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Full-Text Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

The Neurobiology Of The Healing Arts: Expressive Arts Therapy As An Effective Treatment For Adults Diagnosed With Complex Ptsd Due To Complex Trauma In Childhood: A Literature Review, Cheryl Ratliff May 2022

The Neurobiology Of The Healing Arts: Expressive Arts Therapy As An Effective Treatment For Adults Diagnosed With Complex Ptsd Due To Complex Trauma In Childhood: A Literature Review, Cheryl Ratliff

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Empirically based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to be less effective in treating more severe trauma presentations such as complex PTSD (CPTSD). Neurobiological investigation provides a framework for examining the physical and psychological effects of trauma on brain and nerve structures and provides insight into how to effectively treat CPTSD. This literature review examined symptomology of CPTSD resulting from complex trauma in childhood, neurobiological effects of trauma and their implications for treatment, and the efficacy of the current treatment models, primarily those of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy (NET), and somatic psychotherapies ...


Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen Dec 2021

Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Background: 7q11.23 duplication (Dup7) is one of the most frequent recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but based on gold-standard assessments, only 19% of Dup7 carriers have ASD, suggesting that additional genetic factors are necessary to manifest the ASD phenotype. To assess the contribution of additional genetic variants to the Dup7 phenotype, we conducted whole-genome sequencing analysis of 20 Dup7 carriers: nine with ASD (Dup7-ASD) and 11 without ASD (Dup7-non-ASD). Results: We identified three rare variants of potential clinical relevance for ASD: a 1q21.1 microdeletion (Dup7-non-ASD) and two ...


Exploring Tactile Art-Making With Deafblind Students And Their Families: An Opportunity For Creative Play, Alice Rodgers May 2021

Exploring Tactile Art-Making With Deafblind Students And Their Families: An Opportunity For Creative Play, Alice Rodgers

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The impact of a deafblind diagnosis on an individual’s mental health and the well-being of the family involved can be profound. However, current research and available literature for the mental health treatment and therapy practices of deafblind persons and their families is limited (Kyzar et al., 2016; “WFDB Global Report 2018,” n.d.). This thesis used the Leeds Family Psychology and Therapy Service principles (Leeds FPTS) and the Expressive Therapies Continuum with established deafblind teaching strategies to facilitate an original arts-based community project entitled: “Things We Like.” This project provided an opportunity for deafblind students (ages three to 22 ...


Proceedings From The Second Annual Society For Neurosports Conference, William R. Kochen May 2021

Proceedings From The Second Annual Society For Neurosports Conference, William R. Kochen

NeuroSports

Proceedings from the Second Annual Society for NeuroSports Conference


Muscular Performance And Neuromuscular Fatigue Are Not Sex-Dependent During Low-Load Fatiguing Bilateral Leg Extension Exercise, Taylor K. Dinyer, Evangeline P. Soucie, Pasquale J. Succi, Caleb C. Voskuil, M. Travis Byrd, Haley C. Bergstrom May 2021

Muscular Performance And Neuromuscular Fatigue Are Not Sex-Dependent During Low-Load Fatiguing Bilateral Leg Extension Exercise, Taylor K. Dinyer, Evangeline P. Soucie, Pasquale J. Succi, Caleb C. Voskuil, M. Travis Byrd, Haley C. Bergstrom

NeuroSports

Purpose. This study examined the sex-related differences in muscular performance and neuromuscular (electromyographic [EMG] and mechanomyographic [MMG] amplitude [AMP] and mean power frequency [MPF]) responses during fatiguing leg extension repetitions performed at the critical load (CL). Methods. Eleven men and nine women completed one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing, repetitions to failure at 50, 60, 70, and 80% 1RM to determine CL, and repetitions to failure at CL, on separate days. The EMG and MMG, AMP and MPF signals and number of repetitions completed were recorded. Results. There were no sex-dependent responses in the %1RM that corresponded to, the number of repetitions ...


Gpr171 As A Novel Target To Treat Neuropathic Pain, Erin Bobeck May 2021

Gpr171 As A Novel Target To Treat Neuropathic Pain, Erin Bobeck

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Vitamin B12 Deficiency Does Not Stimulate Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Opeyemi F. Showemimo May 2021

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Does Not Stimulate Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Opeyemi F. Showemimo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is symptomized by amyloid-beta plaques in the brain and accounts for more than 65 percent of dementia cases. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency can result in similar cognitive impairment and roughly 15% of the elderly are vitamin B12 deficient. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in the accumulation of toxic methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a strong risk factor for AD. To test if vitamin B12 deficiency stimulates amyloid-beta toxicity, Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-beta in muscle were fed either vitamin B12-deficient OP50-1 or vitamin B12-rich HT115(DE3) E. coli bacteria. Increased amyloid-beta toxicity was found in worms fed ...


Using Deep Learning For Children Brain Image Analysis, Rafael Toche Pizano May 2021

Using Deep Learning For Children Brain Image Analysis, Rafael Toche Pizano

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Analyzing the correlation between brain volumetric/morphometry features and cognition/behavior in children is important in the field of pediatrics as identifying such relationships can help identify children who may be at risk for illnesses. Understanding these relationships can not only help identify children who may be at risk of illnesses, but it can also help evaluate strategies that promote brain development in children. Currently, one way to do this is to use traditional statistical methods such as a correlation analysis, but such an approach does not make it easy to generalize and predict how brain volumetric/morphometry will impact ...


How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected Physical Activity, Sleep And Mental Health In University Students, Faculty And Staff And To Examine The Relationship Between These Variables, Zachary Parisi May 2021

How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected Physical Activity, Sleep And Mental Health In University Students, Faculty And Staff And To Examine The Relationship Between These Variables, Zachary Parisi

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Increased physical activity has been shown to be beneficial in decreasing stress. This project will expand on this knowledge while also studying college students, a demographic that has been less studied. This study will also examine the impact of COVID-19 on these variables. COVID-19 changed many peoples’ activities of daily life, and possibly physically activity levels, due to public health measures such as lockdowns and remote learning. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected physical activity, sleep, and mental health in university students, faculty and staff and to examine the relationship ...


Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader May 2021

Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Examining The Role Of The Drosophila Melanogaster Unc13 Protein In Open Field Activity Using Rnai, Islam Orabi May 2021

Examining The Role Of The Drosophila Melanogaster Unc13 Protein In Open Field Activity Using Rnai, Islam Orabi

Honors Theses

Unc13 are proteins in the presynaptic neurons essential in controlling synaptic vesicle fusion and synaptic transmission. Recently, the reduction of Drosophila melanogaster Unc13 proteins (Dunc13), were found to result in a resistance to alcohol, highly reminiscent of tolerance formation. I investigated whether genetically reducing Dunc13 activity in Drosophila brain regions leads to different forms of behavioral plasticity using an open field activity paradigm. In my approach, a Dunc13 RNAi transgene was expressed in the Drosophila brain within the mushroom body, the ellipsoid body, and in all neurons. The activities of the flies were examined in the open field paradigm to ...


Translational Fidelity And Its Role In Neuronal Homeostasis, Markus Terrey May 2021

Translational Fidelity And Its Role In Neuronal Homeostasis, Markus Terrey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The process of translation, which refers to decoding genetic information from mRNA to protein, is vital for all cellular function. Translational fidelity starts at the level of aminoacylation of transfer RNAs (tRNA). This reaction is catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases where each amino acid is transferred to its corresponding cognate tRNA. Because tRNAs harbor the anticodon sequence to decodes a particular mRNA codon, the specific aminoacylation of the tRNA with a cognate amino acid establishes the rules of decoding genetic code into proteins. Aminoacylated tRNAs are then delivered to ribosomes, where ribosomes in a highly organized manner need to accurately ...


Meta-Analysis Of Long Term Executive Functioning Deficits In Individuals With Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries, Dominique Ballinger Apr 2021

Meta-Analysis Of Long Term Executive Functioning Deficits In Individuals With Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries, Dominique Ballinger

Neuroscience Honors Papers

Performed a meta-analysis of studies examining the long-term executive functioning deficits after suffering several mild traumatic brain injuries. Data was collected from multiple primary sources under several, specific criteria to find the best methods in demonstrating the longevity and urgencies in suffering several mTBIs.


The Role Of The Dal Neurons In Modulating Circadian Rhythms In Olfactory Short-Term Memory In Drosophila Melanogaster, Cooper Ruwe Apr 2021

The Role Of The Dal Neurons In Modulating Circadian Rhythms In Olfactory Short-Term Memory In Drosophila Melanogaster, Cooper Ruwe

Honors Theses

Depressed short-term memory (STM) abilities during non-adaptive times of the day can significantly impact those who work occupations that require peak levels of cognitive functioning around the clock. While much work has gone into understanding the endogenous clock and circadian rhythms, there is still much to learn about the neural circuity that underlies the daily rhythms that define these regular oscillations in STM performance. The DAL neurons in the Drosophila brain are part of the circadian network and innervate the mushroom bodies (MBs), the species’ olfactory learning center, making them compelling candidates to be involved in circadian circuitry for olfactory ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induces Axon Initial Segment Shortening In Cortical Neuron Culture, Jennae Shelby, Ryan B. Griggs, Josef Steinbrunner, Keiichiro Susuki Apr 2021

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induces Axon Initial Segment Shortening In Cortical Neuron Culture, Jennae Shelby, Ryan B. Griggs, Josef Steinbrunner, Keiichiro Susuki

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a domain located between the neuronal soma and axon responsible for action-potential initiation. Because even small changes in its length or location alter neuronal excitability and function, the AIS is a key structure for neurodegenerative pathophysiology. AIS shortening is seen in several neurodegenerative conditions such as traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease, neuropathic pain, multiple sclerosis, and diabetic encephalopathy. Diabetic encephalopathy refers to mild cognitive impairment or dementia often experienced in patients with type 2 diabetes. Although patients with type 2 diabetes are 1.73 times more likely to develop dementia, there is currently ...


Placental Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha In Early-Onset Preeclampsia As A Predictor Of Future Risk In Maternal And Fetal Health, Julie Slyby, Bryce Linkous, Sarah Scott, Chandni Chandiramani, Amy Hwang, Danielle Spanbauer, Melissa R. Kaufman, Traci Rackett, Kailey Nolan, Emily Stone, Rose A. Maxwell, David N. Dhanraj, Thomas L. Brown Apr 2021

Placental Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha In Early-Onset Preeclampsia As A Predictor Of Future Risk In Maternal And Fetal Health, Julie Slyby, Bryce Linkous, Sarah Scott, Chandni Chandiramani, Amy Hwang, Danielle Spanbauer, Melissa R. Kaufman, Traci Rackett, Kailey Nolan, Emily Stone, Rose A. Maxwell, David N. Dhanraj, Thomas L. Brown

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Preeclampsia is a life-threatening, pregnancy-associated disorder characterized by the rapid development of hypertension with renal dysfunction. While preeclampsia generally occurs later in pregnancy, early-onset preeclampsia (EOPE) can occur much earlier and is usually more devastating. Early-onset preeclampsia is also associated with an increased risk of maternal cardiovascular and metabolic disease in mothers later in life and neurocognitive dysfunction in their offspring. EOPE is strongly associated with abnormal placental development and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy.


The Neurobiological Relationship Between Childhood Maltreatment And Major Depressive Disorder (Mdd), Morgan Clinton Apr 2021

The Neurobiological Relationship Between Childhood Maltreatment And Major Depressive Disorder (Mdd), Morgan Clinton

Global Tides

Childhood maltreatment compromises healthy development, impacts neurobiology, and is associated with lasting alterations to emotional perception, processing, and regulation. Most significantly, childhood maltreatment increases the risk for later development of emotional disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The stress associated with both childhood maltreatment and MDD can lead to lasting alterations to the fronto-limbic circuitry. Using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, researchers have observed hippocampal atrophy and amygdala hyperresponsiveness in participants who’ve experienced both childhood maltreatment and MDD. Furthermore, researchers have also observed increased connectivity between the hippocampus and amygdala in victims of childhood maltreatment. Because childhood ...


The Effects Of Stress On Latent Inhibition Of Rats, Kathryn Perlowitz, Mary Stebbins, Robert Hyer Apr 2021

The Effects Of Stress On Latent Inhibition Of Rats, Kathryn Perlowitz, Mary Stebbins, Robert Hyer

Senior Scholars Day

No abstract provided.


Landmark-Guided T-Maze Learning In The Wolf Spider Tigrosa Helluo, Tiffany Guth Apr 2021

Landmark-Guided T-Maze Learning In The Wolf Spider Tigrosa Helluo, Tiffany Guth

Senior Scholars Day

Wolf spiders can learn spatial navigation through simple maze tasks. It remains unclear if spatial learning is acquired through idiothetic information (i.e. self-referential movement cues) or if they use allothetic cues (e.g. external landmarks) to navigate. Spiders may also use specific types of landmarks to navigate known as reference frames. A reference frame is an environmental shape or boundary that provides a framework for spatial localization. Using a modified water T-maze, we recorded the ability of adult female Tigrosa helluo wolf spiders to correctly navigate toward a target reward. We measured variation in spatial learning of the target ...


Npy Expression Of Low-Birth Weight Offspring In Nutrient-Restricted Utero, Janine Levandowski, Holly Young Apr 2021

Npy Expression Of Low-Birth Weight Offspring In Nutrient-Restricted Utero, Janine Levandowski, Holly Young

Senior Scholars Day

No abstract provided.


055— Ketogenic Diet And Dendritic Morphology In A Mouse Model Of Repetitive Behavior, Samantha Seeger, Yume Iriyama, Allison R. Bechard Apr 2021

055— Ketogenic Diet And Dendritic Morphology In A Mouse Model Of Repetitive Behavior, Samantha Seeger, Yume Iriyama, Allison R. Bechard

GREAT Day

Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant movements with no apparent function. They are associated with several disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, little is known about the causes of these restricted behavior patterns, and effective treatments are lacking. ASD has recently been treated with a ketogenic diet (KD). Now a popular fad, KD is a high-fat, low-carb diet that has treated intractable epilepsy for decades. However, the mechanisms mediating KD’s beneficial effects are still unclear. We first show KD can attenuate repetitive circling behavior. We then assessed dendritic spine density in the left and right dorsolateral striatum as a ...


381— Virtual Community Outreach For Elementary School Children In R-Kids After-School Program: A Novel Way To Teach Students About Neuroscience, Lucia Verrelli, Natasha Cotrupi, Julia Hoyt, Daniella Quiroz, Terence Bazzett Apr 2021

381— Virtual Community Outreach For Elementary School Children In R-Kids After-School Program: A Novel Way To Teach Students About Neuroscience, Lucia Verrelli, Natasha Cotrupi, Julia Hoyt, Daniella Quiroz, Terence Bazzett

GREAT Day

Applications in Neuroscience (NEUR215) offers an opportunity for community outreach within the Neuroscience major. Students enrolled in NEUR215 create neuroscience-based activities designed to foster an excitement for science and to promote higher education in elementary school students recruited through the R-Kids after-school enrichment program. Four one-hour live sessions were held via Zoom with 2-5 R-Kids participants attending each session. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all lessons were transitioned virtually during the fall 2020 semester, and effective teaching strategies in a virtual environment were explored. The results of this investigation showed that online learning can be both fun and effective. Inviting ...


355— Topographical Individualized Neuromarkers In The Analysis Of The Brain Functioning Of Social-Emotional Development, Maya Pellitteri, Daniella Leone, Emma Piwko, Michael Schulz, Sarina Singh, Bradley Taber-Thomas Apr 2021

355— Topographical Individualized Neuromarkers In The Analysis Of The Brain Functioning Of Social-Emotional Development, Maya Pellitteri, Daniella Leone, Emma Piwko, Michael Schulz, Sarina Singh, Bradley Taber-Thomas

GREAT Day

Topographical Individualized Neuromarkers (TIN) are spatially arranged patterns of brain function used to develop novel brain markers of social-emotional functioning and development. The current study focuses on developing markers of risk for psychological problems in children. We are expanding on previous research that indicates the brains of shy children differ from the brains of non-shy children, where shy children present with a topographical pattern of brain function that may be considered an internally hypervigilant neuromarker (Taber-Thomas et al., 2016). Using the online software, Neurosynth, we will extend our research into neuromarkers for other disorders using publicly available data. This program ...


The Sellar Barrier’S: An Important New Concept In Pituitary Surgery., Juan F. Villalonga, Alvaro Campero Apr 2021

The Sellar Barrier’S: An Important New Concept In Pituitary Surgery., Juan F. Villalonga, Alvaro Campero

Archives of Neurosurgery

The sellar barrier's concept was created by our team in Tucumán in 2019. There are currently 3 well-defined subtypes: strong, weak and mixed. Published case series studies indicate that there is a strong correlation between radiological, intraoperative findings and risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Patients with weak sellar barrier have more risk of intraoperative CSF leak. The strong sellar barrier is a protective factor for intraoperative CSF leak. The sellar barrier's concept is useful for clinical-surgical practice and for the physician-patient relationship.


Suprameatal Tubercle Classification; Its Implementation On Clinical Cases, Humberto Reyna Mendez, Jose Alfredo Espinosa Mora, Laura Ubaldo Reyes, Alberto Angeles Castellanos, Ignacio Mora Magaña, Mauro Alberto Segura Lozano, Rachel Blue, John Yk Lee, Diego Mendez Rosito Apr 2021

Suprameatal Tubercle Classification; Its Implementation On Clinical Cases, Humberto Reyna Mendez, Jose Alfredo Espinosa Mora, Laura Ubaldo Reyes, Alberto Angeles Castellanos, Ignacio Mora Magaña, Mauro Alberto Segura Lozano, Rachel Blue, John Yk Lee, Diego Mendez Rosito

Archives of Neurosurgery

Abstract:

Background: The suprameatal tubercle (SMT) is a variable prominence of the petrosal surface of the temporal bone that lies above the internal acoustic meatus. An enlarged SMT may present an obstacle during surgeries of the posterior fossa, including microvascular decompression or by itself cause trigeminal neuralgia.

Methods: Based on our prior study of 200 temporal bones, its data collection and establishing a classification of the SMT this extension study exemplifies its clinical application.

Results: According to the classification of the SMT four selected cases are clinically and anatomically correlated to exemplify the utility of this classification.

Conclusion: The SMT ...


Endoscopic–Assisted Surgery For Cerebello Pontine Angle Pathology: Technical Note And Surgical Results In A Series Of Patients, Jaime Jesus Martinez Anda, Pablo David Guerrero Suarez, Diego Pineda Martínez, Rafael Avendaño Pradel, Ernesto Javier Jurado Delgado, Ricardo Santiago Villlagrana Sánchez, Juan Carlos Cisneros Lesser, Carolina De La Llata Segura, Rogelio Revuelta Gutiérrez Apr 2021

Endoscopic–Assisted Surgery For Cerebello Pontine Angle Pathology: Technical Note And Surgical Results In A Series Of Patients, Jaime Jesus Martinez Anda, Pablo David Guerrero Suarez, Diego Pineda Martínez, Rafael Avendaño Pradel, Ernesto Javier Jurado Delgado, Ricardo Santiago Villlagrana Sánchez, Juan Carlos Cisneros Lesser, Carolina De La Llata Segura, Rogelio Revuelta Gutiérrez

Archives of Neurosurgery

Objectives: Endoscopic–assisted surgery combined with the operating microscope has been described for several surgical techniques and pathologies of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). The use of an endoscope allows for a panoramic view of the CPA cistern and a high degree of maneuverability in narrow cisternal spaces that enable the surgeon to deal with most CPA lesions safely. We performed an observational study to describe the surgical anatomy and technique for endoscopic-assisted CPA surgery, describing our experience in a case series of patients with CPA pathology. Methods: Anatomical and surgical technique description of endoscopic-assisted surgery for CPA pathology, based on ...


B12: The T Cell Co-Receptor Cd5 Alters Mouse Behavior And Gut Microbiome Composition, Kyle Reaveley Apr 2021

B12: The T Cell Co-Receptor Cd5 Alters Mouse Behavior And Gut Microbiome Composition, Kyle Reaveley

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Mental Fatigue: Examining Cognitive Performance And Driving Behavior In Young Adults, Abigail F. Helm Apr 2021

Mental Fatigue: Examining Cognitive Performance And Driving Behavior In Young Adults, Abigail F. Helm

Doctoral Dissertations

Mental fatigue causes an increase in task-based EEG theta and alpha power and a decrease in performance (for a review, see Tran et al., 2020). However, little is known about the emergence of mental fatigue in resting state EEG recordings and whether the progression of mental fatigue over time is influenced by individual differences. The current dissertation examined the utility of resting state EEG as a measure of mental fatigue by testing whether EEG power changed in young adults over the course of a cognitively demanding battery of tasks. The current dissertation also tested how this measure of mental fatigue ...


Sound In Color, Amber Rhodes Apr 2021

Sound In Color, Amber Rhodes

Honors Theses

“Sound in Color” is an interactive audio-visual experience designed to explore the relationship between sound, color, and emotions. Taking place on the Massey Concert Hall stage, the project is inspired by synesthesia and incorporates research on color psychology. Participants are invited to select an emotion and color. As the user hums into a microphone, they hear their emotions expressed through sound in their headphones and watch as the lights on stage respond to their vocal cues.


Autism Treatments: Beyond Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy, Sarah Samosiuk Apr 2021

Autism Treatments: Beyond Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy, Sarah Samosiuk

Honors Projects

This literature review dicusses the efficacy of mindfulness as a potential treatment option for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It differs from other treatment options as it works to reduce the symptoms of ASD by reducing the stress and anxiety that cause the symptoms. I discuss the neuroscience behind the autistic mind and give a multitude of studies showing the power of mindfulness. Researchers have only scratched the surface of the possibilities that mindfulness could achieve in this field and hopefully this movement can gain traction so that this kind of help is available to all of those who ...