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On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This project used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to explore neurophysiological brain responses to prepositional phrases involving concrete and abstract reference nouns (e.g., "plate" and "moment", respectively) after the presentation of objects with varying spatial features. Prepositional phrases were headed by in or on and were either matching (e.g., "in the plate/moment") or mismatching (e.g., "on the plate/moment"). Conjunction phrase matches and fillers were also presented. Before half of the concrete-phrase items, a photographic depiction of the reference noun was presented. In these photographs, objects were displayed in a way that was either more appropriate for in ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd 2016 mrudd@u.washington.edu

Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

Lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments has the form of a parabolic (2nd-order polynomial) function when matches are plotted against annulus luminance on log-log axes. Rudd (2010) has proposed a computational cortical model to account for this fact and has subsequently (Rudd, 2013, 2014, 2015) extended the model to explain data from other lightness paradigms, including staircase-Gelb and luminance gradient illusions (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, 2015). Here, I re-analyze parametric lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments by Rudd and Zemach (2007) and Rudd (2010) for the purpose of further testing the model and to try to constrain the model parameters. Specifically, I test the model assumptions that: 1) lightness is computed by a process that spatially sums steps in log luminance across space, giving 1/3 the weight to incremental steps in log luminance that it gives to decremental steps in log luminance (defined in terms of luminance steps from the background to the target); 2) only luminance steps that are interpreted by the observer as steps in surface reflectance (as opposed to steps in illumination) contribute to the lightness computation. The quantitative analysis confirms these assumptions in the ...


Identifying Falsifiable Predictions Of The Divisive Normalization Model Of V1 Neurons, Tadamasa Sawada, Alexander A. Petrov 2016 School of Psychology, Higher School of Economics

Identifying Falsifiable Predictions Of The Divisive Normalization Model Of V1 Neurons, Tadamasa Sawada, Alexander A. Petrov

MODVIS Workshop

The divisive normalization model (DNM, Heeger, 1992) accounts successfully for a wide range of phenomena observed in single-cell physiological recordings from neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). The DNM has adjustable parameters to accommodate the diversity of V1 neurons, and is quite flexible. At the same time, in order to be falsifiable, the model must be rigid enough to rule out some possible data patterns. In this study, we discuss whether the DNM predicts any physiological result of the V1 neurons based on mathematical analysis and computational simulations. We identified some falsifiable predictions of the DNM. The main idea is ...


How Deep Is The Feature Analysis Underlying Rapid Visual Categorization?, Sven Eberhardt, Jonah Cader, Thomas Serre 2016 Brown University

How Deep Is The Feature Analysis Underlying Rapid Visual Categorization?, Sven Eberhardt, Jonah Cader, Thomas Serre

MODVIS Workshop

Rapid categorization paradigms have a long history in experimental psychology: Characterized by short presentation times and fast behavioral responses, these tasks highlight both the speed and ease with which our visual system processes natural object categories. Previous studies have shown that feed-forward hierarchical models of the visual cortex provide a good fit to human visual decisions. At the same time, recent work has demonstrated significant gains in object recognition accuracy with increasingly deep hierarchical architectures: From AlexNet to VGG to Microsoft CNTK – the field of computer vision has championed both depth and accuracy. But it is unclear how well these ...


Fish Pain: An Inconvenient Truth, Culum Brown 2016 Macquarie University

Fish Pain: An Inconvenient Truth, Culum Brown

Culum Brown

Whether fish feel pain is a hot political topic. The consequences of our denial are huge given the billions of fish that are slaughtered annually for human consumption. The economic costs of changing our commercial fishery harvest practices are also likely to be great. Key outlines a structure-function analogy of pain in humans, tries to force that template on the rest of the vertebrate kingdom, and fails. His target article has so far elicited 34 commentaries from scientific experts from a broad range of disciplines; only three of these support his position. The broad consensus from the scientific community is ...


Building Object Representations: Mechanisms Of Perceptual Learning In Human Visual Cortex, Stephanie M. Long 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Building Object Representations: Mechanisms Of Perceptual Learning In Human Visual Cortex, Stephanie M. Long

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Extensive literature in the cognitive neurosciences has been dedicated to understanding the neural processes involved in object category learning. However, much remains to be learned regarding the mechanisms by which high-level visual patterns are extracted from a crowded visual scene, segregated into discrete object categories, and represented in the cortical visual hierarchy. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural underpinnings of visual object category extraction in a cluttered visual environment. Electroencephalography (EEG) was continuously recorded while subjects were given a hybrid of an object category learning and visual search task. In this hybrid task, a peripheral array ...


Cognitive Functioning Of Drumming And Rhythm Therapy For Neurological Disorders, Logan James Deyo 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Cognitive Functioning Of Drumming And Rhythm Therapy For Neurological Disorders, Logan James Deyo

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Memory Consolidation In Binary Inputs, Shateil C. French Mr., Ricardo J T Toscano 2016 Georgia State University

Memory Consolidation In Binary Inputs, Shateil C. French Mr., Ricardo J T Toscano

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Neurocognitive Changes To Structured Sequence Processing Following Computerized Training, Gerardo E. Valdez, Juan Galvis 2016 Georgia State University Department of Psychology

Investigating The Neurocognitive Changes To Structured Sequence Processing Following Computerized Training, Gerardo E. Valdez, Juan Galvis

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Resting State Network Connectivity In Prodromal And Diagnosed Huntington’S Disease, Elizabeth Fall 2016 Georgia State University

Analysis Of Resting State Network Connectivity In Prodromal And Diagnosed Huntington’S Disease, Elizabeth Fall

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Cannabinoid Cb1 Transmission In The Mesolimbic Reward Pathway, Tasha Ahmad 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Cannabinoid Cb1 Transmission In The Mesolimbic Reward Pathway, Tasha Ahmad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) transmission within the mesocorticolimbic system plays an important role in forming associative memories, and processing both positive and negative experiences. Opiates generally produce potent rewarding effects and previous evidence suggests that CB1 transmission may modulate the neural reward circuitry involved in opiate reward processing. The ventral tegmental area (VTA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and Nucleus Accumbens (NA) are all implicated in opiate-reward processing, contain high levels of CB1 receptors, and are all modulated by dopamine (DA). Although, CB1 transmission within these areas has been heavily implicated in associative memory and learning, the potential ...


“My Logic Is Undeniable”: Replicating The Brain For Ideal Artificial Intelligence, Samuel C. Adams 2016 Liberty University

“My Logic Is Undeniable”: Replicating The Brain For Ideal Artificial Intelligence, Samuel C. Adams

Senior Honors Theses

Alan Turing asked if machines can think, but intelligence is more than logic and reason. I ask if a machine can feel pain or joy, have visions and dreams, or paint a masterpiece. The human brain sets the bar high, and despite our progress, artificial intelligence has a long way to go. Studying neurology from a software engineer’s perspective reveals numerous uncanny similarities between the functionality of the brain and that of a computer. If the brain is a biological computer, then it is the embodiment of artificial intelligence beyond anything we have yet achieved, and its architecture is ...


Feeling And Speaking: The Role Of Sensory Feedback In Speech, Francesca R. Marino 2016 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

Feeling And Speaking: The Role Of Sensory Feedback In Speech, Francesca R. Marino

Senior Theses and Projects

Sensory feedback allows talkers to accurately control speech production, and auditory information is the predominant form of speech feedback. When this sensory stream is degraded, talkers have been shown to rely more heavily on somatosensory information. Furthermore, perceptual speech abilities are greatest when both auditory and visual feedback are available. In this study, we experimentally degraded auditory feedback using a cochlear implant simulation and somatosensory feedback using Orajel. Additionally, we placed a mirror in front of the talkers to introduce visual feedback. Participants were prompted to speak under a baseline, feedback degraded, and visual condition; audiovisual speech recordings were taken ...


Clinical And Physiological Measures Of The Efficacy Of Prospective Memory Treatment, Tessa Bloomquist 2016 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

Clinical And Physiological Measures Of The Efficacy Of Prospective Memory Treatment, Tessa Bloomquist

Senior Theses and Projects

Prospective memory (PM) involves the ability to form and realize intentions after a time delay (Einstein & McDaniel, 1990). This study examines the relationship between clinical measures of PM and an event-related potential paradigm (West & Ross-Munroe, 2002) before and after Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy (CRT). Participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were assigned to one of two groups, CRT and an active control condition. Electrophysiological and behavioral data were collected while subjects performed a computerized PM measure and the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) (Raskin, Buckheit, & Sherrod, 2011), a clinical measure. The results from the two groups were compared to determine ...


The Line Drawn On Pain Still Holds, Bjorn H. Merker 2016 retired, no institutional affiliation

The Line Drawn On Pain Still Holds, Bjorn H. Merker

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The many substantive criticisms raised against Key by me and by many of the other commentators will not disappear by ignoring or waving them aside with meta-discourse about anthropomorphism, just-so stories, or celestial teapots. The conceptual edifice Key inhabits and defends with such gusto may look like an impregnable fortress from the inside – and Key behaves as if it were. From the outside, however, it looks more like a ramshackle structure gaping with holes and pieced together from imperfectly understood neuroscience and often faulty literature citations.


Slavery, Welfare And The Sixth Extinction, Stephen R. Clark 2016 University of Liverpool

Slavery, Welfare And The Sixth Extinction, Stephen R. Clark

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Ng’s laudable concern for animal welfare would be welcome to any sensible slave-owner wishing to preserve his investment. What welfarism – for slave-owners and animal husbandmen – fails to call into question is whether we have the right to breed, hold captive and kill animals at all: If it matters, as the widely recognized slogan of ‘Five Freedoms’ suggests, that animals have the chance to live a ‘normal’ life, then more matters than keeping them ‘happy’ in subjection. Their lives – and also the lives of wild things – also deserve respect.


Wild Animal Suffering And Vegan Outreach, Eze Paez 2016 Pompeu Fabra University

Wild Animal Suffering And Vegan Outreach, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Ng’s strategic proposal seems to downplay the potential benefits of advocacy for wild animals and omit what may be the most effective strategy to reduce the harms farmed animals suffer: vegan outreach.


Animal Suffering And Human Bias, Stijn Bruers 2016 Ghent University

Animal Suffering And Human Bias, Stijn Bruers

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Ng proposes concrete ways to decrease animal suffering on the basis of commonsense economic logic and research in welfare biology. But to reduce animal suffering effectively in livestock farming, animal experimentation or the natural environment we have to become more aware of our pervasive and spontaneous but unreliable intuitive moral judgments. These can generate biases that prevent us from decreasing animal suffering effectively.


An Animal Victim's Best Chance: Veterinary Legal Duty To Report Cruelty In The U.S., Lora Dunn 2016 Animal Legal Defense Fund

An Animal Victim's Best Chance: Veterinary Legal Duty To Report Cruelty In The U.S., Lora Dunn

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Legislation throughout the U.S. recognizes animal sentience and the importance of veterinary reporting to combat the ongoing suffering of these animal victims: All 50 states have felony penalties available for animal cruelty crimes, and veterinary reporting is permitted or required in the majority of states. The remaining minority of U.S. states should take action to require veterinarians to report animal cruelty and render veterinarians immune for good faith reporting.


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