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Functional And Structural Brain Reorganization After Unilateral Prefrontal Cortex Lesions In Macaques, Ramina Adam 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Functional And Structural Brain Reorganization After Unilateral Prefrontal Cortex Lesions In Macaques, Ramina Adam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Visually exploring the surrounding environment relies on attentional selection of behaviourally relevant stimuli for further processing. The prefrontal cortex contributes to target selection as part of a frontoparietal network that controls shifts of gaze and attention towards relevant stimuli. Evidence from stroke patients and nonhuman primate lesion studies have shown that unilateral damage to the prefrontal cortex commonly impairs the ability to allocate attention toward stimuli in the contralesional visual hemifield. Although these impairments often exhibit a gradual improvement over time, the neural plasticity that underlies recovery of function remains poorly understood. The main objective of this dissertation was to ...


Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison 2020 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Optical Clearing Reveals Tnbs-Induced Morphological Changes Of Vglut2-Positive Nerve Endings In The Colorectum, Shivam Patel 2020 University of Connecticut

Optical Clearing Reveals Tnbs-Induced Morphological Changes Of Vglut2-Positive Nerve Endings In The Colorectum, Shivam Patel

Honors Scholar Theses

Sensitization of colorectal afferents and colorectal hypersensitivity have been observed in a mouse model of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome via intracolonic treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). In this study, we investigated the distribution and morphology of microscopic colorectal afferent endings before and after intracolonic treatment of TNBS. We genetically labeled predominantly extrinsic colorectal afferents using the vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 (VGLUT2) promoter. Then, we used an optical tissue clearing method of whole-mount colorectum to image labeled VGLUT2-nerve endings that are otherwise obscured in untreated samples. We used vector path tracing to quantify the density and degree of ...


The Effect Of Intranasal Orexin A On The Interaction Between Social Isolation Stress And Attention, Saurav Pattanayak 2020 William & Mary

The Effect Of Intranasal Orexin A On The Interaction Between Social Isolation Stress And Attention, Saurav Pattanayak

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Orexins are neuropeptides that have been shown to have an association with processes such as stress and attention. However, limited studies have been done on orexin’s role in the intersection of stress and attention. In this experiment, Sprague Dawley rats were isolated at 21 postnatal days, isolated at 35 postnatal days, or placed into group-housing. Varying doses of orexin A or saline were administered intranasally into the rats. Their attentional performance was measured in a sustained attention task. An ANOVA was carried out on the hit rates, correct rejection rates, and omissions of socially isolated rats and group-housed rats ...


Assessment Of Intrinsic Hand Neuromuscular Physiology, Philemon Tsang 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Assessment Of Intrinsic Hand Neuromuscular Physiology, Philemon Tsang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alterations to the peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular physiology may impact hand function in a typical or clinical population, such as individuals with ulnar neuropathy. The mechanisms that influence these positive and negative changes are still not well understood. The three studies within my thesis aim to validate the reliability of decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG) measurements and explore the changes in intrinsic hand neuromuscular physiology in a typical aging population and individuals recovering from a surgical intervention for severe ulnar neuropathy.

The purpose of the first study was to determine the test-retest reliability of near-fibre (NF) jiggle, a measure of ...


Experience-Dependent Changes In Nucleus Accumbens Activity Predict Cued Approach Learning: Contribution Of Nmda Receptors, Mercedes Vega Villar 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Experience-Dependent Changes In Nucleus Accumbens Activity Predict Cued Approach Learning: Contribution Of Nmda Receptors, Mercedes Vega Villar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Animals learn associations between environmental cues and the natural rewards they predict (e.g., food, water, sex). As a result, reward-predictive cues come to trigger vigorous reward-seeking responses. Many neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) become excited upon presentation of an already-learned reward-predictive cue. These NAc responses encode the motivational value of the cue and are necessary for the expression of the subsequent approach behavior. However, the precise temporal relationship between the emergence of cue-evoked excitations in the NAc and the acquisition of cued approach behavior remains unknown. In Experiment 1, NAc activity was recorded as rats learned to approach ...


Tissue-Specific Regulation Of Pnmt By Intron Retention During Neural Development, Meeti Mehta 2020 University of Central Florida

Tissue-Specific Regulation Of Pnmt By Intron Retention During Neural Development, Meeti Mehta

Digital Repository: Showcase of Undergraduate Research Excellence

No abstract provided.


Graph Theory Analysis Of Induced Neural Plasticity Post- Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Chronic Pain, Sarah K. Meier 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Graph Theory Analysis Of Induced Neural Plasticity Post- Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Chronic Pain, Sarah K. Meier

Honors Theses and Capstones

Chronic musculoskeletal pain affects the lives of over 100 million individuals in the United States making it the nation’s number one disability-causing condition (Institute of Medicine, 2011). Chronic pain leads to functional changes within the brains of those suffering from the condition. Not only does the pain network transform as acute pains become persistent, a state of hyperconnectivity also exists between the default mode, frontoparietal, and salience networks. Through behavioral assessment and graph theory analysis, the current study investigates how Acceptance and Commitment Therapy alleviates this functional hyperconnectivity. Results indicate that this treatment reduces the pre-existing hyperconnectivity between the ...


Biomechanics And Neural Control Of Movement: Cmi's Effects On Downstream Motor Processing And Gait In Forwards And Backwards Walking, Christopher Choi 2020 Claremont Colleges

Biomechanics And Neural Control Of Movement: Cmi's Effects On Downstream Motor Processing And Gait In Forwards And Backwards Walking, Christopher Choi

CMC Senior Theses

Analyzing the effects of cognitive motor interferences (CMI) on walking is usually done in patients with neurological comorbidity or during forward walking (FW). However, there are few studies that examine gait differences between FW and backward walking (BW) under the presence of CMI when speed is kept constant on a treadmill. In this study we examined how CMI would disrupt sensory feedback and affect the descending motor pathway. We hypothesized that subjects that walked backwards and were given a cognitive task would show the greatest differences in gait due to a lack of visual input and the presence of CMI ...


A Flight Sensory-Motor To Olfactory Histamine Circuit Mediates Olfactory Processing Of Ecologically And Behaviorally Natural Stimuli, Samual P. Bradley 2020 West Virginia University

A Flight Sensory-Motor To Olfactory Histamine Circuit Mediates Olfactory Processing Of Ecologically And Behaviorally Natural Stimuli, Samual P. Bradley

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Environmental pressures have conferred species specific behavioral and morphological traits to optimize reproductive success. To optimally interact with their environment, nervous systems have evolved motor-to-sensory circuits that mediate the processing of its own reafference. Moth flight behavioral patterns to odor sources are stereotyped, presumably to optimize the likelihood of interacting with the odor source. In the moth Manduca sexta wing beating causes oscillatory flow of air over the antenna; because of this, odorant-antennal interactions are oscillatory in nature. Electroantennogram recordings on antennae show that the biophysical properties of their spiking activity can effectively track odors presented at the wing beat ...


Neuroimaging Of Real-World Audio-Visual Sensory Integration In High-Functioning Autism, Paula J. Webster 2020 West Virginia University

Neuroimaging Of Real-World Audio-Visual Sensory Integration In High-Functioning Autism, Paula J. Webster

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Sensory processing differences are a prevalent aspect of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that may contribute to core deficits of ASD such as repetitive behaviors as well as comorbidities including anxiety disorders. The ability to integrate information among our senses is required to comprehend the world around us and is crucial for the development of language, motor skills, and social communication. Prior studies have shown that individuals with autism differ from individuals without autism when presented with simple, non-natural audio-visual stimuli such as basic shapes accompanied by pure tones. Because the human brain processes non-natural and natural stimuli differently, more recent ...


Diverse Autonomic Nervous System Stress Response Patterns In Childhood Sensory Modulation, Jacquelyn Christensen, Heather Wild, Erin S. Kenzie, Wayne Wakeland, Deborah Budding, Connie Lillas 2020 Pitzer College

Diverse Autonomic Nervous System Stress Response Patterns In Childhood Sensory Modulation, Jacquelyn Christensen, Heather Wild, Erin S. Kenzie, Wayne Wakeland, Deborah Budding, Connie Lillas

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

The specific role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in emotional and behavioral regulation—particularly in relation to automatic processes—has gained increased attention in the sensory modulation literature. This mini-review article summarizes current knowledge about the role of the ANS in sensory modulation, with a focus on the integrated functions of the ANS and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and their measurement. Research from the past decade illustrates that sympathetic and parasympathetic interactions are more complex than previously assumed. Patterns of ANS activation vary across individuals, with distinct physiological response profiles influencing the reactivity underlying automatic behavioral responses. This review ...


Characterization Of The Effect Of Exercise Dose And Integrative Nonpharmacological Therapies In The Treatment Of Chronic Pain, Anna M. Polaski 2019 Duquesne University

Characterization Of The Effect Of Exercise Dose And Integrative Nonpharmacological Therapies In The Treatment Of Chronic Pain, Anna M. Polaski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain includes debilitating conditions affecting large populations of people throughout the world. These diseases are further complicated by comorbid psychological disorders which make chronic pain conditions difficult to treat. Nonpharmacological treatment options have more recently become an important mainstay of effective therapies and are currently being used to supplement or replace traditional pharmacological treatment methods. Exercise-based therapies in particular are of interest due to their demonstrated success in reducing pain symptoms as well as improving psychological outcomes. Dose is an important factor in being able to effectively prescribe treatments in the context of specific exercise interventions and specific pain ...


Investigating The Effects Of Excitotoxic Stimuli On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Rachel A. Brandes 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Investigating The Effects Of Excitotoxic Stimuli On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Rachel A. Brandes

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Understanding Object Motion Encoding In The Mammalian Retina., Victor Julian DePiero 2019 University of Louisville

Understanding Object Motion Encoding In The Mammalian Retina., Victor Julian Depiero

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Phototransduction, transmission of visual information down the optic nerve incurs delays on the order of 50 – 100ms. This implies that the neuronal representation of a moving object should lag behind the object’s actual position. However, studies have demonstrated that the visual system compensates for neuronal delays using a predictive mechanism called phase advancing, which shifts the population response toward the leading edge of a moving object’s retinal image. To understand how this compensation is achieved in the retina, I investigated cellular and synaptic mechanisms that drive phase advancing. I used three approaches, each testing phase advancing at a ...


Distributions Of Hypothalamic Neuron Populations Co-Expressing Tyrosine Hydroxylase And The Vesicular Gaba Transporter In The Mouse., Kenichiro Negishi, Mikayla A. Payant, Kayla S. Schumacker, Gabor Wittman, Rebecca M. Butler, Ronald M. Lechan, Harry W. M. Steinbusch m, Arshad M. Khan, Melissa J. Chee 2019 Carleton University

Distributions Of Hypothalamic Neuron Populations Co-Expressing Tyrosine Hydroxylase And The Vesicular Gaba Transporter In The Mouse., Kenichiro Negishi, Mikayla A. Payant, Kayla S. Schumacker, Gabor Wittman, Rebecca M. Butler, Ronald M. Lechan, Harry W. M. Steinbusch M, Arshad M. Khan, Melissa J. Chee

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Sensory Perception, Adrian Rodriguez-Contreras 2019 CUNY City College

Sensory Perception, Adrian Rodriguez-Contreras

Open Educational Resources

Different types of sensory systems with their functional modalities will be presented. The biological bases for how these functions are generated and modified will then be described. As vision is the principal means of perception, we will focus in this course most on visual processing. Scientific data will be integrated into the lectures, such that students develop critical skills in analyzing data and proposing hypotheses.


Functional Organization Of Cortical Maps For Ocular Dominance And Light-Dark Polarity In Primary Visual Cortex, sohrab najafian, Jian Zhong Jin, Jose-Manuel Alonso 2019 SUNY College of Optometry

Functional Organization Of Cortical Maps For Ocular Dominance And Light-Dark Polarity In Primary Visual Cortex, Sohrab Najafian, Jian Zhong Jin, Jose-Manuel Alonso

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


The Challenge For Vision Of Fluctuating Real-World Illumination, David H. Foster 2019 University of Manchester

The Challenge For Vision Of Fluctuating Real-World Illumination, David H. Foster

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


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