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Do Microglia Play An Active Role In Developmental Neuronal Cell Death?, Andrew Jacobs 2017 Georgia State University

Do Microglia Play An Active Role In Developmental Neuronal Cell Death?, Andrew Jacobs

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad 2017 Western University

P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad

Western Research Forum

Background

Altered brain development is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Environmental insults can interfere with neurodevelopment, and a prominent example is maternal infection during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies show that children born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy display a higher risk of developing ASD and schizophrenia, and this effect is mainly due to the maternal immune response. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) is a double stranded RNA molecule that mimics viral markers and elicits an immune response. When injected in pregnant rodents, this model produces offspring that exhibit core symptoms of ASD ...


Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl 2017 University of New Mexico

Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl

Gina M. Vincent

Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n=100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV ...


Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs And The Impact On Fetal Growth And Brain Development, Andrew Ghaly 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs And The Impact On Fetal Growth And Brain Development, Andrew Ghaly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs results in placental structural abnormalities that reduce nutrient transport contributing to fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether brain weights are similarly reduced, or preserved by “brain sparing” mechanisms, and whether energy levels are depleted leading to membrane failure and overt injury remains unknown. Guinea pig sows were fed ad libitum (Controls) or 70% of the control diet pre-pregnant switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Animals were necropsied near term for fetal growth measures and fetal brains were assessed for markers of necrotic cell injury, apoptotic cell injury, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and altered development ...


Functional Requirements For Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis In Morphogenesis And Nervous System Development In C. Elegans, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N. Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y. Benard 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Functional Requirements For Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis In Morphogenesis And Nervous System Development In C. Elegans, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N. Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y. Benard

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation. In humans, mutations in either of the exostosin genes EXT1 and EXT2 lead to osteosarcomas or multiple exostoses. Complete loss of any of the exostosin glycosyltransferases in mouse, fish, flies ...


Pearls And Perils Of Pupillometry Using A Webcam, Mason Kadem, Rhodri Cusack 2017 Western University

Pearls And Perils Of Pupillometry Using A Webcam, Mason Kadem, Rhodri Cusack

Undergraduate Honors Posters

Current methods to measure infants’ cognitive repertoire (i.e., collection of cognitive abilities) are limited. Previous testing paradigms required acquisition of non-age contextualized responses, and relied on measures that involved acquisition of other functions (e.g., language, motor). In addition to response limitations, cognitive functions may be difficult to observe in infants due to the difficulty in infant recruitment. Online testing has increased infant recruitment efforts and physiological responses have bypassed the motor, behavioural and linguistic limitations of infants. Recently, it has been shown that heart rate measures can be acquired through a webcam. Another feasible and reliable physiological measure ...


Tasting Sounds: A Review Of Synesthesia Mechanism Theories, Macy A. Watson 2016 University of Wyoming

Tasting Sounds: A Review Of Synesthesia Mechanism Theories, Macy A. Watson

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Synesthesia is a neural phenomenon in which stimulation of a particular sense consistently activates an abnormal perception in another sense. While much research has been conducted into this condition, the exact neural mechanisms that give rise to this condition have not yet been identified. The first part of this review introduces background information on the types of synesthesia that have been identified, as well as key aspects about the condition that differentiate it from other neurological conditions. The review then considers current theories on the neural mechanisms that could give rise to synesthesia, and why determining a conclusive cause is ...


Radial Glia Regulate Vascular Patterning Around The Developing Spinal Cord, Ryota L. Matsuoka, Michele Marass, Avdesh Avdesh, Christian S.M. Helker, Hans-Martin Maischein, Ann S. Grosse, Harmandeep Kaur, Nathan D. Lawson, Wiebke Herzog, Didier Y.R. Stainier 2016 Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research

Radial Glia Regulate Vascular Patterning Around The Developing Spinal Cord, Ryota L. Matsuoka, Michele Marass, Avdesh Avdesh, Christian S.M. Helker, Hans-Martin Maischein, Ann S. Grosse, Harmandeep Kaur, Nathan D. Lawson, Wiebke Herzog, Didier Y.R. Stainier

Open Access Articles

Vascular networks surrounding individual organs are important for their development, maintenance, and function; however, how these networks are assembled remains poorly understood. Here we show that CNS progenitors, referred to as radial glia, modulate vascular patterning around the spinal cord by acting as negative regulators. We found that radial glia ablation in zebrafish embryos leads to excessive sprouting of the trunk vessels around the spinal cord, and exclusively those of venous identity. Mechanistically, we determined that radial glia control this process via the Vegf decoy receptor sFlt1: sflt1 mutants exhibit the venous over-sprouting observed in radial glia-ablated larvae, and sFlt1 ...


Brain Networks Supporting Literacy Development, Iris J. Broce 2016 Florida International University

Brain Networks Supporting Literacy Development, Iris J. Broce

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The development of fluent reading requires coordinated development of key fiber pathways. While several fiber pathways have been implicated in reading, including the recently re-identified vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), arcuate fasciculus and its 3 components, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), whether these fiber pathways support reading in young children with little to no exposure to print remains poorly understood. Consequently, over the course of three studies, the current dissertation aimed to narrow this research gap by addressing the following research questions: 1) Which fiber pathways support early literacy skill in young children 5-10 years old? 2 ...


Mechanisms Of Synaptic Development And Premature Aging In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Yihang Li 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mechanisms Of Synaptic Development And Premature Aging In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Yihang Li

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Development and aging, two fundamental aspects of life, remain key biological processes that researchers try to understand. Drosophila melanogaster, thanks to its various merits, serves as an excellent model to study both of these processes. This thesis includes two parts. In the first part, I discuss our finding that the presynaptic neuron controls a retrograde signaling pathway by releasing essential components via exosomes. During synaptic development, postsynaptic cells send retrograde signals to adjust the activity and growth of presynaptic cells. It remains unclear what the mechanism is which triggers the release of retrograde signals; and how presynaptic cells are involved ...


Impaired Neurodevelopment By The Low Complexity Domain Of Cpeb4 Reveals A Convergent Pathway With Neurodegeneration, Jihae Shin, Johnny S. Salameh, Joel D. Richter 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Impaired Neurodevelopment By The Low Complexity Domain Of Cpeb4 Reveals A Convergent Pathway With Neurodegeneration, Jihae Shin, Johnny S. Salameh, Joel D. Richter

Open Access Articles

CPEB4 is an RNA binding protein expressed in neuronal tissues including brain and spinal cord. CPEB4 has two domains: one that is structured for RNA binding and one that is unstructured and low complexity that has no known function. Unstructured low complexity domains (LCDs) in proteins are often found in RNA-binding proteins and have been implicated in motor neuron degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, indicating that these regions mediate normal RNA processing as well as pathological events. While CPEB4 null knockout mice are normal, animals expressing only the CPEB4 LCD are neonatal lethal with impaired mobility that display ...


Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl 2016 University of New Mexico

Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n=100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


Prenatal Exposure To Social Stress Alters Adult Behavior In Syrian Hamsters, Genna Jones 2016 Neuroscience

Prenatal Exposure To Social Stress Alters Adult Behavior In Syrian Hamsters, Genna Jones

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Molecular Mechanisms Of Assembly And Long-Term Maintenance Of Neuronal Architecture: A Dissertation, Cassandra R. Blanchette 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Molecular Mechanisms Of Assembly And Long-Term Maintenance Of Neuronal Architecture: A Dissertation, Cassandra R. Blanchette

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Nervous system function is closely tied to its structure, which ensures proper connectivity and neural activity. Neuronal architecture is assembled by a series of morphogenetic events, including the coordinated migrations of neurons and axons during development. Subsequently, the neuronal architecture established earlier must persist in the face of further growth, maturation of the nervous system, and the mechanical stress of body movements. In this work, we have shed light on the molecular mechanisms governing both the initial assembly of the nervous system and the long-term maintenance of neural circuits. In particular, we identified heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) as regulators of ...


Dyslexia And Language Impairment Associated Genetic Markers Influence Cortical Thickness And White Matter In Typically Developing Children, John D. Eicher, Jean A. Frazier, David N. Kennedy, Jeffrey R. Gruen, Pediatric Imaging Neurocognition Genetics Study 2016 Yale University

Dyslexia And Language Impairment Associated Genetic Markers Influence Cortical Thickness And White Matter In Typically Developing Children, John D. Eicher, Jean A. Frazier, David N. Kennedy, Jeffrey R. Gruen, Pediatric Imaging Neurocognition Genetics Study

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Dyslexia and language impairment (LI) are complex traits with substantial genetic components. We recently completed an association scan of the DYX2 locus, where we observed associations of markers in DCDC2, KIAA0319, ACOT13, and FAM65B with reading-, language-, and IQ-related traits. Additionally, the effects of reading-associated DYX3 markers were recently characterized using structural neuroimaging techniques. Here, we assessed the neuroimaging implications of associated DYX2 and DYX3 markers, using cortical volume, cortical thickness, and fractional anisotropy. To accomplish this, we examined eight DYX2 and three DYX3 markers in 332 subjects in the Pediatrics Imaging Neurocognition Genetics study. Imaging-genetic associations were examined by ...


Roles Of Planar Cell Polarity Proteins In Copa Axon Pathfinding, Ashley Morgan Purdy 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Roles Of Planar Cell Polarity Proteins In Copa Axon Pathfinding, Ashley Morgan Purdy

Theses and Dissertations

In zebrafish, CoPA (Commissural Primary Ascending) is the first among ascending commissural axons to pathfind anteriorly and form the spinal commissure. One pathway that guides their anterior growth is the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, but it is not fully known how PCP signaling regulates anterior guidance. We examined CoPA pathfinding in various PCP mutants to determine if anterior-posterior (A-P) guidance of CoPAs is dependent on PCP signaling. We found that certain PCP mutants exhibited anterior pathfinding defects, with approximately half of all affected CoPAs migrating incorrectly posteriorly. By using a translation-blocking DCC (Deleted in Colorectal ...


Early Neurodevelopment: Notch Signaling, Axial Differentiation, Brain Patterning, And Neurogenesis, Adrian M. Bebenek '17 2016 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Early Neurodevelopment: Notch Signaling, Axial Differentiation, Brain Patterning, And Neurogenesis, Adrian M. Bebenek '17

Independent Study

The vastly complex, delicate nature of the nervous system calls for a highly effective development system. The development of the nervous system begins early in embryogenesis and is one of the last systems to be completed after birth. Deemed to be one of the most important steps in the evolutionary progression towards sophisticated life, the pathways regulating neurodevelopment are highly specialized and conserved. Embryonic neurodevelopment is an important starting point for the understanding of brain anatomy, function, and its neurobiology. The past few decades have brought about numerous technological advancements allowing for the study of the earliest stages of embryonic ...


Alignment Of Neurochemically Defined Modules In Multimodal Aspects Of The Mouse Inferior Colliculus., Chris H. Dillingham 2016 James Madison University

Alignment Of Neurochemically Defined Modules In Multimodal Aspects Of The Mouse Inferior Colliculus., Chris H. Dillingham

Senior Honors Projects

Processing of sound requires precise coordination of various levels of the auditory system. Auditory reflexes and orientation behaviors require interactions with other systems and modalities, emphasizing the importance of highly organized integrative circuits. The inferior colliculus (IC) is a unique midbrain structure in that it exhibits aspects that are specifically arranged for processing auditory cues, as well as regions that handle multisensory inputs and thereby exhibit an entirely different organization. While the central nucleus of the IC (CNIC) is primarily auditory and arranged tonotopically, the lateral cortex (LCIC) is multimodal and exhibits a unique array of modular and extramodular fields ...


Using Spiral Dynamic Theory For Adult Civic Engagement Research And Social Justice Education, Lisa R. Brown 2016 University of Georgia

Using Spiral Dynamic Theory For Adult Civic Engagement Research And Social Justice Education, Lisa R. Brown

Adult Education Research Conference

Empirical civic engagement research based in a South American context. Participants included adult learner populations engaged in revolutionary protests that opposed private for-profit education in Chile. Findings were higher order Spiral Dynamic Theory thinking at the for-profits and lower civic engagement.


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