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Cognitive Neuroscience Commons

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The Effects Of Floral Attributes And Conspecifics On Bumble Bee Forager Memory, Lucas Lauter, Tiffany Dinh 2022 University of Missouri, St. Louis

The Effects Of Floral Attributes And Conspecifics On Bumble Bee Forager Memory, Lucas Lauter, Tiffany Dinh

Undergraduate Research Symposium

What do bees remember about flowers? These memories are important for both bees and flowers. The bees have better foraging success and gain more nectar and pollen from flowers when they remember the most rewarding flower types. More memorable flowers will be visited more frequently, resulting in more successful pollination for the plant. At the same time, bees can also learn about flowers from other bees and may remember this information differently. We are training and testing three floral cues and a single social cue to see how the different types of cues affect their learning and memory of rewarding ...


Testing An Overtraining Protocol For Fear Learning In Humans, Gordon M. Haskell 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Testing An Overtraining Protocol For Fear Learning In Humans, Gordon M. Haskell

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Successful regulation of fear memories is a fundamental tenet to the exposure-based therapies often employed by mental health professionals for individuals with PTSD, phobias, and other anxiety disorders. Consequently, the efficacy of these treatment methodologies is largely dependent on the strength of the fear memory, as stronger memories are often characterized by an increased resistance to extinction and heightened fear recovery. However, there is little consensus within the scientific community regarding how to effectively maximize fear memory strength in human studies, and the literature exploring the impact of variability in acquisition parameters on memory strength is sparse. Here, we tested ...


Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioral changes which follow a 24-hour cycle. Drosophila Melanogaster’s circadian clock neuronal network (CCNN) has been identified and several subpopulations have been characterized based on previous studies; the classifications of subpopulations of neurons within the CCNN are based on a return of anticipatory locomotor activity preceding the two daily light transitions (Lights on = dawn/Lights off = dusk). The neurons responsible for the return of anticipatory morning locomotor activity have been referred to as the M-cells, the group of neurons known to rescue evening anticipatory locomotor activity have been termed the E-cells. In this study ...


The Effects Of Near-Threshold Color Manipulation On Perceptual Decision-Making And Confidence Report, Trevor Caruso 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effects Of Near-Threshold Color Manipulation On Perceptual Decision-Making And Confidence Report, Trevor Caruso

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Confidence measures are sometimes used to index awareness below a participant’s criterion for what counts as being subjectively aware of a stimulus or stimulus property. If confidence ratings index awareness below subjective thresholds, then one might be tempted to use confidence ratings in place of subjective reports of whether a stimulus/stimulus property was “seen” or “unseen”. As such, a dissociation of confidence from performance may be construed as a dissociation of subjective awareness from objective task performance. This methodology has been used as supporting evidence for blindsight in typical observers (Balsdon and Azzopardi 2015; Peters and Lau 2015 ...


The Impact Of Focused Attention And Opening Monitoring Meditation Styles On Attention, Jennifer Wheary 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Impact Of Focused Attention And Opening Monitoring Meditation Styles On Attention, Jennifer Wheary

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mindfulness meditation – often broken down into two distinct types, focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) – has been associated with a range of affective and attentional benefits. Using an attentional blink (AB) paradigm that demonstrated improved attention for novice FA meditators, we explored whether novices who engaged in a single, brief bout of meditation exhibited any differences in alpha or theta power during meditation, and whether these differences were apparent by meditation type. In the AB paradigm, participants are asked to identify two targets, T1 and T2, which are separated by 200-500 ms. Our results showed no significant differences between ...


Investigating Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials As A Novel Biosignature For Anxiety-Related Attention Bias, Elizabeth R. Davis 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Investigating Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials As A Novel Biosignature For Anxiety-Related Attention Bias, Elizabeth R. Davis

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety-related attention bias (AB), a type of cognitive bias underlying the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders, is typically defined as exaggerated attention towards threat; however, some individuals also demonstrate AB away from threat and in some instances, no detectable AB at all. Debate about the reliability and validity of AB behavioral measures has prompted examination of additional assessment methods. Neurophysiological methods, such electroencephalography (EEG), have yielded encouraging early findings. The steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP), a measure of selective visual attention derived from EEG, holds promise as a biosignature for AB. Research documents heightened SSVEP power to emotionally salient ...


Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

MA is a potent, highly addictive psychomotor stimulant known to produce neurotoxic effects on the brain leading to neurological impairments1-6 characterized by neurodegeneration of dopaminergic fibers, cell bodies and pathways, as well as brain regions such as the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and midbrain1,5.

In MA addiction, women are more vulnerable to the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA compared to men. Adult human literature reveals gender differences in usage patterns and women demonstrate increased vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects and health effects of MA use. Women begin drug use at an earlier age, escalate drug use quicker ...


Utility Of The Motivation To Change Lifestyle And Health Behaviors For Dementia Risk Reduction Scale (Mclhb-Drr) Based On A North American Sample, Angelina E. Witbeck 2022 National Louis University

Utility Of The Motivation To Change Lifestyle And Health Behaviors For Dementia Risk Reduction Scale (Mclhb-Drr) Based On A North American Sample, Angelina E. Witbeck

Dissertations

As the population ages, the prevalence rates of dementia continue to increase. Without a cure or promising treatment for dementia, the best course of lowering the prevalence rates of dementia is through preventative measures. Through an electronic survey, the study utilized the MCLHB-DRR scale to determine whether (1) gender, age, educational background, and socioeconomic status will impact the motivational factors to change lifestyle and health behaviors to reduce the risk of developing dementia and (2) direct experiences with individuals that have a dementia diagnosis are likely to impact one's motivational factors to change lifestyle and health behaviors to reduce ...


Closed-Loop Brain-Computer Interfaces For Memory Restoration Using Deep Brain Stimulation, David Xiaoliang Wang 2022 Southern Methodist University

Closed-Loop Brain-Computer Interfaces For Memory Restoration Using Deep Brain Stimulation, David Xiaoliang Wang

Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations

The past two decades have witnessed the rapid growth of therapeutic brain-computer interfaces (BCI) targeting a diversity of brain dysfunctions. Among many neurosurgical procedures, deep brain stimulation (DBS) with neuromodulation technique has emerged as a fruitful treatment for neurodegenerative disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, post-traumatic amnesia, and Alzheimer's disease, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. In parallel to the open-loop neuromodulation strategies for neuromotor disorders, recent investigations have demonstrated the superior performance of closed-loop neuromodulation systems for memory-relevant disorders due to the more sophisticated underlying brain circuitry during cognitive processes. Our ...


Validity Of Neural Distance Measures In Representational Similarity Analysis, Fabian A. Soto, Emily R. Martin, Hyeonjeong Lee, Nafiz Ahmed, Juan Estepa, Kianoosh Hosseini, Olivia A. Stibolt, Valentina Roldan, Alycia Winters, Mohammadreza Bayat 2022 Florida International University

Validity Of Neural Distance Measures In Representational Similarity Analysis, Fabian A. Soto, Emily R. Martin, Hyeonjeong Lee, Nafiz Ahmed, Juan Estepa, Kianoosh Hosseini, Olivia A. Stibolt, Valentina Roldan, Alycia Winters, Mohammadreza Bayat

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Visual Expertise In An Anatomically-Inspired Model Of The Visual System, Garrison W. Cottrell, Martha Gahl, Shubham Kulkarni 2022 University of California, San Diego

Visual Expertise In An Anatomically-Inspired Model Of The Visual System, Garrison W. Cottrell, Martha Gahl, Shubham Kulkarni

MODVIS Workshop

We report on preliminary results of an anatomically-inspired deep learning model of the visual system and its role in explaining the face inversion effect. Contrary to the generally accepted wisdom, our hypothesis is that the face inversion effect can be accounted for by the representation in V1 combined with the reliance on the configuration of features due to face expertise. We take two features of the primate visual system into account: 1) The foveated retina; and 2) The log-polar mapping from retina to V1. We simulate acquisition of faces, etc., by gradually increasing the number of identities the network learns ...


A Bayesian Account Of Depth From Shadow, James Elder, Patrick Cavanagh, Roberto Casati 2022 York University

A Bayesian Account Of Depth From Shadow, James Elder, Patrick Cavanagh, Roberto Casati

MODVIS Workshop

When an object casts a shadow on a background surface, the offset of the shadow can be a compelling cue to the relative depth between the object and the background (e.g., Kersten et al 1996, Fig. 1). Cavanagh et al (2021) found that, at least for small shadow offsets, perceived depth scales almost linearly with shadow offset. Here we ask whether this finding can be understood quantitatively in terms of Bayesian decision theory.

Estimating relative depth from shadow offset is complicated by the fact that the shadow offset is co-determined by the slant of the light source relative to ...


Identifying And Localizing Multiple Objects Using Artificial Ventral And Dorsal Visual Cortical Pathways, Zhixian Han, Anne Sereno 2022 Purdue University

Identifying And Localizing Multiple Objects Using Artificial Ventral And Dorsal Visual Cortical Pathways, Zhixian Han, Anne Sereno

MODVIS Workshop

We concluded in our previous study that model cortical visual pathways actively retained information differently according to the different goals of the training tasks. One limitation of our study was that there was only one object in each input image whereas in reality there may be multiple objects in a scene. In our current study, we try to find a brain-like algorithm that can recognize and localize multiple objects.


Investigating The Neuroprotective Effects Of Cannabinoids And Insulin-Like Growth Factors On Glia With Induced Inflammation, Caleb Bloodworth 2022 University of Mississippi

Investigating The Neuroprotective Effects Of Cannabinoids And Insulin-Like Growth Factors On Glia With Induced Inflammation, Caleb Bloodworth

Honors Theses

Chronic inflammation is a driver of numerous neurodegenerative diseases that reduce quality of life for affected individuals. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids have begun to gain more interest in the world of anti-inflammatory medicine for chronically ill patients. Along with these cannabinoids, insulin-like growth factor-1 has been examined for its association with downregulation of inflammation. Our research aimed to investigate how neuroglia are affected by treatment with cannabinoids or IGF-1 in the face of inflammation from HIV-1 protein, Tat, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Preliminary studies in our laboratory showed that neither cannabinoids or IGF-1 treatment altered astrocyte morphology or overall astrocyte viability under baseline ...


The Effects Of Astrocytic Derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) On Cognition And Astrocytes, Destiny Wilson 2022 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Astrocytic Derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) On Cognition And Astrocytes, Destiny Wilson

Honors Theses

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a neuroendocrine signaling hormone that plays a vital role in growth and development, as well as learning and memory. Inhibition of this hormone results in cognitive impairments like those seen with age-related decline. While a majority of research has focused on the role of IGF-1 on neurons, the role of astrocytes still needs to be explored. Our research investigates how astrocytes and cognition are affected as a result of direct regulation of localized IGF-1 production in early development and after puberty. Preliminary studies in our laboratory established a connection between IGF-1 and glial fibrillary ...


The Effects Of Acute Exercise Intensity On Retrieval-Induced Forgetting, Geoffrey Reliquias 2022 University of Mississippi

The Effects Of Acute Exercise Intensity On Retrieval-Induced Forgetting, Geoffrey Reliquias

Honors Theses

Previous research has indicated that aspects of cognitive inhibition may be enhanced after engaging in acute exercise. Notably, cognitive inhibition has been theorized as a potential mechanism for a form of active forgetting known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Given that cognitive inhibition may explain the RIF phenomenon, and is also influenced by exercise, it is plausible that acute exercise may directly influence RIF. To our knowledge, only one study has examined whether acute exercise has an effect on RIF. The findings of that study did not find a statistically significant effect for RIF; however, we believe that the rather small ...


The Cognitive & Educational Implications Of Color Use In Drawing To Learn, Juliana F.M. Cantarutti 2022 William & Mary

The Cognitive & Educational Implications Of Color Use In Drawing To Learn, Juliana F.M. Cantarutti

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drawing to Learn (D2L) is a learning aid that encourages STEM students to interact with abstract concepts in STEM by sketching. D2L is not an intuitive skill, and researchers strive to provide students with guidelines on how to master this method. One potential way to enhance the D2L method for students is by incorporation of visual cues, specifically color. While many students choose to incorporate color into their models without explicit instruction to do so, we have found no research on: a) why students use color in sketching, b) its effects on D2L. This study used interviews, surveys, and course ...


Recognition Memory For Auditory And Visual Objects, Sharica Lee, Alexa Salomon, Kevin Mohawk, Laura Werner 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Recognition Memory For Auditory And Visual Objects, Sharica Lee, Alexa Salomon, Kevin Mohawk, Laura Werner

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Visual object memory is superior to auditory object memory. Our past research showed that auditory memory was less sensitive to divide attention during study, which may be attributable to representational differences between auditory memory and visual memory.

In the present study, we attempted to equate auditory and visual memory representations in order to adequately investigate the impact of dividing attention on recognition memory.

Recognition memory is thought to rely on two distinct processes, recollection and familiarity. Recollection involves the retrieval of precise qualitative detail and is the most sensitive to dividing attention.


Infants' Intermodal Knowledge Of Gender Using Faces And Voices, Bijoux Cheun, Christina Saliba, Alexis Rice, Marian Espina 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Infants' Intermodal Knowledge Of Gender Using Faces And Voices, Bijoux Cheun, Christina Saliba, Alexis Rice, Marian Espina

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Infants begin to use intermodal knowledge to match male and female faces to the corresponding voice, in their first year of life.

Infants have more experience with female faces which should lead to greater intermodal knowledge of female faces.

Previous studies have found inconsistent results. This could be due to the type of stimuli used.

This study uses several pairs of static and dynamic faces to investigate how methodological differences may impact infants' performance.


Forgetting In Item Recognition And Pattern Separation, Mateo Marquez, Rhiannon Soriano Smith 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Forgetting In Item Recognition And Pattern Separation, Mateo Marquez, Rhiannon Soriano Smith

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Forgetting is commonly defined as the inability to access information that was once successfully encoded and could be retrieved with a cue, but now leads to memory failure (Frankland et al. 2013).

Memory representations based in the hippocampus engage in pattern separation and are more prone to decay than interference (Sadeh & Pertrzov, 2020).

Extra-hippocampal representations are more prone to interference than decay (Hardt et al. 2013).

Pattern Separation refers to keeping memory representations distinct from one another.

Is there more decay in pattern separation and more interference in item recognition?


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