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Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman 2018 DePaul University

Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: Dementia is the largest cause of dependency and disability in older adults, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide with about 10 million new cases every year. Presently, there are no cures for dementia. Consequently, a growing body of evidence suggests that bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical dementia symptoms by several years.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to summarize and analyze current evidence from studies that examined how bilingualism delays the onset of dementia. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay the dementia symptoms due to an increase in cognitive reserve, which refers to an ...


Operant Conditioning Of Human Upper-Limb Stretch Reflexes, Ehsan Abolhasani 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Operant Conditioning Of Human Upper-Limb Stretch Reflexes, Ehsan Abolhasani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Operant conditioning of short-latency reflex (SLR) and H-reflex have been investigated in animals and humans. We modified previously established protocols for conditioning lower limb H-reflexes to up-condition the SLR in brachioradialis muscle and to investigate the effect of such conditioning on the long-latency response (LLR) of synergistic muscles. Our study included 12 healthy participants. Each participant took part in 3 baseline and 27 conditioning sessions in 6 weeks, followed by two additional sessions one month and two months after the last conditioning session. We found an increase in SLR magnitude in 50% of participants (by 15%±2.50). However, there ...


Targeting Pro-Inflammatory Function Of Microglia Using Small Molecules To Combat Neurodegeneration, Gabrielle C. Williams, Priya Prakash, Gaurav Chopra 2018 Purdue University

Targeting Pro-Inflammatory Function Of Microglia Using Small Molecules To Combat Neurodegeneration, Gabrielle C. Williams, Priya Prakash, Gaurav Chopra

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Microglia are the brain’s resident immune cells that are responsible for maintaining homeostasis in healthy conditions. During injury or infection, resting microglia get activated and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-1a, IL-6, etc. along with reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide (NO) to combat neuroinflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Inflammation is characterized by the activation of resident-immune cells in the brain called microglia that respond to the eat-me signals released by the toxic amyloid beta peptides as well as the dying neurons in the microenvironment. Recent studies have shown that activated microglia induce neuronal death ...


Neural Coding Of An Auditory Pitch Illusion, Maria Alejandra Barrera, Mark Sayles, Ravinderjit Singh 2018 University of Los Andes, Colombia

Neural Coding Of An Auditory Pitch Illusion, Maria Alejandra Barrera, Mark Sayles, Ravinderjit Singh

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Pitch is an important perceptual dimension in audition, supporting auditory object segregation, melody recognition and lexical distinction. Huggins’ pitch, for example, is a phenomenon evoked by two sources of broadband noise presented binaurally with an inter-aural phase shift over a narrow frequency band. Huggins’ pitch and other dichotic pitches have been studied extensively using perceptual experiments. Several models have been proposed to explain and predict the perception of pitch; however, no studies have tried to record in vivo neuron responses to Huggins’ pitch (HP) nor have tried to explain how the HP is coded by neurons. The existence of pitches ...


Characterization Of Theranostic Peptides For Glioblastoma Multiforme, Aaron Mellesmoen 2018 Northern Michigan University

Characterization Of Theranostic Peptides For Glioblastoma Multiforme, Aaron Mellesmoen

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a type of primary CNS tumor in which viable treatment options do not exist. Standard of care including tumor resection, chemotherapy, and radiation does little to extend the 5-year survival expectancy past 5.1%. Herein, two small-peptide molecules with inherent antitumor activity, blood-brain barrier permeability, and capability for tumor-specific drug deliverance and intraoperative visualization (termed theranostic) were of focus. Confocal microscopy was employed to characterize in vitro specificity of chlorotoxin, a 4 kDa scorpion venom peptide, and rBSG, the recombinant 25 kDa non-glycosylated extracellular domain of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; Basigin ...


Complexities And Challenges Of Nonduality, Elizabeth Stephens 2018 California Institute of Integral Studies

Complexities And Challenges Of Nonduality, Elizabeth Stephens

CONSCIOUSNESS: Ideas and Research for the Twenty-First Century

States of consciousness referred to as nonduality, awakening, enlightenment, moksha, peak experience, unitive states, or void states, among other terms, have garnered increasing secular attention and have become a topic of psychological and neuroscientific research. A review of the literature revealed many challenges to studying this set of states, such as inconsistent conceptualizations, a variety of models and theories, and conflicting descriptions indicating that the actual experience may not live up to the superlative descriptions found in historical texts or the expectations put forth by nondual teachers. A great deal more empirical research on this topic is needed, and researchers ...


Regulation Of Epithelial Sodium Channels In Vasopressin Neurons In The Hypothalamus, Natalie Jean Mills 2018 Louisiana State University

Regulation Of Epithelial Sodium Channels In Vasopressin Neurons In The Hypothalamus, Natalie Jean Mills

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Salt-sensitive individuals have blood pressure that is unusually sensitive to salt intake. Because salt-sensitivity is a common disorder and may cause high blood pressure, it is a significant public health concern. All three epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) subunits (a, b, and g) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a known regulator of ENaC, are expressed by vasopressin (VP) synthesizing magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. A growing body of evidence indicates that epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) in the hypothalamus play a significant role in the development of salt-sensitivity. My dissertation research tests the hypothesis that abnormal ...


Chemosensory Communication And Neural Substrates Of Social Behavior In The African Cichlid Fish, Astatotilapia Burtoni, Karen Elizabeth Field 2018 Louisiana State University

Chemosensory Communication And Neural Substrates Of Social Behavior In The African Cichlid Fish, Astatotilapia Burtoni, Karen Elizabeth Field

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Social animals must constantly assess their environment to make appropriate decisions. In several fish species, chemosensory signaling is crucial for social communication, conveying information on sex, reproductive state, and social status. Despite its importance in fishes, relatively little is known about how they employ chemical signaling, with only a few of the over 30,000 extant species investigated thus far. Further, there is a scarcity of information about where and how socially-relevant chemosensory signals are processed in the brain of fishes, or how chemosensory signals are integrated with other senses to elicit appropriate behaviors. For my doctoral research, I examined ...


Endocytosis And The Nitric Oxide-Dependent Release Of Chloride, Vernon K. Dunn Jr 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Endocytosis And The Nitric Oxide-Dependent Release Of Chloride, Vernon K. Dunn Jr

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding the regulation of retinal synapses is a key step in elucidating the processing of information in the retina. Our lab has previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) can alter the synaptic response properties of amacrine cells by releasing Cl- from internal acidic compartments. This alteration in the Cl- gradient brings about a positive shift in the reversal potential of the GABA-gated current, which can convert inhibitory synapses into excitatory synapses. Recently, we have shown that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel is involved in the Cl- release. Here, we test the hypothesis that (acidic) synaptic vesicles are ...


Examining Motor Unit Stability Of First Dorsal Interosseous (Fdi) And Biceps Brachii (Bb) Muscles In Healthy And Older Adults Using Decomposition-Based Quantitative Electromyography (Dqemg), Igor Angelovski 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Examining Motor Unit Stability Of First Dorsal Interosseous (Fdi) And Biceps Brachii (Bb) Muscles In Healthy And Older Adults Using Decomposition-Based Quantitative Electromyography (Dqemg), Igor Angelovski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Aging of the human neuromuscular system is associated with gradual decline in motor unit (MU) number leading to denervation of muscle fibers and subsequent compensatory reinnervation from surviving MUs. Lower limb muscles exhibit age-related increased MU instability (measured electrophysiologically), however not much is known regarding MU stability of aging upper limb muscles. The purpose of this study was to examine agerelated MU loss in upper limb muscles (first dorsal interosseous [FDI] and biceps brachii [BB]) and the impact on MU stability in younger and older healthy subjects using electrophysiological near fiber analysis from decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG). FDI and BB ...


Effect Sizes In Task-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Tyler Kellett 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Effect Sizes In Task-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Tyler Kellett

Celebration of Learning

Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (t-fMRI) techniques have changed the way scientists probe the neurological mechanisms underlying behavior. However, there are many problems surrounding t-fMRI especially underpowered studies leading to misleading effect sizes. This study is using a recent large data collection study, the Human Connectome Project, to investigate effect sizes in specific regions of the brain involving working memory. Previous studies have come up with relatively small effect sizes due to small sample sizes and large regions of interest (ROI). This study is concentrated on using more precise ROI called parcels to find larger effect sizes.


Arsenic Toxicity And Mitochondrial Metabolism In Astrocytes, Reilly Grealish 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Arsenic Toxicity And Mitochondrial Metabolism In Astrocytes, Reilly Grealish

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The various cells that support neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are known collectively as neuroglia, or glia. Astrocytes, a type of glial cell found exclusively in the central nervous system (i.e. the brain and spinal cord), are particularly abundant and serve many functions. One of the most important is the role these cells play in the brain as a defense against harmful substances, many of which can be found in the environment and make their way into the human body as xenobiotic substances. Elemental arsenic in its inorganic form occurs naturally throughout the Earth’s ...


Is Concussion-Related Sleep Disturbance Present After Return To Play In College Athletes?, Alexander Gallaer 2018 University of Connecticut

Is Concussion-Related Sleep Disturbance Present After Return To Play In College Athletes?, Alexander Gallaer

Honors Scholar Theses

As one of the most commonly experienced symptoms, the ramifications of sleep disruption as a result of concussion are potentially great, yet widely unexplored. Particularly troublesome is murky data regarding the length of sleep disruption following a concussion. By analyzing self-reported sleep data via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, this study seeks to investigate potential differences in sleep quality between injured college athletes 40 days after they have been cleared to play and matched controls. Data was analyzed using ANOVA analysis as well as Pearson correlation. No significant differences were found in sleep quality between groups, nor was there a ...


Genetic Testing Practices Of Genetic Counselors, Geneticists, And Pediatric Neurologists With Regard To Childhood-Onset Neurogenetic Conditions, Sara Wofford 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Genetic Testing Practices Of Genetic Counselors, Geneticists, And Pediatric Neurologists With Regard To Childhood-Onset Neurogenetic Conditions, Sara Wofford

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Identifying genetic diagnoses for neurological conditions with a considerable hereditary component, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, and epilepsy, is critical to providing proper medical management for these patients and their families. However, many patients with these conditions are not tested appropriately or receive no genetic testing at all. The current study was designed to characterize the genetic testing practices of the providers most likely to evaluate or order genetic testing for these patients: pediatric neurologists, geneticists, and genetic counselors. The study noted significant variance between the testing strategies selected by pediatric neurologists compared to those of geneticists ...


The Impact Of Racial Group Status On Neural Activity, Belongingness, And Distress During Social Exclusion, Brian Anyakoha 2018 College of William and Mary

The Impact Of Racial Group Status On Neural Activity, Belongingness, And Distress During Social Exclusion, Brian Anyakoha

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Social exclusion, whereby individuals are made to feel isolated by others, has been frequently demonstrated to be detrimental to human social needs and can negatively impact mental and physical health because human beings are intrinsically social (Goodwin et al., 2010). Past research has shown that human motivational, psychological, and affective responses to ostracism indicate increased levels of social pain, the emotional pain we experience when our social needs are violated (Kawamoto et. al, 2013). The current study aimed to assess the impact of social exclusion on neural activity, feelings of belonging, and self-reported distress, while also determining whether these responses ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin 2018 Liberty University

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


Arts Based Brain Research, Alicia Arendt 2018 Lesley University

Arts Based Brain Research, Alicia Arendt

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

Art is believed to be “the expression or application of the human creative skill and imagination, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their aesthetic value or emotional power” (Buk, 2009, p. 61). While there are a myriad of ways to define and categorize art, such a definition as the one above is useful as it touches upon three key areas of arts based brain research; artistic cognition, artistic production and aesthetic experience. The study of arts based brain science, or the neuroscience of art, demands an understanding of the interplay between these three facets of the artistic experience. Most ...


Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. VanOsdol 2018 Northern Michigan University

Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. Vanosdol

All NMU Master's Theses

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small, diffusible protein essential for the development and function of neurons. It is synthesized by many types of tissue, including muscle. BDNF actions are mediated via binding to its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). The BDNF-TrkB complex is endocytosed into a specialized vesicle, which induces downstream signaling cascades locally in the dendrites, or, more often, is delivered to the cell soma via retrograde axonal transport, where it modulates gene expression. BDNF activation of TrkB is critical for the initiation of axonal transport, and this cellular process relies on the interaction of numerous adaptor ...


Concussion Competencies: A Framework For School-Based Concussion Management (Flyer), Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Concussion Competencies: A Framework For School-Based Concussion Management (Flyer), Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This volume grew out of many years of clinical practice, research, and program projects. It is the culmination of more than 50 years of work with kids, brains, and schools. While there is research behind the Competencies and the underlying content, the intent was to create a user-friendly manual that cut across levels of responsibility and care. Concussion Competencies was not intended to be a textbook in the traditional manner; however, the Competencies have been shown to be a useful approach to teaching this material.

This volume is organized around a set of Competencies that have been shown to be ...


Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Arielle L. Baker, Allan T. Gulledge 2018 Dartmouth College

Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Arielle L. Baker, Allan T. Gulledge

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Serotonin (5-HT) selectively excites subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex via activation of 5-HT2A (2A) receptors coupled to Gq subtype G-protein alpha subunits. Gq-mediated excitatory responses have been attributed primarily to suppression of potassium conductances, including those mediated by KV7 potassium channels (i.e., the M-current), or activation of non-specific cation conductances that underlie calcium-dependent afterdepolarizations (ADPs). However, 2A-dependent excitation of cortical neurons has not been extensively studied, and no consensus exists regarding the underlying ionic effector(s) involved. In layer 5 of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex, we tested potential mechanisms of ...


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