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P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels 2017 Western University

P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels

Western Research Forum

Background: Beat perception is a complex cognitive skill that enables humans to “feel” the beat in music, and is an essential component of synchronization of behavior and dance. The mechanisms in the human brain that facilitate beat perception are not entirely understood, and have only been studied thus far using non-invasive techniques. Some animals, such as songbirds, also seem to be able to detect a beat in rhythms, though this has never been formally tested independent of motor synchronization.

Methods: An operant experiment is used to assess if European starlings, a type of songbird, are capable of categorizing auditory rhythms ...


P27. Acute Impact Of An Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Stimulus On Human Neurophysiological Function - Magnetophosphene Perception, Cadence M. Baker 2017 Western University

P27. Acute Impact Of An Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Stimulus On Human Neurophysiological Function - Magnetophosphene Perception, Cadence M. Baker

Western Research Forum

Background: Magnetophosphenes are classified as colourless, flickering lights that are perceived with closed eyes in the dark, and upon exposure to a magnetic field (MF). Uncertainties exist involving the MF threshold for magnetophosphene perception.

Methods: Forty subjects will be enrolled in this experiment aiming to provide a frequency-response curve of magnetophosphene perception under MF exposure. Subjects will sit in a whole head MF exposure device wearing a 64-channel MRI-compatible EEG cap. Subjects will be exposed to a MF with a frequency of 5-300 Hz, in the form of an increasing flux density ramp (increasing magnetic field flux density from 0-100 ...


Movement Variability And Sensorimotor Cortical Activation During Forward And Backward Walking, Boman Groff 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Movement Variability And Sensorimotor Cortical Activation During Forward And Backward Walking, Boman Groff

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Previous research has used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to show that motor areas of the cortex are activated more while walking backward compared to walking forward. It is also known that head movement creates motion artifacts in fNIRS data. The aim of this study was to expand on previous findings by examining cortical activation during forward and backward walking, while also measuring head movement. We hypothesized that greater activation in motor areas while walking backward would be concurrent with increased head movement.

Participants (N=8) performed forward and backward walking on a treadmill. Participants wore motion capture markers on their ...


Differences In Behavioral Responses To Stress In Zebrafish: Exploring Underlying Neural Mechanisms, Jacalyn B. Russ 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Differences In Behavioral Responses To Stress In Zebrafish: Exploring Underlying Neural Mechanisms, Jacalyn B. Russ

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Two alternative “stress coping styles” are documented across a wide range of taxa: proactive and reactive. While behavior differences can be observed between coping styles, brain regions potentially mediating these differences have not been studied extensively. Understanding differences in how the brain processes information between the coping styles can lead to insights on how these responses might be controlled. To assess the neural mechanisms underlying alternative stress coping styles, I utilized Danio rerio (zebrafish) and the Novel Tank Diving Test (NTDT). I hypothesize (i) that proactive fish will spend less time in the lower portion of the NTDT and spend ...


Nerve Growth Factor And Lysophosphatidylcholine In Peripheral Nerve Repair, Keaton Karlinsey 8741888 2017 Brigham Young University

Nerve Growth Factor And Lysophosphatidylcholine In Peripheral Nerve Repair, Keaton Karlinsey 8741888

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

NGF, Nerve Growth Factor, Lysophosphatidylcholine, Peripheral nerve regeneration, Sciatic nerve, Sciatic crush injury


Dopamine D1 And D3 Receptor Polypharmacology In Cocaine Reward And Cocaine Seeking, Ewa J. Galaj 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Dopamine D1 And D3 Receptor Polypharmacology In Cocaine Reward And Cocaine Seeking, Ewa J. Galaj

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: In the search for efficacious pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction much attention has been given to agents targeting D1 or D3 receptors because of the involvement of these receptors in cocaine-related behaviors. D1 and D3 receptor partial agonists and antagonists have been shown to reduce cocaine reward, reinstatement of cocaine seeking and conditioned place preference (CPP) in rodents and non-human primates. However, translation of these encouraging results with selective D1 or D3 receptor agents has been limited due to a number of factors including toxicity, poor pharmacokinetic properties and extrapyramidal and sedative side effects.

Purpose: Given the role of ...


Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. McDonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. McAllister 2016 Indiana University School of Medicine

Methylphenidate And Memory And Attention Adaptation Training For Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Brenna C. Mcdonald, Laura A. Flashman, David B. Arciniegas, Robert J. Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C. Sprehn, Flora M. Hammond, Arthur C. Maerlender, Carrie L. Kruck, Karen L. Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N. Wall, Andrew J. Saykin, Thomas W. Mcallister

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (i.e., with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19 ...


Role Of Anterior Cingulate Cortex In Saccade Control, Sahand Babapoor-Farrokhran 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Role Of Anterior Cingulate Cortex In Saccade Control, Sahand Babapoor-Farrokhran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cognitive control is referred to the guidance of behavior based on internal goals rather than external stimuli. It has been postulated that prefrontal cortex is mainly involved in higher order cognitive functions. Specifically, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is part of the prefrontal cortex, is suggested to be involved in performance monitoring and conflict monitoring that are considered to be cognitive control functions.

Saccades are the fast eye movements that align the fovea on the objects of interest in the environment. In this thesis, I have explored the role of ACC in control of saccadic eye movements. First, I performed ...


Neuroethics: Neurolaw, Stephen J. Morse 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Neuroethics: Neurolaw, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This is a pre-copyedited version of a chapter in the Oxford Handbooks Online (Philosophy) edited by Sandy Goldberg. In altered form, it was published online in February, 2017 and can be found at the Oxford Handbooks Online website. The entry discusses whether the findings of the new neuroscience based largely on functional brain imaging raise new normative questions and entail normative conclusions for ethical and legal theory and practice. After reviewing the source of optimism about neuroscientific contributions and the current scientific status of neuroscience, it addresses a radical challenge neuroscience allegedly presents: whether neuroscience proves persons do not have ...


The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known and may relate to alterations in brain structure (e.g. cortical atrophy) and/or altered neural function, particularly in regions related to the cortical autonomic network, namely, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), insula cortex (IC), and hippocampus (HC). Exercise exerts beneficial effects on brain structure and, in the case of cognition, neurologic function; however, how exercise affects regions of the brain related to autonomic function are not known. This ...


Synthetic And Biological Exploration Of (+)-Boldine - Identification Of Potential Cns Receptor Ligands, Sujay Joseph 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Synthetic And Biological Exploration Of (+)-Boldine - Identification Of Potential Cns Receptor Ligands, Sujay Joseph

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

(+)-Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid, is reported to be biologically active at various Central Nervous System(CNS) receptors. However, only a few Structure Activity Relationship(SAR) studies have been conducted using boldine’s aporphine scaffold. A library of novel analogs was synthesized from boldine to understand the effect of bisbenzylation at C2 and C9 positions on the affinity and selectivity at the serotonin receptors.


Unravelling The Subfields Of The Hippocampal Head Using 7-Tesla Structural Mri, Jordan M. K. DeKraker 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Unravelling The Subfields Of The Hippocampal Head Using 7-Tesla Structural Mri, Jordan M. K. Dekraker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Probing the functions of human hippocampal subfields is a promising area of research in cognitive neuroscience. However, defining subfield borders in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is challenging. Here, we present a user-guided, semi-automated protocol for segmenting hippocampal subfields on T2-weighted images obtained with 7-Tesla MRI. The protocol takes advantage of extant knowledge about regularities in hippocampal morphology and ontogeny that have not been systematically considered in prior related work. An image feature known as the hippocampal ‘dark band’ facilitates tracking of subfield continuities, allowing for unfolding and segmentation of convoluted hippocampal tissue. Initial results suggest that this protocol offers sufficient ...


Developing A Data Repository Of Standard Concussion Assessment Clinical Data For Research Involving College Athletes, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Julie A. Honaker 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Developing A Data Repository Of Standard Concussion Assessment Clinical Data For Research Involving College Athletes, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Julie A. Honaker

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

In sports concussion research, obtaining quality data from a sufficient number of participants to reach statistical power has been a particular problem. In addition, the necessary requirements of accessibility, informed consent, and confidentiality must be met. There is need to develop more efficient and controlled methods for collecting data to answer research questions in this realm, but the ability to collect and store these data in an efficient manner at the local level is limited. By virtue of their training, neuropsychologists can play a key role in improving data collection quality. The purpose of this paper is to describe a ...


Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a key function of somatosensory systems. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of motor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in trigeminal networks associated with mechanosensory inputs to the face, or the consequences of movement.

High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilateral saltatory pneumotactile inputs to perioral hairy skin in 20 healthy adults. A custom multichannel, scalable ...


An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church 2016 Trinity College

An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church

Senior Theses and Projects

A growing body of research suggests that dopaminergic cell death seen in Parkinson’s disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress, with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species, is the hallmark biochemical product of mitochondrial dysfunction. The ketogenic diet has been found to enhance mitochondrial energy production, protect against reactive oxygen species-generated cell death, and increase adenosine, a purine that modulates dopamine activity. The current study evaluates the effects of a long-term (5-month) ketogenic diet on behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical measures in PINK1-KO rats, a new animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Both wild-type and PINK1-KO animals fed a ...


Artificial Flavorings Enhance Attractability And Palatability Of Plant Protein Sources For Litopenaeusvannamei, Mi Choe 2016 Georgia State University

Artificial Flavorings Enhance Attractability And Palatability Of Plant Protein Sources For Litopenaeusvannamei, Mi Choe

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of The Ketogenic Diet (Kd) On Inflammatory Pain, Livia S. Wyss 2016 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

The Effects Of The Ketogenic Diet (Kd) On Inflammatory Pain, Livia S. Wyss

Senior Theses and Projects

BACKGROUND: Pain is the most common ailment around the world, according to the American Academy of Pain Medicine; 100 million Americans suffer with chronic pain, which is more than any other main disorder and is described by more than 60% as impacted their overall enjoyment of life (AAPA). The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high fat, low carbohydrate dietary regimen, which is described to decrease neuronal excitation, increase ketone bodies and ATP levels, while lowering glucose and proinflammatory cytokines. The KD is an effective therapy for epilepsy; a disorder that arises from either lowered inhibition or increased excitation, similar to ...


An In Vivo Study Of The Effects Of Perinatal Caffeine Exposure On Synaptic Efficacy In The Hippocampus Of Freely Moving Adult Rats, Jee Eun Park 2016 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

An In Vivo Study Of The Effects Of Perinatal Caffeine Exposure On Synaptic Efficacy In The Hippocampus Of Freely Moving Adult Rats, Jee Eun Park

Senior Theses and Projects

The synapse from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus has been widely used successfully to demonstrate long-term potentiation, a cellular model underlying learning and memory. Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive stimulants in the world. Caffeine consumption increases in alertness, improvements in motor skills, and neurological functions, and these effects have promoted its use throughout history. Although the many short term cognitive benefits of caffeine intake are well understood, the long term effects of caffeine exposure have been widely disputed. Despite this, it is estimated that over 80% of women continue to consume caffeine throughout pregnancy ...


Allosteric Effects Of G-Protein Coupled Receptor Heteromerization: Relevance To Psychosis, Jason W. Younkin 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Allosteric Effects Of G-Protein Coupled Receptor Heteromerization: Relevance To Psychosis, Jason W. Younkin

Theses and Dissertations

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) implicated in disease are the predominant pharmaceutical targets. Growing evidence suggests that GPCRs form homo- and heteromeric complexes, resulting in allosteric functional changes. Ligands targeting one receptor can alter the function of the other receptor or receptors. Knowledge of these functional changes will provide unique opportunities to treat diseases. We examined two GPCR heteromers implicated in psychosis: mGlu2R-5HT2AR and D2R-5HT2AR. Using whole-cell patch clamp, we studied HEK-293 cells stably transfected with mGlu2R and 5HT2AR. Maximal heteromer formation allows inverse agonists to increase the G-protein activity of the opposite receptor, while sub-maximal heteromer formation does not. However ...


Rapid Cortisol And Testosterone Responses To Sex-Linked Stressors: Implications For The Tend-And-Befriend Hypothesis, Jennifer Byrd-Craven, Jessica L. Calvi, Shelia M. Kennison 2016 Oklahoma State University

Rapid Cortisol And Testosterone Responses To Sex-Linked Stressors: Implications For The Tend-And-Befriend Hypothesis, Jennifer Byrd-Craven, Jessica L. Calvi, Shelia M. Kennison

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

Current evolutionary theories regarding the nature of hormonal responses to a variety of salient social stimuli are incomplete in yielding evidentiary support for their assertions. This study offers more nuanced evidence for the Tend-and- Befriend model of sex differences in responses to social stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to a mortality salience prime or a control condition prior to viewing a video of an out-group threat or a video of infants crying. Cortisol and testosterone responses were assessed. The results showed that in mortality salience conditions, females showed significantly higher cortisol responses to infants crying compared to males. Further, in ...


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