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Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti 2018 Centro Medico Genneruxi

Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Evolutionary processes are characterized by both continuity and discontinuity. Evidence on suicide in nonhuman animals is faint and often rests on the metaphorical or anthropomorphic use of the term. Suicidal behavior might be an evolutionary jump relatively recent in our species: a byproduct of living in groups of people who are not as closely related genetically as in social groups of nonhuman mammals.


Creativity, Laterality And Critical State Balance In Learning, Jenny Rock, Asher Flatt 2017 University of Otago

Creativity, Laterality And Critical State Balance In Learning, Jenny Rock, Asher Flatt

The STEAM Journal

Understanding the intersecting cognitive pathways that are integral to ways of thinking, creating and functioning in both art and science is an important grounding for a STEAM educational approach. We combine three divergent concepts, including creativity, hemisphere laterality, and critical state theory, to argue for a more balanced approach to learning as part of a modern meaning-centered education in STEAM. Reviewing the concept of hemisphere laterality, or how the two hemispheres of our brain have different (though not disconnected) ways of processing sensory information, we note how these two means of interpreting the world have become unbalanced in traditional modes ...


The Impact Of Delay On Retrieval Success In The Parietal Memory Network, Nathan Anderson 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

The Impact Of Delay On Retrieval Success In The Parietal Memory Network, Nathan Anderson

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent work has identified a Parietal Memory Network (PMN), which exhibits regular patterns of activation during memory encoding and retrieval. Among these characteristic patterns, this network displays a strong “retrieval success” effect, showing greater activation for correctlyremembered studied items (hits) compared to correctly-rejected novel items (CRs). To date, most relevant studies have used short retention intervals. Here, we ask if the retrieval success effect seen in the PMN would remain consistent over a delay. Twenty participants underwent fMRI while encoding and recognizing scenes. Greater activity for hits than for correctly-rejected lures within PMN regions was observed after a short delay ...


Oculomotor Executive Dysfunction During The Early And Later Stages Of Sport-Related Concussion Recovery, Brandon Webb 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Oculomotor Executive Dysfunction During The Early And Later Stages Of Sport-Related Concussion Recovery, Brandon Webb

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Executive dysfunction represents a persistent concussion deficit; however, it is largely unclear whether the deficit persists in an athlete after they have been deemed safe to return to play. In the present work, athletes with a sport-related concussion, and their age- and sex-matched controls, completed prosaccades and executive-related antisaccades: (1) 2-6 days post-concussion (i.e., initial assessment), and (2) 14-20 days after initial assessment and only when an athlete was medically cleared for safe return to play (i.e., follow-up assessment). Initial assessment antisaccades for the concussed group produced longer reaction times (RT) and more directional errors than the control ...


Language Experience With A Native-Language Phoneme Sequence Modulates The Effects Of Attention On Cortical Sensory Processing, Valerie L. Shafer, Monica Wagner, Jungmee Lee, Francesca Mingino, Colleen O'Brien, Adam Constantine, Mitchell Steinschneider 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Language Experience With A Native-Language Phoneme Sequence Modulates The Effects Of Attention On Cortical Sensory Processing, Valerie L. Shafer, Monica Wagner, Jungmee Lee, Francesca Mingino, Colleen O'Brien, Adam Constantine, Mitchell Steinschneider

Publications and Research

Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) reflect spectro-temporal feature changes within the spoken word and are sufficiently reliable to probe deficits in auditory processing. The current research assessed whether attentional modulation would alter the morphology of these AEPs and whether native-language experience with phoneme sequences would influence the effects of attention. Native-English and native-Polish adults listened to nonsense word pairs that contained the phoneme sequence onsets /st/, /sət/, /pət/ that occur in both the Polish and English languages and the phoneme sequence onset /pt/ that occurs in the Polish language, but not the English language. Participants listened to word pairs within two ...


Neuronal Degeneration And Short-Term Memory Impairment After Tbi, Obiamaraije Igwe 2017 University of Louisville

Neuronal Degeneration And Short-Term Memory Impairment After Tbi, Obiamaraije Igwe

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with impaired short-term memory with causes of vehicle accidents and falls. Protein plaques containing fibrinogen (Fg), are associated with memory loss. After TBI, Fg in blood was higher than normal (>~2 mg/ml), which resulted in increased Fg in extravascular space. Therefore, Fg bonded to its endothelial receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Fg then interacted with cellular prion protein (PrPC), which had a strong effect on the loss of memory and cognition. Mechanisms of Fg and PrPC complex formation and its functional implication are not known. This present study tested the level of Fg-PrPC ...


Investigating Cognitive Control And Task Switching Using The Macaque Oculomotor System, Jason L. Chan 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating Cognitive Control And Task Switching Using The Macaque Oculomotor System, Jason L. Chan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cognitive control is crucial to voluntary behaviour. It is required to select appropriate goals and guide behaviour to achieve the desired outcomes. Cognitive control is particularly important for the ability to adapt behaviour to changes in the external environment and internal goals, and to quickly switch between different tasks. Successful task switching involves a network of brain areas to select, maintain, implement, and execute the appropriate task. Uncovering the neural mechanisms of this goal-directed behaviour using lesions, functional neuroimaging, and neurophysiology studies is central to cognitive neuroscience.

The oculomotor system provides a valuable framework for understanding the neural mechanisms of ...


Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist 2017 Cedarville University

Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

This paper will attempt to address God's grace towards those with mental illnesses. It also attempts to provide direction in response to historical church views towards this population. Through scripture, this paper seeks to emphasize the importance of seeing a person as more than what they physically appear capable of - seeing people through God's eyes.


Confabulation In Individuals With Disorders Of The Corpus Callosum: Educational Implications, Cheryl Lynn Wright 2017 Western Kentucky University

Confabulation In Individuals With Disorders Of The Corpus Callosum: Educational Implications, Cheryl Lynn Wright

Dissertations

Individuals with disorders of the corpus callosum (DCC) may have subtle cognitive differences. Historically, confabulation has been associated with DCC. Therapies to mitigate confabulation is a newly emerging field. This study explores the possible educational implications that those with DCC may experience with confabulation.

The community of people with DCC and the community of people who interact with individuals with DCC were surveyed to ascertain the prevalence of confabulation within the population of those with DCC. A subset of questions probed whether age and/or gender impact the rates of reported confabulation. The research paradigm included a section that covered ...


The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to function as CSs by acquiring the capacity to activate the same mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons activated by primary rewards, producing conditioned activation of these neurons and their associated motivational states. This model stipulates that CSs activate mesocorticolimbic DA systems through the activation of glutamate receptors on DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We tested the hypothesis that glutamate receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the expression of conditioned approach. Rats were tested in a conditioned approach protocol that consisted of 7 consecutive conditioning sessions (light presentations and food were paired), one ...


The Inconvenient Truth About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino 2017 Animal Studies Repository

The Inconvenient Truth About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Original Abstract: Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. Some birds are now known to be on a par with many mammals in their intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet views of chickens have largely remained unrevised in light of this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the data on cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals ...


Ecologies Of Embodied Minds Embedded: Radical Romantic Perspectives On Architectures Of Technology, Sharmaine Browne 2017 City University of New York (CUNY)

Ecologies Of Embodied Minds Embedded: Radical Romantic Perspectives On Architectures Of Technology, Sharmaine Browne

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation explores Romantic responses to the role of architectural technologies in the development of material being, consciousness, and culture by applying a critical approach in which I combine radical embodied cognitive theory, ecocritical perspectives, and a phenomenological lens to select Romantic texts written from 1789 to 1884 in response to industrial modernity. While scholarship has thoroughly explored technology as a cultural force which inevitably shapes consciousness, I propose that a slight shift of emphasis from technology’s external influence to the material internalization of its influence allows for new perspectives—particularly in light of recent proposals in cognitive philosophy ...


The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The role of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc core) continues to be redefined with newly acquired data on neurochemical mechanisms mediating the learning and performance of behavior. Previous empirical data showed that dopamine transmission at the D1 receptor (D1R) plays a transient role in the expression of learned Pavlovian approach behavior. Here we show that, prior to overtraining, dopamine activity at D1Rs specifically within the NAc core is critical for the performance of approach behavior elicited by the recently-acquired reward-paired cue. Blockade of D1Rs in the NAc core, but not the dorsomedial striatum or NAc shell, disrupted approach responses during ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Science Of Learning Network Of Schools: The Science Of Communities Of Practice, Andrew Jones, Frank Vetere 2017 University of Melbourne

Science Of Learning Network Of Schools: The Science Of Communities Of Practice, Andrew Jones, Frank Vetere

2009 - 2017 ACER Research Conferences

Frameworks referencing synthesised bodies of prominent research adorn education improvement policy like curiously named pieces of Ikea furniture—peculiar in their assemblage, ostensibly contemporary, and striking in their modular convenience. Amid this, most pundits still agree that we have an education advancement issue in this country. Despite significant increases in funding from successive federal and state governments, we simply haven’t been able to shift the needle. What we can ascertain is that compliance-based improvement approaches don’t work. They are unable to influence the cognitive maps, beliefs and understandings of the educator to the extent necessary to effectively improve ...


Movie-Driven Fmri Reveals Network Asynchrony And Connectivity Alterations In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Alenka Bullen 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Movie-Driven Fmri Reveals Network Asynchrony And Connectivity Alterations In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Alenka Bullen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy and is often resistant to medication. Recent studies have noted brain-wide disruptions to several neural networks in so-called “focal” epilepsy, notably TLE, leading to it being recognized as a network disease. We aimed to assess the integrity of functional networks while they were simultaneously activated in an ecologically valid manner, using an actively engaging, richly stimulating audio-visual film clip. This stimulus elicits widespread, dynamic patterns of time-locked brain activity, measurable using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirteen persons with drug-resistant TLE (persons with epilepsy; PWE) and 10 demographically ...


The Effects Of Dance Therapy On Patients With Parkinson’S Disease: An Integrative Literature Review, Jennifer Pence 2017 DePaul University

The Effects Of Dance Therapy On Patients With Parkinson’S Disease: An Integrative Literature Review, Jennifer Pence

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of the nervous system that affects more than one million Americans. Individuals who have PD generally exhibit bradykinesia, postural instability, shuffling steps and freezing during gait. These impairments in motor function cannot be fully addressed with pharmacological treatment and can eventually become unresponsive to this form of treatment. Dance therapy, on the other hand, is one non-pharmacological method that may prove beneficial for PD. It utilizes motor planning skills, which can lead to an improvement in muscle flexibility and balance. The purpose of the systematic integrative literature review was ...


Mechanisms Involved In The Assessment Of Cumulative Long-Term Familiarity Of Object Concepts: An Erp Study, Haopei Yang 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Involved In The Assessment Of Cumulative Long-Term Familiarity Of Object Concepts: An Erp Study, Haopei Yang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We investigated the sensitivity of ERP components implicated in recognition memory to degree of experimentally controlled and lifetime cumulative exposures during explicit memory judgements. A parietally distributed ERP component spanning both the FN400/N400 and the LPC time windows tracked both types of judgements. This effect appears to be an LPC effect with an early onset, and differs from previously reported effects of repetition linked to implicit memory. Based on recent evidence, we interpreted it as response-related evidence accumulation processes that are in line with both single-process models and continuous dual-process models. We also observed more positive ERPs in the ...


Decoding Mental States After Severe Brain Injury, Raechelle M. Gibson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Decoding Mental States After Severe Brain Injury, Raechelle M. Gibson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Some patients with disorders of consciousness retain sensory and cognitive abilities that are not apparent from their outward behaviour. It is crucial to identify and characterise these covert abilities for diagnosis, prognosis, and medical ethics. This thesis uses neuroimaging techniques to investigate cognitive preservation and awareness in patients who are behaviourally non-responsive due to acquired brain injuries. In the first chapter, a large sample of healthy volunteers, including experienced athletes and musicians, imagined actions of varying complexity and familiarity. Motor imagery involving certain complex, familiar actions correlated with a more robust sensorimotor rhythm. In the second chapter, several patients with ...


Comparing The Influence Of Music Enjoyment And Beat Perception Ability On Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters Among Healthy Young And Older Adults, Brittany S. Roberts 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Comparing The Influence Of Music Enjoyment And Beat Perception Ability On Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters Among Healthy Young And Older Adults, Brittany S. Roberts

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) involves synchronizing footsteps to music or a metronome thereby eliciting gait improvements in speed and stability among patients with Parkinson’s Disease. However, gait responses are inconsistent (Dalla Bella et al., 2017). Music enjoyment may influence gait responses, but exactly how it may do this has never been assessed. Moreover, individual differences in beat perception ability are likely to influence gait responses to music, particularly if instructed to synchronize to the beat. Here, we investigated whether music enjoyment influences gait, comparing responses based on beat perception ability (good vs poor) and instruction type (“walk freely” vs ...


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