Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis
Open Access Articles
The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Disruptions in dendritic spine development have been implicated in many neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Although the development of dendritic spines is vital for cognitive function, understanding the mechanisms driving their outgrowth and ...
Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, 2018 DePaul University
Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman
Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium
Background: Dementia is the largest cause of dependency and disability in older adults, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide with about 10 million new cases every year. Presently, there are no cures for dementia. Consequently, a growing body of evidence suggests that bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical dementia symptoms by several years.
Objectives: The purpose of this review is to summarize and analyze current evidence from studies that examined how bilingualism delays the onset of dementia. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay the dementia symptoms due to an increase in cognitive reserve, which refers to an ...
Chd3 Helicase Domain Mutations Cause A Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Macrocephaly And Impaired Speech And Language, 2018 Radboud University Medical Center
Chd3 Helicase Domain Mutations Cause A Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Macrocephaly And Impaired Speech And Language, Lot Snijders Blok, Inderneel Sahai, Philippe M. Campeau
Pediatric Publications and Presentations
Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates ...
Drosophila Ror Is A Nervous System-Specific Co-Receptor For Wnt Ligands, 2018 Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology
Drosophila Ror Is A Nervous System-Specific Co-Receptor For Wnt Ligands, Caroline Ripp, Julia Loth, Iveta Petrova, Karen Linnemannstons, Monique Ulepic, Lee G. Fradkin, Jasprien Noordermeer, Andreas Wodarz
Open Access Articles
Wnt ligands are secreted glycoproteins that control many developmental processes and are crucial for homeostasis of numerous tissues in the adult organism. Signal transduction of Wnts involves the binding of Wnts to receptor complexes at the surface of target cells. These receptor complexes are commonly formed between a member of the Frizzled family of seven-pass transmembrane proteins and a co-receptor, which is usually a single-pass transmembrane protein. Among these co-receptors are several with structural homology to receptor tyrosine kinases, including Ror, PTK7, Ryk and MUSK. In vertebrates, Ror-2 and PTK7 are important regulators of planar cell polarity (PCP). By contrast ...
Are Different Actions Mediated By Distinct Systems Of Knowledge In Infancy?, 2018 College of William and Mary
Are Different Actions Mediated By Distinct Systems Of Knowledge In Infancy?, Peter Vishton
Underlying Contribution Of Executive Functioning To Cognition And Academic Achievement In Individuals With Dystrophinopathy, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Underlying Contribution Of Executive Functioning To Cognition And Academic Achievement In Individuals With Dystrophinopathy, Robert Fee
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Dystrophinopathy is a genetic disorder that results in the lack of or abnormal expression of the protein dystrophin. It is a disorder that alters cell structure and function, impacts the developing brain and brain function, presents with multi-domain cognitive deficits, and influences both mood and behavior. Cognitive impairments appear to be more localized to specific areas of functioning rather than a global deficit; however, deficits have been identified across multiple cognitive domains including language and aspects of executive functioning. A careful examination of the cognitive phenotype and its association to mutations affecting CNS isoforms is necessary to clarify the neuropsychological ...
Organization And Development Of Cholinergic Input To The Mouse Visual Thalamus., 2018 University of Louisville
Organization And Development Of Cholinergic Input To The Mouse Visual Thalamus., Guela Sokhadze
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Cholinergic signaling plays a vital role in modulating the flow of sensory information through thalamic circuits in a state-dependent manner. In the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the thalamic visual relay, release of acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to enhanced thalamocortical transfer of retinal signal during behavioral states of arousal, wakefulness, and sleep/wake transitions. Moreover, ACh modulates activity of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a structure which provides inhibitory input to dLGN. While several cholinergic nuclei have been shown to innervate dLGN and TRN, it is unclear how projections from each area are organized. Furthermore, little is known of how or ...
Girls’ Internalizing Symptoms And White Matter Tracts In Cortico-Limbic Circuitry, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Girls’ Internalizing Symptoms And White Matter Tracts In Cortico-Limbic Circuitry, Ola Mohamed Ali
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Dysfunction in cortico-limbic circuitry is implicated in internalizing disorders, but less is known about whether structural abnormalities precede disorder, thus potentially marking risk. I therefore examined associations between white matter tract integrity in cortico-limbic circuitry at age 7, obtained using Diffusion Tensor Imaging, and concurrent and longitudinal patterns of internalizing symptoms, over a 5-year period, in 42 typically developing girls. Using Automated Fiber Quantification, diffusion properties were examined at multiple points along tract length (cf., an average diffusion measure of the entire tract). Concurrent internalizing symptoms were associated with reduced fractional anisotropy in segments of the cingulum bundle and uncinate ...
Loss Of Sarm1 Does Not Suppress Motor Neuron Degeneration In The Sod1g93a Mouse Model Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Loss Of Sarm1 Does Not Suppress Motor Neuron Degeneration In The Sod1g93a Mouse Model Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Owen M. Peters, Elizabeth A. Lewis, Jeannette M. Osterloh, Alexandra Weiss, Johnny Salameh, Jake P. Metterville, Robert H. Brown Jr., Marc R. Freeman
Neurobiology Publications and Presentations
Axon degeneration occurs in all neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular pathways regulating axon destruction during neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Sterile Alpha and TIR Motif Containing 1 (Sarm1) is an essential component of the prodegenerative pathway driving axon degeneration after axotomy and represents an appealing target for therapeutic intervention in neurological conditions involving axon loss. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by rapid, progressive motor neuron degeneration and muscle atrophy, causing paralysis and death. Patient tissue and animal models of ALS show destruction of upper and lower motor neuron cell bodies and loss of their associated axons. Here, we investigate whether ...
Neuronal Modulation Of Brown Adipose Activity Through Perturbation Of White Adipocyte Lipogenesis, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Neuronal Modulation Of Brown Adipose Activity Through Perturbation Of White Adipocyte Lipogenesis, Adilson L. Guilherme, David J. Pedersen, Felipe Henriques, Alexander H. Bedard, Elizabeth Henchey, Mark Kelly, Donald A. Morgan, Kamal Rahmouni, Michael P. Czech
Open Access Articles
OBJECTIVE: Crosstalk between adipocytes and local neurons may be an important regulatory mechanism to control energy homeostasis. We previously reported that perturbation of adipocyte de novo lipogenesis (DNL) by deletion of fatty acid synthase (FASN) expands sympathetic neurons within white adipose tissue (WAT) and stimulates the appearance of "beige" adipocytes. Here we tested whether WAT DNL activity can also influence neuronal regulation and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT).
METHODS AND RESULTS: Induced deletion of FASN in all adipocytes in mature mice (iAdFASNKO) enhanced sympathetic innervation and neuronal activity as well as UCP1 expression in both WAT and BAT. This ...
Analysis Of Novel Caudal Hindbrain Genes Reveals Different Regulatory Logic For Gene Expression In Rhombomere 4 Versus 5/6 In Embryonic Zebrafish, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Analysis Of Novel Caudal Hindbrain Genes Reveals Different Regulatory Logic For Gene Expression In Rhombomere 4 Versus 5/6 In Embryonic Zebrafish, Priyanjali Ghosh, Jennifer M. Maurer, Charles G. Sagerstrom
Open Access Articles
BACKGROUND: Previous work aimed at understanding the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) governing caudal hindbrain formation identified morphogens such as Retinoic Acid (RA) and Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), as well as transcription factors like hoxb1b, hoxb1a, hnf1ba, and valentino as being required for rhombomere (r) r4-r6 formation in zebrafish. Considering that the caudal hindbrain is relatively complex - for instance, unique sets of neurons are formed in each rhombomere segment - it is likely that additional essential genes remain to be identified and integrated into the caudal hindbrain GRN.
METHODS: By taking advantage of gene expression data available in the Zebrafish Information Network ...
Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins
Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.
Ephrinb3 Modulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis And The Reelin Signaling Pathway In A Pilocarpineinduced Model Of Epilepsy, 2018 Central South University
Ephrinb3 Modulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis And The Reelin Signaling Pathway In A Pilocarpineinduced Model Of Epilepsy, Tian-Tian Liu, Yi Li, Yi Shu, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Open Access Articles
EphrinB3 is important in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and migration via cellcell contact, and can activate the reelin pathway during brain development. However, the effect of ephrinB3 on hippocampal neurogenesis and the reelin pathway in epilepsy remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of ephrinB3 in pilocarpineinduced status epilepticus (SE) rats was investigated. SYBR Greenbased reverse transcriptionquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemical labeling and western blot analysis were used to detect the gene and protein expression levels of ephrinB3 and reelin pathway proteins. Immunofluorescence staining of doublecortin (DCX) was utilized to analyze hippocampal neurogenesis ...
Modeling Emmetropization In An Incessantly Moving Eye, 2018 University of Rochester
Modeling Emmetropization In An Incessantly Moving Eye, Michele Rucci, Jonathan D. Victor
Many questions remain unanswered regarding the specific cues and mechanisms for emmetropization, the process by which, during development, the eye adjusts itself so that distant objects are in focus. Research has so far primarily focused on the spatial cues present in the image on the retina, such as the degree of blur. However, eye movements incessantly transform a mostly static scene into temporal modulations, so that the input to the retina is not an image, but a spatiotemporal flow of luminance. Models of retinal input signals indicate that this space-time reformatting caused by eye movements yields additional cues to the ...
An Active Efficient Coding Model Of The Development Of Amblyopia, 2018 Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies
An Active Efficient Coding Model Of The Development Of Amblyopia, Samuel Eckmann, Lukas Klimmasch, Bertram Shi, Jochen Triesch
No abstract provided.
Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, 2018 University of Wyoming
Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett
Honors Theses AY 17/18
One out of every five American children lives below the federal poverty line. Considering that poverty is deemed one of the most influential risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, it is critical to understand what effect poverty has on the developing brain and how those brain changes affect a child’s life. Poverty is chiefly defined by having a low socioeconomic status (SES), but a low SES is often accompanied by other influencers, such as nutrition and mental stimulation, termed poverty co-factors. Other poverty co-factors include, but are not limited to, maternal stress and malnutrition, environmental toxins, parental nurturance, and ...
Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Performance In An Object-Place-Paired-Associate Task, 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus
Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Performance In An Object-Place-Paired-Associate Task, Lilliana May Sanchez
Memory impairments, including spatial and object processing, are often observed in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Much attention has been directed towards the hippocampus, which displays significant alterations after moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). In the present study, we tested a moderate PAE rat model in an object-place-paired-associate (OPPA) task, previously shown to require hippocampal processing. The OPPA task was composed of training rats to discriminate between an identical pair of objects presented in 180° opposite arms of a radial arm maze. Animals were given a total of 10 trials per day over 14 consecutive days of training and ...
The Role Of The Chorda Tympani Nerve In The Structural Development Of Brainstem Neurons, 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha
The Role Of The Chorda Tympani Nerve In The Structural Development Of Brainstem Neurons, Louis Martin
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
The brain changes substantially throughout development. In the taste system, brainstem neurons undergo dramatic structural alterations after birth. Most notably, these cells’ dendrites, branch-like projections that that receive sensory input, grow 3-4 times longer by adulthood. It is not clear whether incoming signals about taste are necessary for these structural changes to occur. We have consistently found that when the chorda tympani taste nerve (CT) is cut at an early age in rats, it does not regenerate. With this manipulation, we can permanently limit the amount of taste information that reaches the brain. To determine the role of taste input ...
A Cre-Inducible Dux4 Transgenic Mouse Model For Investigating Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
A Cre-Inducible Dux4 Transgenic Mouse Model For Investigating Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Takako I. Jones, Peter L. Jones
Open Access Articles
The Double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene is an important regulator of early human development and its aberrant expression is causal for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The DUX4-full length (DUX4-fl) mRNA splice isoform encodes a transcriptional activator; however, DUX4 and its unique DNA binding preferences are specific to old-world primates. Regardless, the somatic cytotoxicity caused by DUX4 expression is conserved when expressed in cells and animals ranging from fly to mouse. Thus, viable animal models based on DUX4-fl expression have been difficult to generate due in large part to overt developmental toxicity of low DUX4-fl expression from leaky transgenes. We have ...
Social Influences On Songbird Behavior: From Song Learning To Motion Coordination, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Social Influences On Songbird Behavior: From Song Learning To Motion Coordination, Iva Ljubičić
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Social animals learn during development how to integrate successfully into their group. How do social interactions combine to maintain group cohesion? We first review how social environments can influence the development of vocal learners, such as songbirds and humans (Chapter 1). To bypass the complexity of natural social interactions and gain experimental control, we developed Virtual Social Environments, surrounding the bird with videos of manipulated playbacks. This way we were able to design sensory and social scenarios and test how social zebra finches adjust their behavior (Chapters 2 & 3). A serious challenge is that the color output of a video ...