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Effect Sizes In Task-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Tyler Kellett 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Effect Sizes In Task-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Tyler Kellett

Celebration of Learning

Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (t-fMRI) techniques have changed the way scientists probe the neurological mechanisms underlying behavior. However, there are many problems surrounding t-fMRI especially underpowered studies leading to misleading effect sizes. This study is using a recent large data collection study, the Human Connectome Project, to investigate effect sizes in specific regions of the brain involving working memory. Previous studies have come up with relatively small effect sizes due to small sample sizes and large regions of interest (ROI). This study is concentrated on using more precise ROI called parcels to find larger effect sizes.


Arsenic Toxicity And Mitochondrial Metabolism In Astrocytes, Reilly Grealish 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Arsenic Toxicity And Mitochondrial Metabolism In Astrocytes, Reilly Grealish

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The various cells that support neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are known collectively as neuroglia, or glia. Astrocytes, a type of glial cell found exclusively in the central nervous system (i.e. the brain and spinal cord), are particularly abundant and serve many functions. One of the most important is the role these cells play in the brain as a defense against harmful substances, many of which can be found in the environment and make their way into the human body as xenobiotic substances. Elemental arsenic in its inorganic form occurs naturally throughout the Earth’s ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin 2018 Liberty University

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


Arts Based Brain Research, Alicia Arendt 2018 Lesley University

Arts Based Brain Research, Alicia Arendt

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

Art is believed to be “the expression or application of the human creative skill and imagination, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their aesthetic value or emotional power” (Buk, 2009, p. 61). While there are a myriad of ways to define and categorize art, such a definition as the one above is useful as it touches upon three key areas of arts based brain research; artistic cognition, artistic production and aesthetic experience. The study of arts based brain science, or the neuroscience of art, demands an understanding of the interplay between these three facets of the artistic experience. Most ...


Concussion Competencies: A Framework For School-Based Concussion Management (Flyer), Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Concussion Competencies: A Framework For School-Based Concussion Management (Flyer), Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This volume grew out of many years of clinical practice, research, and program projects. It is the culmination of more than 50 years of work with kids, brains, and schools. While there is research behind the Competencies and the underlying content, the intent was to create a user-friendly manual that cut across levels of responsibility and care. Concussion Competencies was not intended to be a textbook in the traditional manner; however, the Competencies have been shown to be a useful approach to teaching this material.

This volume is organized around a set of Competencies that have been shown to be ...


Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Arielle L. Baker, Allan T. Gulledge 2018 Dartmouth College

Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Arielle L. Baker, Allan T. Gulledge

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Serotonin (5-HT) selectively excites subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex via activation of 5-HT2A (2A) receptors coupled to Gq subtype G-protein alpha subunits. Gq-mediated excitatory responses have been attributed primarily to suppression of potassium conductances, including those mediated by KV7 potassium channels (i.e., the M-current), or activation of non-specific cation conductances that underlie calcium-dependent afterdepolarizations (ADPs). However, 2A-dependent excitation of cortical neurons has not been extensively studied, and no consensus exists regarding the underlying ionic effector(s) involved. In layer 5 of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex, we tested potential mechanisms of ...


Investigating The Relationship Between Sulcogyral Patterns And Structural And Functional Connectivity Metrics In The Orbitofrontal Cortex, Bethany M. Blass 2018 Bucknell University

Investigating The Relationship Between Sulcogyral Patterns And Structural And Functional Connectivity Metrics In The Orbitofrontal Cortex, Bethany M. Blass

Honors Theses

Located within the frontal lobe, the human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is widely known for its roles in sensory integration, emotion processing, decision-making, and goal-directed behaviors. Atypical structural organization of the OFC may explain atypical social or motivational behaviors displayed by individuals with brain disorders, such as bipolar disorder patients (BP).

The human brain can be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to reveal interesting aspects of the underlying brain architecture. This brain is composed of different tissue types, including gray and white matter, as well as various morphological features, including sulci & gyri. Within the OFC, the sulci can be labeled ...


Mesotocin Influences Pinyon Jay Prosociality, J. F. Duque, W. Leichner, H. Ahmann, Jeffrey R. Stevens 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mesotocin Influences Pinyon Jay Prosociality, J. F. Duque, W. Leichner, H. Ahmann, Jeffrey R. Stevens

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Many species exhibit prosocial behavior , in which one individual’s actions benefit another individual, often without an immediate benefit to itself. The neuropeptide oxytocin is an important hormonal mechanism influencing prosociality in mammals, but it is unclear whether the avian homologue mesotocin plays a similar functional role in birds. Here, we experimentally tested prosociality in pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus), a highly social corvid species that spontaneously shares food with others. First, we measured prosocial preferences in a prosocial choice task with two different pay-off distributions: Prosocial trials delivered food to both the subject and either an empty cage or a ...


A Behavioral Mechanistic Investigation Of The Role Of 5-Ht1a Receptors In The Mediation Of Rat Maternal Behavior, Xiaonan Li, Xiaojing Ding, Ruiyong Wu, Leilei Chen, Jun Gao, Gang Hu, Ming Li 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Behavioral Mechanistic Investigation Of The Role Of 5-Ht1a Receptors In The Mediation Of Rat Maternal Behavior, Xiaonan Li, Xiaojing Ding, Ruiyong Wu, Leilei Chen, Jun Gao, Gang Hu, Ming Li

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Previous work suggests that 5-HT1A receptors play a special role in rodent maternal aggression, but not in other aspects of maternal care (e.g. pup retrieval and nest building). The present study re-assessed the basic effects of 5-HT1A activation or blockade on various maternal responses in postpartum female rats. We also examined the possible behavioral mechanisms underlying the maternal effects of 5-HT1A. Sprague–Dawley mother rats were injected with a 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, sc), a 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-101405 (0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg ...


High Fructose Corn Syrup Induces Metabolic Dysregulation And Altered Dopamine Signaling In The Absence Of Obesity, Allison M. Meyers, Devry Mourra, Jeff A. Beeler 2017 CUNY Queens College

High Fructose Corn Syrup Induces Metabolic Dysregulation And Altered Dopamine Signaling In The Absence Of Obesity, Allison M. Meyers, Devry Mourra, Jeff A. Beeler

Publications and Research

The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry ...


Virtual Reality As A Training Tool To Treat Physical Inactivity In Children, Adam W. Kiefer, David Pincus, Michael J. Richardson, Gregory D. Myer 2017 Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center

Virtual Reality As A Training Tool To Treat Physical Inactivity In Children, Adam W. Kiefer, David Pincus, Michael J. Richardson, Gregory D. Myer

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Lack of adequate physical activity in children is an epidemic that can result in obesity and other poor health outcomes across the lifespan. Physical activity interventions focused on motor skill competence continue to be developed, but some interventions, such as neuromuscular training (NMT), may be limited in how early they can be implemented due to dependence on the child’s level of cognitive and perceptual-motor development. Early implementation of motor-rich activities that support motor skill development in children is critical for the development of healthy levels of physical activity that carry through into adulthood. Virtual reality (VR) training may be ...


Effects Of Gm-Csf On Dendritic Cells And Regulatory T Cells In Parkinson’S Disease Patients And Models Of Parkinson’S Disease, Charles Schutt 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Effects Of Gm-Csf On Dendritic Cells And Regulatory T Cells In Parkinson’S Disease Patients And Models Of Parkinson’S Disease, Charles Schutt

Theses & Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Pathologically, loss of nigrostriatal neurons and dopamine released by these neurons are responsible for PD motor symptoms. During PD, activation of resident microglia and infiltrating lymphocytes leads to progressive neuroinflammation and reduction in the number and function of regulatory immune cells. Neuroinflammation contributes to progressive neurodegeneration and declining motor function. Reducing neuroinflammation is the target for novel PD therapeutics. Our goal is to increase the number and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in PD patients to decrease neuroinflammation and reduce PD symptoms. One potential therapy is granulocyte-macrophage colony ...


Preschoolers And Pandas Making Friends: A Journey About Healing From Brain Injury, Barbara Anne Doucette 2017 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Preschoolers And Pandas Making Friends: A Journey About Healing From Brain Injury, Barbara Anne Doucette

Museum Studies Projects

Preschoolers that have obtained Non-Accidental Injury (NAI) from familial child abuse are in need of having a unique place for neurorehabilitation in correlation with traditional therapies. My thesis project suggests adding an exhibit annex to an existing giant panda exhibit that will give preschoolers an opportunity to help develop new neuropathways when exposed to mediation and creative activities. Meditation and creative activities are being examined by neuroscientists as an aid in neuroplasticity after brain injury. This thesis reviews the neurotypical preschooler’s milestones and the playful means by which they are achieved. Conjoining the contemporary museums’ and zoological gardens’ outreach ...


Modeling Aggregation Of Proliferating Microglia In Response To Amyloid-Beta In Dementia, Adrienne C. Kinney, Ellen R. Swanson 2017 Centre College

Modeling Aggregation Of Proliferating Microglia In Response To Amyloid-Beta In Dementia, Adrienne C. Kinney, Ellen R. Swanson

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Amyloid-beta plaques are prominent biological markers in dementia brains. In response to plaque formation, the brain's immune cells, microglia, become reactive. Microglia are measurable cells that surround amyloid-beta plaques, indicating their location. A system of partial differential equations describes the concentration of microglia in dementia brains by incorporating chemotactic signaling. However, this system fails to incorporate increasing numbers of reactive microglia cells in response to amyloid-beta aggregation. A system of ordinary differential equations describing the number of significant cells and proteins in the brain suggests the amount of reactive microglia increases significantly during the progression of dementia. We couple ...


Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich McLeod 2017 New Hampshire Musculoskeletal Institute, Manchester, NH

Reliability And Concurrent Validity Of Select C3 Logix Test Components, Madeline Simon, Arthur C. Maerlender, Katelyn Metzger, Laura Decoster, Amy Hollingworth, Tamara Valovich Mcleod

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

We sought to investigate the one-week and within-session reliability of the instrumented balance error scoring system test and the concurrent validity/one-week reliability of two neurocognitive assessments available through C3 Logix. (n = 37) Participants completed two balance error scoring system tests separated by the Trails A, Trails B, and Symbol Digit Modality test available through C3 Logix, and with paper and pencil. We found that the instrumented balance error scoring system test demonstrated strong one-week reliability and that neuropsychological tests available through C3 Logix show acceptable concurrent validity with standard (comparable) paper and pencil measures.


Temperature Alters The Amplitude Ratios Of Extracellularly Recorded Action Potentials, Marissa Cruz 2017 Illinois State University

Temperature Alters The Amplitude Ratios Of Extracellularly Recorded Action Potentials, Marissa Cruz

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Systems Level Approach To Temporal Expression Dynamics In Drosophila Reveals Clusters Of Long Term Memory Genes, Julianna Bozler, Balint Kacsoh, Giovanni Bosco 2017 Dartmouth College

A Systems Level Approach To Temporal Expression Dynamics In Drosophila Reveals Clusters Of Long Term Memory Genes, Julianna Bozler, Balint Kacsoh, Giovanni Bosco

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The role of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc core) continues to be redefined with newly acquired data on neurochemical mechanisms mediating the learning and performance of behavior. Previous empirical data showed that dopamine transmission at the D1 receptor (D1R) plays a transient role in the expression of learned Pavlovian approach behavior. Here we show that, prior to overtraining, dopamine activity at D1Rs specifically within the NAc core is critical for the performance of approach behavior elicited by the recently-acquired reward-paired cue. Blockade of D1Rs in the NAc core, but not the dorsomedial striatum or NAc shell, disrupted approach responses during ...


The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li 2017 Purdue University

The Response Of Schwann Cells To Weak Dc Electric Fields, Alexander T. Lai, Jianming Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Schwann cells are glial cells that serve the vital role of supporting neurons in the peripheral nervous system. While their primary function is to provide insulation (myelin) for axons, they also help regenerate injured axons by digesting severed axons and providing scaffolding to guide the regeneration process. This specific role of Schwann cells makes them highly important cellular targets following nerve injury. Although some efforts have been made to encourage Schwann cell migration after nerve damage, the use of electric fields to control cell responses remain unexplored; therefore, this experiment serves to characterize the behavior of Schwann cells to weak ...


Circuits For Active Vision : Parallel Tectothalamocortical Visual Pathways In The Mouse., Na Zhou 2017 University of Louisville

Circuits For Active Vision : Parallel Tectothalamocortical Visual Pathways In The Mouse., Na Zhou

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Vision is a critical sensation for the interaction between humans and their surrounding environment. The eyes connect with the brain via retinal ganglion cell axons, which transmit visual sensory information from the periphery into the central nervous system for further processing, eventually leading to visual perception and the visual guidance of movement. Two main targets of retinal axons are the superior colliculus (SC) and the dorsal thalamus. From the SC, visual information is conveyed to the dorsal thalamus, and from the dorsal thalamus visual information is conveyed to the cortex, striatum and amygdala. This dissertation is focused on the functional ...


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