Linking Signal Detection Theory And Encoding Models To Reveal Independent Neural Representations From Neuroimaging Data, 2018 Florida International University
Linking Signal Detection Theory And Encoding Models To Reveal Independent Neural Representations From Neuroimaging Data, Fabian A. Soto
No abstract provided.
A Feature-Based Model Of Visually Perceiving Deformable Objects, 2018 Justus Liebig University, Giessen
A Feature-Based Model Of Visually Perceiving Deformable Objects, Vivian C. Paulun, Filipp Schmidt, Roland W. Fleming
No abstract provided.
Global Estimation Of Signed 3d Surface Tilt From Natural Images, 2018 University of Pennsylvania
Global Estimation Of Signed 3d Surface Tilt From Natural Images, Seha Kim, Johannes Burge
The ability of human visual systems to estimate 3D surface orientation from 2D retinal images is critical. But the computation to calculate 3D orientation in real-world scenes is not fully understood. A Bayes optimal model grounded in natural statistics has explained 3D surface tilt estimation of human observers in natural scenes (Kim and Burge, 2018). However, the model is limited because it estimates only unsigned tilt (tilt modulo 180deg). We extend the model to predict signed tilt estimates and compared with human signed estimates. The model takes image pixels as input and produces optimal estimates of tilt as output, using ...
Inferring The Neural Representation Of Faces From Adaptation Aftereffects, 2018 University of Nevada, Reno
Inferring The Neural Representation Of Faces From Adaptation Aftereffects, Kara J. Emery, Michael A. Webster Ph.D.
The aftereffects of adaptation to faces have been studied widely, in part to characterize the coding schemes for representing different facial attributes. Often these aftereffects have been interpreted in terms of two alternative models of face processing: 1) a norm-based or opponent code, in which the facial dimension is represented by relative activity in a pair of broadly-tuned mechanisms with opposing sensitivities; or 2) an exemplar code, in which the dimension is sampled by multiple channels narrowly-tuned to different levels of the stimulus. Evidence for or against these alternatives is based on the different patterns of aftereffects they predict (e ...
Effect Of Noise On Mutually Inhibiting Pyramidal Cells In Visual Cortex: Foundation Of Stochasticity In Bi-Stable Perception, 2018 Biophysics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University
Effect Of Noise On Mutually Inhibiting Pyramidal Cells In Visual Cortex: Foundation Of Stochasticity In Bi-Stable Perception, Naoki Kogo, Felix Kern, Thomas Nowotny, Raymond Van Ee, Richard Van Wezel, Takeshi Aihara
Bi-stable perception has been an important tool to investigate how visual input is interpreted and how it reaches consciousness. To explain the mechanisms of this phenomenon, it has been assumed that a mutual inhibition circuit plays a key role. It is possible that this circuit functions to resolve ambiguity of input image by quickly shifting the balance of competing signals in response to conflicting features. Recently we established an in vitro neural recording system combined with computerized connections mediated by model neurons and synapses (“dynamic clamp” system). With this system, mutual inhibition circuit between two pyramidal cells from primary visual ...
Why Latent Representations In Convolutional Neural Networks Fall Outside Visual Space, 2018 Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Why Latent Representations In Convolutional Neural Networks Fall Outside Visual Space, Katerina Malakhova
It is common to compare properties of visual information processing by artificial neural networks and the primate visual system.
Some remarkable similarities were observed in the responses of neurons in IT cortex and units in higher layers of CNNs. Here I show that latent representations formed by weights in convolutional layers do not necessarily reflect visual domain. Instead they are strongly dependent on a choice of training set and cost function.
The most striking example is when an individual unit, which is highly selective to some members of a category is, nevertheless, inhibited by visually similar objects of the same ...
Divisive Inhibition As A Solution To The Correspondence Problem In Perceptual Grouping, 2018 National Taiwan University
Divisive Inhibition As A Solution To The Correspondence Problem In Perceptual Grouping, Chien-Chung Chen, Yi-Shiuan Lin, Li Lin
No abstract provided.
Discovery Of Activities Via Statistical Clustering Of Fixation Patterns, 2018 NASA Ames Research Center
Discovery Of Activities Via Statistical Clustering Of Fixation Patterns, Jeffrey B. Mulligan
No abstract provided.
Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, 2018 University of Wyoming
Childhood Poverty And Its Effects On The Brain: Physiological And Functional Implications, Lauren Scandrett
Honors Theses AY 17/18
One out of every five American children lives below the federal poverty line. Considering that poverty is deemed one of the most influential risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, it is critical to understand what effect poverty has on the developing brain and how those brain changes affect a child’s life. Poverty is chiefly defined by having a low socioeconomic status (SES), but a low SES is often accompanied by other influencers, such as nutrition and mental stimulation, termed poverty co-factors. Other poverty co-factors include, but are not limited to, maternal stress and malnutrition, environmental toxins, parental nurturance, and ...
Ethical Analysis Of Brain Augmentation Through Nanotechnology, 2018 University of Puget Sound
Ethical Analysis Of Brain Augmentation Through Nanotechnology, Austin Caras, James Dejesus
Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal
The use of nanoparticles for drug delivery and neural cell manipulation may soon allow for organic and electronic brain augmentations. Medical technology being used for cognitive enhancement brings a host of ethical questions related to safety, justice, privacy, and individuality. Issues concerning medical consent and intellectual property will be skewed as neuroscience expands our understanding of the brain, growing our capacity to read and modify it. Socioeconomic strata may realign based on augmentations and employment opportunities may become dependent on specific cognitive enhancements. Long-term effects of unregulated nanoparticle usage could elicit an environmental or human health disaster. The potential ...
The Ethical Justification Of Equal Candidacy For Organ Transplantation In Alcoholic Patients, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School - Baystate; College of Our Lady of the Elms
The Ethical Justification Of Equal Candidacy For Organ Transplantation In Alcoholic Patients, Peter A. Depergola Ii
Online Journal of Health Ethics
An increasingly blurred understanding of the distinctive challenges posed to transplantation medicine and, by extension, public health, by the debilitating reality of alcoholism suggests a critical need to revisit the relationship between causality, candidacy, and culpability in light of substance addiction. This essay grounds its arguments in two, straightforward premises: (i) compassionate medical practice - understood as the sympathetic willingness to enter into the existential suffering of another in order to ameliorate the anguish invoked by disease - rests on the fiduciary relationship shared between provider and patient; and (ii) allocating medical goods according to moral desert rather than existential disposition undermines ...
Ai-Human Collaboration Via Eeg, 2018 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University
Ai-Human Collaboration Via Eeg, Adam Noack
All College Thesis Program, 2016-present
As AI becomes ever more competent and integrated into our lives, the issue of AI-human goal misalignment looms larger. This is partially because there is often a rift between what humans explicitly command and what they actually mean. Most contemporary AI systems cannot bridge this gap. In this study we attempted to reconcile the goals of human and machine by using EEG signals from a human to help a simulated agent complete a task.
Examining The Relationship Between State Anxiety And Vestibular And Ocular Motor Impairments And Symptoms In High School Athletes With Concussion, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Examining The Relationship Between State Anxiety And Vestibular And Ocular Motor Impairments And Symptoms In High School Athletes With Concussion, Mallory Kathleen Mcelroy
Theses and Dissertations
Anxiety has been associated with vestibular and ocular motor impairment in the general population. However, there is limited research regarding the connection between the vestibular and ocular motor systems and anxiety following sport-related concussion (SRC). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare state anxiety between concussed adolescent male and female athletes with and without vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective, repeated measures SUBJECTS: Thirty adolescent athletes between the ages of 15-18 years, diagnosed with a SRC completed the STAI-State at initial and medical clearance clinical visit. These adolescent athletes were categorized into vestibular and ocular ...
A Role For The Somatosensory System In Motor Learning By Observing, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
A Role For The Somatosensory System In Motor Learning By Observing, Heather R. Mcgregor
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
An influential idea in neuroscience is that action observation activates an observer’s sensory-motor system. This idea has recently been extended to motor learning; observing another individual undergoing motor learning can promote sensory-motor plasticity as well as behavioural changes in both the motor and somatosensory domains. While previous research has suggested a role for the motor system in motor learning by observing, this thesis presents a series of experiments testing the hypothesis that the somatosensory system is also involved in motor learning by observing.
The experiments included in this thesis used force field (FF) adaptation as a model of motor ...
Investigating The Effects Of Sensory Learning In Rats Using Intra And Extra Stimulus Modalities, 2018 Arcadia University
Investigating The Effects Of Sensory Learning In Rats Using Intra And Extra Stimulus Modalities, Ariel M. Kershner
Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works
The purpose of this study was to see what rats learn about the elements of a compound stimulus (a stimulus composed of two different stimuli), and whether their learning differs if the compound is from the same modality (intra-modal), i.e. both visual, or from different modalities (inter-modal), i.e. visual and auditory. We hypothesized that the rats would respond more to the compound stimuli than to the single stimuli (Pearce and Wilson, 1990), more to the compound modality of inter-modal elements than to the compound modality of intra-modal elements (Miller, 1971 and Gingras, 2009), equally to the intra-modal elements ...
Influence Of Alcohol On Time-Based Prospective Memory And Electrophysiological Measures In College-Aged Individuals, 2018 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut
Influence Of Alcohol On Time-Based Prospective Memory And Electrophysiological Measures In College-Aged Individuals, Christy C. Chan
Senior Theses and Projects
College students have higher rates of alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) than that of same-aged non-college students, with an estimated 31% of U.S. college students meeting the diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse (Borsari et al., 2007; Knight et al., 2002). College age is also a critical period for brain development, including regions responsible for the development of prospective memory (PM), making the brains of college students vulnerable to the effects of alcohol. This study investigated the influence of alcohol on the underlying brain activity associated with PM in light- and heavy-alcohol-drinking college students. PM was measured with the Memory for Intentions ...
Arts Based Brain Research, 2018 Lesley University
Arts Based Brain Research, Alicia Arendt
Lesley University Community of Scholars Day
Art is believed to be “the expression or application of the human creative skill and imagination, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their aesthetic value or emotional power” (Buk, 2009, p. 61). While there are a myriad of ways to define and categorize art, such a definition as the one above is useful as it touches upon three key areas of arts based brain research; artistic cognition, artistic production and aesthetic experience. The study of arts based brain science, or the neuroscience of art, demands an understanding of the interplay between these three facets of the artistic experience. Most ...
Object Processing In The Medial Temporal Lobe: Influence Of Object Domain, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Object Processing In The Medial Temporal Lobe: Influence Of Object Domain, Anna Blumenthal
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
We live in a rich visual world, surrounded by many different kinds of objects. While we may not often reflect on it, our ability to recognize what an object is, detect whether an object is familiar or novel, and bring to mind our general knowledge about an object, are all essential components of adaptive behavior. In this dissertation, I investigate the neural basis of object representations, focusing on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, namely, perirhinal cortex, parahippocampal cortex, and hippocampus. I use what type of thing an object is, or more specifically, the broader category (e.g., “face” or “house ...
Biological Signatures Of Emotion Regulation In Children, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Biological Signatures Of Emotion Regulation In Children, Sarah Myruski
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Emotion regulation (ER) is a key predictor of positive adjustment throughout the lifespan. Despite decades of research on discrete ER strategy use, ER may be more appropriately measured in terms of the breadth of emotional range, or the degree to which one can flexibly modulate emotional responses. Yet little is known about ER flexibility in childhood. Also, given the crucial role of caregiver support in children’s emotional lives, ER may be most accurately measured in developmentally appropriate and ecologically valid social contexts. Further, few developmental studies have capitalized on the growing evidence base surrounding biological signatures of ER. This ...
Assessing The Long-Term Sequelae Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Assessing The Long-Term Sequelae Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Janna Mantua
A mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also known as a concussion, is defined as an injury that results in an alteration of consciousness or mental status. Previous studies have shown mTBI populations experience a number of chronic (> 1 year) symptoms, such as sleep disturbances (e.g., sleep stage alterations), mood alterations (e.g., depressive symptoms), and cognitive alterations (e.g., poor concentration). The three chapters of this dissertation sought to explore these long-term sequelae and the possible interrelations between them. In the first experiment, sleep-dependent memory consolidation of neutral stimuli was probed in a chronic mTBI sample and a control ...