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A Single-Bout Of Aerobic Exercise Improved Executive Control: Evidence From The Antisaccade Task, Ashna Samani 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Single-Bout Of Aerobic Exercise Improved Executive Control: Evidence From The Antisaccade Task, Ashna Samani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A single-bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise increases activity within frontoparietal networks, producing a temporary ‘boost’ to executive-related cognitive control – an effect that is thought to be selective to exercise durations greater than 20 minutes. It is possible that previous tasks evaluating executive control did not provide the requisite resolution to detect executive changes associated with shorter exercise durations. To that end, I had participants perform a 10-minute bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise, examining pre- and post-exercise executive control via the antisaccade task. Extensive literature has shown that antisaccades are mediated via frontoparietal networks, modulated following exercise training. Results showed ...


Effects Of Language Immersion Versus Classroom Exposure On Advanced French Learners: An Erp Study, Alexandra Claire Brito 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effects Of Language Immersion Versus Classroom Exposure On Advanced French Learners: An Erp Study, Alexandra Claire Brito

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

University students often report making significant advances in their second language (L2) ability after immersion in a nonnative language through study abroad. The degree to which late L2 learners can become nativelike in terms of L2 performance and brain processing is unclear in second language acquisition research. The link between L2 proficiency and learning context has been characterized in previous research, yet the role of learning experience in attaining nativelike brain processing of L2 remains to be elucidated. This study contrasts learners with advanced French proficiency who have attained this level with no, little, or more immersion experience through study ...


A Naturalistic Paradigm To Probe Conscious Information Processing During Sleep, Max M. Silverbrook 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Naturalistic Paradigm To Probe Conscious Information Processing During Sleep, Max M. Silverbrook

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sleep was long considered a passive mental state. The extent to which external information is integrated in, and consciously processed during sleep remains unknown. Here, simultaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from sleeping participants. First, the stimulus elicited significantly correlated fMRI activity in the auditory and fronto-parietal networks of awake participants. Behavioural testing found individuals to perceive the story’s suspense similarly. Then neural activity related to high-level processing of the story was investigated in 5 individuals who slept through it. Fronto-parietal activity in 1 individual in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep followed that ...


Between Speech & Song: Clarifying The Sprechstimme Of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire, Sara M. Paar 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Between Speech & Song: Clarifying The Sprechstimme Of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire, Sara M. Paar

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since its creation, the technique of Sprechstimme has fascinated the audiences, performers, and composers of twentieth century music. What is it? How is it done? How should it be notated? At the fore of investigations into these questions has been Arnold Schoenberg’s Pierrot lunaire, the work in which Schoenberg debuted this new technique. Much has been written in regard to Schoenberg’s creation and use of Sprechstimme, as well as his own exploration of the speech/song continuum. Composers, conductors, and performers have all tried to make sense of the notation, instructions, and performances Schoenberg left behind. Despite this ...


Central And Peripheral Difference In Perceptual Bias In Ambiguous Perception Using Dichoptic Stimuli --- Implications For The Analysis-By-Synthesis Process In Visual Recognition, Li Zhaoping Prof 2017 University College London

Central And Peripheral Difference In Perceptual Bias In Ambiguous Perception Using Dichoptic Stimuli --- Implications For The Analysis-By-Synthesis Process In Visual Recognition, Li Zhaoping Prof

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Mapping The Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of Vision In The Human Brain, Aude Oliva 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Mapping The Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of Vision In The Human Brain, Aude Oliva

MODVIS Workshop

Recognition of objects and scenes is a fundamental function of the human brain, necessitating a complex neural machinery that transforms low level visual information into semantic content. Despite significant advances in characterizing the locus and function of key visual areas, integrating the temporal and spatial dynamics of this processing stream has posed a decades-long challenge to human neuroscience. In this talk I will describe a brain mapping approach to combine magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional MRI (fMRI) measurements, and convolutional neural networks (CNN) by representational similarity analysis to yield a spatially and temporally integrated characterization of neuronal representations when observers perceive visual ...


Similarity-Based Fusion Of Meg And Fmri Discerns Early Feedforward And Feedback Processing In The Ventral Stream, Yalda Mohsenzadeh Dr., Radoslaw Martin Cichy Dr., Aude Oliva Dr., Dimitrios Pantazis Dr. 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Similarity-Based Fusion Of Meg And Fmri Discerns Early Feedforward And Feedback Processing In The Ventral Stream, Yalda Mohsenzadeh Dr., Radoslaw Martin Cichy Dr., Aude Oliva Dr., Dimitrios Pantazis Dr.

MODVIS Workshop

Successful models of vision, such as DNNs and HMAX, are inspired by the human visual system, relying on a hierarchical cascade of feedforward transformations akin to the ventral stream. Despite these advances, the human visual cortex remains unique in complexity, with feedforward and feedback pathways characterized by rapid spatiotemporal dynamics as visual information is transformed into semantic content. Thus, a systematic characterization of the spatiotemporal and representational space of the ventral visual pathway can offer novel insights in the duration and sequencing of cognitive processes, suggesting computational constraints and new architectures for computer vision models.

To discern the feedforward and ...


Modeling The Mechanisms Of Reward Learning That Bias Visual Attention, Jason Hays, Fabian Soto PhD 2017 Florida International University

Modeling The Mechanisms Of Reward Learning That Bias Visual Attention, Jason Hays, Fabian Soto Phd

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Anandamide Administration On Components Of Reward Processing, Howard C. Cromwell 2017 Bowling Green State University

Effects Of Anandamide Administration On Components Of Reward Processing, Howard C. Cromwell

Howard Casey Cromwell

Previous research has implicated the positive modulation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid neurotransmitter,on feeding behavior. Anandamide is particularly noteworthy as it acts as an endogenous ligand of the CB1receptor, the same receptor that is activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive component in Cannabis sativa. Cannabis legalization in North America has presented with a need to study endocannabinoid agonists and their effects on behavior. Much has yet to be determined in terms of the role of the endocannabinoid system in decision-making scenarios. The research presented here tested the hypothesis that anandamide wouldaugment motivation and reward processing via appetitive and ...


An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings 2017 University of Maine

An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can negatively ...


How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze 2017 University of Wyoming

How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze

Honors Theses AY 16/17

The intent of this project is to gain new insight into the neural circuitry that underlies decision making through understanding the connection between sensory perception and motor action. This investigation further seeks to identify whether optogenetic manipulation of specific neurons results in a change in mate choice. In defining this connection, the end goal is to combat deleterious decision making behavior in humans, such as drug addiction. Female Bengalese finches (BFs) provide an accessible model in which to investigate the neural mechanisms of behavior. Previous studies reveal that activity in the caudal portion of the mesopallium (CM) in the female ...


Frontal, Amygdalar, And Temporal Convergence In The Primate Ventral Striatum: Implications For Huntington’S Disease, Ellen H. Yates 2017 College of William and Mary

Frontal, Amygdalar, And Temporal Convergence In The Primate Ventral Striatum: Implications For Huntington’S Disease, Ellen H. Yates

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is part of a class of diseases affecting the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical structures in the brain. Impaired negative emotion recognition is a common and early symptom of HD, and entails the patient being unable to properly identify negative emotions on human faces. Through analysis of cell label patterns in a macaque cortex with a retrograde tracer, a region in the ventromedial striatum has been identified with the potential to function as a critical hub in the emotion processing networks. This region of the striatum receives projections from ...


The Relationship Between Habitual Dietary Protein Intake And Dual Task Performance In Sedentary, Recreationally Active, And Masters Athlete Older Adults, Whitney L. Freeman 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Relationship Between Habitual Dietary Protein Intake And Dual Task Performance In Sedentary, Recreationally Active, And Masters Athlete Older Adults, Whitney L. Freeman

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the body ages, physical and cognitive declines can result in balance and mobility deficits, but research has shown that proper nutrition and exercise can help maintain physical and mental capacity. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between habitual dietary protein intake and dual task performance in sedentary (SED), recreationally active (RA), and masters athletes (MA). To measure physical activity levels, the Rapid Physical Activity Questionnaire (RAPA) was completed by all participants. The participants were placed into a high or low protein group using the ASA-24 hour dietary recall. If the participant consumed less than 0 ...


Function And Dysfunction In Distinct Facets Of Empathy, Lindsay D. Oliver 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Function And Dysfunction In Distinct Facets Of Empathy, Lindsay D. Oliver

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Empathy is crucial for successful social interactions and it is impaired in many devastating disorders. Empathy deficits are highly burdensome for affected individuals, caregivers, and significant others, and costly for society as a whole. However, empathy is thought to be a multifaceted construct, including cognitive empathy, affective sharing, and empathic concern components. These constituents may be linked to different behavioural outcomes and neurocognitive substrates, and presentation varies depending on the facets affected. Thus, there is a critical need to determine the behavioural and neurocognitive substrates of different components of empathic responding, and how these are affected in particular disorders.

The ...


Neural Circuits For Source Memory And Imagination, Amber C. Grant, Darryl Burnet 2017 Georgia State University

Neural Circuits For Source Memory And Imagination, Amber C. Grant, Darryl Burnet

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Dynamics Of Motor System Excitability During Auditory Anticipation, Justine Czajka 2017 Western University

Dynamics Of Motor System Excitability During Auditory Anticipation, Justine Czajka

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ability to anticipate complex sounds, like words in speech or the beat in music, is an important aspect of human perception. However, the changes of excitability in the motor system during auditory anticipation have not been characterized. Here, we applied single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to the primary motor cortex to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the first dorsal interosseous muscle, the amplitude of which indexes motor system excitability. Healthy right-handed participants (N = 20) underwent TMS stimulation during listening to regular (periodic) tone sequences at three rates (200ms, 550ms, and 900ms) and irregular tone sequences. We assessed MEP ...


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation To Assess Motor System Excitability Fluctuations During Auditory Anticipation And Beat Perception, Johannes G.P Teselink 2017 Western University

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation To Assess Motor System Excitability Fluctuations During Auditory Anticipation And Beat Perception, Johannes G.P Teselink

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Humans tend to spontaneously move to the regular beat of musical rhythm. Beat perception is the tendency to sense and anticipate the regular time positions (beats) that movements synchronize with. The neural motor system plays an important role in beat perception, but the dynamics of excitability in the motor system associated with beat perception have not been characterized. This project investigated motor system excitability fluctuations using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography during perception of beat-based and non-beat-based rhythms. We applied single-pulse TMS over the left primary motor cortex of healthy participants as they listened to three types of rhythms that ...


The Neurometric Correlates Of Trauma Using The Brief Neurometric Battery (Bnb), Lauren N. Dybel 2017 College of William and Mary

The Neurometric Correlates Of Trauma Using The Brief Neurometric Battery (Bnb), Lauren N. Dybel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Objective: The goal of this research was to determine the utility of a novel Brief Neurometric Battery (BNB) (Kieffaber et al., 2016) for measuring the neurometric correlates of a) experiences with sexual trauma and b) personality characteristics, and to assess the correlation of sexual trauma with event-related potentials derived through EEG.
Methods: The BNB testing battery uses a nested array of visual and auditory stimuli to elicit several event-related potentials (ERPs) and oscillatory activity in about 20 minutes. This subclinical study at the College of William & Mary used the BNB with college-aged women with past experiences of sexual violence. Participants ...


Dynamics Of Motor System Excitability During Auditory Anticipation, Justine Czajka 2017 Western University

Dynamics Of Motor System Excitability During Auditory Anticipation, Justine Czajka

Undergraduate Honors Posters

The ability to anticipate complex sounds, like words in speech or the beat in music, is an important aspect of human perception. However, the changes of excitability in the motor system during auditory anticipation have not been characterized. Here, we applied single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to the primary motor cortex to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the first dorsal interosseous muscle, the amplitude of which indexes motor system excitability. Healthy right-handed participants (N = 20) underwent TMS stimulation during listening to regular (periodic) tone sequences at three rates (200ms, 550ms, and 900ms) and irregular tone sequences. We assessed MEP ...


Discovery Of Thienoquinolone Derivatives As Selective And Atp Non-Competitive Cdk5/P25 Inhibitors By Structure-Based Virtual Screening, Arindam Chatterjee, Stephen J. Cutler, Robert J. Doerksen, Ikhlas A. Khan, John S. Williamson 2017 University of Mississippi

Discovery Of Thienoquinolone Derivatives As Selective And Atp Non-Competitive Cdk5/P25 Inhibitors By Structure-Based Virtual Screening, Arindam Chatterjee, Stephen J. Cutler, Robert J. Doerksen, Ikhlas A. Khan, John S. Williamson

John S. Williamson

Calpain mediated cleavage of CDK5 natural precursor p35 causes a stable complex formation of CDK5/p25, which leads to hyperphosphorylation of tau. Thus inhibition of this complex is a viable target for numerous acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases involving tau protein, including Alzheimer’s disease. Since CDK5 has the highest sequence homology with its mitotic counterpart CDK2, our primary goal was to design selective CDK5/p25 inhibitors targeting neurodegeneration. A novel structure-based virtual screening protocol comprised of e-pharmacophore models and virtual screening workflow was used to identify nine compounds from a commercial database containing 2.84 million compounds. An ATP ...


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