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Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith 2017 Abilene Christian University

Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

More than 40% of nurses reported experiencing significant burnout. Burnout is characterized by disengagement, cynicism, negative views of personal accomplishment and ability, and emotional exhaustion. The healthcare providers that experience burnout can possibly expect a decrease in ability to recognize/report errors, increase of negative feelings toward the patient, and decrease levels of patient satisfaction (Ernest, 2014). One of the ways Schub (2015) suggested to regulate burnout for employees was to provide psychosocial support to colleagues to reduce stress. This study is one of the first attempts to bridge the gap between the unknown correlation between qualitative and quantitative benefits ...


Do Microglia Play An Active Role In Developmental Neuronal Cell Death?, Andrew Jacobs 2017 Georgia State University

Do Microglia Play An Active Role In Developmental Neuronal Cell Death?, Andrew Jacobs

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Observing The Functional Maturation Of The Female Prefrontal Cortex Using Ventral Hippocampal Stimulation, Lily E. Veldran 2017 Lake Forest College

Observing The Functional Maturation Of The Female Prefrontal Cortex Using Ventral Hippocampal Stimulation, Lily E. Veldran

Senior Theses

Adolescence is a time when the brain continues to mature. Specifically the prefrontal cortex (PFC) goes through a process of disinhibition to inhibition as we age. Inputs to this region have a frequency dependent maturation pattern in male rats, but this has not been studied in females. We focused on frequency dependent responses in the medial PFC that are evoked by stimulation to the ventral hippocampus. This was conducted by measuring Local Field Potential responses in the medial PFC via in vivo electrophysiology. We found that stimulating with a 10 Hz train response showed no difference across age groups. In ...


Insights Into Electrosensory Organ Development, Physiology And Evolution From A Lateral Line-Enriched Transcriptome, Melinda S. Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R. Carr, Harold H. Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S. Campbell, Marcus C. Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare VH Baker 2017 Kennesaw State University

Insights Into Electrosensory Organ Development, Physiology And Evolution From A Lateral Line-Enriched Transcriptome, Melinda S. Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R. Carr, Harold H. Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S. Campbell, Marcus C. Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare Vh Baker

Marcus C Davis

The anamniote lateral line system, comprising mechanosensory neuromasts and
electrosensory ampullary organs, is a useful model for investigating the developmental and
evolutionary diversification of different organs and cell types. Zebrafish neuromast development is
increasingly well understood, but neither zebrafish nor Xenopus is electroreceptive and our
molecular understanding of ampullary organ development is rudimentary. We have used RNA-seq
to generate a lateral line-enriched gene-set from late-larval paddlefish (Polyodon spathula).
Validation of a subset reveals expression in developing ampullary organs of transcription factor
genes critical for hair cell development, and genes essential for glutamate release at hair cell
ribbon synapses, suggesting close ...


P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad 2017 Western University

P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad

Western Research Forum

Background

Altered brain development is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Environmental insults can interfere with neurodevelopment, and a prominent example is maternal infection during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies show that children born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy display a higher risk of developing ASD and schizophrenia, and this effect is mainly due to the maternal immune response. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) is a double stranded RNA molecule that mimics viral markers and elicits an immune response. When injected in pregnant rodents, this model produces offspring that exhibit core symptoms of ASD ...


Brain Microvasculature Defects And Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome Averted By Early Repletion Of The Glucose Transporter-1 Protein, Maoxue Tang, Guangping Gao, Huapeng Li, Qin Su, Darryl C. De Vivo, Umrao R. Monani 2017 Columbia University Medical Center

Brain Microvasculature Defects And Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome Averted By Early Repletion Of The Glucose Transporter-1 Protein, Maoxue Tang, Guangping Gao, Huapeng Li, Qin Su, Darryl C. De Vivo, Umrao R. Monani

Open Access Articles

Haploinsufficiency of the SLC2A1 gene and paucity of its translated product, the glucose transporter-1 (Glut1) protein, disrupt brain function and cause the neurodevelopmental disorder, Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). There is little to suggest how reduced Glut1 causes cognitive dysfunction and no optimal treatment for Glut1 DS. We used model mice to demonstrate that low Glut1 protein arrests cerebral angiogenesis, resulting in a profound diminution of the brain microvasculature without compromising the blood-brain barrier. Studies to define the temporal requirements for Glut1 reveal that pre-symptomatic, AAV9-mediated repletion of the protein averts brain microvasculature defects and prevents disease, whereas augmenting the ...


Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs And The Impact On Fetal Growth And Brain Development, Andrew Ghaly 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs And The Impact On Fetal Growth And Brain Development, Andrew Ghaly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs results in placental structural abnormalities that reduce nutrient transport contributing to fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether brain weights are similarly reduced, or preserved by “brain sparing” mechanisms, and whether energy levels are depleted leading to membrane failure and overt injury remains unknown. Guinea pig sows were fed ad libitum (Controls) or 70% of the control diet pre-pregnant switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Animals were necropsied near term for fetal growth measures and fetal brains were assessed for markers of necrotic cell injury, apoptotic cell injury, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and altered development ...


Functional Requirements For Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis In Morphogenesis And Nervous System Development In C. Elegans, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N. Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y. Benard 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Functional Requirements For Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis In Morphogenesis And Nervous System Development In C. Elegans, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N. Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y. Benard

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation. In humans, mutations in either of the exostosin genes EXT1 and EXT2 lead to osteosarcomas or multiple exostoses. Complete loss of any of the exostosin glycosyltransferases in mouse, fish, flies ...


Pearls And Perils Of Pupillometry Using A Webcam, Mason Kadem, Rhodri Cusack 2017 Western University

Pearls And Perils Of Pupillometry Using A Webcam, Mason Kadem, Rhodri Cusack

Undergraduate Honors Posters

Current methods to measure infants’ cognitive repertoire (i.e., collection of cognitive abilities) are limited. Previous testing paradigms required acquisition of non-age contextualized responses, and relied on measures that involved acquisition of other functions (e.g., language, motor). In addition to response limitations, cognitive functions may be difficult to observe in infants due to the difficulty in infant recruitment. Online testing has increased infant recruitment efforts and physiological responses have bypassed the motor, behavioural and linguistic limitations of infants. Recently, it has been shown that heart rate measures can be acquired through a webcam. Another feasible and reliable physiological measure ...


Characterizing The Role Of Key Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Components In Axon Guidance, Grayland W. Godfrey II 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterizing The Role Of Key Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Components In Axon Guidance, Grayland W. Godfrey Ii

Theses and Dissertations

An essential process to the development of the neural network of the nervous system is axon guidance. The noncanonical Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity pathway has been identified as an integral component in controlling the projection of axons during axon guidance. Prickle, ROR1 and ROR2 are PCP related proteins that do not have clearly defined roles in the process. This study aims to use zebrafish CoPA neurons as a model to study the roles of Prickle, ROR1, and ROR2 in axon guidance. Using in situ hybridization, morpholino knockdown, and CRISPR/Cas9 loss of function experiments were able to identify ror1, ror2 ...


Changes In Postural Sway Behavior Across The Life Span, Maria M B N R Santos 2017 University of Montana

Changes In Postural Sway Behavior Across The Life Span, Maria M B N R Santos

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The present study aimed to investigate human balance control by assessing postural sway on three groups representing three stages of life (6-12, 19-40 and 65-74 years old). There were 14 individuals in each group and they were tested during upright bipedal stance with either eyes open or closed. Focus was given to multiple sway indices representing multi-dimensional features of postural sway in quiet stance and included: the center of pressure area, amplitude, root mean square (RMS), velocity, jerkiness, and sample entropy. Results confirmed that children and seniors swayed more (p<.004), faster (p<.001) and their body sway was shakier (p<.001) than young adults. Seniors also presented faster (p<.006) and shakier (p<.001) sway than children and a more unpredictable pattern of body sway in time (p<.002) than children and young adults. In addition, children presented a more random anterior-posterior sway (p<.034) and a more regular medio-lateral sway (p<.043) than young adults, and a higher synchronization between anterior-posterior and medio-lateral body sway (p<.012) than young adults and seniors. We also observed that postural control of children and young adults becomes relatively more challenged in experimental situations when eyes were closed for most postural indices. In conclusion, this study suggests that multi-dimension posturography is sensitive to detect subtle age-related changes in the postural behavior and each stage of life may have their own signature patterns of postural behavior. Therefore, we expect that quantifications of this nature may be used to assess not only postural instability and fall risk but also to aid the testing of the efficacy of balance interventional protocols.


Tasting Sounds: A Review Of Synesthesia Mechanism Theories, Macy A. Watson 2016 University of Wyoming

Tasting Sounds: A Review Of Synesthesia Mechanism Theories, Macy A. Watson

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Synesthesia is a neural phenomenon in which stimulation of a particular sense consistently activates an abnormal perception in another sense. While much research has been conducted into this condition, the exact neural mechanisms that give rise to this condition have not yet been identified. The first part of this review introduces background information on the types of synesthesia that have been identified, as well as key aspects about the condition that differentiate it from other neurological conditions. The review then considers current theories on the neural mechanisms that could give rise to synesthesia, and why determining a conclusive cause is ...


Consensus Paper: Cerebellar Development, Ketty Leto, Baojin Ding, Daniel Lee Kilpatrick 2016 University of Turin

Consensus Paper: Cerebellar Development, Ketty Leto, Baojin Ding, Daniel Lee Kilpatrick

Open Access Articles

The development of the mammalian cerebellum is orchestrated by both cell-autonomous programs and inductive environmental influences. Here, we describe the main processes of cerebellar ontogenesis, highlighting the neurogenic strategies used by developing progenitors, the genetic programs involved in cell fate specification, the progressive changes of structural organization, and some of the better-known abnormalities associated with developmental disorders of the cerebellum.


Radial Glia Regulate Vascular Patterning Around The Developing Spinal Cord, Ryota L. Matsuoka, Michele Marass, Avdesh Avdesh, Christian S.M. Helker, Hans-Martin Maischein, Ann S. Grosse, Harmandeep Kaur, Nathan D. Lawson, Wiebke Herzog, Didier Y.R. Stainier 2016 Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research

Radial Glia Regulate Vascular Patterning Around The Developing Spinal Cord, Ryota L. Matsuoka, Michele Marass, Avdesh Avdesh, Christian S.M. Helker, Hans-Martin Maischein, Ann S. Grosse, Harmandeep Kaur, Nathan D. Lawson, Wiebke Herzog, Didier Y.R. Stainier

Open Access Articles

Vascular networks surrounding individual organs are important for their development, maintenance, and function; however, how these networks are assembled remains poorly understood. Here we show that CNS progenitors, referred to as radial glia, modulate vascular patterning around the spinal cord by acting as negative regulators. We found that radial glia ablation in zebrafish embryos leads to excessive sprouting of the trunk vessels around the spinal cord, and exclusively those of venous identity. Mechanistically, we determined that radial glia control this process via the Vegf decoy receptor sFlt1: sflt1 mutants exhibit the venous over-sprouting observed in radial glia-ablated larvae, and sFlt1 ...


Brain Networks Supporting Literacy Development, Iris J. Broce 2016 Florida International University

Brain Networks Supporting Literacy Development, Iris J. Broce

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The development of fluent reading requires coordinated development of key fiber pathways. While several fiber pathways have been implicated in reading, including the recently re-identified vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), arcuate fasciculus and its 3 components, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), whether these fiber pathways support reading in young children with little to no exposure to print remains poorly understood. Consequently, over the course of three studies, the current dissertation aimed to narrow this research gap by addressing the following research questions: 1) Which fiber pathways support early literacy skill in young children 5-10 years old? 2 ...


Mechanisms Of Synaptic Development And Premature Aging In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Yihang Li 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Mechanisms Of Synaptic Development And Premature Aging In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Yihang Li

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Development and aging, two fundamental aspects of life, remain key biological processes that researchers try to understand. Drosophila melanogaster, thanks to its various merits, serves as an excellent model to study both of these processes. This thesis includes two parts. In the first part, I discuss our finding that the presynaptic neuron controls a retrograde signaling pathway by releasing essential components via exosomes. During synaptic development, postsynaptic cells send retrograde signals to adjust the activity and growth of presynaptic cells. It remains unclear what the mechanism is which triggers the release of retrograde signals; and how presynaptic cells are involved ...


Impaired Neurodevelopment By The Low Complexity Domain Of Cpeb4 Reveals A Convergent Pathway With Neurodegeneration, Jihae Shin, Johnny S. Salameh, Joel D. Richter 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Impaired Neurodevelopment By The Low Complexity Domain Of Cpeb4 Reveals A Convergent Pathway With Neurodegeneration, Jihae Shin, Johnny S. Salameh, Joel D. Richter

Open Access Articles

CPEB4 is an RNA binding protein expressed in neuronal tissues including brain and spinal cord. CPEB4 has two domains: one that is structured for RNA binding and one that is unstructured and low complexity that has no known function. Unstructured low complexity domains (LCDs) in proteins are often found in RNA-binding proteins and have been implicated in motor neuron degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, indicating that these regions mediate normal RNA processing as well as pathological events. While CPEB4 null knockout mice are normal, animals expressing only the CPEB4 LCD are neonatal lethal with impaired mobility that display ...


The Role Of Daf-19 In Non-Ciliated Neurons: How Is Neural Development Regulated By Different Daf-19 Isoforms?, Zabdiel Ek Vazquez 2016 Lawrence University

The Role Of Daf-19 In Non-Ciliated Neurons: How Is Neural Development Regulated By Different Daf-19 Isoforms?, Zabdiel Ek Vazquez

Lawrence University Honors Projects

A degenerative disease-like phenotype, specifically reduction in synaptic protein levels in adult worms, is correlated with loss-of-function of the only RFX transcription factor gene, daf-19, in C. elegans. This gene encodes four known transcription factor isoforms, two of which are correlated with particular functions. The DAF-19C isoform activates genes responsible for cilia development, while DAF-19M is needed for cilia specification in males. A comparison of the transcriptome of daf-19 null and isogenic wild type adult worms suggests both positive and negative regulation of gene expression is correlated with the presence of DAF-19 proteins. We have assessed DAF-19 regulation of gene ...


Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl 2016 University of New Mexico

Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n=100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


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