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Full-Text Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

The Effects Of Ocular Dominance On Visual Processing In College Students, William Alexander Holland Feb 2019

The Effects Of Ocular Dominance On Visual Processing In College Students, William Alexander Holland

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

The role of ocular dominance in processing visual memory and analytic tasks is unknown. Research has variably showed both significant effects and no effect of ocular dominance on visual perception, motor control, and sports performance. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between ocular dominance and visual processing under a variety of computer gaming tasks. This was accomplished by first determining subjects’ ocular dominance through the Miles test, and then examining the subjects’ visual performance on four different Lumosity games under three conditions: left eye, right eye, and both eyes. Results suggest a relationship ...


Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada Feb 2019

Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this study, gelatin and graphene-based nerve regeneration conduits/scaffolds possessing tailored 3D microstructures and mechanical properties were fabricated using 3D printing. The effect of 3D conduit microstructure and mechanical properties along with the applied electrical stimuli on mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) behavior and transdifferentiation into Schwann cell (SC)-like phenotypes were investigated. The results indicated that the gelatin conduits/scaffolds had favorable 3D microstructural and mechanical properties for MSC attachment and growth. Immunocytochemistry results demonstrated that the application of electrical stimuli through the conductive graphene within the gelatin-based 3D microstructure had a profound effect on the differentiation of MSCs ...


A Defense Of Pure Connectionism, Alex B. Kiefer Feb 2019

A Defense Of Pure Connectionism, Alex B. Kiefer

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Connectionism is an approach to neural-networks-based cognitive modeling that encompasses the recent deep learning movement in artificial intelligence. It came of age in the 1980s, with its roots in cybernetics and earlier attempts to model the brain as a system of simple parallel processors. Connectionist models center on statistical inference within neural networks with empirically learnable parameters, which can be represented as graphical models. More recent approaches focus on learning and inference within hierarchical generative models. Contra influential and ongoing critiques, I argue in this dissertation that the connectionist approach to cognitive science possesses in principle (and, as is becoming ...


Novel Biobehavioral Methods For Assessing The Anxiety-Related Attention Bias, Samantha Denefrio Feb 2019

Novel Biobehavioral Methods For Assessing The Anxiety-Related Attention Bias, Samantha Denefrio

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety disorders will affect an estimated one in three Americans, significantly impacting emotional health and quality of life. High personal and economic costs make research on the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety a crucial public health goal. Selective and exaggerated attention towards threat, termed attention bias (AB), has been identified as a core behavioral and neurocognitive mechanism in anxiety. A novel treatment, attention bias modification training (ABMT), targets AB and aims to ameliorate anxiety. Rarely acknowledged, however, are the challenges in the conceptualization and measurement of AB. First, associations between anxiety and AB in anxious populations have been increasingly ...


Analysis Of The Genetic And Neurological Components Of Opioid Addiction, With Public Health Perspectives Of The Opioid Epidemic In The United States Of America, Janhavi A. Dubhashi Jan 2019

Analysis Of The Genetic And Neurological Components Of Opioid Addiction, With Public Health Perspectives Of The Opioid Epidemic In The United States Of America, Janhavi A. Dubhashi

DISCOVERY: Georgia State Honors College Undergraduate Research Journal

Opioid addiction has reached epidemic levels around the world, with over-prescription of opioid pain relievers being an often-cited reason for the epidemic in the USA. This project looks at opioid addiction from three perspectives: a review of literature dealing with the neural pathways involved in opioid use and addiction; the underlying genetic differences that can increase the risk of opioid use disorder; and an overview of the public health aspects of the epidemic. The paper will conclude with a review of current and new treatments based upon a growing neurobiological and molecular understanding of opioid use disorder.


Investigating Neurogenesis As A Veritable Epigenetic Endophenotype For Alzheimer's Disease, Layne Wells Jan 2019

Investigating Neurogenesis As A Veritable Epigenetic Endophenotype For Alzheimer's Disease, Layne Wells

Scripps Senior Theses

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by progressive amyloid plaque aggregation, neurofibrillary tangles, and cortical tissue death. As the prevalence of AD is projected to climb in coming years, there is a vested interest in identifying endophenotypes by which to improve diagnostics and direct clinical interventions. The risk for complex disorders, such as AD, is influenced by multiple genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Significant strides have been made in identifying genetic variants linked to AD through the genome-wide association study (GWAS). It has been estimated in more recent years, however, that GWAS-identified variants account for ...


Concussion Competencies: A Training Model For School-Based Concussion Management, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan D. Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols, Kate Higgins, Peggy Reisher Jan 2019

Concussion Competencies: A Training Model For School-Based Concussion Management, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan D. Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols, Kate Higgins, Peggy Reisher

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This study reports on the use of ten knowledge competencies related to the behavioral management of concussion in schools. Trainings using these competencies as learning objectives were delivered to school personnel. This aims of the use of competencies in this way are to streamline the education of key stakeholders, to establish clear roles and responsibilities for constituents and equip individuals working with students following a concussion with the relevant knowledge to optimize outcomes. The majority of participants, primarily speech language pathologists working as related service providers in the schoolswhere the trainings occurred, judged the use of the competencies to be ...


The Rhesus Macaque Corticospinal Connectome, Sydney Talmi Jan 2019

The Rhesus Macaque Corticospinal Connectome, Sydney Talmi

CMC Senior Theses

The corticospinal tract (CST), which carries commands from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord, is vital to fine motor control. Spinal cord injury (SCI) often damages CST axons, causing loss of motor function, most notably in the hands and legs. Our preliminary work in rats suggests that CST circuitry is complex: neurons whose axons project to the lower cervical spinal cord, which directly controls hand function, also send axon collaterals to other locations in the nervous system and may engage parallel motor systems. To inform research into repair of SCI, we therefore aimed to map the entire projection pattern ...


More Evidence Of Complex Cognition In Nonhuman Species, Lesley J. Rogers Jan 2019

More Evidence Of Complex Cognition In Nonhuman Species, Lesley J. Rogers

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman have highlighted observations of animals performing, in nature, complex behaviour once thought to be unique to humans. Just as relevant to their argument are examples of cognition shown by domesticated species tested in controlled conditions. These strengthen the case for human/nonhuman similarities in behaviour and cognition. Recent research has brought to our attention the ability of nonhuman species to perform many tasks previously considered to be the hallmark of humans. Even though different species may use different ways of solving these tasks, the very fact that they can do it undermines the notion of human superiority.


Unique In Degree Not Kindness, Jennifer Vonk Jan 2019

Unique In Degree Not Kindness, Jennifer Vonk

Animal Sentience

Humans are certainly unique among living species. This is evident in the transformation of human environments and its resulting impact on other animals. However, many of the traits unique to humans are costly as well as adaptive and should certainly not be used to elevate their status above that of other species.


Phooey On Comparisons, Gwen J. Broude Jan 2019

Phooey On Comparisons, Gwen J. Broude

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman reject the notion that human beings are very different from other animals. The goal is to undermine the claim that human uniqueness and even superiority are reason enough to treat other animals badly. But evaluating human uniqueness for this purpose only plays into the hands of those who exploit invidious comparisons between us and other animals to justify mistreatment of the rest of the animal kingdom. What human uniqueness we may discover would still be no justification for how we behave toward other animals. We should also ask ourselves whether any human-centric criterion can be justification for determining ...


Anthropomorphism Is The First Step, Marthe Kiley-Worthington Jan 2019

Anthropomorphism Is The First Step, Marthe Kiley-Worthington

Animal Sentience

Individuals have intentions, beliefs and choices. This sense of “personhood” has been known and used for centuries by those who have dealt professionally with any nonhuman mammal. All mammals have a lot in common physically and mentally. The first step toward understand another species’ point of view is anthropomorphism.


Mirror Neurons And Humanity’S Dark Side, Gisela Kaplan Jan 2019

Mirror Neurons And Humanity’S Dark Side, Gisela Kaplan

Animal Sentience

The last two decades have revealed brain mechanisms in birds and primates showing that, contrary to earlier prejudices, some birds can do things (cognitive and affective) on par with or even better than great apes and humans. The old dichotomies are breaking down; but the dark side is that these insights come at a time in the Anthropocene when humans have caused and continue to cause mass extinctions.


Humans May Be Unique And Superior — And That Is Irrelevant, Eze Paez Jan 2019

Humans May Be Unique And Superior — And That Is Irrelevant, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman argue that, because humans are neither unique nor superior to the other animals, cruelty to animals is not justified. Though I agree with their conclusion, I do not think their argument works. Many human beings do have some capacities that animals do not have and are greater in some respects, in the sense of having superior abilities. It is a better argument to deny that any of that is morally relevant. Sentience suffices for moral consideration, and for deriving a moral duty not to harm other animals and to assist them when they are in need.


Developmental Aspects Of Capacities, Karen Bartsch Jan 2019

Developmental Aspects Of Capacities, Karen Bartsch

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman suggest that judgments of human superiority underlie our cruelty to animals. It might be useful to examine how such judgments operate within the human community. Children arguably have a potential for developing “superior” capacities but are outperformed on many tasks by animals. There is a continuum of development in children’s capacities. Perhaps there are interspecies evolutionary continua too. This highlights the complexity of reasoning about humans, animals, and moral inclusion.


Non-Human Animals Providing Rescue In Medical Emergencies, Rainer Spiegel Jan 2019

Non-Human Animals Providing Rescue In Medical Emergencies, Rainer Spiegel

Animal Sentience

In their target article, Chapman & Huffman challenge the quotation of Sir William Osler that the desire to take medication distinguishes humans from non-human animals. They provide examples of self-medication in non-human animals. Based on these examples, it can be inferred that non-human animals practice at least some form of medicine for symptom control. I would like to extend this view by showing that non-human animals not only provide self-medication, but also rescue others facing emergencies.


Sharing Emotions Builds Bridges Between Individuals And Between Species, Elisabetta Palagi Jan 2019

Sharing Emotions Builds Bridges Between Individuals And Between Species, Elisabetta Palagi

Animal Sentience

Many animal species express, perceive and share emotions. These abilities have been favoured by natural selection because they allow subjects to respond to various situations in an appropriate way, thus facilitating survival and increasing fitness. The same-face/same-emotion phenomenon is at the basis of sharing feelings and emotions. Recent studies show that this capacity is not unique to humans and that it plays an important role in creating cohesive societies in many different species.


Taking Exception To Human Exceptionalism, Carrie P. Freeman Jan 2019

Taking Exception To Human Exceptionalism, Carrie P. Freeman

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman refute common claims used to justify human species distinctions, and they critique the animal cruelty that has resulted from this privileged status. I raise related questions for further study of the roots of human exceptionalism and about whether aspiring to be more like our fellow animals might be part of the solution.


Intelligence As Mental Manipulation In Humans And Nonhuman Animals, Moran Bar-Hen-Schweiger, Avishai Henik Jan 2019

Intelligence As Mental Manipulation In Humans And Nonhuman Animals, Moran Bar-Hen-Schweiger, Avishai Henik

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman review and evaluate various aspects of the notion of human superiority. In this commentary we focus on intelligence and suggest a biologically based view of intelligence applicable to humans and non-human species alike. “Mental manipulation” (e.g., mental transformations, rotations, perspective-taking), an extension of object manipulation, provides a continuous, biologically based concept for studying intelligent behavior in humans and other species and challenges the notion of human superiority.


Humans Have Always Been Unique!, William C. Mcgrew Jan 2019

Humans Have Always Been Unique!, William C. Mcgrew

Animal Sentience

Arguments about human uniqueness apply not only to extant species but also to extinct ones, that is, the hominin predecessors of anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Thus, unique and superior are doubly relative terms, in past and present. The scope for empirical comparison faces a spectrum of difficulty, from material (e.g., artefacts) to non-material (e.g., concepts) phenomena.


Animal Sentience Is Not Enough To Motivate Conservation, Irene M. Pepperberg Jan 2019

Animal Sentience Is Not Enough To Motivate Conservation, Irene M. Pepperberg

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman suggest that humans’ views of their own superiority are a source of their callousness toward the environment. I do not disagree but point to a number of other issues that must be addressed for conservation efforts to succeed.


Cortical Stimulation Mapping Of Heschl’S Gyrus In The Auditory Cortex For Tinnitus Treatment, Austin Huang Dec 2018

Cortical Stimulation Mapping Of Heschl’S Gyrus In The Auditory Cortex For Tinnitus Treatment, Austin Huang

CMC Senior Theses

Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an actual sound stimulus. Recent developments have shifted the focus to the central nervous system and the neural correlate of tinnitus. Broadly, tinnitus involves cortical map rearrangement, pathological neural synchrony, and increased spontaneous firing rates. Various cortical regions, such as Heschl’s gyrus in the auditory cortex, have been found to be associated with different aspects of tinnitus, such as perception and loudness. I propose a cortical stimulation mapping study of Heschl’s gyrus using a depth and subdural electrode montage to conduct electrocorticography. This study would provide high-resolution data ...


Umsl Faculty Expertise, Robert H. Paul Dec 2018

Umsl Faculty Expertise, Robert H. Paul

Robert Paul

Research Specializations: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI); Neuroimaging (Diffusion Tensor and Structural MRI); Neuropsychological Assessment; Performance-based Assessment; and Traumatic Stress


Potential Applications Of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) To Organizational Research: A Primer And Sample Study, Allen I. Huffcutt, Wen-Ching Liu, Lori A. Russell-Chapin Dec 2018

Potential Applications Of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) To Organizational Research: A Primer And Sample Study, Allen I. Huffcutt, Wen-Ching Liu, Lori A. Russell-Chapin

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

The first purpose of this manuscript is to provide a primer for organizational researchers on both fMRI and brain physiology because few are likely to have encountered an in-depth treatment of either previously. The second purpose is to present the results of an actual fMRI study on an organizational topic (structured employment interviews) as a sample to help illustrate the potential of this type of research. Results of the sample study enhanced understanding of the brain processes behind responding to situational (SI) and behavior description (BDI) interviews, and offered several promising directions for follow-up research. To illustrate the latter, there ...


Characterization Of G-Protein Coupled Receptors In Pain, Depression And Anxiety, Neil Lax Dec 2018

Characterization Of G-Protein Coupled Receptors In Pain, Depression And Anxiety, Neil Lax

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain and major depressive disorder are widespread conditions in the world. Interestingly, these conditions often occur comorbidly, with each individual disease amplifying the symptoms of the other. A significant amount of preclinical research in pain and depression focuses on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), implying that GPCRs may be useful in treating this comorbidity. Our efforts have sought to characterize several poorly understood GPCRs, including the serotonin receptor subtypes 2C and 7 (5-HT2CR and 5-HT7R) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), along with more well-known GPCRs such as the mu opioid receptor (MOR), and the role that they play in ...


Cpla2alpha-/- Sympathetic Neurons Exhibit Increased Membrane Excitability And Loss Of N-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibition By M1 Muscarinic Receptor Signaling, Liwang Liu, Joseph V. Bonventre, Ann R. Rittenhouse Dec 2018

Cpla2alpha-/- Sympathetic Neurons Exhibit Increased Membrane Excitability And Loss Of N-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibition By M1 Muscarinic Receptor Signaling, Liwang Liu, Joseph V. Bonventre, Ann R. Rittenhouse

Open Access Articles

Group IVa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2alpha) mediates GPCR-stimulated arachidonic acid (AA) release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) located in plasma membranes. We previously found in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons that PLA2 activity is required for voltage-independent N-type Ca2+ (N-) current inhibition by M1 muscarinic receptors (M1Rs). These findings are at odds with an alternative model, previously observed for M-current inhibition, where PIP2 dissociation from channels and subsequent metabolism by phospholipase C suffices for current inhibition. To resolve cPLA2alpha's importance, we have investigated its role in mediating voltage-independent N-current inhibition (~40%) that follows application of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M ...


A Mouse Model Of Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome Reveals A Potential Link With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cheng Cheng Dec 2018

A Mouse Model Of Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome Reveals A Potential Link With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cheng Cheng

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION

A Mouse Model of Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome reveals a potential link with Autism Spectrum Disorder

By

Cheng Cheng

Doctor of Philosophy in Biology and Biomedical Sciences

Developmental, Regenerative and Stem Cell Biology

Washington University in St. Louis, 2018

Dr. Azad Bonni, Chair

Intellectual disability (ID) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 1% to 3% of the general population. ID is characterized by developmental deficiencies in cognitive function and adaptive behaviors. Lacking effective treatments, ID currently presents an immense burden to affected families and the economy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to elucidate the pathogenesis of ...


Investigating Multiple Streams Of Consciousness: Using Descriptive Experience Sampling To Explore Internally And Externally Directed Streams Of Thought, Charles Fernyhough, Ben Alderson-Day, Russel T. Hurlburt, Simone Kühn Dec 2018

Investigating Multiple Streams Of Consciousness: Using Descriptive Experience Sampling To Explore Internally And Externally Directed Streams Of Thought, Charles Fernyhough, Ben Alderson-Day, Russel T. Hurlburt, Simone Kühn

Psychology Faculty Publications

Research into resting-state cognition has often struggled with the challenge of assessing inner experience in the resting state. We employed Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES), a method aimed at generating detailed and high-fidelity descriptions of experience, to investigate how experience in the resting state can vary between internal, external, and multiple simultaneous streams. Using a large body of experiential and brain activation data acquired from five DES participants, independent raters classified sampled moments of experience according to whether they were internally directed, externally directed, or contained elements of both at the same time. In line with existing models, comparison of internal ...


Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis Dec 2018

Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis

Open Access Articles

The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Disruptions in dendritic spine development have been implicated in many neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Although the development of dendritic spines is vital for cognitive function, understanding the mechanisms driving their outgrowth and ...


Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri Dec 2018

Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Feeding results from the integration of both nutritional and affective states, and is guided by complex neural circuitry in the brain. The hypothalamus is a critical center controlling feeding and motivated behaviors. We found that targeted photostimulation of projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) in mice elicited voracious feeding and repetitive self-grooming behavior. GABA neurotransmission in the LH->PVH circuit mediated the evoked feeding behavior, and elicited behavioral approach, whereas glutamate release promoted repetitive self-grooming, which was stress-related in nature. Optogenetic inhibition of LHGABA ->PVH circuit reduced feeding after fasting, whereas photostimulation abruptly stopped ...