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Cephalopods Are Best Candidates For Invertebrate Consciousness, Jennifer A. Mather, Claudio Carere 2016 Psychology, University of Lethbridge

Cephalopods Are Best Candidates For Invertebrate Consciousness, Jennifer A. Mather, Claudio Carere

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Insects might have been the first invertebrates to evolve sentience, but cephalopods were the first invertebrates to gain scientific recognition for it.


Caterpillars, Consciousness And The Origins Of Mind, Arthur S. Reber 2016 University of British Columbia

Caterpillars, Consciousness And The Origins Of Mind, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

A novel framework for the origins of consciousness and mind, the Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC), is presented. The model is based on a simple, perhaps radical axiom: subjectivity is an inherent feature of particular kinds of organic form. Experiential states, including those denoted as "mind" and "consciousness," are present in the most primitive species. The model has several conceptual and empirical virtues, among them: (a) it (re)solves the problem of how minds are created by brains ─ also known as the "Hard Problem" (Chalmers 1995) ─ by revealing that the apparent difficulty results from a category error, (b) it redirects ...


Why Animals Are Persons, Tony Cheng 2016 University College London

Why Animals Are Persons, Tony Cheng

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Rowlands’s case for attributing personhood to lower animals is ultimately convincing, but along the way he fails to highlight several distinctions that are crucial for his argument: Personhood vs. personal identity; the first person vs. its mental episodes; and pre-reflective awareness in general vs. one specific case of it.


Are Animals Persons?, Mark Rowlands 2016 University of Miami

Are Animals Persons?, Mark Rowlands

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

It is orthodox to suppose that very few, if any, nonhuman animals are persons. The category “person” is restricted to self-aware creatures: humans (above a certain age) and possibly some of the great apes and cetaceans. I argue that this orthodoxy should be rejected, because it rests on a mistaken conception of the kind of self-awareness relevant to personhood. Replacing this with a sense of self-awareness that is relevant requires us to accept that personhood is much more widely distributed through the animal kingdom.


Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron 2016 Macquarie University, Australia

Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

To what degree are non-human animals conscious? We propose that the most meaningful way to approach this question is from the perspective of functional neurobiology. Here we focus on subjective experience, which is a basic awareness of the world without further reflection on that awareness. This is considered the most basic form of consciousness. Tellingly, this capacity is supported by the integrated midbrain and basal ganglia structures, which are among the oldest and most highly conserved brain systems in vertebrates. A reasonable inference is that the capacity for subjective experience is both widespread and evolutionarily old within the vertebrate lineage ...


Cross-Species Mind-Reading, Stevan Harnad 2016 Université du Québec à Montréal & University of Southampton

Cross-Species Mind-Reading, Stevan Harnad

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

We can never be sure anyone else is sentient. But we can be sure enough in the case of other people, nonhuman primates, mammals, birds, fish, lower vertebrates and invertebrates as to make scepticism academic and otiose (not to mention monumentally cruel). The only genuinely uncertain kinds of cases are jellyfish, microbes and plants. The rest is not about whether but what they are feeling.


My Orgasms Cannot Be Traded Off Against Others’ Agony, Stevan Harnad 2016 Université du Québec à Montréal & University of Southampton

My Orgasms Cannot Be Traded Off Against Others’ Agony, Stevan Harnad

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Only I can calculate my own welfare as net pleasure minus pain. No one else can do that calculation for me – nor for a population, and especially not averaging across some individuals’ pleasure and other individuals’ pain. Pain and pleasure are incommensurable and only pain matters morally. To maximize welfare is to minimize pain.


In Praise Of Fishes: Précis Of What A Fish Knows (Balcombe 2016), Jonathan Balcombe 2016 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

In Praise Of Fishes: Précis Of What A Fish Knows (Balcombe 2016), Jonathan Balcombe

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Our relationship to fishes in the modern era is deeply problematic. We kill and consume more of them than any other group of vertebrates. At the same time, advances in our knowledge of fishes and their capabilities are gaining speed. Fish species diversity exceeds that of all other vertebrates combined, with a wide range of sensory adaptations, some of them (e.g., geomagnetism, water pressure and movement detection, and communication via electricity) alien to our own sensory experience. The evidence for pain in fishes (despite persistent detractors) is strongly supported by anatomical, physiological and behavioral studies. It is likely that ...


Sentience As Moral Consideration And Disvalue In Nature, Daniel Dorado 2016 Animal Ethics

Sentience As Moral Consideration And Disvalue In Nature, Daniel Dorado

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In recent work Ng assumes that it is good to engage in activities aimed at promoting ecosystem conservation. The only way Ng can derive this from the axiology he assumes (the view that wellbeing is the only intrinsically valuable or disvaluable thing) would be to assume that ecosystem conservation would benefit the individuals involved. This can be so as long as value prevails over disvalue in the target environments. Ng seems to assume this is indeed the case, but he does not explain why, and it is a claim that goes against the conclusions he has argued for previously (Ng ...


Changing Attitudes Towards Animals In The Wild And Speciesism, Oscar Horta 2016 University of Santiago de Compostela

Changing Attitudes Towards Animals In The Wild And Speciesism, Oscar Horta

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

I argue that despite Ng’s claim that we should postpone the defense of those animals that live in the wild, we do have reasons to start spreading concern for them now. We can do it by (i) changing public attitude by heightening awareness of speciesism, by which we will also challenge animal exploitation; and (ii) by disseminating information about the situation of animals in the wild.


Combining Real-Time Fmri Neurofeedback Training Of The Dlpfc With N-Back Practice Results In Neuroplastic Effects Confined To The Neurofeedback Target Region, Matthew Sherwood, Michael Patrick Weisend Ph.D., Jessica Kane, Jason G. Parker 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Combining Real-Time Fmri Neurofeedback Training Of The Dlpfc With N-Back Practice Results In Neuroplastic Effects Confined To The Neurofeedback Target Region, Matthew Sherwood, Michael Patrick Weisend Ph.D., Jessica Kane, Jason G. Parker

Matthew Sherwood

In traditional fMRI, individuals respond to exogenous stimuli and are naïve to the effects of the stimuli on their neural activity patterns. Changes arising in the fMRI signal are analyzed post-hoc to elucidate the spatial and temporal activation of brain regions associated with the tasks performed. The advent of real-time fMRI has enabled a new method to systematically alter brain activity across space and time using neurofeedback training (NFT), providing a new tool to study internally-driven processes such as neuroplasticity. In this work, we combined n-back practice with fMRI-NFT of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to better understand ...


Pharmacogenetics Of Non-Motor Symptoms In Parkinson's Disease, Brian Robertson 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Pharmacogenetics Of Non-Motor Symptoms In Parkinson's Disease, Brian Robertson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Memory deficits are recognized in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The nature of these memory deficits is unclear because few studies have both isolated memory encoding and retrieval processes while testing patients on and off their dopamine replacement medication. Previous work suggests encoding depends upon regions innervated by the ventral tegmental area, which is relatively spared in PD, while retrieval depends upon dorsal striatum, which is dopamine deficient even early in PD. We investigated the impact of a dopamine transporter (DAT1), a dopamine reuptake protein, polymorphism (a 40-base-pair variable repeat affecting expression) on encoding and retrieval in healthy, elderly controls as ...


On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This project used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to explore neurophysiological brain responses to prepositional phrases involving concrete and abstract reference nouns (e.g., "plate" and "moment", respectively) after the presentation of objects with varying spatial features. Prepositional phrases were headed by in or on and were either matching (e.g., "in the plate/moment") or mismatching (e.g., "on the plate/moment"). Conjunction phrase matches and fillers were also presented. Before half of the concrete-phrase items, a photographic depiction of the reference noun was presented. In these photographs, objects were displayed in a way that was either more appropriate for in ...


Effect Of Proficiency Level On The Neural Responses Of Students Learning Spanish As A Second Language, Haley West 2016 Augustana College - Rock Island

Effect Of Proficiency Level On The Neural Responses Of Students Learning Spanish As A Second Language, Haley West

Celebration of Learning

This study examines the effect of Second Language proficiency on the hemispheres of the brain. This will tell us if and how the brain processes a second language differently. Comparisons explore English versus Spanish listening tasks, and right versus left hemisphere activation in students with varying proficiencies in the Spanish program at Augustana. This is one of the first experiments to use the new in-house electroencephalography (EEG) technology in the Augustana neuroscience program.


The Neural And Cognitive Basis Of Cumulative Lifetime Familiarity Assessment, Devin Duke 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Neural And Cognitive Basis Of Cumulative Lifetime Familiarity Assessment, Devin Duke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Perirhinal cortex (PrC) has been implicated as a brain region in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) that critically contributes to familiarity-based recognition memory, a process that allows for recognition to occur independently of contextual recollection. Informed by neurophysiological research in non-human primates, fMRI, as well as behavioural work in humans, the current thesis research tests the novel hypothesis that PrC cortex functioning also underlies the ability to assess cumulative lifetime familiarity with object concepts that are characterized by a lifetime of experiences. In Chapter 2, a patient (NB) with a left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) lesion that included PrC as ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd 2016 mrudd@u.washington.edu

Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

Lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments has the form of a parabolic (2nd-order polynomial) function when matches are plotted against annulus luminance on log-log axes. Rudd (2010) has proposed a computational cortical model to account for this fact and has subsequently (Rudd, 2013, 2014, 2015) extended the model to explain data from other lightness paradigms, including staircase-Gelb and luminance gradient illusions (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, 2015). Here, I re-analyze parametric lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments by Rudd and Zemach (2007) and Rudd (2010) for the purpose of further testing the model and to try to constrain the model parameters. Specifically, I test the model assumptions that: 1) lightness is computed by a process that spatially sums steps in log luminance across space, giving 1/3 the weight to incremental steps in log luminance that it gives to decremental steps in log luminance (defined in terms of luminance steps from the background to the target); 2) only luminance steps that are interpreted by the observer as steps in surface reflectance (as opposed to steps in illumination) contribute to the lightness computation. The quantitative analysis confirms these assumptions in the ...


Classifying Music Perception And Imagination Using Eeg, Avital Sternin 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Classifying Music Perception And Imagination Using Eeg, Avital Sternin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study explored whether we could accurately classify perceived and imagined musical stimuli from EEG data. Successful EEG-based classification of what an individual is imagining could pave the way for novel communication techniques, such as brain-computer interfaces. We recorded EEG with a 64-channel BioSemi system while participants heard or imagined different musical stimuli. Using principal components analysis, we identified components common to both the perception and imagination conditions however, the time courses of the components did not allow for stimuli classification. We then applied deep learning techniques using a convolutional neural network. This technique enabled us to classify perception of ...


Identifying Falsifiable Predictions Of The Divisive Normalization Model Of V1 Neurons, Tadamasa Sawada, Alexander A. Petrov 2016 School of Psychology, Higher School of Economics

Identifying Falsifiable Predictions Of The Divisive Normalization Model Of V1 Neurons, Tadamasa Sawada, Alexander A. Petrov

MODVIS Workshop

The divisive normalization model (DNM, Heeger, 1992) accounts successfully for a wide range of phenomena observed in single-cell physiological recordings from neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). The DNM has adjustable parameters to accommodate the diversity of V1 neurons, and is quite flexible. At the same time, in order to be falsifiable, the model must be rigid enough to rule out some possible data patterns. In this study, we discuss whether the DNM predicts any physiological result of the V1 neurons based on mathematical analysis and computational simulations. We identified some falsifiable predictions of the DNM. The main idea is ...


How Deep Is The Feature Analysis Underlying Rapid Visual Categorization?, Sven Eberhardt, Jonah Cader, Thomas Serre 2016 Brown University

How Deep Is The Feature Analysis Underlying Rapid Visual Categorization?, Sven Eberhardt, Jonah Cader, Thomas Serre

MODVIS Workshop

Rapid categorization paradigms have a long history in experimental psychology: Characterized by short presentation times and fast behavioral responses, these tasks highlight both the speed and ease with which our visual system processes natural object categories. Previous studies have shown that feed-forward hierarchical models of the visual cortex provide a good fit to human visual decisions. At the same time, recent work has demonstrated significant gains in object recognition accuracy with increasingly deep hierarchical architectures: From AlexNet to VGG to Microsoft CNTK – the field of computer vision has championed both depth and accuracy. But it is unclear how well these ...


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