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Modeling Aggregation Of Proliferating Microglia In Response To Amyloid-Beta In Dementia, Adrienne C. Kinney, Ellen R. Swanson 2017 Centre College

Modeling Aggregation Of Proliferating Microglia In Response To Amyloid-Beta In Dementia, Adrienne C. Kinney, Ellen R. Swanson

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Amyloid-beta plaques are prominent biological markers in dementia brains. In response to plaque formation, the brain's immune cells, microglia, become reactive. Microglia are measurable cells that surround amyloid-beta plaques, indicating their location. A system of partial differential equations describes the concentration of microglia in dementia brains by incorporating chemotactic signaling. However, this system fails to incorporate increasing numbers of reactive microglia cells in response to amyloid-beta aggregation. A system of ordinary differential equations describing the number of significant cells and proteins in the brain suggests the amount of reactive microglia increases significantly during the progression of dementia. We couple ...


Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich McLeod 2017 New Hampshire Musculoskeletal Institute, Manchester, NH

Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich Mcleod

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

We sought to investigate the one-week and within-session reliability of the instrumented balance error scoring system test and the concurrent validity/one-week reliability of two neurocognitive assessments available through C3 Logix. (n = 37) Participants completed two balance error scoring system tests separated by the Trails A, Trails B, and Symbol Digit Modality test available through C3 Logix, and with paper and pencil. We found that the instrumented balance error scoring system test demonstrated strong one-week reliability and that neuropsychological tests available through C3 Logix show acceptable concurrent validity with standard (comparable) paper and pencil measures.


Temperature Alters The Amplitude Ratios Of Extracellularly Recorded Action Potentials, Marissa Cruz 2017 Illinois State University

Temperature Alters The Amplitude Ratios Of Extracellularly Recorded Action Potentials, Marissa Cruz

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Systems Level Approach To Temporal Expression Dynamics In Drosophila Reveals Clusters Of Long Term Memory Genes, Julianna Bozler, Balint Kacsoh, Giovanni Bosco 2017 Dartmouth College

A Systems Level Approach To Temporal Expression Dynamics In Drosophila Reveals Clusters Of Long Term Memory Genes, Julianna Bozler, Balint Kacsoh, Giovanni Bosco

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The role of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc core) continues to be redefined with newly acquired data on neurochemical mechanisms mediating the learning and performance of behavior. Previous empirical data showed that dopamine transmission at the D1 receptor (D1R) plays a transient role in the expression of learned Pavlovian approach behavior. Here we show that, prior to overtraining, dopamine activity at D1Rs specifically within the NAc core is critical for the performance of approach behavior elicited by the recently-acquired reward-paired cue. Blockade of D1Rs in the NAc core, but not the dorsomedial striatum or NAc shell, disrupted approach responses during ...


The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li 2017 Purdue University

The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Schwann cells are glial cells that serve the vital role of supporting neurons in the peripheral nervous system. While their primary function is to provide insulation (myelin) for axons, they also help regenerate injured axons by digesting severed axons and providing scaffolding to guide the regeneration process. This specific role of Schwann cells makes them highly important cellular targets following nerve injury. Although some efforts have been made to encourage Schwann cell migration after nerve damage, the use of electric fields to control cell responses remain unexplored; therefore, this experiment serves to characterize the behavior of Schwann cells to weak ...


Circuits For Active Vision : Parallel Tectothalamocortical Visual Pathways In The Mouse., Na Zhou 2017 University of Louisville

Circuits For Active Vision : Parallel Tectothalamocortical Visual Pathways In The Mouse., Na Zhou

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Vision is a critical sensation for the interaction between humans and their surrounding environment. The eyes connect with the brain via retinal ganglion cell axons, which transmit visual sensory information from the periphery into the central nervous system for further processing, eventually leading to visual perception and the visual guidance of movement. Two main targets of retinal axons are the superior colliculus (SC) and the dorsal thalamus. From the SC, visual information is conveyed to the dorsal thalamus, and from the dorsal thalamus visual information is conveyed to the cortex, striatum and amygdala. This dissertation is focused on the functional ...


Neuroscience, Materialism, And The Soul: Limit Questions, Jeremy M. Aymard 2017 Abilene Christian University

Neuroscience, Materialism, And The Soul: Limit Questions, Jeremy M. Aymard

Dialogue & Nexus

In light of recent discoveries in neuroscience linking the mind to physical processes, Christian philosophers have resorted to a more materialistic view of the human person, using neuroscience as support for their view that an immaterial soul does not exist. In this essay, I will point out a major flaw in the logic for defending a materialistic view, argue that either a bipartite or tripartite view of the human person is more aligned with Scripture, and hopefully point towards a more reliable means for attaining truth regarding human nature and the soul.


Psychopathy, Empathic Concern, And Emotional-Sentence Processing: An N400 Erp Study, Farren Larson 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Psychopathy, Empathic Concern, And Emotional-Sentence Processing: An N400 Erp Study, Farren Larson

Student Theses

Using an undergraduate sample, the present study examined how psychopathic traits (assessed by the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised) and empathic concern (assessed by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index) affect emotional-information processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) and a sentential priming paradigm. Participants had their electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded while they silently read sentences with three types of endings: congruent, incongruent, and emotionally negative. We hypothesized that participants with high levels of psychopathic traits and participants with low levels of empathic concern would find the emotionally negative sentence endings less unexpected and disturbing (yielding a smaller N400), compared to participants with low levels of psychopathic ...


Examining The Neuronal Dopaminergic Pathway Underlying Sleep Behavior And Related Dopamine Sleep Disorders, Mary Beth Putz 2017 University of San Diego

Examining The Neuronal Dopaminergic Pathway Underlying Sleep Behavior And Related Dopamine Sleep Disorders, Mary Beth Putz

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The human brain is an extremely complex organ with approximately 100 billion different neurons that are constantly sending and receiving messages. These messages are sent using the chemical messengers of the brain: neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Mechanisms of neural control of sleep are substantially conserved across species. Evidence from multiple animal models including flies, zebrafish, and mice shows that the arousal, or wake phase, is regulated by conserved neuromodulators such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Since these neurotransmitter systems are distributed throughout the brain and sub-serve many functions in addition to sleep, the precise circuit mechanisms by which these neurotransmitters regulate ...


Mollifying Neuroscience And Christian Faith: An Emergent Monistic Claim For Free Will And The Soul, Paul Figel 2017 Abilene Christian University

Mollifying Neuroscience And Christian Faith: An Emergent Monistic Claim For Free Will And The Soul, Paul Figel

Dialogue & Nexus

Modern neuroscience makes it difficult for one to support a case for substance dualism regarding the existence of a soul and free will. The neuroscientific evidence stems from several experiments in which test subjects were instructed to perform a simple voluntary movement. Scientists consistently observed neurological antecedents preceding the subject’s conscious decision to perform the action. An examination of these experiments and the conclusions drawn will show several key inconsistencies that weaken the extreme anti-conscious will claim. However, it is important to not reject the neurological evidence against substance dualism, but instead discover a new perspective (e.g. emergent ...


Volume 3 Editorial, Daniel Brannan 2017 Abilene Christian University

Volume 3 Editorial, Daniel Brannan

Dialogue & Nexus

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings 2017 University of Maine

An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can negatively ...


Music: A Key For Unlocking Locked-In Syndrome And Improving The Quality Of Life For Those With Neurodegenerative Diseases, Heidi Hanekamp 2017 University of Wyoming

Music: A Key For Unlocking Locked-In Syndrome And Improving The Quality Of Life For Those With Neurodegenerative Diseases, Heidi Hanekamp

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Neurodegenerative diseases involve the gradual loss of neuronal functioning over time; such diseases include Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington’s disease. The cause of these disorders is often idiopathic and treatment options are limited. Certain progressions of these diseases may lead to Locked-in-Syndrome, where an individual is aware of their environment but unable to communicate due to paralysis. The impact from these disorders often leads to further comorbidities and an overall lower quality of life. This paper addresses scientific literature on the effects of music on the brain and how music ...


A Novel Role For Osteopontin In Facilitating West Nile Virus Neuroinvasion, Amber M. Paul 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

A Novel Role For Osteopontin In Facilitating West Nile Virus Neuroinvasion, Amber M. Paul

Dissertations

West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sensed, single-stranded RNA flavivirus that can cause human neuroinvasive diseases, including encephalitis, meningitis, and flaccid paralysis. The mechanisms by which WNV enters the central nervous system and the host-factors that are involved in WNV-neuroinvasiveness are not completely understood. Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional glycoprotein, has been implicated as a bio-marker for a number of neuroinflammatory diseases. In particular, secreted (s)OPN has been implicated to participate in recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to sites of its expression, while PMNs have been suggested to act as WNV reservoirs. Therefore, sOPN recruitment of PMNs may contribute to ...


Plateau Potential Fluctuations And Intrinsic Membrane Noise, Daniel Scott Borrus 2017 College of William and Mary

Plateau Potential Fluctuations And Intrinsic Membrane Noise, Daniel Scott Borrus

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis focuses on subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations in the plateau potentials of bistable neurons. Research involved with plateau potentials typically finds one of the resting membrane potentials to be more susceptible to voltage fluctuations. This difference in the amplitude of the membrane potential fluctuations is most often attributed to the voltage-dependent membrane conductance. Occasionally, however, the typically quieter resting membrane potential exhibits larger voltage fluctuations than the expected one. It has been proposed that this increased membrane potential noise is the result of the stochastic gating of the voltage-gated ion channels. In this thesis, we use a simple bistable ...


The Role Of Age And Gender In Caudate Nucleus Volume Change, Avery Henning 2017 Georgia State University

The Role Of Age And Gender In Caudate Nucleus Volume Change, Avery Henning

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


The Neurometric Correlates Of Trauma Using The Brief Neurometric Battery (Bnb), Lauren N. Dybel 2017 College of William and Mary

The Neurometric Correlates Of Trauma Using The Brief Neurometric Battery (Bnb), Lauren N. Dybel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Objective: The goal of this research was to determine the utility of a novel Brief Neurometric Battery (BNB) (Kieffaber et al., 2016) for measuring the neurometric correlates of a) experiences with sexual trauma and b) personality characteristics, and to assess the correlation of sexual trauma with event-related potentials derived through EEG.
Methods: The BNB testing battery uses a nested array of visual and auditory stimuli to elicit several event-related potentials (ERPs) and oscillatory activity in about 20 minutes. This subclinical study at the College of William & Mary used the BNB with college-aged women with past experiences of sexual violence. Participants ...


The Dreadds Technique Utilized To Control The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Of Rodents, Hannah Kennedy, Matthew Russ, Brett Lowden 2017 Kent State University

The Dreadds Technique Utilized To Control The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Of Rodents, Hannah Kennedy, Matthew Russ, Brett Lowden

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Stress has been shown to induce adverse effects such as depression, heart disease, and hypertension (Roman et al., 2016, Aschbacher et al., 2016, Ojike et al., 2016). Following a stressful event there is an increase in circulating glucocorticoids, primarily cortisol in humans and corticosterone (CORT) in rodents. CORT is primarily controlled via the PVN, the major regulating structure in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis, Ferguson et al., 2009). Normally, stressful stimuli causes activation of the PVN, triggering the release of CRH from the hypothalamus, subsequently causing the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in the production of ...


P27. Acute Impact Of An Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Stimulus On Human Neurophysiological Function - Magnetophosphene Perception, Cadence M. Baker 2017 Western University

P27. Acute Impact Of An Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Stimulus On Human Neurophysiological Function - Magnetophosphene Perception, Cadence M. Baker

Western Research Forum 2018 "Controversy: Challenging The Boundaries in Research"

Background: Magnetophosphenes are classified as colourless, flickering lights that are perceived with closed eyes in the dark, and upon exposure to a magnetic field (MF). Uncertainties exist involving the MF threshold for magnetophosphene perception.

Methods: Forty subjects will be enrolled in this experiment aiming to provide a frequency-response curve of magnetophosphene perception under MF exposure. Subjects will sit in a whole head MF exposure device wearing a 64-channel MRI-compatible EEG cap. Subjects will be exposed to a MF with a frequency of 5-300 Hz, in the form of an increasing flux density ramp (increasing magnetic field flux density from 0-100 ...


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