosarcomas or multiple exostoses. Complete loss of any of the exostosin glycosyltransferases in mouse, fish, flies ...


Changes In Postural Sway Behavior Across The Life Span, Maria M B N R Santos 2017 University of Montana

Changes In Postural Sway Behavior Across The Life Span, Maria M B N R Santos

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The present study aimed to investigate human balance control by assessing postural sway on three groups representing three stages of life (6-12, 19-40 and 65-74 years old). There were 14 individuals in each group and they were tested during upright bipedal stance with either eyes open or closed. Focus was given to multiple sway indices representing multi-dimensional features of postural sway in quiet stance and included: the center of pressure area, amplitude, root mean square (RMS), velocity, jerkiness, and sample entropy. Results confirmed that children and seniors swayed more (p<.004), faster (p<.001) and their body sway was shakier (p<.001) than young adults. Seniors also presented faster (p<.006) and shakier (p<.001) sway than children and a more unpredictable pattern of body sway in time (p<.002) than children and young adults. In addition, children presented a more random anterior-posterior sway (p<.034) and a more regular medio-lateral sway (p<.043) than young adults, and a higher synchronization between anterior-posterior and medio-lateral body sway (p<.012) than young adults and seniors. We also observed that postural control of children and young adults becomes relatively more challenged in experimental situations when eyes were closed for most postural indices. In conclusion, this study suggests that multi-dimension posturography is sensitive to detect subtle age-related changes in the postural behavior and each stage of life may have their own signature patterns of postural behavior. Therefore, we expect that quantifications of this nature may be used to assess not only postural instability and fall risk but also to aid the testing of the efficacy of balance interventional protocols.


Characterizing The Role Of Key Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Components In Axon Guidance, Grayland W. Godfrey II 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterizing The Role Of Key Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Components In Axon Guidance, Grayland W. Godfrey Ii

Theses and Dissertations

An essential process to the development of the neural network of the nervous system is axon guidance. The noncanonical Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity pathway has been identified as an integral component in controlling the projection of axons during axon guidance. Prickle, ROR1 and ROR2 are PCP related proteins that do not have clearly defined roles in the process. This study aims to use zebrafish CoPA neurons as a model to study the roles of Prickle, ROR1, and ROR2 in axon guidance. Using in situ hybridization, morpholino knockdown, and CRISPR/Cas9 loss of function experiments were able to identify ror1, ror2 ...


Pearls And Perils Of Pupillometry Using A Webcam, Mason Kadem, Rhodri Cusack 2017 Western University

Pearls And Perils Of Pupillometry Using A Webcam, Mason Kadem, Rhodri Cusack

Undergraduate Honors Posters

Current methods to measure infants’ cognitive repertoire (i.e., collection of cognitive abilities) are limited. Previous testing paradigms required acquisition of non-age contextualized responses, and relied on measures that involved acquisition of other functions (e.g., language, motor). In addition to response limitations, cognitive functions may be difficult to observe in infants due to the difficulty in infant recruitment. Online testing has increased infant recruitment efforts and physiological responses have bypassed the motor, behavioural and linguistic limitations of infants. Recently, it has been shown that heart rate measures can be acquired through a webcam. Another feasible and reliable physiological measure ...


Complementary Multimodal Compartments In The Developing Inferior Colliculus, Roxana Behrooz 2017 James Madison University

Complementary Multimodal Compartments In The Developing Inferior Colliculus, Roxana Behrooz

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

The auditory system is responsible for detecting, encoding, and deciphering hearing. The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major relay hub situated in the midbrain, that is subdivided into a central nucleus, and surrounding dorsal and lateral cortices. The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) is organized tonotopically based on a frequency gradient and strictly processes auditory information. In contrast, recent studies show that the lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus (LCIC) is actually multimodal, receiving inputs from not just auditory sources, but also somatosensory and visual structures. The precise organization of patterned inputs to the LCIC and their development ...


Prosociality And Risk: How Risky Decision-Making In Young Adults Relates To Altruistic Tendencies, Empathic Concern, And Prosocial Peer Affiliation, Sarah J. Beard 2017 University of North Florida

Prosociality And Risk: How Risky Decision-Making In Young Adults Relates To Altruistic Tendencies, Empathic Concern, And Prosocial Peer Affiliation, Sarah J. Beard

UNF Theses and Dissertations

Adolescence involves an increase in risky decisions, such as reckless driving and illicit substance use, but prosocial characteristics and peer affiliation have yet to be investigated as protective factors. The present study assessed altruistic tendencies, prosocial peer affiliation (PPA), and empathic concern as predictors and moderators of risk-taking, including both self-reported health risks and riskiness in a behavioral task. Young adults from ages 20 to 25 (M = 22.55, SD = 1.38) completed a battery of behavioral tasks (including the Balloon Analogue Risk Task and the Dictator Game) and questionnaires on Amazon MTurk, measuring risk-taking (drunk driving, texting while driving ...


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