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Effect Sizes In Task-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Tyler Kellett 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Effect Sizes In Task-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Tyler Kellett

Celebration of Learning

Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (t-fMRI) techniques have changed the way scientists probe the neurological mechanisms underlying behavior. However, there are many problems surrounding t-fMRI especially underpowered studies leading to misleading effect sizes. This study is using a recent large data collection study, the Human Connectome Project, to investigate effect sizes in specific regions of the brain involving working memory. Previous studies have come up with relatively small effect sizes due to small sample sizes and large regions of interest (ROI). This study is concentrated on using more precise ROI called parcels to find larger effect sizes.


An Investigation Of The Cortical Learning Algorithm, Anthony C. Samaritano 2018 Rowan University

An Investigation Of The Cortical Learning Algorithm, Anthony C. Samaritano

Theses and Dissertations

Pattern recognition and machine learning fields have revolutionized countless industries and applications from biometric security to modern industrial assembly lines. The fields continue to accelerate as faster, more efficient processing hardware becomes commercially available. Despite the accelerated growth of the pattern recognition and machine learning fields, computers still are unable to learn, reason, and perform rudimentary tasks that humans and animals find routine. Animals are able to move fluidly, understand their environment, and maximize their chances of survival through adaptation - animals demonstrate intelligence. A primary argument in this thesis that we have not yet achieved a level of intelligence similar ...


Contextual Fear Retrieval-Induced Fos Expression Across Early Development In The Rat: An Analysis Using Established Nervous System Nomenclature Ontology, Anthony J. Santarelli, Arshad M. Khan, Andrew M. Poulos 2018 University at Albany, State University of New York

Contextual Fear Retrieval-Induced Fos Expression Across Early Development In The Rat: An Analysis Using Established Nervous System Nomenclature Ontology, Anthony J. Santarelli, Arshad M. Khan, Andrew M. Poulos

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


‘Preferred’ Stimulus Of A Whole Model Visual System, Olivier Penacchio, Julie M. Harris 2018 University of St Andrews

‘Preferred’ Stimulus Of A Whole Model Visual System, Olivier Penacchio, Julie M. Harris

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Finding Any Waldo: Zero-Shot Invariant And Efficient Visual Search, Gabriel Kreiman, Mengmi Zhang 2018 HMS

Finding Any Waldo: Zero-Shot Invariant And Efficient Visual Search, Gabriel Kreiman, Mengmi Zhang

MODVIS Workshop

Visual search constitutes a ubiquitous challenge in natural vision, including daily tasks such as finding a friend in a crowd or searching for a car in a parking lot. Visual search must fulfill four key properties: selectivity (to distinguish the target from distractors in a cluttered scene), invariance (to localize the target despite changes in its rotation, scale, illumination, and even searching for generic object categories), speed (to efficiently localize the target without exhaustive sampling), and generalization (to search for any object, even ones that we have had minimal or no experience with). Here we propose a computational model that ...


Linking Signal Detection Theory And Encoding Models To Reveal Independent Neural Representations From Neuroimaging Data, Fabian A. Soto 2018 Florida International University

Linking Signal Detection Theory And Encoding Models To Reveal Independent Neural Representations From Neuroimaging Data, Fabian A. Soto

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Texture Statistics Are Sufficient For Ensemble Perception, Sasen S. Cain, Matthew S. Cain 2018 Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego

Texture Statistics Are Sufficient For Ensemble Perception, Sasen S. Cain, Matthew S. Cain

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Exploiting Click-Chemistry And Microfluidics To Map The Neuronal Itinerary Of App Processing And Amyloid-Beta Generation, Namratha Srinivas 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Exploiting Click-Chemistry And Microfluidics To Map The Neuronal Itinerary Of App Processing And Amyloid-Beta Generation, Namratha Srinivas

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States with approximately 5.5 million Americans diagnosed with it. The neuropathological hallmark includes extracellular senile plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. Recent GWAS studies have identified genes associated with AD, and have revealed several classes of genes implicated in disease pathogenesis. In particular, three general pathways associated with an increased risk of AD included: 1) cholesterol metabolism, innate immune system, and the membrane trafficking. Our lab has focused on intracellular trafficking as it relates to the processing of amyloid precursor ...


Michelson Contrast For Transparency Perception In Scenes With Multiple Luminances, Minjung Kim, Guillermo Aguilar, Marianne Maertens 2018 Technical University of Berlin

Michelson Contrast For Transparency Perception In Scenes With Multiple Luminances, Minjung Kim, Guillermo Aguilar, Marianne Maertens

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Modeling Neural Computations In Lgn And Visual Cortex That Underlie Contextual Modulation Of Lightness And Darkness Magnitudes In Simple And Complex Images, Michael E. Rudd 2018 mrudd@u.washington.edu

Modeling Neural Computations In Lgn And Visual Cortex That Underlie Contextual Modulation Of Lightness And Darkness Magnitudes In Simple And Complex Images, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Brightness Perception Involves Local Adaptation Opposed By Lateral Interaction, Qasim Zaidi, Romain Bachy, Jose-Manuel Alonso 2018 Graduate Center for Vision Research, State University of New York

Brightness Perception Involves Local Adaptation Opposed By Lateral Interaction, Qasim Zaidi, Romain Bachy, Jose-Manuel Alonso

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


The Road Towards Image-Computable Models Of Human Visual Grasp Planning, Guido Maiello, Lina K. Klein, Vivian C. Paulun, Katherine R. Storrs, Roland W. Fleming 2018 University of Gießen

The Road Towards Image-Computable Models Of Human Visual Grasp Planning, Guido Maiello, Lina K. Klein, Vivian C. Paulun, Katherine R. Storrs, Roland W. Fleming

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


A Feature-Based Model Of Visually Perceiving Deformable Objects, Vivian C. Paulun, Filipp Schmidt, Roland W. Fleming 2018 Justus Liebig University, Giessen

A Feature-Based Model Of Visually Perceiving Deformable Objects, Vivian C. Paulun, Filipp Schmidt, Roland W. Fleming

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Global Estimation Of Signed 3d Surface Tilt From Natural Images, Seha Kim, Johannes Burge 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Global Estimation Of Signed 3d Surface Tilt From Natural Images, Seha Kim, Johannes Burge

MODVIS Workshop

The ability of human visual systems to estimate 3D surface orientation from 2D retinal images is critical. But the computation to calculate 3D orientation in real-world scenes is not fully understood. A Bayes optimal model grounded in natural statistics has explained 3D surface tilt estimation of human observers in natural scenes (Kim and Burge, 2018). However, the model is limited because it estimates only unsigned tilt (tilt modulo 180deg). We extend the model to predict signed tilt estimates and compared with human signed estimates. The model takes image pixels as input and produces optimal estimates of tilt as output, using ...


Inferring The Neural Representation Of Faces From Adaptation Aftereffects, Kara J. Emery, Michael A. Webster Ph.D. 2018 University of Nevada, Reno

Inferring The Neural Representation Of Faces From Adaptation Aftereffects, Kara J. Emery, Michael A. Webster Ph.D.

MODVIS Workshop

The aftereffects of adaptation to faces have been studied widely, in part to characterize the coding schemes for representing different facial attributes. Often these aftereffects have been interpreted in terms of two alternative models of face processing: 1) a norm-based or opponent code, in which the facial dimension is represented by relative activity in a pair of broadly-tuned mechanisms with opposing sensitivities; or 2) an exemplar code, in which the dimension is sampled by multiple channels narrowly-tuned to different levels of the stimulus. Evidence for or against these alternatives is based on the different patterns of aftereffects they predict (e ...


Effect Of Noise On Mutually Inhibiting Pyramidal Cells In Visual Cortex: Foundation Of Stochasticity In Bi-Stable Perception, Naoki Kogo, Felix Kern, Thomas Nowotny, Raymond van Ee, Richard van Wezel, Takeshi Aihara 2018 Biophysics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University

Effect Of Noise On Mutually Inhibiting Pyramidal Cells In Visual Cortex: Foundation Of Stochasticity In Bi-Stable Perception, Naoki Kogo, Felix Kern, Thomas Nowotny, Raymond Van Ee, Richard Van Wezel, Takeshi Aihara

MODVIS Workshop

Bi-stable perception has been an important tool to investigate how visual input is interpreted and how it reaches consciousness. To explain the mechanisms of this phenomenon, it has been assumed that a mutual inhibition circuit plays a key role. It is possible that this circuit functions to resolve ambiguity of input image by quickly shifting the balance of competing signals in response to conflicting features. Recently we established an in vitro neural recording system combined with computerized connections mediated by model neurons and synapses (“dynamic clamp” system). With this system, mutual inhibition circuit between two pyramidal cells from primary visual ...


Visual Category Learning By Means Of Basal Ganglia, Fred H. Hamker, Francesc Villagrasa, Javier Baladron, Henning Schroll, Julien Vitay 2018 Chemnitz University of Technology

Visual Category Learning By Means Of Basal Ganglia, Fred H. Hamker, Francesc Villagrasa, Javier Baladron, Henning Schroll, Julien Vitay

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Why Latent Representations In Convolutional Neural Networks Fall Outside Visual Space, Katerina Malakhova 2018 Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Why Latent Representations In Convolutional Neural Networks Fall Outside Visual Space, Katerina Malakhova

MODVIS Workshop

It is common to compare properties of visual information processing by artificial neural networks and the primate visual system.

Some remarkable similarities were observed in the responses of neurons in IT cortex and units in higher layers of CNNs. Here I show that latent representations formed by weights in convolutional layers do not necessarily reflect visual domain. Instead they are strongly dependent on a choice of training set and cost function.

The most striking example is when an individual unit, which is highly selective to some members of a category is, nevertheless, inhibited by visually similar objects of the same ...


Acute Social Defeat Stress Induces Microglial Activation In Key Limbic Regions, Thomas Clarity 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Acute Social Defeat Stress Induces Microglial Activation In Key Limbic Regions, Thomas Clarity

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Research suggests a causal relationship between neuroinflammation and stress-related psychopathologies. Exposure to moderate psychological stress in rodent models leads to elevated markers of immune activity in the brain, for example, microglia. Research has shown that tail shock stress can prime the subsequent, immune-challenged activation of microglia, which can lead to a degradative, proinflammatory response. Although social defeat is an ethologically relevant model of acute stress, there has been little research investigating the effects of acute social defeat stress on immune activity. Here, we used an acute social defeat paradigm in Syrian hamsters consisting of three, 5-minute aggressive encounters in the ...


Appropriate Kernels For Divisive Normalization Explained By Wilson-Cowan Equations, Jesus Malo, Marcelo Bertalmio 2018 Image Processing Lab. Universitat de Valencia

Appropriate Kernels For Divisive Normalization Explained By Wilson-Cowan Equations, Jesus Malo, Marcelo Bertalmio

MODVIS Workshop

Cascades of standard Linear+NonLinear-Divisive Normalization transforms [Carandini&Heeger12] can be easily fitted using the appropriate formulation introduced in [Martinez17a] to reproduce the perception of image distortion in naturalistic environments. However, consistently with [Rust&Movshon05], training the model in naturalistic environments does not guarantee the prediction of well known phenomena illustrated by artificial stimuli. For example, the cascade of Divisive Normalizations fitted with image quality databases has to be modified to include a variety aspects of masking of simple patterns. Specifically, the standard Gaussian kernels of [Watson&Solomon97] have to be augmented with extra weights [Martinez17b]. These can be introduced ...


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