The Role Of The Chorda Tympani Nerve In The Structural Development Of Brainstem Neurons, 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha
The Role Of The Chorda Tympani Nerve In The Structural Development Of Brainstem Neurons, Louis Martin
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
The brain changes substantially throughout development. In the taste system, brainstem neurons undergo dramatic structural alterations after birth. Most notably, these cells’ dendrites, branch-like projections that that receive sensory input, grow 3-4 times longer by adulthood. It is not clear whether incoming signals about taste are necessary for these structural changes to occur. We have consistently found that when the chorda tympani taste nerve (CT) is cut at an early age in rats, it does not regenerate. With this manipulation, we can permanently limit the amount of taste information that reaches the brain. To determine the role of taste input ...
Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, 2017 University of New Orleans
Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy
University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations
The model of basal ganglia function proposed by Albin, Young and Penney (1989) describes two anatomically independent motor pathways, the direct and indirect. However, under normal conditions striatal dopamine (DA) is required for the expression of motor behavior, and DAergic control of the two pathways (via D1 and D2 receptors, respectively) is dependent on co-activation. We tested for a possible breakdown of D1/D2 synergism using transgenic R6/1 mice bearing the human huntingtin allele (Htt). Motor stereotypy, observed prior to the onset of HD-related symptoms, was rated on a 5-point scale following activation of: A) D1 receptors alone, B ...
Distinct Combinations Of Premotor Neuronal Activation Encode Multimodal Information And Predict Motor Output, 2017 Illinois State University
Distinct Combinations Of Premotor Neuronal Activation Encode Multimodal Information And Predict Motor Output, Chris Goldsmith
Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research
No abstract provided.
The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to function as CSs by acquiring the capacity to activate the same mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons activated by primary rewards, producing conditioned activation of these neurons and their associated motivational states. This model stipulates that CSs activate mesocorticolimbic DA systems through the activation of glutamate receptors on DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We tested the hypothesis that glutamate receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the expression of conditioned approach. Rats were tested in a conditioned approach protocol that consisted of 7 consecutive conditioning sessions (light presentations and food were paired), one ...
A Realization Of Modernity: Case Studies In Connectivity And Time, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
A Realization Of Modernity: Case Studies In Connectivity And Time, Mari Gorman
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
My stated goal in applying to The Graduate Center was to explore my previous research in diverse fields of study. This research, the result of a formal investigation of acting, was and still is centrally focused on the subject of relationship itself, relationships being what actors create. In pursuit of a greater understanding of the essential nature of relationship in practical terms, a self-organizing complex system that constitutes universal relationship was unexpectedly discovered. As such, this system has been shown to offer solutions to many outstanding problems in diverse areas of study. The Liberal Studies program track, Approaches to Modernity ...
Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, 2017 Purdue University
Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium
Understanding speech in noisy environments can be difficult, especially for people with hearing loss. The background noise can cover up the sounds of interest. Normally, the auditory system works to alleviate this problem by tagging and then cancelling the noise. Our experiments are aimed at understanding the mechanism of this noise cancellation process. We hypothesize that non-linear signal processing in the mammalian cochlea (the most peripheral part of the auditory system) is the basis of noise cancellation. To test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) to sounds embedded in background noise with different statistical properties. ANFs ...
Microarray Analysis Of Aging-Associated Immune System Alterations In The Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla Of F344 Rats, 2017 University of Texas at El Paso
Microarray Analysis Of Aging-Associated Immune System Alterations In The Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla Of F344 Rats, Sivasai Balivada, Chanran K. Ganta, Yongqing Zhang, Hitesh N. Pawar, Richard J. Ortiz, Kevin G. Becker, Arshad M. Khan, Michael J. Kenney
Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.
Central And Peripheral Difference In Perceptual Bias In Ambiguous Perception Using Dichoptic Stimuli --- Implications For The Analysis-By-Synthesis Process In Visual Recognition, 2017 University College London
Central And Peripheral Difference In Perceptual Bias In Ambiguous Perception Using Dichoptic Stimuli --- Implications For The Analysis-By-Synthesis Process In Visual Recognition, Li Zhaoping Prof
No abstract provided.
Similarity-Based Fusion Of Meg And Fmri Discerns Early Feedforward And Feedback Processing In The Ventral Stream, 2017 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Similarity-Based Fusion Of Meg And Fmri Discerns Early Feedforward And Feedback Processing In The Ventral Stream, Yalda Mohsenzadeh Dr., Radoslaw Martin Cichy Dr., Aude Oliva Dr., Dimitrios Pantazis Dr.
Successful models of vision, such as DNNs and HMAX, are inspired by the human visual system, relying on a hierarchical cascade of feedforward transformations akin to the ventral stream. Despite these advances, the human visual cortex remains unique in complexity, with feedforward and feedback pathways characterized by rapid spatiotemporal dynamics as visual information is transformed into semantic content. Thus, a systematic characterization of the spatiotemporal and representational space of the ventral visual pathway can offer novel insights in the duration and sequencing of cognitive processes, suggesting computational constraints and new architectures for computer vision models.
To discern the feedforward and ...
Comparing Diverse V1 Models On The Same Platform: Virtual V1sion, 2017 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities
Comparing Diverse V1 Models On The Same Platform: Virtual V1sion, Cheryl Olman
No abstract provided.
Evaluating And Interpreting A Convolutional Neural Net As A Model Of V4, 2017 University of Washington
Evaluating And Interpreting A Convolutional Neural Net As A Model Of V4, Dean A. Pospisil, Anitha Pasupathy, Wyeth Bair
Convolutional neural nets (CNNs) are currently the highest performing image recognition computer algorithms. Of interest is whether these CNNs, following extensive supervised training, perform computations similar to those in the ventral visual stream. We investigated whether CNN units’ tuning for shape boundaries was similar to V4’s as described in the angular position and curvature (APC) model of Pasupathy and Connor 2001. From units in all layers of AlexNet (see Figure A), an object recognition CNN, we recorded responses to the original study’s set of shape stimuli (51 simple closed shapes at up to 8 rotations) presented at 51 ...
How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze
Honors Theses AY 16/17
The intent of this project is to gain new insight into the neural circuitry that underlies decision making through understanding the connection between sensory perception and motor action. This investigation further seeks to identify whether optogenetic manipulation of specific neurons results in a change in mate choice. In defining this connection, the end goal is to combat deleterious decision making behavior in humans, such as drug addiction. Female Bengalese finches (BFs) provide an accessible model in which to investigate the neural mechanisms of behavior. Previous studies reveal that activity in the caudal portion of the mesopallium (CM) in the female ...
On The Origin Of Sensory Errors, 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
On The Origin Of Sensory Errors, Jonathan R. Flynn
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
Estimation of perceptual variables is imprecise and prone to errors. Although the properties of these perceptual errors are well characterized, the physiological basis for these errors is unknown. One previously proposed explanation for these errors is the trial-by-trial variability of the responses of sensory neurons that encode the percept. Initially, it would seem that a complicated electrophysiological experiment would need to be performed to test this hypothesis. However, using a strong theoretical framework, I demonstrate that it is possible to determine statistical characteristics of the physiological mechanism responsible for perceptual errors solely from a behavioral experiment. The basis for this ...
Frontal, Amygdalar, And Temporal Convergence In The Primate Ventral Striatum: Implications For Huntington’S Disease, 2017 College of William and Mary
Frontal, Amygdalar, And Temporal Convergence In The Primate Ventral Striatum: Implications For Huntington’S Disease, Ellen H. Yates
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is part of a class of diseases affecting the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical structures in the brain. Impaired negative emotion recognition is a common and early symptom of HD, and entails the patient being unable to properly identify negative emotions on human faces. Through analysis of cell label patterns in a macaque cortex with a retrograde tracer, a region in the ventromedial striatum has been identified with the potential to function as a critical hub in the emotion processing networks. This region of the striatum receives projections from ...
Plateau Potential Fluctuations And Intrinsic Membrane Noise, 2017 College of William and Mary
Plateau Potential Fluctuations And Intrinsic Membrane Noise, Daniel Scott Borrus
Undergraduate Honors Theses
This thesis focuses on subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations in the plateau potentials of bistable neurons. Research involved with plateau potentials typically finds one of the resting membrane potentials to be more susceptible to voltage fluctuations. This difference in the amplitude of the membrane potential fluctuations is most often attributed to the voltage-dependent membrane conductance. Occasionally, however, the typically quieter resting membrane potential exhibits larger voltage fluctuations than the expected one. It has been proposed that this increased membrane potential noise is the result of the stochastic gating of the voltage-gated ion channels. In this thesis, we use a simple bistable ...
P35. Investigating The Effect Of Maternal Immune Activation On Sensory Filtering, Social Behaviour And Attention, Faraj Haddad
Western Research Forum
Altered brain development is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Environmental insults can interfere with neurodevelopment, and a prominent example is maternal infection during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies show that children born to mothers who were infected during pregnancy display a higher risk of developing ASD and schizophrenia, and this effect is mainly due to the maternal immune response. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) is a double stranded RNA molecule that mimics viral markers and elicits an immune response. When injected in pregnant rodents, this model produces offspring that exhibit core symptoms of ASD ...
Neurotensin Nts1 And Nts2 Receptor Agonists Produce Anxiolytic-Like Effects In The 22-Khz Ultrasonic Vocalization Model In Rats, 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University
Neurotensin Nts1 And Nts2 Receptor Agonists Produce Anxiolytic-Like Effects In The 22-Khz Ultrasonic Vocalization Model In Rats, Floyd F. Steele Iii, Shannon C. Whitehouse, Jacob S. Aday, Adam J. Prus
Neurotensin is a neuropeptide neurotransmitter that interacts with multiple neurotransmitter systems, including those regulating amygdalar function, via NTS1 and NTS2 receptors. Both receptors are expressed in the amygdala and agonists for NTS1 or NTS2 receptors have exhibited anxiolytic effects in animal models. Systemic adminstration of NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 was recently shown to reduce footshock conditioned 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in rats, suggesting that PD149163 produced an anxiolytic effect. The effects that neurotensin may have or a selective NTS2receptor agonist may have on 22-kHz vocalizations has yet to be examined. The current study evaluated ...
Evaluating Stressor Controllability Effects In Female Rats, 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder
Evaluating Stressor Controllability Effects In Female Rats, Isabella Fallon
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Women are at a higher risk for developing neuropsychiatric conditions including generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression. Moreover, traumatic life events may provoke disease development to a higher degree in women than in men. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown, however it has been argued that they emerge, in part, from different coping responses to adverse life events. In humans, factors associated with resilience revolve around coping of which actual or perceived behavioral control over stress is a critical element. Work conducted almost entirely with male rats has demonstrated that behavioral control over stress potently modulates the ...
The Effects Of The Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Morphine On The Structure And Function Of The Hippocampal Ca1 Subfield, 2017 SUNY College at Buffalo
The Effects Of The Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Morphine On The Structure And Function Of The Hippocampal Ca1 Subfield, William D. Marks
Theses and Dissertations
HIV is capable of causing a set of neurological diseases collectively termed the HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). Worsening pathology is observed in HIV+ individuals who use opioid drugs. Memory problems are often observed in HAND, implicating HIV pathology in the hippocampus, and are also known to be exacerbated by morphine use. HIV-1 Tat was demonstrated to reduce spatial memory performance in multiple tasks, and individual subsets of CA1 interneurons were found to be selectively vulnerable to the effects of Tat, notably nNOS+/NPY- interneurons of the pyramidal layer and stratum radiatum, PV+ neurons of the pyramidal layer, and SST ...
Rules And Mechanisms For Efficient Two-Stage Learning In Neural Circuits, 2017 CUNY Graduate Center, University of Pennsylvania
Rules And Mechanisms For Efficient Two-Stage Learning In Neural Circuits, Tiberiu Teşileanu, Bence Ölveczky, Vijay Balasubramanian
Publications and Research
Trial-and-error learning requires evaluating variable actions and reinforcing successful variants. In songbirds, vocal exploration is induced by LMAN, the output of a basal ganglia-related circuit that also contributes a corrective bias to the vocal output. This bias is gradually consolidated in RA, a motor cortex analogue downstream of LMAN. We develop a new model of such two-stage learning. Using stochastic gradient descent, we derive how the activity in ‘tutor’ circuits (e.g., LMAN) should match plasticity mechanisms in ‘student’ circuits (e.g., RA) to achieve efficient learning. We further describe a reinforcement learning framework through which the tutor can build ...