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Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn 2020 William & Mary

Effects Of Nicotine On Attention: Role Of Orexin-1 Receptors, Stacy Pitcairn

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The orexin (also called hypocretin) system projects to a wide array of brain regions and is activated by drugs of abuse. The orexin system is best known for its function in wakefulness and arousal, but recent research has suggested that orexins play a vital role in attentional processing. The orexin-1 receptor has been implicated in crucial mechanisms of attention, specifically the transmission of acetylcholine to the cortex. Nicotine is a commonly administered psychoactive drug that has been shown to have cognitive-enhancing effects. Nicotine appears to target the orexin system, suggesting a potential role of the orexin system in mediating the ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham 2020 William & Mary

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


Alcohol Consumption In A Preclinical Model Of Schizophrenia, Liza Hernandez 2020 East Tennessee State University

Alcohol Consumption In A Preclinical Model Of Schizophrenia, Liza Hernandez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 1% of the global population. Schizophrenia is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders such as Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) with a prevalence rate of 27% - 65%, which is significantly higher than AUD exhibited by the general population (6%). Research indicates that a higher rate of AUD in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be related to the common neuronal pathways that underlie the expression of both disorders. The present study will determine whether the neonatal quinpirole (NQ) rodent model of schizophrenia will approximate the human condition and exhibit increased EtOH consumption. Rats ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers 2020 University of San Diego

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


Argumentative Synthesis Essay On Enhanced Interrogation Techniques, Gwendolyn D. Wheatley 2020 Cleveland State University

Argumentative Synthesis Essay On Enhanced Interrogation Techniques, Gwendolyn D. Wheatley

The Downtown Review

This essay discusses enhanced interrogation techniques. For reference, enhanced interrogation techniques are interrogation techniques that involve “physically coercive interventions” (Duke & Puyvelde, 2017). The U.S. government supported these techniques after the attacks on September 11, 2001. This essay argues that enhanced interrogation techniques should not be used in interrogations because they are unethical, ineffective, and negatively impact the mental health of the interrogators using these techniques. Additionally, the essay references articles on the varied viewpoints as well as explains information on these interrogation techniques. Also, the essay argues that enhanced interrogation techniques encourage people to be cruel and inhumane. Moreover ...


A Study Of The Antioxidant Versus Pro-Oxidant Nature Of The Amyloid Beta Peptide And An Analysis Of The Natural Products, Isorhamnetin And Narignenin, As Antioxidants, Kaylee Holmes 2020 University of Mississippi

A Study Of The Antioxidant Versus Pro-Oxidant Nature Of The Amyloid Beta Peptide And An Analysis Of The Natural Products, Isorhamnetin And Narignenin, As Antioxidants, Kaylee Holmes

Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with no cure. Due to the widespread effects of this disease, abundant research efforts have gone towards finding a cure. The amyloid beta (Ab) peptide has been shown to be a potential cause of the disease due to destructive effects on tissues that it can have both by itself and through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This study was performed in order to assess the structural properties of Ab42monomers, fibrils and oligomers, to assess the antioxidant versus pro-oxidant behavior of the Ab peptide, and to assess the antioxidant nature of the ...


Socially-Facilitated Antipredator Responses In The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Kaitlyn Herron 2020 Susquehanna University

Socially-Facilitated Antipredator Responses In The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Kaitlyn Herron

Senior Scholars Day

Animals use diverse sources of information to assess predation risk. Many may use direct information such as visual or odor cues associated with a predator. Additionally, social species may use indirect sources of information such as observing antipredator responses of nearby conspecifics even when they themselves have no direct information about risk. The relative value and interaction of direct predator cues and indirect social information about predation risk is unclear, particularly when these sources provide conflicting information. The wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, displays effective antipredator behavior (freezing) when detecting silk from adults of another co-occurring wolf spider, Tigrosa helluo. Pardosa ...


Beta-Endorphin Expression And Sex Affect The Ability Of Alcohol To Alter Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity In The Reward Pathway In Mice, Hannah Kelly-Quigley 2020 Susquehanna University

Beta-Endorphin Expression And Sex Affect The Ability Of Alcohol To Alter Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity In The Reward Pathway In Mice, Hannah Kelly-Quigley

Senior Scholars Day

Alcohol has sexually dimorphic effects on the brain, and the endogenous opioid, beta-endorphin (BE), mediates many effects of alcohol. In the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, alcohol stimulates neurons to enhance dopaminergic signaling, but the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Alcohol could impact dopaminergic signaling in the reward pathway by affecting the production and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that acute alcohol intoxication would increase c-fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in a sex- and BE-dependent manner. In this ...


Assessment Of Intrinsic Hand Neuromuscular Physiology, Philemon Tsang 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Assessment Of Intrinsic Hand Neuromuscular Physiology, Philemon Tsang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alterations to the peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular physiology may impact hand function in a typical or clinical population, such as individuals with ulnar neuropathy. The mechanisms that influence these positive and negative changes are still not well understood. The three studies within my thesis aim to validate the reliability of decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG) measurements and explore the changes in intrinsic hand neuromuscular physiology in a typical aging population and individuals recovering from a surgical intervention for severe ulnar neuropathy.

The purpose of the first study was to determine the test-retest reliability of near-fibre (NF) jiggle, a measure of ...


Critical Analysis Of Cognitive Assessment Methods For Patients With Cognitive Impairment And Dementia, John T Meghreblian 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Critical Analysis Of Cognitive Assessment Methods For Patients With Cognitive Impairment And Dementia, John T Meghreblian

Faculty: Peer-Reviewed Publications -- UT Libraries

The focus of this thesis is to understand the purpose of cognitive assessment exams while providing a detailed analysis and critique. This to understand their provided benefits and limitations in order to stimulate better clinical practice through implementation of these exams. This thesis first briefly details the history of humankind’s understanding of cognitive impairment and dementia. Then, the six major areas of cognition tested by most major cognitive exams are introduced and defined, including visual spatial, executive functions, verbal fluency, memory, attention, and orientation. The dysfunction in specific brain regions that lead to cognitive impairment is discussed, as well ...


130— Reducing Stereotypic Behavior With A Ketogenic Diet, Anna Beltramini, Andrew Guido, Alicia Bauers, Joe Spano 2020 SUNY Geneseo

130— Reducing Stereotypic Behavior With A Ketogenic Diet, Anna Beltramini, Andrew Guido, Alicia Bauers, Joe Spano

GREAT Day

Now a popular fad diet, the ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carb diet that for decades has been used for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Recent therapeutic applications of KD in animal models include treatment of dementia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism. These disorders are associated with stereotypic behaviors (repetitive, invariant behaviors with no apparent function) that are life-impairing and stigmatizing. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms and no effective pharmacological treatments are available. Here, we present a novel application of KD to reduce stereotypic behavior in an inbred strain of mice (FVBN/J) that displays a prominent repetitive ...


161— The Effects Of Environment On The Development Of Cocaine-Seeking, Gavin Vaughan, Akane Ichiki, Shreyya Malik, Allison R. Bechard 2020 SUNY Geneseo

161— The Effects Of Environment On The Development Of Cocaine-Seeking, Gavin Vaughan, Akane Ichiki, Shreyya Malik, Allison R. Bechard

GREAT Day

Cocaine addiction is a major individual and societal issue. This study aimed to investigate the environmental and social factors that influence the development of cocaine addiction. Mice were reared in either standard housing or enriched housing. Cocaine preference was measured using the Conditioned Place Preference paradigm, in which subjects are conditioned to associate an injection of cocaine (20mg/kg. I.P.) with a particular side of a 3 chambered arena. Subjects reared in enriched environments displayed increased preference for cocaine in cue primed tests. All subjects displayed cocaine preference in cocaine primed tests. This may be attributed to the enhanced ...


159— The Effects Of Trauma On The Response To Cocaine, Gavin Vaughan, Melissa Herman, Katie Kompanijec, Maren Hogan, AnnaClaire Modico, Keara Mullin, Allison R. Bechard Ph.D. 2020 SUNY Geneseo

159— The Effects Of Trauma On The Response To Cocaine, Gavin Vaughan, Melissa Herman, Katie Kompanijec, Maren Hogan, Annaclaire Modico, Keara Mullin, Allison R. Bechard Ph.D.

GREAT Day

Exposure to adverse events is a risk factor for substance use disorder. We modeled this in an inbred strain of mice by exposing adult males to a predator odor (a synthetic fox pheromone, TMT) and then assessing 1. Cocaine-induced locomotion, and 2. Conditioned place preference (CPP) of cocaine. TMT was an effective stressor as indicated by freezing behavior, an absence of movement that is an instinctive fear response in mice. Interestingly, in a 1-hour baseline locomotor test, TMT-exposed (TMT+) mice were more active than non-exposed (TMT-) mice. In addition, following a cocaine (10 mg/kg) injection (i.p.) TMT+ mice ...


The Role Of Diet In The Onset Of Depression: A Biochemical Connection Between Nutrition And Mental Health, Katlin Wildeman 2020 Liberty University

The Role Of Diet In The Onset Of Depression: A Biochemical Connection Between Nutrition And Mental Health, Katlin Wildeman

Senior Honors Theses

Depression is a major clinical concern, having a complex onset and the presence of multiple, often unidentifiable causes. Depression affects millions of individuals worldwide, with a high prevalence in regions of the world with a Western-style diet as compared to regions with a Mediterranean diet. A Western-style diet consists of foods high in sugar, fat, and processed meats and grains, whereas the Mediterranean diet contains significantly more vegetables, fruits, lean meats, and whole grains. The link between diet and mental health disorders has implications for individuals of all ages who are hesitant to turn to medication. In addition to presenting ...


The Influence Of Hsv-1 Infection On Circadian Rhythms And Behavior In Mice, Lauren Evert, Kevin Catalfano, Victoria Gardner, Anna Lunderberg 2020 Hope College

The Influence Of Hsv-1 Infection On Circadian Rhythms And Behavior In Mice, Lauren Evert, Kevin Catalfano, Victoria Gardner, Anna Lunderberg

19th Annual Celebration of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activity (2020)

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is a lifelong viral infection that affects approximately half of the human population (McQuillan et al., 2018), yet little is known about its neurological effects. There is correlational evidence that infection with HSV-1 can induce cognitive decline and increased anxiety behaviors (Harris & Harris, 2015; Steel & Eslick, 2015; Tarter, Simanek, Dowd, & Aiello, 2014). In addition, HSV-1 may be associated with disruptions to circadian rhythms because HSV-1 is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (Bond & Dinan, 2006), the time of HSV-1 infection impacts the viral replication (Edgar, 2016), and HSV impacts CLOCK machinery (Zhuang et al., 2017). Despite all of these associations of HSV-1 mediated neurological changes, a direct cause-effect relationship has yet to be established. This gap is vital to address in order to understand how viral infections impact behavior.

In the current study, we examined causal relationships between HSV-1 infection and anxiety-like behaviors, and between HSV-1 infection and circadian rhythms. To achieve these aims, 20 BALB/c mice were infected with HSV-1 or vehicle via corneal scarification. Then, in various lighting conditions, infrared sensors tracked activity in order to non-invasively measure circadian rhythms. Next, potential differences in anxiety-levels were examined through behavioral testing (i.e., open field test, elevated zero maze, light-dark box). After behavioral testing, the animals were sacrificed and brain tissue was harvested.

We hypothesized that adult mice infected with HSV-1 would exhibit increased anxiety-like behaviors and disrupted circadian rhythms as compared to control mice. Preliminary data suggest that the groups did not significantly differ in total activity during the pre-inoculation phase. There were short-term (one week post inoculation) significant decreases in activity in the HSV-1 group; however, these differences disappeared by four weeks post inoculation.

These results will have important implications for understanding viral infections, specifically HSV-1, and how these infections impact anxiety-like behaviors and circadian rhythmicity.


The Effect Of Electrolytic Lesions Of Superior Colliculus On Circadian Rhythms And Anxiety-Like Behavior In Rats, Alondra Villanueva, Gonzalo Moya, Bradley Dixon, Mariah Dingman 2020 Hope College

The Effect Of Electrolytic Lesions Of Superior Colliculus On Circadian Rhythms And Anxiety-Like Behavior In Rats, Alondra Villanueva, Gonzalo Moya, Bradley Dixon, Mariah Dingman

19th Annual Celebration of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activity (2020)

Circadian rhythms are physiological oscillations that allow organisms to maintain homeostasis. Circadian disruption can lead to negative health implications such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, anxiety, depression, and even cancer. (AASM, 2005; Shields, 2002). Several brain structures modulate circadian rhythms, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), but very little is known about the role of the superior colliculus (SC). Here, we focused on how the SC modulates circadian rhythms and anxiety-like behaviors in diurnal species. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (N = 18) were used in this study; nine rats experienced electrolytic lesions of the SC, while nine rats ...


Geometric Visual Illusion Effects On Visual Perception And Visuomotor Control: Emphasis On The Vertical-Horizontal Illusion, Shijun Yan 2020 Louisiana State University

Geometric Visual Illusion Effects On Visual Perception And Visuomotor Control: Emphasis On The Vertical-Horizontal Illusion, Shijun Yan

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The focus of this dissertation was to explore the effects of potential vertical-horizontal (V-H) illusory influences on perceptuomotor control. As part of this focus, we examined the potential use of separate cortical visual streams: the ventral visual stream for perception and the dorsal visual stream for action. Three studies were conducted to determine the effects of the V-H illusion influences on length estimations using upper limb point-to-point movements and lower limb stepping movements, involving various illusory configurations, movement directions, gaze directions. After a short introduction (Chapter 1) and a more detailed review of existing literature (Chapter 2), we present manuscripts ...


Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine Is Programmed By A Neuronal Regulator Of Awc Olfactory Neuron Development, Kyle J. Foster, Hilary K. Cheesman, Pengpeng Liu, Nicholas D. Peterson, Sarah M. Anderson, Read Pukkila-Worley 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Innate Immunity In The C. Elegans Intestine Is Programmed By A Neuronal Regulator Of Awc Olfactory Neuron Development, Kyle J. Foster, Hilary K. Cheesman, Pengpeng Liu, Nicholas D. Peterson, Sarah M. Anderson, Read Pukkila-Worley

Open Access Articles

Olfactory neurons allow animals to discriminate nutritious food sources from potential pathogens. From a forward genetic screen, we uncovered a surprising requirement for the olfactory neuron gene olrn-1 in the regulation of intestinal epithelial immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans. During nematode development, olrn-1 is required to program the expression of odorant receptors in the AWC olfactory neuron pair. Here, we show that olrn-1 also functions in AWC neurons in the cell non-autonomous suppression of the canonical p38 MAPK PMK-1 immune pathway in the intestine. Low activity of OLRN-1, which activates the p38 MAPK signaling cassette in AWC neurons during larval development ...


Oculomotor Task-Switching Performance Improves And Persists Following A Single Bout Of Aerobic Exercise, Diksha Shukla 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Oculomotor Task-Switching Performance Improves And Persists Following A Single Bout Of Aerobic Exercise, Diksha Shukla

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Executive function includes the core components of response inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Interestingly, an accumulating evidence has reported that inhibitory control and working memory improve following a single bout of exercise. It is, however, largely unclear whether cognitive flexibility elicits a similar post-exercise benefit. Accordingly, Chapter Two of my thesis examined whether 20-min of aerobic exercise provides an immediate post-exercise ‘boost’ to cognitive flexibility. Chapter Three examined for how long a putative post-exercise benefit persists. Cognitive flexibility was examined via an AABB task-switching paradigm wherein participants alternated between a well-practiced and a novel oculomotor task pre- and post-exercise ...


Deconstructing Circadian Disruption: Assessing The Contribution Of Reduced Peripheral Oscillator Amplitude On Obesity And Glucose Intolerance In Mice, Vincent van der Vinne, Blanca Martin Burgos, Mary E. Harrington, David R. Weaver 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Deconstructing Circadian Disruption: Assessing The Contribution Of Reduced Peripheral Oscillator Amplitude On Obesity And Glucose Intolerance In Mice, Vincent Van Der Vinne, Blanca Martin Burgos, Mary E. Harrington, David R. Weaver

Neurobiology Publications

Disturbing the circadian regulation of physiology by disruption of the rhythmic environment is associated with adverse health outcomes but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, the response of central and peripheral circadian clocks to an advance or delay of the light-dark cycle was determined in mice. This identified transient damping of peripheral clocks as a consequence of an advanced light-dark cycle. Similar depression of peripheral rhythm amplitude was observed in mice exposed to repeated phase shifts. To assess the metabolic consequences of such peripheral amplitude depression in isolation, temporally chimeric mice lacking a functional central clock (Vgat-Cre(+) Bmal1(fl/fl ...


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