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All Articles in Systems Neuroscience

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Rapid Visuomotor Integration As A Window Into Multisensory Processing, Margaret Schrayer 2018 University of Georgia

Rapid Visuomotor Integration As A Window Into Multisensory Processing, Margaret Schrayer

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Introduction: Neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s Disease (PD) cause changes in the subcortical and cortical structures of the brain, affecting interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual streams. The dorsal stream processes the location of objects in the visual workspace while the ventral stream identifies those objects. We expect that, in individuals with PD, motor deficits will occur as a result of disruptions in online interactions between the dorsal and ventral streams.

Purpose: In the experiment, participants identify object shape while shapes are either moving or stationary, and make accurate reaching movements to the objects. Our hypothesis is that ...


Combinatorial Geometry Of Threshold-Linear Networks, Christopher Langdon 2018 Illinois State University

Combinatorial Geometry Of Threshold-Linear Networks, Christopher Langdon

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Cortical Contributions To Working Memory-Guided Obstacle Locomotion, Carmen Wong 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing The Cortical Contributions To Working Memory-Guided Obstacle Locomotion, Carmen Wong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

While walking in complex environments, the ability to acquire information about objects in our surroundings is essential for successful obstacle negotiation. Furthermore, the ease with which most animals can traverse cluttered terrain while grazing, exploring, or hunting is facilitated by the capacity to store obstacle information in working memory (WM). However, the underlying neural substrates supporting such complex behaviours are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this thesis is to examine the neural underpinnings of WM-guided obstacle negotiation in the walking cat.

Obstacle locomotion was studied in two main paradigms, characterized by whether obstacle presence was detected via vision or ...


How Auditory And Visual Working Memory Tasks Affect Misophonic Response Levels, Erin Ansusinha, Melette DeVore, Dr. Daniel Corts 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

How Auditory And Visual Working Memory Tasks Affect Misophonic Response Levels, Erin Ansusinha, Melette Devore, Dr. Daniel Corts

Celebration of Learning

Misophonia is characterized by an extreme aversion towards auditory triggers, such as chewing, tapping, and other repetitive sounds, making ignoring or directing attention away from the sounds nearly impossible. It is not classified as a psychological disorder, but it is associated with significant, reflexive emotional disturbances. Studies have shown that the anterior insular cortex (AIC), an area involved in detecting irregularities or errors, functions differently in people with misophonia, which translates to difficulty in controlling emotional reactions. The present study examines how misophonic reactions might interact with cognition with particular attention to how cognitive demands may exacerbate the emotional response ...


Population Codes And Their Correlates In Decision Making, Neda Shahidi, Neda Shahidi 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Population Codes And Their Correlates In Decision Making, Neda Shahidi, Neda Shahidi

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

This dissertation was organized in two parts: in part 1, we discussed Neural Correlates of Perceptual Accuracy” and in part 2 we discussed “Strategy encoding in Prefrontal Cortex”.

Abstract of part 1_The accurate transmission of electrical signals within neocortex is central to sensory perception and cognition. Theoretical studies have long proposed that the temporal coordination of cortical spiking activity controls signal transmission and cognitive function. In reality, whether and how the precise temporal coordination in neuronal populations during wakefulness influences perception remains a mystery. Here, we simultaneously recorded populations of neurons in early and mid-level visual cortex (areas V1 ...


Organization And Development Of Cholinergic Input To The Mouse Visual Thalamus., Guela Sokhadze 2018 University of Louisville

Organization And Development Of Cholinergic Input To The Mouse Visual Thalamus., Guela Sokhadze

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cholinergic signaling plays a vital role in modulating the flow of sensory information through thalamic circuits in a state-dependent manner. In the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the thalamic visual relay, release of acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to enhanced thalamocortical transfer of retinal signal during behavioral states of arousal, wakefulness, and sleep/wake transitions. Moreover, ACh modulates activity of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a structure which provides inhibitory input to dLGN. While several cholinergic nuclei have been shown to innervate dLGN and TRN, it is unclear how projections from each area are organized. Furthermore, little is known of how or ...


Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully APC Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins 2018 University of Texas at El Paso

Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

This article, which includes novel unpublished data along with commentary and analysis,
focuses on approaches to link transcriptomic, proteomic, and peptidomic datasets mined from
brain tissue to the original locations within the brain that they are derived from using digital atlas
mapping techniques. We use, as an example, the transcriptomic, proteomic and peptidomic
analyses conducted in the mammalian hypothalamus. Following a brief historical overview, we
highlight studies that have mined biochemical and molecular information from the hypothalamus
and then lay out a strategy for how these data can be linked spatially to the mapped locations in a
canonical brain atlas ...


Contextual Fear Retrieval-Induced Fos Expression Across Early Development In The Rat: An Analysis Using Established Nervous System Nomenclature Ontology, Anthony J. Santarelli, Arshad M. Khan, Andrew M. Poulos 2018 University at Albany, State University of New York

Contextual Fear Retrieval-Induced Fos Expression Across Early Development In The Rat: An Analysis Using Established Nervous System Nomenclature Ontology, Anthony J. Santarelli, Arshad M. Khan, Andrew M. Poulos

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Brightness Perception Involves Local Adaptation Opposed By Lateral Interaction, Qasim Zaidi, Romain Bachy, Jose-Manuel Alonso 2018 Graduate Center for Vision Research, State University of New York

Brightness Perception Involves Local Adaptation Opposed By Lateral Interaction, Qasim Zaidi, Romain Bachy, Jose-Manuel Alonso

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Noise On Mutually Inhibiting Pyramidal Cells In Visual Cortex: Foundation Of Stochasticity In Bi-Stable Perception, Naoki Kogo, Felix Kern, Thomas Nowotny, Raymond van Ee, Richard van Wezel, Takeshi Aihara 2018 Biophysics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University

Effect Of Noise On Mutually Inhibiting Pyramidal Cells In Visual Cortex: Foundation Of Stochasticity In Bi-Stable Perception, Naoki Kogo, Felix Kern, Thomas Nowotny, Raymond Van Ee, Richard Van Wezel, Takeshi Aihara

MODVIS Workshop

Bi-stable perception has been an important tool to investigate how visual input is interpreted and how it reaches consciousness. To explain the mechanisms of this phenomenon, it has been assumed that a mutual inhibition circuit plays a key role. It is possible that this circuit functions to resolve ambiguity of input image by quickly shifting the balance of competing signals in response to conflicting features. Recently we established an in vitro neural recording system combined with computerized connections mediated by model neurons and synapses (“dynamic clamp” system). With this system, mutual inhibition circuit between two pyramidal cells from primary visual ...


Modeling Emmetropization In An Incessantly Moving Eye, Michele Rucci, Jonathan D. Victor 2018 University of Rochester

Modeling Emmetropization In An Incessantly Moving Eye, Michele Rucci, Jonathan D. Victor

MODVIS Workshop

Many questions remain unanswered regarding the specific cues and mechanisms for emmetropization, the process by which, during development, the eye adjusts itself so that distant objects are in focus. Research has so far primarily focused on the spatial cues present in the image on the retina, such as the degree of blur. However, eye movements incessantly transform a mostly static scene into temporal modulations, so that the input to the retina is not an image, but a spatiotemporal flow of luminance. Models of retinal input signals indicate that this space-time reformatting caused by eye movements yields additional cues to the ...


Time-Evolving Dynamics In Brain Networks Forecast Responses To Health Messaging, Nicole Cooper, Javier O. Garcia, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Time-Evolving Dynamics In Brain Networks Forecast Responses To Health Messaging, Nicole Cooper, Javier O. Garcia, Steven Tompson, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Neuroimaging measures have been used to forecast complex behaviors, including how individuals change decisions about their health in response to persuasive communications, but have rarely incorporated metrics of brain network dynamics. How do functional dynamics within and between brain networks relate to the processes of persuasion and behavior change? To address this question, we scanned forty-five adult smokers using functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed antismoking images. Participants reported their smoking behavior and intentions to quit smoking before the scan and one month later. We focused on regions within four atlas-defined networks and examined whether they formed consistent network ...


Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard 2018 University of Louisville

Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electrophysiological measurements have been used in recent history to classify instantaneous physiological configurations, e.g., hand gestures. This work investigates the feasibility of working with changes in physiological configurations over time (i.e., longitudinally) using a variety of algorithms from the machine learning domain. We demonstrate a high degree of classification accuracy for a binary classification problem derived from electromyography measurements before and after a 35-day bedrest. The problem difficulty is increased with a more dynamic experiment testing for changes in astronaut sensorimotor performance by taking electromyography and force plate measurements before, during, and after a jump from a small ...


Computer Vision Evidence Supporting Craniometric Alignment Of Rat Brain Atlases To Streamline Expert-Guided, First-Order Migration Of Hypothalamic Spatial Datasets Related To Behavioral Control, Arshad M. Khan, Jose G. Perez, Claire E. Wells, Olac Fuentes 2018 University of Texas at El Paso

Computer Vision Evidence Supporting Craniometric Alignment Of Rat Brain Atlases To Streamline Expert-Guided, First-Order Migration Of Hypothalamic Spatial Datasets Related To Behavioral Control, Arshad M. Khan, Jose G. Perez, Claire E. Wells, Olac Fuentes

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

The rat has arguably the most widely studied brain among all animals, with numerous reference atlases for rat brain having been published since 1946. For example, many neuroscientists have used the atlases of Paxinos and Watson (PW, first published in 1982) or Swanson (S, first published in 1992) as guides to probe or map specific rat brain structures and their connections. Despite nearly three decades of contemporaneous publication, no independent attempt has been made to establish a basic framework that allows data mapped in PWto be placed in register with S, or vice versa. Such data migration would allow ...


Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Performance In An Object-Place-Paired-Associate Task, Lilliana May Sanchez 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Performance In An Object-Place-Paired-Associate Task, Lilliana May Sanchez

Psychology ETDs

Memory impairments, including spatial and object processing, are often observed in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Much attention has been directed towards the hippocampus, which displays significant alterations after moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). In the present study, we tested a moderate PAE rat model in an object-place-paired-associate (OPPA) task, previously shown to require hippocampal processing. The OPPA task was composed of training rats to discriminate between an identical pair of objects presented in 180° opposite arms of a radial arm maze. Animals were given a total of 10 trials per day over 14 consecutive days of training and ...


The Role Of The Chorda Tympani Nerve In The Structural Development Of Brainstem Neurons, Louis Martin 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Role Of The Chorda Tympani Nerve In The Structural Development Of Brainstem Neurons, Louis Martin

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The brain changes substantially throughout development. In the taste system, brainstem neurons undergo dramatic structural alterations after birth. Most notably, these cells’ dendrites, branch-like projections that that receive sensory input, grow 3-4 times longer by adulthood. It is not clear whether incoming signals about taste are necessary for these structural changes to occur. We have consistently found that when the chorda tympani taste nerve (CT) is cut at an early age in rats, it does not regenerate. With this manipulation, we can permanently limit the amount of taste information that reaches the brain. To determine the role of taste input ...


Network Approaches To Understand Individual Differences In Brain Connectivity: Opportunities For Personality Neuroscience, Steven Tompson, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel, Danielle S. Bassett 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Network Approaches To Understand Individual Differences In Brain Connectivity: Opportunities For Personality Neuroscience, Steven Tompson, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel, Danielle S. Bassett

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Over the past decade, advances in the interdisciplinary field of network science have provided a framework for understanding the intrinsic structure and function of human brain networks. A particularly fruitful area of this work has focused on patterns of functional connectivity derived from noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An important subset of these efforts has bridged the computational approaches of network science with the rich empirical data and biological hypotheses of neuroscience, and this research has begun to identify features of brain networks that explain individual differences in social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. The most ...


Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett

CMC Senior Theses

Fossils belonging to the genus Homo, dating as far back as two million years ago, exhibit uniquely efficient features suggesting that early humans had evolved to become exceptional endurance runners. Although they did not have the cushion or stability-control features provided in our modern day running shoes, our early human ancestors experienced far less of the running-related injuries we experience today. The injury rate has been estimated as high as 90% annually for Americans training for a marathon and as high as 79% annually for all American endurance runners. There is an injury epidemic in conventionally shod populations that does ...


Effort-Related Motivational Dysfunctions: Behavioral And Neurochemical Studies Of The Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model Of Depression, Brendan Abbott 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Effort-Related Motivational Dysfunctions: Behavioral And Neurochemical Studies Of The Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model Of Depression, Brendan Abbott

Masters Theses

Depression and related disorders are characterized by motivational dysfunctions, including deficits in behavioral activation and exertion of effort. Animal models of relevance to depression represent a critical starting point in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying motivational dysfunctions. The present study explored the use of the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) animal model of depression to examine effort-related functions as measured by voluntary wheel running and performance on a mixed fixed ratio 5/progressive ratio (FR5/PR) operant task. Given the known link between activational aspects of motivation and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine (0.5 and 1.0 ...


Mapping A Pup-Responsive Pathway From The Medial Preoptic Area To The Ventral Tegmental Area., Matias Andina 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mapping A Pup-Responsive Pathway From The Medial Preoptic Area To The Ventral Tegmental Area., Matias Andina

Masters Theses

Maternal behavior is the complex array of caregiving behaviors females display towards offspring. In rats, the transition to motherhood depends on the action of various hormones, especially estradiol near parturition, which primes the maternal circuitry to respond to pups upon first encounter at parturition with appropriate maternal behavior. Although virgin rats avoid pups, new mothers are highly motivated to interact with pups, and their maternal behavior depends on the functional interaction between the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, a precise mapping of the VTA-projecting mPOA neurons remains to be elucidated. To determine whether pup-responsive ...


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