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Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman 2018 DePaul University

Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: Dementia is the largest cause of dependency and disability in older adults, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide with about 10 million new cases every year. Presently, there are no cures for dementia. Consequently, a growing body of evidence suggests that bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical dementia symptoms by several years.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to summarize and analyze current evidence from studies that examined how bilingualism delays the onset of dementia. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay the dementia symptoms due to an increase in cognitive reserve, which refers to an ...


Pornography’S Effect On The Brain: A Review Of Modifications In The Prefrontal Cortex, Kendra J. Muller 2018 Brigham Young University

Pornography’S Effect On The Brain: A Review Of Modifications In The Prefrontal Cortex, Kendra J. Muller

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal in Psychology

Pornography use has exponentially increased in the past 10 years. Most believe pornography use is largely a harmless behavior. Although sexuality is innate, hyper-sexual behavior, such as pornography use, has become increasingly commonplace. Addiction research has found that long-term substance addiction contributes to changes in brain volume (Hong et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2011). Recent studies have shown that behavioral addictions also have similar volume loss as substance abuse (Hong et al., 2013). Research has shown that the particular area most affected is the prefrontal cortex (Hong et al., 2013). The prefrontal cortex, which oversees regulating self-control, decreases in ...


Temporal Information Guides Prefrontal Preparatory Activity, Jacqueline R. Janowich 2018 University of New Mexico

Temporal Information Guides Prefrontal Preparatory Activity, Jacqueline R. Janowich

Shared Knowledge Conference

Proactive preparation for an upcoming goal differs from last-minute reactive adaptation, but it is unclear how preparatory mechanisms change based on when in the future a goal needs to be executed. To assess how timing information is integrated into preparatory control, we designed a novel variant of the Dot Pattern Expectancy task, where each cue signaled both task rule and delay duration (known short, known long, or unknown) between cue and probe. We recorded EEG while healthy young adult participants (n=36) performed this task, and found that delay demands elicited distinct prefrontal preparatory activities. Medial prefrontal amplitude was sensitive ...


How Auditory And Visual Working Memory Tasks Affect Misophonic Response Levels, Erin Ansusinha, Melette DeVore, Dr. Daniel Corts 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

How Auditory And Visual Working Memory Tasks Affect Misophonic Response Levels, Erin Ansusinha, Melette Devore, Dr. Daniel Corts

Celebration of Learning

Misophonia is characterized by an extreme aversion towards auditory triggers, such as chewing, tapping, and other repetitive sounds, making ignoring or directing attention away from the sounds nearly impossible. It is not classified as a psychological disorder, but it is associated with significant, reflexive emotional disturbances. Studies have shown that the anterior insular cortex (AIC), an area involved in detecting irregularities or errors, functions differently in people with misophonia, which translates to difficulty in controlling emotional reactions. The present study examines how misophonic reactions might interact with cognition with particular attention to how cognitive demands may exacerbate the emotional response ...


Underlying Contribution Of Executive Functioning To Cognition And Academic Achievement In Individuals With Dystrophinopathy, Robert Fee 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Underlying Contribution Of Executive Functioning To Cognition And Academic Achievement In Individuals With Dystrophinopathy, Robert Fee

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Dystrophinopathy is a genetic disorder that results in the lack of or abnormal expression of the protein dystrophin. It is a disorder that alters cell structure and function, impacts the developing brain and brain function, presents with multi-domain cognitive deficits, and influences both mood and behavior. Cognitive impairments appear to be more localized to specific areas of functioning rather than a global deficit; however, deficits have been identified across multiple cognitive domains including language and aspects of executive functioning. A careful examination of the cognitive phenotype and its association to mutations affecting CNS isoforms is necessary to clarify the neuropsychological ...


The Relationship Between Cognitive And Neural Bases Of Metamemory Judgments, Alexandra M. Gaynor 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Relationship Between Cognitive And Neural Bases Of Metamemory Judgments, Alexandra M. Gaynor

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Metamemory monitoring, the process of making subjective assessments of the status of one’s own memory, is crucial to guiding behavior and effective learning. Past cognitive research has shown that subjective confidence judgments are inferential in nature, and based on cues available at the time of the judgment. When confidence is based on cues that are related to objective memory performance, metamemory accuracy is high. However, past studies have shown that metamemory monitoring tends to be inaccurate because individuals base their confidence on information that is not predictive of memory success, such as the fluency with which items were encoded ...


The Inter-Subject Correlation Of Eeg In Response To Naturalistic Stimuli, Samantha S. Cohen 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Inter-Subject Correlation Of Eeg In Response To Naturalistic Stimuli, Samantha S. Cohen

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Inter-subject correlation is a measure of the similarity of the brain activity of a group of people as they respond to the same naturalistic stimulus, typically a story or video, meant to simulate a real world experience. This thesis tests the hypothesis that the correlation of the brain responses of a group of people is indicative of stimulus engagement. The rationale is that the content of the stimulus drives brain activity in a consistent manner, while internal thoughts are divergent and result in uncorrelated activity. The inter-subject correlation (ISC) of neural responses have previously been assessed with fMRI, EEG, and ...


Comparative Study Of Beat And Temporal Pattern Perception In A Songbird, Brendon Samuels 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Comparative Study Of Beat And Temporal Pattern Perception In A Songbird, Brendon Samuels

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

When humans listen to musical rhythms they sense a beat, the regular pulse that one might tap their foot to. Much about the functions, evolution and neural substrates of beat perception remains unclear. Research has considered whether other species perceive beat, yet more empirical data is needed. Songbirds produce learned rhythmic vocalizations, but can they perceive a beat? To answer this question, I developed a behavioural task that tested whether humans could discriminate rhythms that contained or lacked a beat. I applied an equivalent procedure to test European starlings. I found that humans learned the task with minimal instructions, but ...


Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...


Working Memory And Falls Risk In Older Adults: An Event-Related Potential Study, Yee (Michelle) S. Wong 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Working Memory And Falls Risk In Older Adults: An Event-Related Potential Study, Yee (Michelle) S. Wong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

BACKGROUND: The aging population is rapidly increasing, where currently in North America, the population of older adults (ages 60+) outnumbers the population of children. Falls are a major concern for older adults and their quality of life. Cognitive impairment has been shown to be declined in older adults at-risk for falls, but working memory has not been thoroughly investigated within this population. PURPOSE: To examine differences in Non-Fallers, Moderate Risk for Falls, and Fallers in a working memory task using electroencephalography (EEG). METHODS: Older adults (n=44, female=27) aged 60 – 80 years (m=68.8, SD=4.7) completed ...


Population Codes And Their Correlates In Decision Making, Neda Shahidi, Neda Shahidi 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Population Codes And Their Correlates In Decision Making, Neda Shahidi, Neda Shahidi

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

This dissertation was organized in two parts: in part 1, we discussed Neural Correlates of Perceptual Accuracy” and in part 2 we discussed “Strategy encoding in Prefrontal Cortex”.

Abstract of part 1_The accurate transmission of electrical signals within neocortex is central to sensory perception and cognition. Theoretical studies have long proposed that the temporal coordination of cortical spiking activity controls signal transmission and cognitive function. In reality, whether and how the precise temporal coordination in neuronal populations during wakefulness influences perception remains a mystery. Here, we simultaneously recorded populations of neurons in early and mid-level visual cortex (areas V1 ...


Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

For millennia, monasteries have been at the forefront of training virtues such as compassion, transcendence, service, gratitude, forgiveness, and grit, as well as foundational psychological capacities such as self-regulation, sustained, voluntary attention, emotional intelligence, and meta-cognitive awareness. Monasteries of the Future are modern institutions, both secular and religious, designed to provide the requisite financial, social, intellectual, and instructional support necessary to train a new generation of contemplative adepts. Forming a network of centers which collaborate and compete, Monasteries of the Future will establish and uphold the highest standards in the contemplative field. By partnering with modern science, most notably positive ...


Inactivation Of The Medial-Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Interval Timing Precision, But Not Timing Accuracy Or Scalar Timing In A Peak-Interval Procedure In Rats, Catalin V. Buhusi, Marcelo B. Reyes, Cody-Aaron Gathers, Sorinel A. Oprisan, Mona Buhusi 2018 Utah State University

Inactivation Of The Medial-Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Interval Timing Precision, But Not Timing Accuracy Or Scalar Timing In A Peak-Interval Procedure In Rats, Catalin V. Buhusi, Marcelo B. Reyes, Cody-Aaron Gathers, Sorinel A. Oprisan, Mona Buhusi

Psychology Faculty Publications

Motor sequence learning, planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors, and decision making rely on accurate time estimation and production of durations in the seconds-to-minutes range. The pathways involved in planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors include cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry modulated by dopaminergic inputs. A critical feature of interval timing is its scalar property, by which the precision of timing is proportional to the timed duration. We examined the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in timing by evaluating the effect of its reversible inactivation on timing accuracy, timing precision and scalar timing. Rats were trained to time two durations in a ...


Dopaminergic Medication Decreases Motor Impulsivity On The Go/No-Go Task In Parkinson's Disease, Xue Qing Yang 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Dopaminergic Medication Decreases Motor Impulsivity On The Go/No-Go Task In Parkinson's Disease, Xue Qing Yang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. Dopaminergic medications treat motor symptoms, but have complex effects on cognition, including impulse control. Impulsivity is multifaceted in nature. Motor impulsivity involves inability to withhold prepotent, automatic responses whereas cognitive impulsivity refers to increased risk-taking and reward-seeking. We anticipated that dopaminergic therapy would decrease motor impulsivity. We employed the Go/No-go paradigm to assess motor impulsivity. PD patients were tested on and off their dopaminergic medication. PD patients on medication had a significantly higher proportion of Go Timeouts (i.e., Go responses not completed by the 750 millisecond ...


Processing Emotional Expression In The Dance Of A Foreign Culture: Gestural Responses Of Germans And Koreans To Ballet And Korean Dance, Zi Hyun Kim, Hedda Lausberg 2018 German Sport University Cologne

Processing Emotional Expression In The Dance Of A Foreign Culture: Gestural Responses Of Germans And Koreans To Ballet And Korean Dance, Zi Hyun Kim, Hedda Lausberg

Journal of Movement Arts Literacy

Artistic dance differs between cultures with regard to the formal movement repertoire and methods to represent dancer's emotions. The present study explores how differently the spectators perceive the dance scenes of their own and foreign cultures. We showed German and Korean participants sad and happy dance scenes of the French ballet Giselle and Korean dance Sung-Mu. To learn the perceived thoughts and feelings of the participant from the dance scenes, we analyzed the frequency of their hand movements and gestures, which were accompanied by verbal descriptions of the participant's appreciation immediately after observation of the dance stimuli. The ...


When Less Is More: Mindfulness Predicts Adaptive Affective Responding To Rejection Via Reduced Prefrontal Recruitment, Alexandra M. Martelli, David S. Chester, Kirk Warren Brown, Naomi I. Eisenberger, C. Nathan DeWall 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

When Less Is More: Mindfulness Predicts Adaptive Affective Responding To Rejection Via Reduced Prefrontal Recruitment, Alexandra M. Martelli, David S. Chester, Kirk Warren Brown, Naomi I. Eisenberger, C. Nathan Dewall

Psychology Faculty Publications

Social rejection is a distressing and painful event that many people must cope with on a frequent basis. Mindfulness—defined here as a mental state of receptive attentiveness to internal and external stimuli as they arise, moment-to-moment—may buffer such social distress. However, little research indicates whether mindful individuals adaptively regulate the distress of rejection—or the neural mechanisms underlying this potential capacity. To fill these gaps in the literature, participants reported their trait mindfulness and then completed a social rejection paradigm (Cyberball) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Approximately 1 hour after the rejection incident, participants reported their level ...


Linking Signal Detection Theory And Encoding Models To Reveal Independent Neural Representations From Neuroimaging Data, Fabian A. Soto 2018 Florida International University

Linking Signal Detection Theory And Encoding Models To Reveal Independent Neural Representations From Neuroimaging Data, Fabian A. Soto

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


A Feature-Based Model Of Visually Perceiving Deformable Objects, Vivian C. Paulun, Filipp Schmidt, Roland W. Fleming 2018 Justus Liebig University, Giessen

A Feature-Based Model Of Visually Perceiving Deformable Objects, Vivian C. Paulun, Filipp Schmidt, Roland W. Fleming

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Global Estimation Of Signed 3d Surface Tilt From Natural Images, Seha Kim, Johannes Burge 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Global Estimation Of Signed 3d Surface Tilt From Natural Images, Seha Kim, Johannes Burge

MODVIS Workshop

The ability of human visual systems to estimate 3D surface orientation from 2D retinal images is critical. But the computation to calculate 3D orientation in real-world scenes is not fully understood. A Bayes optimal model grounded in natural statistics has explained 3D surface tilt estimation of human observers in natural scenes (Kim and Burge, 2018). However, the model is limited because it estimates only unsigned tilt (tilt modulo 180deg). We extend the model to predict signed tilt estimates and compared with human signed estimates. The model takes image pixels as input and produces optimal estimates of tilt as output, using ...


Inferring The Neural Representation Of Faces From Adaptation Aftereffects, Kara J. Emery, Michael A. Webster Ph.D. 2018 University of Nevada, Reno

Inferring The Neural Representation Of Faces From Adaptation Aftereffects, Kara J. Emery, Michael A. Webster Ph.D.

MODVIS Workshop

The aftereffects of adaptation to faces have been studied widely, in part to characterize the coding schemes for representing different facial attributes. Often these aftereffects have been interpreted in terms of two alternative models of face processing: 1) a norm-based or opponent code, in which the facial dimension is represented by relative activity in a pair of broadly-tuned mechanisms with opposing sensitivities; or 2) an exemplar code, in which the dimension is sampled by multiple channels narrowly-tuned to different levels of the stimulus. Evidence for or against these alternatives is based on the different patterns of aftereffects they predict (e ...


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