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Vitamin B12 Deficiency Does Not Stimulate Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Opeyemi F. Showemimo 2021 East Tennessee State University

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Does Not Stimulate Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Opeyemi F. Showemimo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is symptomized by amyloid-beta plaques in the brain and accounts for more than 65 percent of dementia cases. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency can result in similar cognitive impairment and roughly 15% of the elderly are vitamin B12 deficient. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in the accumulation of toxic methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a strong risk factor for AD. To test if vitamin B12 deficiency stimulates amyloid-beta toxicity, Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-beta in muscle were fed either vitamin B12-deficient OP50-1 or vitamin B12-rich HT115(DE3) E. coli bacteria. Increased amyloid-beta toxicity was found in worms fed ...


Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


381— Virtual Community Outreach For Elementary School Children In R-Kids After-School Program: A Novel Way To Teach Students About Neuroscience, Lucia Verrelli, Natasha Cotrupi, Julia Hoyt, Daniella Quiroz, Terence Bazzett 2021 SUNY Geneseo

381— Virtual Community Outreach For Elementary School Children In R-Kids After-School Program: A Novel Way To Teach Students About Neuroscience, Lucia Verrelli, Natasha Cotrupi, Julia Hoyt, Daniella Quiroz, Terence Bazzett

GREAT Day

Applications in Neuroscience (NEUR215) offers an opportunity for community outreach within the Neuroscience major. Students enrolled in NEUR215 create neuroscience-based activities designed to foster an excitement for science and to promote higher education in elementary school students recruited through the R-Kids after-school enrichment program. Four one-hour live sessions were held via Zoom with 2-5 R-Kids participants attending each session. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all lessons were transitioned virtually during the fall 2020 semester, and effective teaching strategies in a virtual environment were explored. The results of this investigation showed that online learning can be both fun and effective. Inviting ...


Sound In Color, Amber Rhodes 2021 Belmont University

Sound In Color, Amber Rhodes

Honors Theses

“Sound in Color” is an interactive audio-visual experience designed to explore the relationship between sound, color, and emotions. Taking place on the Massey Concert Hall stage, the project is inspired by synesthesia and incorporates research on color psychology. Participants are invited to select an emotion and color. As the user hums into a microphone, they hear their emotions expressed through sound in their headphones and watch as the lights on stage respond to their vocal cues.


Use Of A Zebrafish Model To Identify Anticonvulsant Properties Of Cannabinoid And Terpenoid Extracts And Mixtures, Courtney Murr 2021 Louisiana State University

Use Of A Zebrafish Model To Identify Anticonvulsant Properties Of Cannabinoid And Terpenoid Extracts And Mixtures, Courtney Murr

LSU Master's Theses

Epilepsy is a complex group of neurological disorders affecting approximately 65 million people worldwide. Animal models reveal the activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 reduces the severity of seizures associated with epilepsy. Trials of phytocannabinoids in mammals demonstrate their efficacy of reducing the severity of epileptic seizures. Numerous terpenoid compounds are present in Cannabis plants but most have yet to be clinically investigated. The goal of this research was to use zebrafish (Danio rerio) to identify the potential anticonvulsive properties of phytocannabinoid and terpenoid compounds. During acute cannabinoid exposures, 7-days-post-fertilization (7 dpf) zebrafish larvae were exposed to ...


Evaluating Anesthetic Protocols For Non-Human Primate Functional Neuroimaging, Megha Verma 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Evaluating Anesthetic Protocols For Non-Human Primate Functional Neuroimaging, Megha Verma

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to measure a proxy of neural activity in vivo with high spatial specificity. One subject can be followed for a long period of time to assess changes in functional brain organization. However, fMRI is extremely sensitive to motion. The challenges of training non-human primates to reduce motion in an MRI scanner motivate the study of anesthesia which is commonly used to substitute for this training. In this thesis, I compare three different commonly used anesthetic protocols: isoflurane, propofol-fentanyl in combination, and fentanyl alone, to test which of ...


How The Amino Acid L-Serine Provides Neuroprotection Against L-Bmaa Induced Alzheimer’S Disease, Joseph Cimino 2021 Arcadia University

How The Amino Acid L-Serine Provides Neuroprotection Against L-Bmaa Induced Alzheimer’S Disease, Joseph Cimino

Capstone Showcase

More than 6 million people in America are living with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and there are currently no cures or treatments. It is time to move on from the ꞵ-amyloid hypothesis and broaden AD research. New research is suggesting that dietary exposure to a cyanobacterial toxin known as L-BMAA is causing neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson’s Disease. L-BMAA is misincorporated during protein folding, in place of the proper amino acid, L-Serine. It has been shown that the naturally occurring amino acid, L-Serine, can provide neuroprotection against L-BMAA, but the mechanism by which ...


Historical Trauma Response Scores As A Function Of Unresolved Grief And Substance Use Disorder In American Indian Populations, Andrew R. Saunders 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Historical Trauma Response Scores As A Function Of Unresolved Grief And Substance Use Disorder In American Indian Populations, Andrew R. Saunders

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Abstract

Researchers are interested in the outcomes of interventions, specifically, measuring historical trauma (HT) among American Indian/Alaska Native communities and the long-term distress and substance abuse as a result of historical trauma response (HTR). Previous literature has implicated limitations in the clinical conceptualization of the relationship between intergenerational transfer of HTR and substance abuse. The aim of the current study is to examine treatment efficacy of 50 homosexual, American Indian males randomized to a culturally-adapted juxtaposition of (1) Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), (2) Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), and (3) Historical Trauma and Unresolved Grief Intervention (HTUG), or (4) waitlisted ...


Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin Receptor-Expressing Neurons In The Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Regulates Maternal Behavior, Kaustubh Sharma 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin Receptor-Expressing Neurons In The Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus Regulates Maternal Behavior, Kaustubh Sharma

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin is involved in the regulation of social behaviors, including social recognition, pair bonding, and sex-specific parental behaviors in a variety of species. Oxytocin triggers these social behaviors by binding to oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in various parts of the brain. Oxytocin-induced sex-typical behavior, therefore, suggests a sexual dimorphic distribution of OXTR in the brain. In recent years, the oxytocin system in the brain received tremendous attention as a potential pharmacological target for treatment of many psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, and even sex-specific psychiatric disorder like postpartum depression (PPD). An important problem and a ...


Computational Unfolding Of The Human Hippocampus, Jordan M. K. DeKraker 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Computational Unfolding Of The Human Hippocampus, Jordan M. K. Dekraker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The hippocampal subfields are defined by their unique cytoarchitectures, which many recent studies have tried to map to human in-vivo MRI because of their promise to further our understanding of hippocampal function, or its dysfunction in disease. However, recent anatomical literature has highlighted broad inter-individual variability in hippocampal morphology and subfield locations, much of which can be attributed to different folding configurations within hippocampal (or archicortical) tissue. Inspired in part by analogous surface-based neocortical analysis methods, the current thesis aimed to develop a standardized coordinate framework, or surface-based method, that respects the topology of all hippocampal folding configurations. I developed ...


Validating Tackle Mechanics In American Football: Improving Safety And Performance, Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin J. Masterson, Rex Norris, Adam Hinthorne 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Validating Tackle Mechanics In American Football: Improving Safety And Performance, Arthur C. Maerlender, Caitlin J. Masterson, Rex Norris, Adam Hinthorne

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Research has helped to understand the risks of injuries of tackling in American football and rugby; however, approaches to teaching and analysis are not well-documented. Shoulder-led tackling has been proposed as a safer approach to tackling even though data on the effectiveness for safety and defensive performance is limited. Additionally, some have argued that safety and effectiveness are incompatible. The purpose of the study was to validate a specific sequence of tackling actions as a tool for teaching safer and more effective tackling skills. Results suggested tackle scores help predict presence of head contact, and that higher tackle scores were ...


Investigating Microglia-Vascular Interactions In The Developing And Adult Central Nervous System, Erica Mondo 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Investigating Microglia-Vascular Interactions In The Developing And Adult Central Nervous System, Erica Mondo

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), are dynamic cells, constantly extending and retracting their processes as they contact and functionally regulate neurons and other glial cells. There is far less known about how microglia interact with the CNS vasculature, particularly under healthy steady-state conditions. Here, I provide the first extensive characterization of juxtavascular microglia in the healthy, postnatal brain and identify a molecular mechanism regulating the timing of these interactions during development. Using the mouse cerebral cortex, I show that microglia are intimately associated with the vasculature in the CNS, directly contacting the basal lamina in ...


Clusters Of Individuals Experiences Form A Continuum Of Persistent Non-Symbolic Experiences In Adults, Jeffery A. Martin 2020 Center for the Study of Non-Symbolic Consciousness

Clusters Of Individuals Experiences Form A Continuum Of Persistent Non-Symbolic Experiences In Adults, Jeffery A. Martin

CONSCIOUSNESS: Ideas and Research for the Twenty-First Century

Persistent forms of nondual awareness, enlightenment, mystical experience, and so forth (Persistent Non-Symbolic Experience) have been reported since antiquity. Though sporadic research has been performed on these experiences, the scientific literature has yet to report a large-scale cognitive psychology study of this population. Method: Assessment of the subjective experience of 319 adult participants reporting persistent non-symbolic experience was undertaken using 6-12 hour semi-structured interviews and evaluated using grounded theory and thematic analysis. Results: Five core, consistent categories of change were uncovered: sense-of-self, cognition, affect, perception, and memory. Participants’ reports formed phenomenological groups in which the types of change in each ...


Elevated Cochlear Adenosine Causes Hearing Loss Via Adora2b Signaling, Jeanne Manalo 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Elevated Cochlear Adenosine Causes Hearing Loss Via Adora2b Signaling, Jeanne Manalo

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Over 538 million people in the world have been diagnosed with hearing loss (HL). Current treatments for the most common type of HL, sensorineural HL, are limited to hearing aids and cochlear implants with no FDA-drugs available. The hearing process demands an abundance of ATP and HL is often attributed to a disruption in this metabolic energy currency. Patients who lack adenosine deaminase (ADA), the enzyme that irreversibly metabolizes adenosine, have high levels of adenosine that yield severe health problems, including HL; however, the pathogenic mechanisms behind HL and adenosine remain elusive. Our lab has found a HL phenotype in ...


Wild Mice With Different Social Network Sizes Vary In Brain Gene Expression, Patricia C. Lopes, Barbara König 2020 Chapman University

Wild Mice With Different Social Network Sizes Vary In Brain Gene Expression, Patricia C. Lopes, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Appropriate social interactions influence animal fitness by impacting several processes, such as mating, territory defense, and offspring care. Many studies shedding light on the neurobiological underpinnings of social behavior have focused on nonapeptides (vasopressin, oxytocin, and homologues) and on sexual or parent-offspring interactions. Furthermore, animals have been studied under artificial laboratory conditions, where the consequences of behavioral responses may not be as critical as when expressed under natural environments, therefore obscuring certain physiological responses. We used automated recording of social interactions of wild house mice outside of the breeding season to detect individuals at both tails of a distribution ...


An Eeg Study On Loneliness And Recognition Memory, Carmen Jia Wen Chek 2020 Stephen F Austin State University

An Eeg Study On Loneliness And Recognition Memory, Carmen Jia Wen Chek

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Loneliness, the perception of unmet social needs, has been shown to relate to recollection-based recognition deficits, but the relationship between loneliness and recognition memory (i.e., recollection and familiarity) has not been thoroughly examined. The current study hypothesized that more lonely individuals would have lower recognition memory performance, specifically recollection, with smaller ERP parietal old-new effects than less lonely individuals. Forty participants, grouped into less (n = 13) and more (n = 9) lonely groups based on their R-UCLA responses, completed an associative memory task. EEG was used to assess recognition memory effects. Results showed no significant difference in both behavioral and ...


Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. DeWeese 2020 University of California Berkeley

Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. Deweese

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Remapping Of Place Cells In The Dorsal And Ventral Hippocampus In Response To Environmental Change, Aditi Anam 2020 University of Connecticut

Remapping Of Place Cells In The Dorsal And Ventral Hippocampus In Response To Environmental Change, Aditi Anam

Honors Scholar Theses

The hippocampus is an important brain structure involved in memory and navigation of both rats and humans. Neurons in the hippocampus can be “spatially” tuned, meaning they fire in specific physical locations. These spatially tuned cells are referred to as place cells. Collectively, they are thought to provide a map-like representation of the environment around us. If the environment is changed, some place cells can adjust by “remapping”, or altering their firing patterns. There are multiple sub-regions within the hippocampus. During experiments, cells were recorded simultaneously from the dorsal and ventral hippocampus of rats running on a track for food ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at The University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Detection Of Tinnitus In Cba/Caj Mice Using The Active Avoidance Shuttle Box Test, Grace Nichols 2020 University of Connecticut

Detection Of Tinnitus In Cba/Caj Mice Using The Active Avoidance Shuttle Box Test, Grace Nichols

University Scholar Projects

Tinnitus is a neurological condition that involves the perception of a sound that is not actually there. Individuals affected with tinnitus describe the condition as a ringing, buzzing, or whooshing sound in their ears. One-third of the population is estimated to have tinnitus, and for many individuals, the condition negatively impacts quality of life. Difficulty falling asleep, trouble with hearing and concentrating, and in some cases, depression, have all been observed to occur with tinnitus.

Tinnitus has been extensively studied in animals, and behavioral tests are the primary method of evaluating the presence of tinnitus in animals. This study evaluates ...


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