Molecular And Pathological Analyses Of Three New Mouse Mutations That Affect Ear Development And Function, Cong Tian
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
This dissertation presents three new mouse models that help to study the functions of Enpp1, Atp6v1b1, and Tbx1 for ear development and function. asj (aging with stiffened joints) carries a missense mutation in the mouse Enpp1 gene. Enpp1 encodes the enzyme ENPP1 that regulate soft-tissue calcification and bone mineralization, and is associated with generalized arterial calcification of infancy and hypophosphatemic rickets in human patients. asj mutant mice show severe middle ear infection and tissue calcification, which provide a new mouse model to study otitis media and tympanoscleorosis. Atp6v1b1 encode a protein that is a subunit of the V-ATPase pump, which ...
Understanding The Structure Of Amyloid Fibrils Using Atomic Force Microscopy (Afm) To Design New Therapeutic Strategies For Neurodegenerative Diseases, 2017 University of Massachusetts Boston
Understanding The Structure Of Amyloid Fibrils Using Atomic Force Microscopy (Afm) To Design New Therapeutic Strategies For Neurodegenerative Diseases, Sumeyra Gokalp, Michelle Foster
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat
Amyloid fibrils are misfolded proteins that are irreversible once they are formed. In human beings, there are different kinds of proteins that form into amyloid fibrils and are associated with several degenerative diseases. For example, insulin, Huntington, Amyloid β-42 and α- synuclein proteins are linked with Type-2 Diabetes, Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, respectively. The mechanism for the misfolding and creation of the fibrils is thought to be the same for all of these proteins. Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL) is a low-cost and widely recognized model protein to work with to help us understand the mechanisms ...
Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, 2017 Abilene Christian University
Therapy Dogs And The Impact On Employees In The Pediatric Medical Setting, Laine Foith
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
More than 40% of nurses reported experiencing significant burnout. Burnout is characterized by disengagement, cynicism, negative views of personal accomplishment and ability, and emotional exhaustion. The healthcare providers that experience burnout can possibly expect a decrease in ability to recognize/report errors, increase of negative feelings toward the patient, and decrease levels of patient satisfaction (Ernest, 2014). One of the ways Schub (2015) suggested to regulate burnout for employees was to provide psychosocial support to colleagues to reduce stress. This study is one of the first attempts to bridge the gap between the unknown correlation between qualitative and quantitative benefits ...
Neurostructural Organization And Neocortical Projecting Neuron Distribution In A Mouse Model Of Timothy Syndrome-Mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Neurostructural Organization And Neocortical Projecting Neuron Distribution In A Mouse Model Of Timothy Syndrome-Mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder, Aiden L. Ford
Honors Scholar Theses
Aims: This study investigates the nuanced effect of the CACNA1C mutation on neurocognition and neurodevelopment via an extended study of the Timothy Syndrome (TS) mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) mouse model – TS2-neo. It includes: (1) an expanded assessment of the TS2-neo behavioral phenotype, and (2) a comprehensive histological analysis of cortical structural and laminar features.
Methods: 24 age-matched male mice – 12 TS2-neo (B6.Cg-Cacna1ctm2Itl, knock-in G406R mutation), 12 WT (C57BL/6J) – were tested on paradigms examining motor, socio-communicative and cognitive abilities. Neural tissue was processed for either volumetric analysis through Nissl stain (8 TS2-neo, 8 WT) or immunohistochemical ...
Do Microglia Play An Active Role In Developmental Neuronal Cell Death?, 2017 Georgia State University
Do Microglia Play An Active Role In Developmental Neuronal Cell Death?, Andrew Jacobs
Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference
No abstract provided.
Observing The Functional Maturation Of The Female Prefrontal Cortex Using Ventral Hippocampal Stimulation, Lily E. Veldran
Adolescence is a time when the brain continues to mature. Specifically the prefrontal cortex (PFC) goes through a process of disinhibition to inhibition as we age. Inputs to this region have a frequency dependent maturation pattern in male rats, but this has not been studied in females. We focused on frequency dependent responses in the medial PFC that are evoked by stimulation to the ventral hippocampus. This was conducted by measuring Local Field Potential responses in the medial PFC via in vivo electrophysiology. We found that stimulating with a 10 Hz train response showed no difference across age groups. In ...
Insights Into Electrosensory Organ Development, Physiology And Evolution From A Lateral Line-Enriched Transcriptome, 2017 Kennesaw State University
Insights Into Electrosensory Organ Development, Physiology And Evolution From A Lateral Line-Enriched Transcriptome, Melinda S. Modrell, Mike Lyne, Adrian R. Carr, Harold H. Zakon, David Buckley, Alexander S. Campbell, Marcus C. Davis, Gos Micklem, Clare Vh Baker
Marcus C Davis
P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad
Western Research Forum
Altered brain development is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Environmental insults can interfere with neurodevelopment, and a prominent example is maternal infection during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies show that children born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy display a higher risk of developing ASD and schizophrenia, and this effect is mainly due to the maternal immune response. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) is a double stranded RNA molecule that mimics viral markers and elicits an immune response. When injected in pregnant rodents, this model produces offspring that exhibit core symptoms of ASD ...
Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, 2017 University of New Mexico
Dysfunctional Error-Related Processing In Incarcerated Youth With Elevated Psychopathic Traits, J. Michael Maurer, Vaughn R. Steele, Lora M. Cope, Gina M. Vincent, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl
Gina M. Vincent
Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n=100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV ...
Brain Microvasculature Defects And Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome Averted By Early Repletion Of The Glucose Transporter-1 Protein, 2017 Columbia University Medical Center
Brain Microvasculature Defects And Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome Averted By Early Repletion Of The Glucose Transporter-1 Protein, Maoxue Tang, Guangping Gao, Huapeng Li, Qin Su, Darryl C. De Vivo, Umrao R. Monani
Open Access Articles
Haploinsufficiency of the SLC2A1 gene and paucity of its translated product, the glucose transporter-1 (Glut1) protein, disrupt brain function and cause the neurodevelopmental disorder, Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). There is little to suggest how reduced Glut1 causes cognitive dysfunction and no optimal treatment for Glut1 DS. We used model mice to demonstrate that low Glut1 protein arrests cerebral angiogenesis, resulting in a profound diminution of the brain microvasculature without compromising the blood-brain barrier. Studies to define the temporal requirements for Glut1 reveal that pre-symptomatic, AAV9-mediated repletion of the protein averts brain microvasculature defects and prevents disease, whereas augmenting the ...
Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs And The Impact On Fetal Growth And Brain Development, 2017 The University of Western Ontario
Maternal Nutrient Restriction In Pregnant Guinea Pigs And The Impact On Fetal Growth And Brain Development, Andrew Ghaly
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in guinea pigs results in placental structural abnormalities that reduce nutrient transport contributing to fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether brain weights are similarly reduced, or preserved by “brain sparing” mechanisms, and whether energy levels are depleted leading to membrane failure and overt injury remains unknown. Guinea pig sows were fed ad libitum (Controls) or 70% of the control diet pre-pregnant switching to 90% at mid-pregnancy (MNR). Animals were necropsied near term for fetal growth measures and fetal brains were assessed for markers of necrotic cell injury, apoptotic cell injury, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and altered development ...
Functional Requirements For Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis In Morphogenesis And Nervous System Development In C. Elegans, 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Functional Requirements For Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis In Morphogenesis And Nervous System Development In C. Elegans, Cassandra R. Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N. Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y. Benard
Neurobiology Publications and Presentations
The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation. In humans, mutations in either of the exostosin genes EXT1 and EXT2 lead to osteosarcomas or multiple exostoses. Complete loss of any of the exostosin glycosyltransferases in mouse, fish, flies ...
Pearls And Perils Of Pupillometry Using A Webcam, 2017 Western University
Pearls And Perils Of Pupillometry Using A Webcam, Mason Kadem, Rhodri Cusack
Undergraduate Honors Posters
Current methods to measure infants’ cognitive repertoire (i.e., collection of cognitive abilities) are limited. Previous testing paradigms required acquisition of non-age contextualized responses, and relied on measures that involved acquisition of other functions (e.g., language, motor). In addition to response limitations, cognitive functions may be difficult to observe in infants due to the difficulty in infant recruitment. Online testing has increased infant recruitment efforts and physiological responses have bypassed the motor, behavioural and linguistic limitations of infants. Recently, it has been shown that heart rate measures can be acquired through a webcam. Another feasible and reliable physiological measure ...
Changes In Postural Sway Behavior Across The Life Span, 2017 University of Montana
Changes In Postural Sway Behavior Across The Life Span, Maria M B N R Santos
Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers
The present study aimed to investigate human balance control by assessing postural sway on three groups representing three stages of life (6-12, 19-40 and 65-74 years old). There were 14 individuals in each group and they were tested during upright bipedal stance with either eyes open or closed. Focus was given to multiple sway indices representing multi-dimensional features of postural sway in quiet stance and included: the center of pressure area, amplitude, root mean square (RMS), velocity, jerkiness, and sample entropy. Results confirmed that children and seniors swayed more (p<.004), faster (p<.001) and their body sway was shakier (p<.001) than young adults. Seniors also presented faster (p<.006) and shakier (p<.001) sway than children and a more unpredictable pattern of body sway in time (p<.002) than children and young adults. In addition, children presented a more random anterior-posterior sway (p<.034) and a more regular medio-lateral sway (p<.043) than young adults, and a higher synchronization between anterior-posterior and medio-lateral body sway (p<.012) than young adults and seniors. We also observed that postural control of children and young adults becomes relatively more challenged in experimental situations when eyes were closed for most postural indices. In conclusion, this study suggests that multi-dimension posturography is sensitive to detect subtle age-related changes in the postural behavior and each stage of life may have their own signature patterns of postural behavior. Therefore, we expect that quantifications of this nature may be used to assess not only postural instability and fall risk but also to aid the testing of the efficacy of balance interventional protocols.
Characterizing The Role Of Key Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Components In Axon Guidance, 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University
Characterizing The Role Of Key Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Components In Axon Guidance, Grayland W. Godfrey Ii
Theses and Dissertations
An essential process to the development of the neural network of the nervous system is axon guidance. The noncanonical Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity pathway has been identified as an integral component in controlling the projection of axons during axon guidance. Prickle, ROR1 and ROR2 are PCP related proteins that do not have clearly defined roles in the process. This study aims to use zebrafish CoPA neurons as a model to study the roles of Prickle, ROR1, and ROR2 in axon guidance. Using in situ hybridization, morpholino knockdown, and CRISPR/Cas9 loss of function experiments were able to identify ror1, ror2 ...
Tasting Sounds: A Review Of Synesthesia Mechanism Theories, 2016 University of Wyoming
Tasting Sounds: A Review Of Synesthesia Mechanism Theories, Macy A. Watson
Honors Theses AY 16/17
Synesthesia is a neural phenomenon in which stimulation of a particular sense consistently activates an abnormal perception in another sense. While much research has been conducted into this condition, the exact neural mechanisms that give rise to this condition have not yet been identified. The first part of this review introduces background information on the types of synesthesia that have been identified, as well as key aspects about the condition that differentiate it from other neurological conditions. The review then considers current theories on the neural mechanisms that could give rise to synesthesia, and why determining a conclusive cause is ...
Consensus Paper: Cerebellar Development, 2016 University of Turin
Consensus Paper: Cerebellar Development, Ketty Leto, Baojin Ding, Daniel Lee Kilpatrick
Open Access Articles
The development of the mammalian cerebellum is orchestrated by both cell-autonomous programs and inductive environmental influences. Here, we describe the main processes of cerebellar ontogenesis, highlighting the neurogenic strategies used by developing progenitors, the genetic programs involved in cell fate specification, the progressive changes of structural organization, and some of the better-known abnormalities associated with developmental disorders of the cerebellum.
Radial Glia Regulate Vascular Patterning Around The Developing Spinal Cord, 2016 Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research
Radial Glia Regulate Vascular Patterning Around The Developing Spinal Cord, Ryota L. Matsuoka, Michele Marass, Avdesh Avdesh, Christian S.M. Helker, Hans-Martin Maischein, Ann S. Grosse, Harmandeep Kaur, Nathan D. Lawson, Wiebke Herzog, Didier Y.R. Stainier
Open Access Articles
Vascular networks surrounding individual organs are important for their development, maintenance, and function; however, how these networks are assembled remains poorly understood. Here we show that CNS progenitors, referred to as radial glia, modulate vascular patterning around the spinal cord by acting as negative regulators. We found that radial glia ablation in zebrafish embryos leads to excessive sprouting of the trunk vessels around the spinal cord, and exclusively those of venous identity. Mechanistically, we determined that radial glia control this process via the Vegf decoy receptor sFlt1: sflt1 mutants exhibit the venous over-sprouting observed in radial glia-ablated larvae, and sFlt1 ...
Brain Networks Supporting Literacy Development, 2016 Florida International University
Brain Networks Supporting Literacy Development, Iris J. Broce
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The development of fluent reading requires coordinated development of key fiber pathways. While several fiber pathways have been implicated in reading, including the recently re-identified vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), arcuate fasciculus and its 3 components, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), whether these fiber pathways support reading in young children with little to no exposure to print remains poorly understood. Consequently, over the course of three studies, the current dissertation aimed to narrow this research gap by addressing the following research questions: 1) Which fiber pathways support early literacy skill in young children 5-10 years old? 2 ...
Mechanisms Of Synaptic Development And Premature Aging In Drosophila: A Dissertation, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Mechanisms Of Synaptic Development And Premature Aging In Drosophila: A Dissertation, Yihang Li
GSBS Dissertations and Theses
Development and aging, two fundamental aspects of life, remain key biological processes that researchers try to understand. Drosophila melanogaster, thanks to its various merits, serves as an excellent model to study both of these processes. This thesis includes two parts. In the first part, I discuss our finding that the presynaptic neuron controls a retrograde signaling pathway by releasing essential components via exosomes. During synaptic development, postsynaptic cells send retrograde signals to adjust the activity and growth of presynaptic cells. It remains unclear what the mechanism is which triggers the release of retrograde signals; and how presynaptic cells are involved ...