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Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist 2017 Cedarville University

Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

This paper will attempt to address God's grace towards those with mental illnesses. It also attempts to provide direction in response to historical church views towards this population. Through scripture, this paper seeks to emphasize the importance of seeing a person as more than what they physically appear capable of - seeing people through God's eyes.


The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to function as CSs by acquiring the capacity to activate the same mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons activated by primary rewards, producing conditioned activation of these neurons and their associated motivational states. This model stipulates that CSs activate mesocorticolimbic DA systems through the activation of glutamate receptors on DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We tested the hypothesis that glutamate receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the expression of conditioned approach. Rats were tested in a conditioned approach protocol that consisted of 7 consecutive conditioning sessions (light presentations and food were paired), one ...


The Inconvenient Truth About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino 2017 Animal Studies Repository

The Inconvenient Truth About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Original Abstract: Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. Some birds are now known to be on a par with many mammals in their intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet views of chickens have largely remained unrevised in light of this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the data on cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals ...


The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Nucleus Accumbens Core Dopamine D1 And Glutamate Ampa/Nmda Receptors Play A Transient Role In The Performance Of Pavlovian Approach Behavior, Veronica Dobrovitsky

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The role of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc core) continues to be redefined with newly acquired data on neurochemical mechanisms mediating the learning and performance of behavior. Previous empirical data showed that dopamine transmission at the D1 receptor (D1R) plays a transient role in the expression of learned Pavlovian approach behavior. Here we show that, prior to overtraining, dopamine activity at D1Rs specifically within the NAc core is critical for the performance of approach behavior elicited by the recently-acquired reward-paired cue. Blockade of D1Rs in the NAc core, but not the dorsomedial striatum or NAc shell, disrupted approach responses during ...


Ecologies Of Embodied Minds Embedded: Radical Romantic Perspectives On Architectures Of Technology, Sharmaine Browne 2017 City University of New York (CUNY)

Ecologies Of Embodied Minds Embedded: Radical Romantic Perspectives On Architectures Of Technology, Sharmaine Browne

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation explores Romantic responses to the role of architectural technologies in the development of material being, consciousness, and culture by applying a critical approach in which I combine radical embodied cognitive theory, ecocritical perspectives, and a phenomenological lens to select Romantic texts written from 1789 to 1884 in response to industrial modernity. While scholarship has thoroughly explored technology as a cultural force which inevitably shapes consciousness, I propose that a slight shift of emphasis from technology’s external influence to the material internalization of its influence allows for new perspectives—particularly in light of recent proposals in cognitive philosophy ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Science Of Learning Network Of Schools: The Science Of Communities Of Practice, Andrew Jones, Frank Vetere 2017 University of Melbourne

Science Of Learning Network Of Schools: The Science Of Communities Of Practice, Andrew Jones, Frank Vetere

2009 - 2017 ACER Research Conferences

Frameworks referencing synthesised bodies of prominent research adorn education improvement policy like curiously named pieces of Ikea furniture—peculiar in their assemblage, ostensibly contemporary, and striking in their modular convenience. Amid this, most pundits still agree that we have an education advancement issue in this country. Despite significant increases in funding from successive federal and state governments, we simply haven’t been able to shift the needle. What we can ascertain is that compliance-based improvement approaches don’t work. They are unable to influence the cognitive maps, beliefs and understandings of the educator to the extent necessary to effectively improve ...


Movie-Driven Fmri Reveals Network Asynchrony And Connectivity Alterations In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Alenka Bullen 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Movie-Driven Fmri Reveals Network Asynchrony And Connectivity Alterations In Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Alenka Bullen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy and is often resistant to medication. Recent studies have noted brain-wide disruptions to several neural networks in so-called “focal” epilepsy, notably TLE, leading to it being recognized as a network disease. We aimed to assess the integrity of functional networks while they were simultaneously activated in an ecologically valid manner, using an actively engaging, richly stimulating audio-visual film clip. This stimulus elicits widespread, dynamic patterns of time-locked brain activity, measurable using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirteen persons with drug-resistant TLE (persons with epilepsy; PWE) and 10 demographically ...


The Effects Of Dance Therapy On Patients With Parkinson’S Disease: An Integrative Literature Review, Jennifer Pence 2017 DePaul University

The Effects Of Dance Therapy On Patients With Parkinson’S Disease: An Integrative Literature Review, Jennifer Pence

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of the nervous system that affects more than one million Americans. Individuals who have PD generally exhibit bradykinesia, postural instability, shuffling steps and freezing during gait. These impairments in motor function cannot be fully addressed with pharmacological treatment and can eventually become unresponsive to this form of treatment. Dance therapy, on the other hand, is one non-pharmacological method that may prove beneficial for PD. It utilizes motor planning skills, which can lead to an improvement in muscle flexibility and balance. The purpose of the systematic integrative literature review was ...


Mechanisms Involved In The Assessment Of Cumulative Long-Term Familiarity Of Object Concepts: An Erp Study, Haopei Yang 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Mechanisms Involved In The Assessment Of Cumulative Long-Term Familiarity Of Object Concepts: An Erp Study, Haopei Yang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We investigated the sensitivity of ERP components implicated in recognition memory to degree of experimentally controlled and lifetime cumulative exposures during explicit memory judgements. A parietally distributed ERP component spanning both the FN400/N400 and the LPC time windows tracked both types of judgements. This effect appears to be an LPC effect with an early onset, and differs from previously reported effects of repetition linked to implicit memory. Based on recent evidence, we interpreted it as response-related evidence accumulation processes that are in line with both single-process models and continuous dual-process models. We also observed more positive ERPs in the ...


Decoding Mental States After Severe Brain Injury, Raechelle M. Gibson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Decoding Mental States After Severe Brain Injury, Raechelle M. Gibson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Some patients with disorders of consciousness retain sensory and cognitive abilities that are not apparent from their outward behaviour. It is crucial to identify and characterise these covert abilities for diagnosis, prognosis, and medical ethics. This thesis uses neuroimaging techniques to investigate cognitive preservation and awareness in patients who are behaviourally non-responsive due to acquired brain injuries. In the first chapter, a large sample of healthy volunteers, including experienced athletes and musicians, imagined actions of varying complexity and familiarity. Motor imagery involving certain complex, familiar actions correlated with a more robust sensorimotor rhythm. In the second chapter, several patients with ...


Comparing The Influence Of Music Enjoyment And Beat Perception Ability On Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters Among Healthy Young And Older Adults, Brittany S. Roberts 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Comparing The Influence Of Music Enjoyment And Beat Perception Ability On Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters Among Healthy Young And Older Adults, Brittany S. Roberts

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) involves synchronizing footsteps to music or a metronome thereby eliciting gait improvements in speed and stability among patients with Parkinson’s Disease. However, gait responses are inconsistent (Dalla Bella et al., 2017). Music enjoyment may influence gait responses, but exactly how it may do this has never been assessed. Moreover, individual differences in beat perception ability are likely to influence gait responses to music, particularly if instructed to synchronize to the beat. Here, we investigated whether music enjoyment influences gait, comparing responses based on beat perception ability (good vs poor) and instruction type (“walk freely” vs ...


A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the relationship between motor thalamo-cortico-cerebellar fibre path integrity and overt responsiveness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Additionally, we investigated the potential of imaging these motor tracts at ultra-high fields. Study I and II aimed to map the white matter connections of motor execution fibres in DOC patients. Our results showed significant reductions in motor fibre path integrity across DOC diagnostic categories. Study III and IV aimed to develop a 7T MRI Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) sequence. We optimized this sequence to image motor fibre paths in DOC patients. We concluded that, in healthy controls, probabilistic ...


An Investigation Of Propranolol As An Agent For The Experimental Manipulation Of Interoception., Jane Evguenia Kouptsova 2017 The University of Western Ontario

An Investigation Of Propranolol As An Agent For The Experimental Manipulation Of Interoception., Jane Evguenia Kouptsova

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Interoception has recently come under research focus as a potential influence on emotional and epistemic feelings. However, existing means to manipulate it experimentally have conceptual or logistical drawbacks. We investigated whether 20 mg of propranolol is a viable agent for experimentally manipulating interoception. Thirteen participants completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, performing two heartbeat perception tasks, control tasks and measures of anxiety and alertness. All measures were obtained at the beginning and end of both sessions. Propranolol significantly decreased heart rate and systolic blood pressure. Heartbeat detection performance numerically decreased under propranolol, although this effect failed to reach statistical significance ...


The Role Of Individual Differences In Bilingual Language Processing, Emily S. Nichols 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of Individual Differences In Bilingual Language Processing, Emily S. Nichols

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, I investigated the neural correlates of bilingualism, and how individual differences in both brain and behaviour affect second language processing. To date, theories of bilingualism have tended to treat bilinguals as a uniform group, while in practice they vary greatly in both experience and ability. By examining how individual differences in proficiency and age of acquisition contribute to second language learning and processing, I sought to address this issue. In chapter two, I used event-related potentials to investigate how age of acquisition and proficiency modulate processing of a novel versus a grammatical rule that is similar across ...


A Touchscreen Assay To Probe The Role Of The Serotonergic System In Learning And Visual Information Processing, Jeffrey M. Dorsch, Alexandr Pak, Alexander A. Chubykin 2017 Purdue University

A Touchscreen Assay To Probe The Role Of The Serotonergic System In Learning And Visual Information Processing, Jeffrey M. Dorsch, Alexandr Pak, Alexander A. Chubykin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in numerous processes in the brain such as behavior, learning, memory, mood, and neurodevelopment. Serotonin signaling is regulated by the serotonin transporter protein (SERT), which maintains normal serotonin levels. Mutations in the SERT gene are known to correlate with cognitive and behavioral deficits seen in psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders, depression, and autism spectrum disorder. Researchers study these deficits using SERT knockout (KO) mice, a model that lacks functional SERT and displays changes in anxiety, learning, and motivation. We are interested in how the absence of SERT affects visual processing and learning. A popular ...


A Single-Bout Of Aerobic Exercise Improved Executive Control: Evidence From The Antisaccade Task, Ashna Samani 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Single-Bout Of Aerobic Exercise Improved Executive Control: Evidence From The Antisaccade Task, Ashna Samani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A single-bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise increases activity within frontoparietal networks, producing a temporary ‘boost’ to executive-related cognitive control – an effect that is thought to be selective to exercise durations greater than 20 minutes. It is possible that previous tasks evaluating executive control did not provide the requisite resolution to detect executive changes associated with shorter exercise durations. To that end, I had participants perform a 10-minute bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise, examining pre- and post-exercise executive control via the antisaccade task. Extensive literature has shown that antisaccades are mediated via frontoparietal networks, modulated following exercise training. Results showed ...


Effects Of Language Immersion Versus Classroom Exposure On Advanced French Learners: An Erp Study, Alexandra Claire Brito 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effects Of Language Immersion Versus Classroom Exposure On Advanced French Learners: An Erp Study, Alexandra Claire Brito

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

University students often report making significant advances in their second language (L2) ability after immersion in a nonnative language through study abroad. The degree to which late L2 learners can become nativelike in terms of L2 performance and brain processing is unclear in second language acquisition research. The link between L2 proficiency and learning context has been characterized in previous research, yet the role of learning experience in attaining nativelike brain processing of L2 remains to be elucidated. This study contrasts learners with advanced French proficiency who have attained this level with no, little, or more immersion experience through study ...


A Naturalistic Paradigm To Probe Conscious Information Processing During Sleep, Max M. Silverbrook 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Naturalistic Paradigm To Probe Conscious Information Processing During Sleep, Max M. Silverbrook

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sleep was long considered a passive mental state. The extent to which external information is integrated in, and consciously processed during sleep remains unknown. Here, simultaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from sleeping participants. First, the stimulus elicited significantly correlated fMRI activity in the auditory and fronto-parietal networks of awake participants. Behavioural testing found individuals to perceive the story’s suspense similarly. Then neural activity related to high-level processing of the story was investigated in 5 individuals who slept through it. Fronto-parietal activity in 1 individual in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep followed that ...


Between Speech & Song: Clarifying The Sprechstimme Of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire, Sara M. Paar 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Between Speech & Song: Clarifying The Sprechstimme Of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire, Sara M. Paar

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since its creation, the technique of Sprechstimme has fascinated the audiences, performers, and composers of twentieth century music. What is it? How is it done? How should it be notated? At the fore of investigations into these questions has been Arnold Schoenberg’s Pierrot lunaire, the work in which Schoenberg debuted this new technique. Much has been written in regard to Schoenberg’s creation and use of Sprechstimme, as well as his own exploration of the speech/song continuum. Composers, conductors, and performers have all tried to make sense of the notation, instructions, and performances Schoenberg left behind. Despite this ...


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