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Full-Text Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish Jan 2021

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


The Effects Of Self-Esteem And Motivation On Cognitive Control, Andrea Benavides Jun 2020

The Effects Of Self-Esteem And Motivation On Cognitive Control, Andrea Benavides

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cognitive control describes a set of mechanisms that guide behavior towards a goal (Cohen, 2017). The successful execution of cognitive control is essential for effective learning, information processing, problem solving, and academic achievement (Visu-Petra et al., 2011). The Expected Value of Control framework (EVC; Shenhav et al., 2013) suggests that control carries an inherent cost, which is weighed against the potential benefits of expending it. This cost-benefit analysis determines the direction and intensity that a goal is pursued. Importantly, motivation plays a role in this cost-benefit analysis and may function as the factor that offsets the cost of control expenditure ...


Proactive And Reactive Aggression, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, And Sleep In Adolescents, Allison L. Brasch Jun 2020

Proactive And Reactive Aggression, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, And Sleep In Adolescents, Allison L. Brasch

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Current research evaluating the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, sleep, and autonomic dysfunction has shown inconsistencies. The unique etiologies, manifestations, and presentation of these two aggressive subtypes have garnered much speculation, and research has shown mixed, and oftentimes conflicting, results. Generally speaking, insufficient sleep has been linked to increased agitation, cognitive impairment, emotional dysregulation, and poorer physical health. Many studies have provided support for an inverse relationship existing between sleep problems and sympathovagal health, implicating hypo- or hyper-autonomic function with proactive and reactive aggression, respectively. Concurrently and conflictingly, additional research has shown support for the exact opposite relationships between ...


The Impact Of A Single Session Of Mindfulness Meditation On The Attentional Blink In Non-Meditators, Arielle L. Klopsis Jun 2020

The Impact Of A Single Session Of Mindfulness Meditation On The Attentional Blink In Non-Meditators, Arielle L. Klopsis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Attentional resources are limited therefore a stimulus can go undetected if it closely follows another target by 200-500ms. This phenomenon is known as the attentional blink. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be beneficial in target detection and in decreasing the attentional blink. Since there is no standard for the type of meditation or duration of practice that leads to attention benefits, this study compares the two most popular types of meditation in a group of non-meditators: focused attention and open monitoring meditation. This study utilized an attentional blink paradigm to measure if a single session of mindfulness meditation can ...


Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose May 2020

Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Associations are formed in our minds based upon three elements: sensory experience, emotions, and memories. These associations, unique to each individual, dictate thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, and actions. Some are necessary and supportive, while others can be maladaptive. Established associations can be changed, and new associations can be formed, to align with a client’s goals. The literature presents a strong history of associationism, as well as a body of research that demonstrates the neurological processes of how mental associations are formed. There are also studies showing how music activates the brain. However, there is a lack of research which draws ...


Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison May 2020

Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. Deweese May 2020

Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. Deweese

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Hiv-1 Tat Interactions With Opioids Are Modulated By Progesterone And Estradiol, Dejun Jackson May 2020

Hiv-1 Tat Interactions With Opioids Are Modulated By Progesterone And Estradiol, Dejun Jackson

Honors Theses

HIV infection and combined substance abuse are comorbid epidemics. Previous studies show that concurrent opioid drug use may potentiate HIV-1-mediated neurotoxicity partly via interactions with opioids. Preclinical studies suggest that the HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat), an HIV regulatory protein, can synergize with opioids to exacerbate its already neurotoxic effects. However, its interactions with clinical opioids, such as oxycodone, have yet to be elucidated. Additionally, Tat disrupts a number of systems including the dopaminergic system, which contribute to its capacity to potentiate the rewarding effects of abused drugs. Although the neurotoxic effects of Tat may be inhibited by gonadal steroids ...


Dynamic Oscillatory Interactions Between Neural Attention And Sensorimotor Systems, Alex Wiesman May 2020

Dynamic Oscillatory Interactions Between Neural Attention And Sensorimotor Systems, Alex Wiesman

Theses & Dissertations

The adaptive and flexible ability of the human brain to preference the processing of salient environmental features in the visual space is essential to normative cognitive function, and various neurologically afflicted patient groups report negative impacts on visual attention. While the brain-bases of human attentional processing have begun to be unraveled, very little is known regarding the interactions between attention systems and systems supporting sensory and motor processing. This is essential, as these interactions are dynamic; evolving rapidly in time and across a wide range of functionally defined rhythmic frequencies. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a range of novel cognitive paradigms ...


The Effects Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf-1) And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (Igfr) Regulation On Cognition And Structure Of Astrocytes, Sariya Khan May 2020

The Effects Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf-1) And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (Igfr) Regulation On Cognition And Structure Of Astrocytes, Sariya Khan

Honors Theses

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neuroendocrine signaling hormone that plays an integral role in bone and tissue growth and development. Inhibition of this hormone is known to disrupt the chemistry of the brain, resulting in cognitive impairments such as those seen in many common neurodegenerative diseases. While much research has been conducted on neurons and their relation with IGF-1, the role of astrocytes still needs to be explored. Our research investigates how astrocytes are affected as a result of IGF-1 regulation. Preliminary studies in our laboratory established a connection between IGF-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and in ...


The Raphe-Hippocampal Tract And Its Age Differences: Diffusion Tensor Imaging And Probabilistic Tractography Study, Ashley Sekul May 2020

The Raphe-Hippocampal Tract And Its Age Differences: Diffusion Tensor Imaging And Probabilistic Tractography Study, Ashley Sekul

Honors Theses

The raphe-hippocampal tract links the raphe nuclei to the hippocampus and is responsible for the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin. The hippocampus is key in regulating emotional and stress responses. This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging which uses Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to provide scans of the brain for analyzing differences in the raphe-hippocampal tract as one ages. In this specific study, 491 samples were visually analyzed to gather data about the fractional anisotropy of the raphe nuclei in both male and female brains ranging from 6 to 85 years old. Through the ranking of images, some were discarded, and ...


Effects Of Repeated Intermittent Episodes Of Social Stress On The Acquisition And Extinction Of A Reward-Seeking Task, Nikki Sullivan May 2020

Effects Of Repeated Intermittent Episodes Of Social Stress On The Acquisition And Extinction Of A Reward-Seeking Task, Nikki Sullivan

Honors Theses

Repeated exposure to stress is known to have a myriad of effects on the brain, contributing to the development of psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. For example, rats undergoing repeated social stress develop increased cocaine self-administration. These effects of stress are not well-understood and are related to changes in the brain reward system. This study investigated the effects of repeated social stress on reward-seeking behavior via the acquisition and extinction of a discriminative stimulus (DS) task and on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Male rats underwent intermittent social defeat (4 sessions in 10 ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes May 2020

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Working Memory And Attention Deficits During A Letter Number Sequencing Task Post-Concussion, Shannon Kiss May 2020

Working Memory And Attention Deficits During A Letter Number Sequencing Task Post-Concussion, Shannon Kiss

Neuroscience Honors Papers

As the prevalence of sports related concussions rise, the long-term effects of concussions have garnered increasing research attention. Previous research has demonstrated that certain dimensions of executive function are especially susceptible to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), specifically working memory and attention. Previous studies using EEG have found that increased very low frequency oscillations (VLFO) disrupt goal-oriented activities and are associated with difficulties in cognition, hyperactivity and inattention in concussed individuals after mTBI. This study utilized continuous EEG during a letter number sequencing task on concussed and non-concussed individuals to assess deficits related to working memory and attention. It was ...


Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber May 2020

Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber

Senior Honors Theses

The improved survival rate for pediatric cancer patients is one of the greatest triumphs of recent medicine, but the late effects faced by these survivors have been uncovered through this new population of survivors. Many survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experience cognitive deficits in areas such as attention, memory, processing speed, and academic achievement following cancer treatment. Recent research has pointed to chemotherapeutic agents, host risk factors, and genetic predispositions as perpetrators of these deficits, although other factors are also under investigation. Consequently, the search for appropriate interventions for the amelioration of these deficits has dominated the literature ...


The Functional Role Of Mitochondria In Neural Progenitor Cells, Alyssa Luz-Ricca May 2020

The Functional Role Of Mitochondria In Neural Progenitor Cells, Alyssa Luz-Ricca

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Neurodevelopment is a complex process that requires the precise spatiotemporal control of cellular differentiation. As cells differentiate, they undergo metabolic changes that make them increasingly reliant on their mitochondria for energy production. Beyond playing a central role in the bioenergetic support of newborn neurons, functional changes in mitochondria regulate the processes of cellular differentiation. Importantly, mitochondrial function extends beyond energy production. Mitochondria in neural stem cells play an essential role in both producing intermediates for biosynthesis and regulating calcium levels. In this thesis, I review the functional role of mitochondria in stem cell fate decisions, differentiation, and proliferation during neurodevelopment ...


The Role Of Time And Nicotine Dose On Anxiety Measured With Light Enhanced Startle, Ross Fladeland May 2020

The Role Of Time And Nicotine Dose On Anxiety Measured With Light Enhanced Startle, Ross Fladeland

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Two experiments using Light-enhanced startle (LES) examined dose-dependent and time- dependent effects of acute nicotine on anxiety. In Experiment 1 rats were exposed to saline, .15 mg/kg, or .40 mg/kg (i.p.) nicotine and 5 minutes later were behaviorally tested in LES. Data suggested that nicotine at both doses was anxiolytic in males but not anxiolytic in females. In females, the higher nicotine dose, .40 mg/kg, was anxiogenic but only during later portions of the test session. In both males and females, within-session variation in LES provided evidence that LES increased in magnitude as time since nicotine ...


Safe Sleep: Developmental Implications For Hospitalized Infants, Katherine Kohlsaat May 2020

Safe Sleep: Developmental Implications For Hospitalized Infants, Katherine Kohlsaat

Senior Honors Projects

The rate at which an infant develops both physically and cognitively is significant during sleep, as this is the time when the entire body can dedicate its efforts to this cause. Parents of healthy infants follow the guidelines set by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) relating to safe sleep, and since their introduction in 1992, the rate of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has decreased by 40% (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). However, if an infant has been hospitalized since birth due to necessary invasive procedures such as open-heart surgery, these protocols cannot be initially implemented. Common ...


The Effect Of Intranasal Orexin A On The Interaction Between Social Isolation Stress And Attention, Saurav Pattanayak May 2020

The Effect Of Intranasal Orexin A On The Interaction Between Social Isolation Stress And Attention, Saurav Pattanayak

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Orexins are neuropeptides that have been shown to have an association with processes such as stress and attention. However, limited studies have been done on orexin’s role in the intersection of stress and attention. In this experiment, Sprague Dawley rats were isolated at 21 postnatal days, isolated at 35 postnatal days, or placed into group-housing. Varying doses of orexin A or saline were administered intranasally into the rats. Their attentional performance was measured in a sustained attention task. An ANOVA was carried out on the hit rates, correct rejection rates, and omissions of socially isolated rats and group-housed rats ...


Dynamics Of Sensory Integration Of Olfactory And Mechanical Stimuli Within The Response Patterns Of Moth Antennal Lobe Neurons, Harrison Tuckman May 2020

Dynamics Of Sensory Integration Of Olfactory And Mechanical Stimuli Within The Response Patterns Of Moth Antennal Lobe Neurons, Harrison Tuckman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Odors emanating from a biologically relevant source are rapidly embedded within a windy, turbulent medium that folds and spins filaments into fragmented strands of varying sizes. Environmental odor plumes therefore exhibit complex spatiotemporal dynamics, and rarely yield an easily discernible concentration gradient marking an unambiguous trail to an odor source. Thus, sensory integration of chemical input, encoding odor identity or concentration, and mechanosensory input, encoding wind speed, is a critical task that animals face in resolving the complex dynamics of odor plumes and tracking an odor source. In insects, who employ olfactory navigation as their primary means of foraging for ...


Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn May 2020

Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The orexin (also called hypocretin) system projects to a wide array of brain regions and is activated by drugs of abuse. The orexin system is best known for its function in wakefulness and arousal, but recent research has suggested that orexins play a vital role in attentional processing. The orexin-1 receptor has been implicated in crucial mechanisms of attention, specifically the transmission of acetylcholine to the cortex. Nicotine is a commonly administered psychoactive drug that has been shown to have cognitive-enhancing effects. Nicotine appears to target the orexin system, suggesting a potential role of the orexin system in mediating the ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham May 2020

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


Alcohol Consumption In A Preclinical Model Of Schizophrenia, Liza Hernandez May 2020

Alcohol Consumption In A Preclinical Model Of Schizophrenia, Liza Hernandez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 1% of the global population. Schizophrenia is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders such as Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) with a prevalence rate of 27% - 65%, which is significantly higher than AUD exhibited by the general population (6%). Research indicates that a higher rate of AUD in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be related to the common neuronal pathways that underlie the expression of both disorders. The present study will determine whether the neonatal quinpirole (NQ) rodent model of schizophrenia will approximate the human condition and exhibit increased EtOH consumption. Rats ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers May 2020

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


Argumentative Synthesis Essay On Enhanced Interrogation Techniques, Gwendolyn D. Wheatley Apr 2020

Argumentative Synthesis Essay On Enhanced Interrogation Techniques, Gwendolyn D. Wheatley

The Downtown Review

This essay discusses enhanced interrogation techniques. For reference, enhanced interrogation techniques are interrogation techniques that involve “physically coercive interventions” (Duke & Puyvelde, 2017). The U.S. government supported these techniques after the attacks on September 11, 2001. This essay argues that enhanced interrogation techniques should not be used in interrogations because they are unethical, ineffective, and negatively impact the mental health of the interrogators using these techniques. Additionally, the essay references articles on the varied viewpoints as well as explains information on these interrogation techniques. Also, the essay argues that enhanced interrogation techniques encourage people to be cruel and inhumane. Moreover ...


A Study Of The Antioxidant Versus Pro-Oxidant Nature Of The Amyloid Beta Peptide And An Analysis Of The Natural Products, Isorhamnetin And Narignenin, As Antioxidants, Kaylee Holmes Apr 2020

A Study Of The Antioxidant Versus Pro-Oxidant Nature Of The Amyloid Beta Peptide And An Analysis Of The Natural Products, Isorhamnetin And Narignenin, As Antioxidants, Kaylee Holmes

Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with no cure. Due to the widespread effects of this disease, abundant research efforts have gone towards finding a cure. The amyloid beta (Ab) peptide has been shown to be a potential cause of the disease due to destructive effects on tissues that it can have both by itself and through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This study was performed in order to assess the structural properties of Ab42monomers, fibrils and oligomers, to assess the antioxidant versus pro-oxidant behavior of the Ab peptide, and to assess the antioxidant nature of the ...


Socially-Facilitated Antipredator Responses In The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Kaitlyn Herron Apr 2020

Socially-Facilitated Antipredator Responses In The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Kaitlyn Herron

Senior Scholars Day

Animals use diverse sources of information to assess predation risk. Many may use direct information such as visual or odor cues associated with a predator. Additionally, social species may use indirect sources of information such as observing antipredator responses of nearby conspecifics even when they themselves have no direct information about risk. The relative value and interaction of direct predator cues and indirect social information about predation risk is unclear, particularly when these sources provide conflicting information. The wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, displays effective antipredator behavior (freezing) when detecting silk from adults of another co-occurring wolf spider, Tigrosa helluo. Pardosa ...


Beta-Endorphin Expression And Sex Affect The Ability Of Alcohol To Alter Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity In The Reward Pathway In Mice, Hannah Kelly-Quigley Apr 2020

Beta-Endorphin Expression And Sex Affect The Ability Of Alcohol To Alter Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity In The Reward Pathway In Mice, Hannah Kelly-Quigley

Senior Scholars Day

Alcohol has sexually dimorphic effects on the brain, and the endogenous opioid, beta-endorphin (BE), mediates many effects of alcohol. In the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, alcohol stimulates neurons to enhance dopaminergic signaling, but the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Alcohol could impact dopaminergic signaling in the reward pathway by affecting the production and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that acute alcohol intoxication would increase c-fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in a sex- and BE-dependent manner. In this ...


Assessment Of Intrinsic Hand Neuromuscular Physiology, Philemon Tsang Apr 2020

Assessment Of Intrinsic Hand Neuromuscular Physiology, Philemon Tsang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alterations to the peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular physiology may impact hand function in a typical or clinical population, such as individuals with ulnar neuropathy. The mechanisms that influence these positive and negative changes are still not well understood. The three studies within my thesis aim to validate the reliability of decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG) measurements and explore the changes in intrinsic hand neuromuscular physiology in a typical aging population and individuals recovering from a surgical intervention for severe ulnar neuropathy.

The purpose of the first study was to determine the test-retest reliability of near-fibre (NF) jiggle, a measure of ...


Critical Analysis Of Cognitive Assessment Methods For Patients With Cognitive Impairment And Dementia, John T Meghreblian Apr 2020

Critical Analysis Of Cognitive Assessment Methods For Patients With Cognitive Impairment And Dementia, John T Meghreblian

Faculty: Peer-Reviewed Publications -- UT Libraries

The focus of this thesis is to understand the purpose of cognitive assessment exams while providing a detailed analysis and critique. This to understand their provided benefits and limitations in order to stimulate better clinical practice through implementation of these exams. This thesis first briefly details the history of humankind’s understanding of cognitive impairment and dementia. Then, the six major areas of cognition tested by most major cognitive exams are introduced and defined, including visual spatial, executive functions, verbal fluency, memory, attention, and orientation. The dysfunction in specific brain regions that lead to cognitive impairment is discussed, as well ...