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Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. DeWeese 2020 University of California Berkeley

Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. Deweese

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Assessment Of Intrinsic Hand Neuromuscular Physiology, Philemon Tsang 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Assessment Of Intrinsic Hand Neuromuscular Physiology, Philemon Tsang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alterations to the peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular physiology may impact hand function in a typical or clinical population, such as individuals with ulnar neuropathy. The mechanisms that influence these positive and negative changes are still not well understood. The three studies within my thesis aim to validate the reliability of decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG) measurements and explore the changes in intrinsic hand neuromuscular physiology in a typical aging population and individuals recovering from a surgical intervention for severe ulnar neuropathy.

The purpose of the first study was to determine the test-retest reliability of near-fibre (NF) jiggle, a measure of ...


Critical Analysis Of Cognitive Assessment Methods For Patients With Cognitive Impairment And Dementia, John T Meghreblian 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Critical Analysis Of Cognitive Assessment Methods For Patients With Cognitive Impairment And Dementia, John T Meghreblian

Faculty: Peer-Reviewed Publications -- UT Libraries

The focus of this thesis is to understand the purpose of cognitive assessment exams while providing a detailed analysis and critique. This to understand their provided benefits and limitations in order to stimulate better clinical practice through implementation of these exams. This thesis first briefly details the history of humankind’s understanding of cognitive impairment and dementia. Then, the six major areas of cognition tested by most major cognitive exams are introduced and defined, including visual spatial, executive functions, verbal fluency, memory, attention, and orientation. The dysfunction in specific brain regions that lead to cognitive impairment is discussed, as well ...


Alexithymia Symptoms Are Not Associated With Childhood Trauma Or Crhr1 Rs110402 Genotype, Emily Wiatr, Grace Sullivan, Scott Stoltenberg 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Alexithymia Symptoms Are Not Associated With Childhood Trauma Or Crhr1 Rs110402 Genotype, Emily Wiatr, Grace Sullivan, Scott Stoltenberg

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Alexithymia is associated with difficulties in emotional self-regulation, and alexithymia is specifically associated with an absence of emotional experience and cognition of emotion. Past research has indicated a potential association between alexithymia and the CRHR1 gene . Situational factors may also impact the expression of the CRHR1 gene within an individual. Berenbaum (1996) found associations between PTSD/childhood trauma and alexithymia. This study examined these associations using the Online Alexithymia Questionnaire-G2 (OAQ-G2) as well as DNA samples gathered from 657 participants at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (72% women; 78.6% white; mean age= 20.34; standard deviation of 2.6). It ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl 2020 Trinity College

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


Quench Assisted (Quest) Mri Used As A Novel Approach To Identify Reactive Oxygen Species As A Result Of Experimental Tbi, Ethan M. Cohen, Eric Chang, Michael C. Schneider, Abigail Teitelbaum, Alexander R. Woznicki, Rachel E. Godfrey, Robert H. Podolsky, Karen L. Childers, Robin Roberts, Bruce A. Berkowitz, Kelly E. Bosse, Alana C. Conti 2020 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Quench Assisted (Quest) Mri Used As A Novel Approach To Identify Reactive Oxygen Species As A Result Of Experimental Tbi, Ethan M. Cohen, Eric Chang, Michael C. Schneider, Abigail Teitelbaum, Alexander R. Woznicki, Rachel E. Godfrey, Robert H. Podolsky, Karen L. Childers, Robin Roberts, Bruce A. Berkowitz, Kelly E. Bosse, Alana C. Conti

Medical Student Research Symposium

Introduction:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), promoting inflammatory processes and impeding TBI recovery. Within the VA population, over 70% of military personnel that sustain a TBI receive opioid-based pain relief, however, opiates may actually exacerbate post-TBI complications through its documented recruitment of oxidative and inflammatory systems. Thus, we hypothesize that TBI and opioid treatment act synergistically to worsen post-TBI oxidative stress.

Methods:

Mice were exposed to either TBI or sham injury and administered morphine or saline in the acute post-injury period. Afterwards, neuroimaging was conducted using a novel technique, QUEnch assiSTed (QUEST) MRI, which compares standard ...


Do Social Networks Impact Perceived Loneliness In Caregivers To Older Adults With Chronic Conditions?, Janelle N. Beadle, Hayley Fouche, Angela Gifford 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Do Social Networks Impact Perceived Loneliness In Caregivers To Older Adults With Chronic Conditions?, Janelle N. Beadle, Hayley Fouche, Angela Gifford

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The abstract is not published at this time to protect intellectual property.


Psychometric Properties Of The Standardized Assessment Of Concussion In Youth Football: Validity, Reliability, And Demographic Factors, Arthur C. Maerlender, Eric Smith, P. Gunnar Brolinson, Jillian Urban, Steven Rowson, Amaris Ajamil, Eamon T. Campolettano, Ryan A. Gellner, Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek Jones, Alex Powers, Jonathan Beckwith, Joseph J. Crisco, Joel Stitzel, Stefan Duma, Richard M. Greenwald 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Psychometric Properties Of The Standardized Assessment Of Concussion In Youth Football: Validity, Reliability, And Demographic Factors, Arthur C. Maerlender, Eric Smith, P. Gunnar Brolinson, Jillian Urban, Steven Rowson, Amaris Ajamil, Eamon T. Campolettano, Ryan A. Gellner, Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek Jones, Alex Powers, Jonathan Beckwith, Joseph J. Crisco, Joel Stitzel, Stefan Duma, Richard M. Greenwald

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the psychometrics (reliability, validity) of the original Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) in a youth sample (ages 11 to 13). Demographic factors of race, level of vocabulary knowledge, mother’s level of education were also considered. Over 150 youth football athletes completed the SAC and a brief battery of NIH Toolbox cognitive tests as part of a larger study on biomechanical factors in youth sport concussion. This was a within-subjects design (pre-season, post-season assessments), and correlational analysis of convergent and discriminant validity. Between groups analysis based on demographic differences was also employed ...


The Effects Of Dorsal Lateral Telencephalon Lesions On Zebrafish Social Behaviour, Hailey Katzman 2020 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of Dorsal Lateral Telencephalon Lesions On Zebrafish Social Behaviour, Hailey Katzman

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Zebrafish are extremely social and aggregate in groups to form shoals. This social behaviour has been studied in the wild and in a laboratory setting, yet the mechanisms underlying the behaviour are unknown. There is evidence to suggest that the dorsal lateral telencephalon might play a role in shaping shoaling behaviour, being involved in modulating social behaviours and social reward associated with shoaling. In the current thesis, I adapted and combined several existing methods for performing lesions on the dorsal lateral telencephalon to create my own method to measure the role of the dorsal lateral telencephalon in social reward and ...


Characterization Of The Effect Of Exercise Dose And Integrative Nonpharmacological Therapies In The Treatment Of Chronic Pain, Anna M. Polaski 2019 Duquesne University

Characterization Of The Effect Of Exercise Dose And Integrative Nonpharmacological Therapies In The Treatment Of Chronic Pain, Anna M. Polaski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain includes debilitating conditions affecting large populations of people throughout the world. These diseases are further complicated by comorbid psychological disorders which make chronic pain conditions difficult to treat. Nonpharmacological treatment options have more recently become an important mainstay of effective therapies and are currently being used to supplement or replace traditional pharmacological treatment methods. Exercise-based therapies in particular are of interest due to their demonstrated success in reducing pain symptoms as well as improving psychological outcomes. Dose is an important factor in being able to effectively prescribe treatments in the context of specific exercise interventions and specific pain ...


Genetic Taster Status As A Mediator Of Neural Activity And Swallowing Mechanics In Healthy Adults, Angela M. Dietsch, Ross M. Westemeyer, William G. Pearson Jr., Douglas H. Schultz 2019 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Genetic Taster Status As A Mediator Of Neural Activity And Swallowing Mechanics In Healthy Adults, Angela M. Dietsch, Ross M. Westemeyer, William G. Pearson Jr., Douglas H. Schultz

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

As part of a larger study examining relationships between taste properties and swallowing, we assessed the influence of genetic taster status (GTS) on measures of brain activity and swallowing physiology during taste stimulation in healthy men and women. Twenty-one participants underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during trials of high-intensity taste stimuli. The precisely formulated mixtures included sour, sweet-sour, lemon, and orange taste profiles and unflavored controls. Swallowing physiology was characterized via computational analysis of swallowing mechanics plus other kinematic and temporal measures, all extracted from VFSS recordings. Whole-brain analysis of fMRI data assessed blood ...


Assessing The Morphology Of Vesicles In Inhibitory Symmetric Synapses In Safety And Fear Conditions In The Rat Lateral Amygdala, Valerie Kress 2019 University of Connecticut

Assessing The Morphology Of Vesicles In Inhibitory Symmetric Synapses In Safety And Fear Conditions In The Rat Lateral Amygdala, Valerie Kress

Honors Scholar Theses

There is a significant lack of research on vesicle morphology in inhibitory synapses in the rat lateral amygdala. Published research focuses heavily on excitatory synapses in different parts of the rat brain and even this research rarely focuses on the different vesicle types in axons. It is reported that in these axons, synaptic vesicles traditionally contain neurotransmitters while small dense core vesicles contain active zone proteins and large dense core vesicles contain neuropeptides. This study aims to find correlations between vesicle morphology, location, contents, and potential function of each of the different types of vesicle in inhibitory axons.

After reviewing ...


A Multi-Approach Investigation To Evaluate Compounds That Mitigate Neuroinflammation., Gabriella Hernandez-Tyler 2019 Georgia Gwinnett College

A Multi-Approach Investigation To Evaluate Compounds That Mitigate Neuroinflammation., Gabriella Hernandez-Tyler

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which affects the basal ganglia and the activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain. This interruption of dopamine appears to provide an explanation as to the loss of motor function by those who have Parkinson’s disease (PD). 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a prodrug to MPP+, a known neurotoxin which induces Parkinsonian symptoms to those exposed to it. The goal of this study was to: 1) to investigate the potential for nicotine and velvet bean extract to protect against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity and 2) to establish a zebrafish (Danio rerio ...


Function And Dissipation In Finite State Automata - From Computing To Intelligence And Back, Natesh Ganesh 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Function And Dissipation In Finite State Automata - From Computing To Intelligence And Back, Natesh Ganesh

Doctoral Dissertations

Society has benefited from the technological revolution and the tremendous growth in computing powered by Moore's law. However, we are fast approaching the ultimate physical limits in terms of both device sizes and the associated energy dissipation. It is important to characterize these limits in a physically grounded and implementation-agnostic manner, in order to capture the fundamental energy dissipation costs associated with performing computing operations with classical information in nano-scale quantum systems. It is also necessary to identify and understand the effect of quantum in-distinguishability, noise, and device variability on these dissipation limits. Identifying these parameters is crucial to ...


In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber 2019 The University of Western Ontario

In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years both philosophers and scientists have asked whether or not our current kinds of mental disorder—e.g., schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder—are natural kinds; and, moreover, whether or not the search for natural kinds of mental disorder is a realistic desideratum for psychiatry. In this dissertation I clarify the sense in which a kind can be said to be “natural” or “real” and argue that, despite a few notable exceptions, kinds of mental disorder cannot be considered natural kinds. Furthermore, I contend that psychopathological phenomena do not cluster together into kinds in the way that paradigmatic natural ...


Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Susceptibilities To Spatial Memory Deficits, Decreased Dopamine Marker Expression And Increased Neuroinflammation In The Hippocampus Of Male And Female Mice, Jorge A. Avila 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Susceptibilities To Spatial Memory Deficits, Decreased Dopamine Marker Expression And Increased Neuroinflammation In The Hippocampus Of Male And Female Mice, Jorge A. Avila

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Methamphetamine is an addictive illicit psychostimulant that produces lasting neurochemical and behavioral changes. The mechanisms underlying these deficits have been characterized in animal models using extremely high doses. Currently, better translational models are needed to understand the onset and progression of these deficits that more accurately reflect the gradual and voluntary dosing parameters as chosen by an abuser. To that end, a new model of methamphetamine administration, labeled Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Administration (VOMA), offers a means to examine the progression of neurotoxicity, behavioral deficits, and the addiction process through a voluntary consumption framework.

Female populations show consistent vulnerabilities to methamphetamine ...


Optimizing Crispr/Cas9 For Gene Silencing Of Sod1 In Mouse Models Of Als, Zachary C. Kennedy 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Optimizing Crispr/Cas9 For Gene Silencing Of Sod1 In Mouse Models Of Als, Zachary C. Kennedy

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Mutations in the SOD1 gene are the best characterized genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and account for ~20% of inherited cases and 1-3% of sporadic cases. The gene-editing tool Cas9 can silence mutant genes that cause disease, but effective delivery of CRISPR-Cas9 to the central nervous system (CNS) remains challenging. Here, I developed strategies using canonical Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 to silence SOD1. In the first strategy, I demonstrate effectiveness of systemic delivery of guide RNA targeting SOD1 to the CNS in a transgenic mouse model expressing human mutant SOD1 and Cas9. Silencing was observed in both the brain ...


The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And White Matter Microstructure In Pre-Reading Children: A Longitudinal Investigation, Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S. Norton, Yingying Wang, Sara D. Beach, Jennifer Zuk, Maryanne Wolf, John D.E. Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab 2019 Massachusetts Institute of Technology & Boston Children’s Hospital

The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And White Matter Microstructure In Pre-Reading Children: A Longitudinal Investigation, Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S. Norton, Yingying Wang, Sara D. Beach, Jennifer Zuk, Maryanne Wolf, John D.E. Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Reading is a learned skill crucial for educational attainment. Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have poorer reading performance and this gap widens across years of schooling. Reading relies on the orchestration of multiple neural systems integrated via specific white-matter pathways, but there is limited understanding about whether these pathways relate differentially to reading performance depending on SES background. Kindergarten white-matter FA and second-grade reading outcomes were investigated in an SES-diverse sample of 125 children. The three left-hemisphere white-matter tracts most associated with reading, and their right-hemisphere homologs, were examined: arcuate fasciculus (AF), superior longitudinal fasciculus ...


Optimization Of Simultaneous Facial Emg And Fmri, Maggie Prenger 2019 Western University

Optimization Of Simultaneous Facial Emg And Fmri, Maggie Prenger

Western Research Forum

The scientific study of emotion began in the 19th century with Duchenne’s study of the “universal and immutable” language of facial expressions. In The Mechanism of Human Physiognomy, he manipulates human facial expressions by electrically stimulating facial muscles. Facial electromyography (EMG) is a modern technique that is reminiscent of Duchenne’s work; it allows researchers to measure facial muscle activity through surface recording electrodes, providing a real-time measure of natural emotional reactions.

Although facial EMG is a reliable measure of emotional behavior, it fails to provide any information about brain activity responsible for emotional processes. Functional magnetic resonance ...


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