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Biological Signatures Of Emotion Regulation In Children, Sarah Myruski 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Biological Signatures Of Emotion Regulation In Children, Sarah Myruski

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Emotion regulation (ER) is a key predictor of positive adjustment throughout the lifespan. Despite decades of research on discrete ER strategy use, ER may be more appropriately measured in terms of the breadth of emotional range, or the degree to which one can flexibly modulate emotional responses. Yet little is known about ER flexibility in childhood. Also, given the crucial role of caregiver support in children’s emotional lives, ER may be most accurately measured in developmentally appropriate and ecologically valid social contexts. Further, few developmental studies have capitalized on the growing evidence base surrounding biological signatures of ER. This ...


Creativity, Laterality And Critical State Balance In Learning, Jenny Rock, Asher Flatt 2017 University of Otago

Creativity, Laterality And Critical State Balance In Learning, Jenny Rock, Asher Flatt

The STEAM Journal

Understanding the intersecting cognitive pathways that are integral to ways of thinking, creating and functioning in both art and science is an important grounding for a STEAM educational approach. We combine three divergent concepts, including creativity, hemisphere laterality, and critical state theory, to argue for a more balanced approach to learning as part of a modern meaning-centered education in STEAM. Reviewing the concept of hemisphere laterality, or how the two hemispheres of our brain have different (though not disconnected) ways of processing sensory information, we note how these two means of interpreting the world have become unbalanced in traditional modes ...


Jennifer Maurer Phd Thesis.Pdf, Jennifer Maurer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Jennifer Maurer Phd Thesis.Pdf, Jennifer Maurer

Jennifer Maurer


Signaling cascades, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, play vital roles in early vertebrate development. Signals through these pathways are initiated by a growth factor or hormone, are transduced through a kinase cascade, and result in the expression of specific downstream genes that promote cellular proliferation, growth, or differentiation.Tight regulation of these signals is provided by positive or negative modulators at varying levels in the pathway, and is required for proper development and function. Two members of the dual-specificity phosphatase (Dusp) family, dusp6 and dusp2, are believed to be negative regulators of the ERK pathway and are ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Early Life Immune And Physical Stress Directly Influences Anxiety-Like Behaviour In Adolescent Rats: Examining Sex Differences, Jordan M. Ward 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Early Life Immune And Physical Stress Directly Influences Anxiety-Like Behaviour In Adolescent Rats: Examining Sex Differences, Jordan M. Ward

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examined the effects of neonatal acute immune activation with the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal days 3 and 5 on adolescent anxiety-like behaviour in rats before and after a stress period. Previous research has shown that adults rats exposed to LPS during the neonatal stage show anxiety-like behaviour following a period of stress. This thesis investigated this effect in adolescence. The present results showed significantly higher anxiety-like behaviour in saline controls, and a potential neuroprotective effect of low dose LPS (15 µg/kg) contrary to what was reported in adult rats. As well, a phase of stressful, aversive ...


Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Environmental conditions imposed onto organisms during certain phases of their life cycles such as embryogenesis or puberty can not only impact the organisms’ own health, but also affect subsequent generations. The underlying mechanisms causing intergenerational phenotypes are not encoded in the genome, but the result of reversible epigenetic modifications. This work investigates in a mouse model the impact of paternal nicotine exposure on the next generation regarding addictive behavior modulation, metabolic changes, and molecular mechanisms. It provides evidence that male offspring from nicotine-exposed fathers (NIC offspring) is more resistant to lethal doses of nicotine. This phenotype is gender-specific and depends ...


Molecular And Pathological Analyses Of Three New Mouse Mutations That Affect Ear Development And Function, Cong Tian 2017 University of Maine

Molecular And Pathological Analyses Of Three New Mouse Mutations That Affect Ear Development And Function, Cong Tian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents three new mouse models that help to study the functions of Enpp1, Atp6v1b1, and Tbx1 for ear development and function. asj (aging with stiffened joints) carries a missense mutation in the mouse Enpp1 gene. Enpp1 encodes the enzyme ENPP1 that regulate soft-tissue calcification and bone mineralization, and is associated with generalized arterial calcification of infancy and hypophosphatemic rickets in human patients. asj mutant mice show severe middle ear infection and tissue calcification, which provide a new mouse model to study otitis media and tympanoscleorosis. Atp6v1b1 encode a protein that is a subunit of the V-ATPase pump, which ...


Understanding The Structure Of Amyloid Fibrils Using Atomic Force Microscopy (Afm) To Design New Therapeutic Strategies For Neurodegenerative Diseases, Sumeyra Gokalp, Michelle Foster 2017 University of Massachusetts Boston

Understanding The Structure Of Amyloid Fibrils Using Atomic Force Microscopy (Afm) To Design New Therapeutic Strategies For Neurodegenerative Diseases, Sumeyra Gokalp, Michelle Foster

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Amyloid fibrils are misfolded proteins that are irreversible once they are formed. In human beings, there are different kinds of proteins that form into amyloid fibrils and are associated with several degenerative diseases. For example, insulin, Huntington, Amyloid β-42 and α- synuclein proteins are linked with Type-2 Diabetes, Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, respectively. The mechanism for the misfolding and creation of the fibrils is thought to be the same for all of these proteins. Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL) is a low-cost and widely recognized model protein to work with to help us understand the mechanisms ...


Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith 2017 Abilene Christian University

Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

More than 40% of nurses reported experiencing significant burnout. Burnout is characterized by disengagement, cynicism, negative views of personal accomplishment and ability, and emotional exhaustion. The healthcare providers that experience burnout can possibly expect a decrease in ability to recognize/report errors, increase of negative feelings toward the patient, and decrease levels of patient satisfaction (Ernest, 2014). One of the ways Schub (2015) suggested to regulate burnout for employees was to provide psychosocial support to colleagues to reduce stress. This study is one of the first attempts to bridge the gap between the unknown correlation between qualitative and quantitative benefits ...


Neurostructural Organization And Neocortical Projecting Neuron Distribution In A Mouse Model Of Timothy Syndrome-Mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder, Aiden L. Ford 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Neurostructural Organization And Neocortical Projecting Neuron Distribution In A Mouse Model Of Timothy Syndrome-Mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder, Aiden L. Ford

Honors Scholar Theses

Aims: This study investigates the nuanced effect of the CACNA1C mutation on neurocognition and neurodevelopment via an extended study of the Timothy Syndrome (TS) mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) mouse model – TS2-neo. It includes: (1) an expanded assessment of the TS2-neo behavioral phenotype, and (2) a comprehensive histological analysis of cortical structural and laminar features.

Methods: 24 age-matched male mice – 12 TS2-neo (B6.Cg-Cacna1ctm2Itl, knock-in G406R mutation), 12 WT (C57BL/6J) – were tested on paradigms examining motor, socio-communicative and cognitive abilities. Neural tissue was processed for either volumetric analysis through Nissl stain (8 TS2-neo, 8 WT) or immunohistochemical ...


Do Microglia Play An Active Role In Developmental Neuronal Cell Death?, Andrew Jacobs 2017 Georgia State University

Do Microglia Play An Active Role In Developmental Neuronal Cell Death?, Andrew Jacobs

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Observing The Functional Maturation Of The Female Prefrontal Cortex Using Ventral Hippocampal Stimulation, Lily E. Veldran 2017 Lake Forest College

Observing The Functional Maturation Of The Female Prefrontal Cortex Using Ventral Hippocampal Stimulation, Lily E. Veldran

Senior Theses

Adolescence is a time when the brain continues to mature. Specifically the prefrontal cortex (PFC) goes through a process of disinhibition to inhibition as we age. Inputs to this region have a frequency dependent maturation pattern in male rats, but this has not been studied in females. We focused on frequency dependent responses in the medial PFC that are evoked by stimulation to the ventral hippocampus. This was conducted by measuring Local Field Potential responses in the medial PFC via in vivo electrophysiology. We found that stimulating with a 10 Hz train response showed no difference across age groups. In ...


Insights Into Electrosensory Organ Development, Physiology And Evolution From A Lateral Line-Enriched Transcriptome, Melinda S. Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R. Carr, Harold H. Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S. Campbell, Marcus C. Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare VH Baker 2017 Kennesaw State University

Insights Into Electrosensory Organ Development, Physiology And Evolution From A Lateral Line-Enriched Transcriptome, Melinda S. Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R. Carr, Harold H. Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S. Campbell, Marcus C. Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare Vh Baker

Marcus C Davis

The anamniote lateral line system, comprising mechanosensory neuromasts and
electrosensory ampullary organs, is a useful model for investigating the developmental and
evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. Zebrafish neuromast development is
increasingly well understood, but neither zebrafish nor Xenopus is electroreceptive and our
molecular understanding of ampullary organ development is rudimentary. We have used RNA-seq
to generate a lateral line-enriched gene-set from late-larval paddlefish (Polyodon spathula).
Validation of a subset reveals expression in developing ampullary organs of transcription factor
genes critical for hair cell development, and genes essential for glutamate release at hair cell
ribbon synapses, suggesting close ...


P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad 2017 Western University

P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad

Western Research Forum

Background

Altered brain development is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Environmental insults can interfere with neurodevelopment, and a prominent example is maternal infection during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies show that children born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy display a higher risk of developing ASD and schizophrenia, and this effect is mainly due to the maternal immune response. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) is a double stranded RNA molecule that mimics viral markers and elicits an immune response. When injected in pregnant rodents, this model produces offspring that exhibit core symptoms of ASD ...


Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl 2017 University of New Mexico

Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl

Gina M. Vincent

Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n=100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV ...


Brain Microvasculature Defects And Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome Averted By Early Repletion Of The Glucose Transporter-1 Protein, Maoxue Tang, Guangping Gao, Huapeng Li, Qin Su, Darryl C. De Vivo, Umrao R. Monani 2017 Columbia University Medical Center

Brain Microvasculature Defects And Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome Averted By Early Repletion Of The Glucose Transporter-1 Protein, Maoxue Tang, Guangping Gao, Huapeng Li, Qin Su, Darryl C. De Vivo, Umrao R. Monani

Open Access Articles

Haploinsufficiency of the SLC2A1 gene and paucity of its translated product, the glucose transporter-1 (Glut1) protein, disrupt brain function and cause the neurodevelopmental disorder, Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). There is little to suggest how reduced Glut1 causes cognitive dysfunction and no optimal treatment for Glut1 DS. We used model mice to demonstrate that low Glut1 protein arrests cerebral angiogenesis, resulting in a profound diminution of the brain microvasculature without compromising the blood-brain barrier. Studies to define the temporal requirements for Glut1 reveal that pre-symptomatic, AAV9-mediated repletion of the protein averts brain microvasculature defects and prevents disease, whereas augmenting the ...


Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs And The Impact On Fetal Growth And Brain Development, Andrew Ghaly 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs And The Impact On Fetal Growth And Brain Development, Andrew Ghaly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs results in placental structural abnormalities that reduce nutrient transport contributing to fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether brain weights are similarly reduced, or preserved by “brain sparing” mechanisms, and whether energy levels are depleted leading to membrane failure and overt injury remains unknown. Guinea pig sows were fed ad libitum (Controls) or 70% of the control diet pre-pregnant switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Animals were necropsied near term for fetal growth measures and fetal brains were assessed for markers of necrotic cell injury, apoptotic cell injury, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and altered development ...


Functional Requirements For Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis In Morphogenesis And Nervous System Development In C. Elegans, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N. Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y. Benard 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Functional Requirements For Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis In Morphogenesis And Nervous System Development In C. Elegans, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N. Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y. Benard

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation. In humans, mutations in either of the exostosin genes EXT1 and EXT2 lead to osteosarcomas or multiple exostoses. Complete loss of any of the exostosin glycosyltransferases in mouse, fish, flies ...


The Effects Of Bisphenol A (Bpa) On The Neural Development Of The Xenopus Laevis Tadpole, Mark A. Merlino 2017 University of Wyoming

The Effects Of Bisphenol A (Bpa) On The Neural Development Of The Xenopus Laevis Tadpole, Mark A. Merlino

Honors Theses AY 17/18

Bisphenol A (BPA) has been used as an additive in plastics as well as food storage cans. Concerns over the possible effects of BPA have caused many companies to avoid using the chemical. Here, we study the effect of BPA on the neural development of the Xenopus laevis tadpole, specifically the development of the visual system. For this study, tadpoles are reared in varying concentrations of BPA, and then visual system function is assessed at the behavioral, circuit, and single cell level. Our preliminary results suggest that sub-lethal concentrations of BPA significantly impact visual avoidance behavior. This behavioral deficit could ...


Effects Of Chromium On Mouse Splenic T Lymphocytes And Effects Of Ethanol Exposure During Early Neurodevelopment On Behaviors In Mice, Lu Dai 2017 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Chromium On Mouse Splenic T Lymphocytes And Effects Of Ethanol Exposure During Early Neurodevelopment On Behaviors In Mice, Lu Dai

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

The dissertation consists of three major projects with the focus on the immunotoxicity of chromium and the behavior disorders caused by early ETOH exposure respectively.

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is widely used in various industrial processes and has been recognized as a carcinogen. As the first line of host defense system, the immune system can be a primary target of Cr(VI). T cell population represents a major arm of the immune system that plays a critical role in host anti-tumor immunity. Dysfunction of T cells compromises host anti-tumor immunity resulting in oncogenesis. Using mouse splenic T cells as an ...


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