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The Effects Of Self-Esteem And Motivation On Cognitive Control, Andrea Benavides 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effects Of Self-Esteem And Motivation On Cognitive Control, Andrea Benavides

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cognitive control describes a set of mechanisms that guide behavior towards a goal (Cohen, 2017). The successful execution of cognitive control is essential for effective learning, information processing, problem solving, and academic achievement (Visu-Petra et al., 2011). The Expected Value of Control framework (EVC; Shenhav et al., 2013) suggests that control carries an inherent cost, which is weighed against the potential benefits of expending it. This cost-benefit analysis determines the direction and intensity that a goal is pursued. Importantly, motivation plays a role in this cost-benefit analysis and may function as the factor that offsets the cost of control expenditure ...


Proactive And Reactive Aggression, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, And Sleep In Adolescents, Allison L. Brasch 2020 The Graduate Center

Proactive And Reactive Aggression, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, And Sleep In Adolescents, Allison L. Brasch

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Current research evaluating the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, sleep, and autonomic dysfunction has shown inconsistencies. The unique etiologies, manifestations, and presentation of these two aggressive subtypes have garnered much speculation, and research has shown mixed, and oftentimes conflicting, results. Generally speaking, insufficient sleep has been linked to increased agitation, cognitive impairment, emotional dysregulation, and poorer physical health. Many studies have provided support for an inverse relationship existing between sleep problems and sympathovagal health, implicating hypo- or hyper-autonomic function with proactive and reactive aggression, respectively. Concurrently and conflictingly, additional research has shown support for the exact opposite relationships between ...


The Impact Of A Single Session Of Mindfulness Meditation On The Attentional Blink In Non-Meditators, Arielle L. Klopsis 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Impact Of A Single Session Of Mindfulness Meditation On The Attentional Blink In Non-Meditators, Arielle L. Klopsis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Attentional resources are limited therefore a stimulus can go undetected if it closely follows another target by 200-500ms. This phenomenon is known as the attentional blink. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be beneficial in target detection and in decreasing the attentional blink. Since there is no standard for the type of meditation or duration of practice that leads to attention benefits, this study compares the two most popular types of meditation in a group of non-meditators: focused attention and open monitoring meditation. This study utilized an attentional blink paradigm to measure if a single session of mindfulness meditation can ...


Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose 2020 Lesley University

Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Associations are formed in our minds based upon three elements: sensory experience, emotions, and memories. These associations, unique to each individual, dictate thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, and actions. Some are necessary and supportive, while others can be maladaptive. Established associations can be changed, and new associations can be formed, to align with a client’s goals. The literature presents a strong history of associationism, as well as a body of research that demonstrates the neurological processes of how mental associations are formed. There are also studies showing how music activates the brain. However, there is a lack of research which draws ...


Dynamic Oscillatory Interactions Between Neural Attention And Sensorimotor Systems, Alex Wiesman 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Dynamic Oscillatory Interactions Between Neural Attention And Sensorimotor Systems, Alex Wiesman

Theses & Dissertations

The adaptive and flexible ability of the human brain to preference the processing of salient environmental features in the visual space is essential to normative cognitive function, and various neurologically afflicted patient groups report negative impacts on visual attention. While the brain-bases of human attentional processing have begun to be unraveled, very little is known regarding the interactions between attention systems and systems supporting sensory and motor processing. This is essential, as these interactions are dynamic; evolving rapidly in time and across a wide range of functionally defined rhythmic frequencies. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and a range of novel cognitive paradigms ...


Effects Of Repeated Intermittent Episodes Of Social Stress On The Acquisition And Extinction Of A Reward-Seeking Task, Nikki Sullivan 2020 University of Mississippi

Effects Of Repeated Intermittent Episodes Of Social Stress On The Acquisition And Extinction Of A Reward-Seeking Task, Nikki Sullivan

Honors Theses

Repeated exposure to stress is known to have a myriad of effects on the brain, contributing to the development of psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. For example, rats undergoing repeated social stress develop increased cocaine self-administration. These effects of stress are not well-understood and are related to changes in the brain reward system. This study investigated the effects of repeated social stress on reward-seeking behavior via the acquisition and extinction of a discriminative stimulus (DS) task and on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Male rats underwent intermittent social defeat (4 sessions in 10 ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber 2020 Liberty University

Neurocognitive Risk Factors And Current Intervention Strategies For Survivors Of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Abigail Taber

Senior Honors Theses

The improved survival rate for pediatric cancer patients is one of the greatest triumphs of recent medicine, but the late effects faced by these survivors have been uncovered through this new population of survivors. Many survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experience cognitive deficits in areas such as attention, memory, processing speed, and academic achievement following cancer treatment. Recent research has pointed to chemotherapeutic agents, host risk factors, and genetic predispositions as perpetrators of these deficits, although other factors are also under investigation. Consequently, the search for appropriate interventions for the amelioration of these deficits has dominated the literature ...


Safe Sleep: Developmental Implications For Hospitalized Infants, Katherine Kohlsaat 2020 University of Rhode Island

Safe Sleep: Developmental Implications For Hospitalized Infants, Katherine Kohlsaat

Senior Honors Projects

The rate at which an infant develops both physically and cognitively is significant during sleep, as this is the time when the entire body can dedicate its efforts to this cause. Parents of healthy infants follow the guidelines set by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) relating to safe sleep, and since their introduction in 1992, the rate of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has decreased by 40% (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). However, if an infant has been hospitalized since birth due to necessary invasive procedures such as open-heart surgery, these protocols cannot be initially implemented. Common ...


The Effect Of Intranasal Orexin A On The Interaction Between Social Isolation Stress And Attention, Saurav Pattanayak 2020 William & Mary

The Effect Of Intranasal Orexin A On The Interaction Between Social Isolation Stress And Attention, Saurav Pattanayak

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Orexins are neuropeptides that have been shown to have an association with processes such as stress and attention. However, limited studies have been done on orexin’s role in the intersection of stress and attention. In this experiment, Sprague Dawley rats were isolated at 21 postnatal days, isolated at 35 postnatal days, or placed into group-housing. Varying doses of orexin A or saline were administered intranasally into the rats. Their attentional performance was measured in a sustained attention task. An ANOVA was carried out on the hit rates, correct rejection rates, and omissions of socially isolated rats and group-housed rats ...


Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn 2020 William & Mary

Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The orexin (also called hypocretin) system projects to a wide array of brain regions and is activated by drugs of abuse. The orexin system is best known for its function in wakefulness and arousal, but recent research has suggested that orexins play a vital role in attentional processing. The orexin-1 receptor has been implicated in crucial mechanisms of attention, specifically the transmission of acetylcholine to the cortex. Nicotine is a commonly administered psychoactive drug that has been shown to have cognitive-enhancing effects. Nicotine appears to target the orexin system, suggesting a potential role of the orexin system in mediating the ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers 2020 University of San Diego

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


Geometric Visual Illusion Effects On Visual Perception And Visuomotor Control: Emphasis On The Vertical-Horizontal Illusion, Shijun Yan 2020 Louisiana State University

Geometric Visual Illusion Effects On Visual Perception And Visuomotor Control: Emphasis On The Vertical-Horizontal Illusion, Shijun Yan

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The focus of this dissertation was to explore the effects of potential vertical-horizontal (V-H) illusory influences on perceptuomotor control. As part of this focus, we examined the potential use of separate cortical visual streams: the ventral visual stream for perception and the dorsal visual stream for action. Three studies were conducted to determine the effects of the V-H illusion influences on length estimations using upper limb point-to-point movements and lower limb stepping movements, involving various illusory configurations, movement directions, gaze directions. After a short introduction (Chapter 1) and a more detailed review of existing literature (Chapter 2), we present manuscripts ...


Oculomotor Task-Switching Performance Improves And Persists Following A Single Bout Of Aerobic Exercise, Diksha Shukla 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Oculomotor Task-Switching Performance Improves And Persists Following A Single Bout Of Aerobic Exercise, Diksha Shukla

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Executive function includes the core components of response inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Interestingly, an accumulating evidence has reported that inhibitory control and working memory improve following a single bout of exercise. It is, however, largely unclear whether cognitive flexibility elicits a similar post-exercise benefit. Accordingly, Chapter Two of my thesis examined whether 20-min of aerobic exercise provides an immediate post-exercise ‘boost’ to cognitive flexibility. Chapter Three examined for how long a putative post-exercise benefit persists. Cognitive flexibility was examined via an AABB task-switching paradigm wherein participants alternated between a well-practiced and a novel oculomotor task pre- and post-exercise ...


Marrying Science And Experience: An Exploration Of How Multilinguals Interact With And Between Languages And Cultures, Allie Heeg Polzin 2020 SIT Graduate Institute

Marrying Science And Experience: An Exploration Of How Multilinguals Interact With And Between Languages And Cultures, Allie Heeg Polzin

MA TESOL Collection

This paper will begin exploring bi- and multilingualism at an individual level. The author will explore previous research written on how the brain processes several languages, how languages might affect individuals emotionally, and how one switches between languages as well as the effects of this, if any. Beyond this, the experience of navigating languages between discourse communities and balancing two or more cultures will be considered. As the title suggests, the science of multilingualism will be married with the diverse individual experience while considering both intrapersonal and interpersonal relations. The author will look at her own experience as well as ...


Electrophysiological Response To Classical Music In Instrumentalists, Vocalists, And Non-Musicians, Brielle McDonald 2020 Trinity College

Electrophysiological Response To Classical Music In Instrumentalists, Vocalists, And Non-Musicians, Brielle Mcdonald

Senior Theses and Projects

Musical experience has been shown to impact electrophysiological response in response to sudden changes in music. The purpose of this exploratory case study is to investigate responses to a variety of continuous classical music stimuli in individuals with varying musical backgrounds, through the use of electroencephalography (EEG). Individuals were categorized as instrumentalists (5+ years of instrumental training), vocalists (5+ years of vocal training), or non-musicians (training). Participants were played a variety of classical vocal and instrumental music while an EEG was recorded. Data were then collected and analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA) and time/frequency analysis through EEGLAB. It ...


Pornography: Adolescent Brain Development & Addiction, William K. Canady 2020 Dublin City Schools

Pornography: Adolescent Brain Development & Addiction, William K. Canady

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight three segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention.


Neural Mechanisms Underlying Sensorimotor Synchronization With Different Forms Of Rhythms, Ryan Meidinger 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Sensorimotor Synchronization With Different Forms Of Rhythms, Ryan Meidinger

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Neural activity exhibits non-periodic rhythm [2] but it is unknown if neural activity synchronizes with non-periodic rhythms, as it does with periodic rhythms [1]. The purpose of this research is to determine the neural mechanisms present leading to synchronized finger tapping to varying rhythms. Twenty healthy young adults tapped their finger on a pressure sensitive pad, listened to metronomes, and wore a electroencephalogram (EEG) during synchronized finger tapping tasks (periodic, fractal, and random). Inter-tap intervals (ITIs), inter-beat intervals (IBIs), and frequency tags were used as the behavioral and cortical synchronization with the metronome. One-way ANOVAs were used to determine differences ...


Blocking Visual Awareness With Continuous Flash Suppression Prevents Cognitive Control, Jonathan LoVoi 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Blocking Visual Awareness With Continuous Flash Suppression Prevents Cognitive Control, Jonathan Lovoi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cognitive control refers to a set of functions that allow for the execution of goal-directed behavior while remaining flexible to changes in task demands. Findings addressing whether or not awareness is necessary to elicit cognitive control are inconsistent, possibly stemming from the short stimulus presentation times employed in most masking paradigms, which could prevent sufficient processing time in some cases or provide a gist of the masked stimulus in other cases. The present study examined the necessity of awareness in cognitive control using Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) to suppress stimulus awareness for periods of time longer than possible with other ...


Modeling Conventionalization And Predictability Within Mwes At The Brain Level, Shohini Bhattasali, Murielle Popa-Fabre, Christophe Pallier, John Hale 2020 University of Maryland, College Park

Modeling Conventionalization And Predictability Within Mwes At The Brain Level, Shohini Bhattasali, Murielle Popa-Fabre, Christophe Pallier, John Hale

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

While expressions have traditionally been binarized as compositional and noncompositional in linguistic theory, Multiword Expressions (MWEs) demonstrate finer-grained distinctions. Using Association Measures like Pointwise Mutual Information and Dice's Coefficient, MWEs can be characterized as having different degrees of conventionalization and predictability. Our goal is to investigate how these gradiences could reflect cognitive processes. In this study, fMRI recordings of naturalistic narrative comprehension is used to probe to what extent these computational measures and the cognitive processes they could operationalize are observable during on-line sentence processing. Our results show that Dice's Coefficent, representing lexical predictability, is a better predictor ...


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