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Unravelling The Subfields Of The Hippocampal Head Using 7-Tesla Structural Mri, Jordan M. K. DeKraker 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Unravelling The Subfields Of The Hippocampal Head Using 7-Tesla Structural Mri, Jordan M. K. Dekraker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Probing the functions of human hippocampal subfields is a promising area of research in cognitive neuroscience. However, defining subfield borders in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is challenging. Here, we present a user-guided, semi-automated protocol for segmenting hippocampal subfields on T2-weighted images obtained with 7-Tesla MRI. The protocol takes advantage of extant knowledge about regularities in hippocampal morphology and ontogeny that have not been systematically considered in prior related work. An image feature known as the hippocampal ‘dark band’ facilitates tracking of subfield continuities, allowing for unfolding and segmentation of convoluted hippocampal tissue. Initial results suggest that this protocol offers sufficient ...


Developing A Data Repository Of Standard Concussion Assessment Clinical Data For Research Involving College Athletes, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Julie A. Honaker 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Developing A Data Repository Of Standard Concussion Assessment Clinical Data For Research Involving College Athletes, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Julie A. Honaker

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

In sports concussion research, obtaining quality data from a sufficient number of participants to reach statistical power has been a particular problem. In addition, the necessary requirements of accessibility, informed consent, and confidentiality must be met. There is need to develop more efficient and controlled methods for collecting data to answer research questions in this realm, but the ability to collect and store these data in an efficient manner at the local level is limited. By virtue of their training, neuropsychologists can play a key role in improving data collection quality. The purpose of this paper is to describe a ...


Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a key function of somatosensory systems. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of motor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in trigeminal networks associated with mechanosensory inputs to the face, or the consequences of movement.

High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilateral saltatory pneumotactile inputs to perioral hairy skin in 20 healthy adults. A custom multichannel, scalable ...


An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church 2016 Trinity College

An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church

Senior Theses and Projects

A growing body of research suggests that dopaminergic cell death seen in Parkinson’s disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress, with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species, is the hallmark biochemical product of mitochondrial dysfunction. The ketogenic diet has been found to enhance mitochondrial energy production, protect against reactive oxygen species-generated cell death, and increase adenosine, a purine that modulates dopamine activity. The current study evaluates the effects of a long-term (5-month) ketogenic diet on behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical measures in PINK1-KO rats, a new animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Both wild-type and PINK1-KO animals fed a ...


Effect Of Zymosan-Induced Peritonitis On The Expression Of Substance P In Primary Sensory Neurons And Spinal Nerve Processes, Michael G. Armstrong 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Effect Of Zymosan-Induced Peritonitis On The Expression Of Substance P In Primary Sensory Neurons And Spinal Nerve Processes, Michael G. Armstrong

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Macrophages and other cells of the innate immune system recognize foreign particles that could be potentially dangerous and respond by initiating an inflammatory response. The biologically active chemical mediators of this response called pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced in various myeloid derived immune cells and can affect other cells of the body. Interleukin-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to have direct effects on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell bodies including the upregulation and direct release of a nociceptive neurotransmitter called substance P (SP). Using a zymosan-induced model of systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that murine DRG neurons and the nerve processes ...


Artificial Flavorings Enhance Attractability And Palatability Of Plant Protein Sources For Litopenaeusvannamei, Mi Choe 2016 Georgia State University

Artificial Flavorings Enhance Attractability And Palatability Of Plant Protein Sources For Litopenaeusvannamei, Mi Choe

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of The Ketogenic Diet (Kd) On Inflammatory Pain, Livia S. Wyss 2016 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

The Effects Of The Ketogenic Diet (Kd) On Inflammatory Pain, Livia S. Wyss

Senior Theses and Projects

BACKGROUND: Pain is the most common ailment around the world, according to the American Academy of Pain Medicine; 100 million Americans suffer with chronic pain, which is more than any other main disorder and is described by more than 60% as impacted their overall enjoyment of life (AAPA). The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high fat, low carbohydrate dietary regimen, which is described to decrease neuronal excitation, increase ketone bodies and ATP levels, while lowering glucose and proinflammatory cytokines. The KD is an effective therapy for epilepsy; a disorder that arises from either lowered inhibition or increased excitation, similar to ...


An In Vivo Study Of The Effects Of Perinatal Caffeine Exposure On Synaptic Efficacy In The Hippocampus Of Freely Moving Adult Rats, Jee Eun Park 2016 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

An In Vivo Study Of The Effects Of Perinatal Caffeine Exposure On Synaptic Efficacy In The Hippocampus Of Freely Moving Adult Rats, Jee Eun Park

Senior Theses and Projects

The synapse from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus has been widely used successfully to demonstrate long-term potentiation, a cellular model underlying learning and memory. Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive stimulants in the world. Caffeine consumption increases in alertness, improvements in motor skills, and neurological functions, and these effects have promoted its use throughout history. Although the many short term cognitive benefits of caffeine intake are well understood, the long term effects of caffeine exposure have been widely disputed. Despite this, it is estimated that over 80% of women continue to consume caffeine throughout pregnancy ...


Modulatory Actions Of Serotonergic System In Cardiac Function, Behavior, And Sensorimotor Circuit Activity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Zana R. Majeed 2016 University of Kentucky

Modulatory Actions Of Serotonergic System In Cardiac Function, Behavior, And Sensorimotor Circuit Activity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Zana R. Majeed

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

In this dissertation, I have focused on the role of serotonin (5-HT) as a modulator in heart rate, feeding and locomotion behaviors as well as sensorimotor circuit activity in Drosophila melanogaster. A general overview in the actions of the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system on the larval heart and nervous system in larvae and adults is reviewed in Chapter One. I sought to further study the actions of serotonergic system to provide additional insights into cellular and molecular underpinnings in the actions of 5-HT.In Chapter two, I present studies on mechanisms of action by 5-HT in larvae cardiac system. For this ...


Perceived Threat Associated With Police Officers And Black Men Predicts Support For Policing Policy Reform, Allison L. Skinner, Ingrid J. Haas 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Perceived Threat Associated With Police Officers And Black Men Predicts Support For Policing Policy Reform, Allison L. Skinner, Ingrid J. Haas

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing ...


Role Of The Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan, Neurocan, In Inhibition Of Sensory Neurite Regeneration, Madison Klump 2016 University of Kentucky

Role Of The Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan, Neurocan, In Inhibition Of Sensory Neurite Regeneration, Madison Klump

Honors Program Senior Capstone Collection

In the adult mammalian brain and spinal cord, neuronal injury results in failed neurite regeneration, in part due to the up-regulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). CSPGs are molecules consisting of a protein core with covalently bound glycosaminoglycans (GAGS), specifically, chondroitin sulfate side-chains. The majority of CSPGs produced after injury originate from reactive astrocytes found in the glial scar surrounding the injury site. Although this milieu is very complex and involves more than just CSPGs, axonal regrowth may be improved if the expression of specific, highly inhibitory CSPGs produced after injury were attenuated selectively. Neurocan is one type of CSPG ...


Methylation Of The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene In Alcohol Use Disorder, Timothy B. Helmuth 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Methylation Of The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene In Alcohol Use Disorder, Timothy B. Helmuth

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a significant health problem in the U.S. Specifically, AUD is associated with memory problems and other cognitive defects. DNA methylation of CpG sites and other epigenetic factors have been found to play an important role in the development of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). Because of this, it was hypothesized that individuals with AUD would show differential methylation in neurotrophic factors, specifically, the BDNF gene, as compared to controls.

Methods: Precuneus brain tissue from 49 Alcohol Use Disorder cases and 47 controls were obtained from the New South Wales and Victorian Tissue Resource ...


Exercise During The Juvenile Period Produces Long Lasting Stress Protection Potentially Subserved By Epigenetic Alterations To The Serotonergic System, Nicole L. Rumian 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Exercise During The Juvenile Period Produces Long Lasting Stress Protection Potentially Subserved By Epigenetic Alterations To The Serotonergic System, Nicole L. Rumian

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Exercise is capable of producing a myriad of beneficial alterations in brain chemistry and function which can help prevent stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. Recent work from our lab demonstrates that 6 weeks of exercise initiated in early life produces lasting protection against stress-induced anxiety and depressive like behaviors, whereas, in adults, this protection is transient and dissipates upon cessation of exercise. Thus, when exercise begins at a young age, the neurobiological improvements remain intact even after exercise has ceased for a period of time. The mechanism underlying this long lasting protection is currently unknown. Furthermore, it ...


Axon Initial Segment Loss Is Not Observed In The Hippocampus Of A Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mouse Model, praveen mohanraju 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Axon Initial Segment Loss Is Not Observed In The Hippocampus Of A Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mouse Model, Praveen Mohanraju

Undergraduate Research Posters

The axon initial segment (AIS) is fundamental for neuronal communication and action potential initiation, a characteristic which has been shown to be disrupted in inflammatory diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Previous work from our lab has shown AIS breakdown in layer 5 of the cortex in a mouse model of MS known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Moreover, it was shown that AIS breakdown was independent of demyelination but temporally correlated with microglial inflammatory reactivity. In order to determine if this pathology is specific to the cortex or affects other regions of the brain, we exploited these EAE induced ...


Allosteric Effects Of G-Protein Coupled Receptor Heteromerization: Relevance To Psychosis, Jason W. Younkin 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Allosteric Effects Of G-Protein Coupled Receptor Heteromerization: Relevance To Psychosis, Jason W. Younkin

Theses and Dissertations

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) implicated in disease are the predominant pharmaceutical targets. Growing evidence suggests that GPCRs form homo- and heteromeric complexes, resulting in allosteric functional changes. Ligands targeting one receptor can alter the function of the other receptor or receptors. Knowledge of these functional changes will provide unique opportunities to treat diseases. We examined two GPCR heteromers implicated in psychosis: mGlu2R-5HT2AR and D2R-5HT2AR. Using whole-cell patch clamp, we studied HEK-293 cells stably transfected with mGlu2R and 5HT2AR. Maximal heteromer formation allows inverse agonists to increase the G-protein activity of the opposite receptor, while sub-maximal heteromer formation does not. However ...


Lack Of Neocortex Does Not Imply Fish Cannot Feel Pain, Georg Striedter 2016 University of California, Irvine

Lack Of Neocortex Does Not Imply Fish Cannot Feel Pain, Georg Striedter

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Some contemporary scientists are using comparative neurobiological data to argue that non-mammalian vertebrates have feelings, most notably of pain (e.g., Braithwaite, 2010; Mashour and Alkire, 2012), while Key (2016) uses the same general data to reach the opposite conclusion. In a nutshell, he argues that fish cannot feel pain because fish don’t have a neocortex, which humans need to consciously experience pain. I don’t know how these scientists can look at essentially the same data and reach such disparate conclusions, but I suspect that some of them have strong a priori beliefs and, therefore, view the data ...


From Rainman To Rainmaker: A Presentation Of Jim’S Journey And Rapidly Advancing Technologies: Integrating Proven Behavioral Therapies With Emergent Measurement And Testing Advances Will Result In Transformational Progress In Autistic Individuals, Richard Zajac 2016 Claremont McKenna College

From Rainman To Rainmaker: A Presentation Of Jim’S Journey And Rapidly Advancing Technologies: Integrating Proven Behavioral Therapies With Emergent Measurement And Testing Advances Will Result In Transformational Progress In Autistic Individuals, Richard Zajac

CMC Senior Theses

The autism treatment status quo was reviewed and accompanied by a narrative contextualizing past and present progress with my younger brother Jim’s journey with the condition, sharing proposed next steps for bettering the current state of affairs in the space. The impetus for this piece was to share in the lessons of Jim’s life thus far and the revelations of those who have supported him, as well as to determine ways to create more impactful, lasting change in the limited window of early intervention therapy whilst empowering individuals on the spectrum to optimize for their skills and talents ...


Development Of Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Memri) Methods To Study Pathophysiology Underlying Neurodegenerative Diseases In Murine Models, Aditya N. Bade 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Development Of Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Memri) Methods To Study Pathophysiology Underlying Neurodegenerative Diseases In Murine Models, Aditya N. Bade

Theses & Dissertations

Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) opens the great opportunity to study complex paradigms of central nervous system (CNS) in freely behaving animals and reveals new pathophysiological information that might be otherwise difficult to gain. Due to advantageous chemical and biological properties of manganese (Mn2+), MEMRI has been successfully applied in the studies of several neurological diseases using translational animal models to assess comprehensive information about neuronal activity, morphology, neuronal tracts, and rate of axonal transport. Although previous studies highlight the potential of MEMRI for brain imaging, the limitations concerning the use of Mn2+ in living animals and applications ...


Compensatory Mechanisms And T Cell Migration In Mouse Models Of Dopaminergic Loss, Kristi M. Anderson 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Compensatory Mechanisms And T Cell Migration In Mouse Models Of Dopaminergic Loss, Kristi M. Anderson

Theses & Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and second most common neurodegenerative disorder. PD is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine neurotransmitter within the substantia nigra and termini in the striatum. Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons occurs over many years in PD, and by the time movement disorder symptoms manifest, up to 50-70% of dopaminergic neurons have been lost. Several aspects of PD pathology have been described in detail, but a better understanding of PD progression is needed to develop more efficient treatments.

Motor symptoms associated with PD do not manifest until ...


Deep Brain Stimulation And Its Effects On Parkinson Disease Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters., Greydon Gilmore 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Deep Brain Stimulation And Its Effects On Parkinson Disease Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters., Greydon Gilmore

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates common appendicular PD symptoms, such as: tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, the effect STN-DBS has on modulating axial gait features has not been properly quantified objectively. The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate the role STN-DBS plays in modulating specific gait features such as pace, asymmetry, variability, rhythm and postural control. It is hypothesized that axial gait function is regulated predominantly by non-dopaminergic control systems. In the acute immediate post-operative phase a surgical effect, named the microlesion effect (MLE), is thought to produce a transient improvement of appendicular and axial symptoms ...


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