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Neural Correlates Relating To Executive Function, Intelligence, And Anxiety., Sarah K L'Heureux 2018 University of Louisville

Neural Correlates Relating To Executive Function, Intelligence, And Anxiety., Sarah K L'Heureux

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The human brain is a complex organ responsible for not only perceiving and sensing information in one’s environment, but also integrating and analyzing these details in a way that will allow an individual to comprehend the material. Scientists for centuries have been curious as to why people process their emotions and thoughts differently, resulting in unique and varied behavior. The manner in which a person comprehends information and whether or not they feel anxious as a result, may be connected to their intellectual and functional capacity. Human intelligence and the ability to function at a high level may be ...


Differentiation Of Neurons And Glia For Use In Cellular Connectomics, Jacob T. Brettin 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Differentiation Of Neurons And Glia For Use In Cellular Connectomics, Jacob T. Brettin

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, Colten Z. Dillinger 2018 Missouri State University

Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, Colten Z. Dillinger

MSU Graduate Theses

Fetal serotonin levels are involved in the development of the serotonergic system in an autoregulatory manner as well as the organization and connectivity of non-serotonergic neurons. Insufficient serotonin levels during development result in improper neuronal maturation and decreased synaptogenesis. Conversely, excess developmental serotonin levels can alter the progression of serotonergic neurons, ultimately resulting in a chronic decrease of serotonin in the developed brain via a negative feedback mechanism. There is a known correlation between autistic patients and chronically decreased brain serotonin concentrations; this is potentially implicated in the impaired development of the autistic brain. Incomplete or delayed development of motor ...


Behavioral Insights Into Nociceptor Function: A Systematic Approach To Understanding Postsurgical And Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms In Rats, Max Odem 2018 The Univesity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Behavioral Insights Into Nociceptor Function: A Systematic Approach To Understanding Postsurgical And Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms In Rats, Max Odem

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Postsurgical and neuropathic pain are each clinically common, and often associated with ongoing pain. Ongoing pain has been linked to ongoing activity (OA) in human C-fiber nociceptors. Preclinical studies using rodent neuropathic models have concentrated on allodynia driven by OA generated in non-nociceptive Aβ fibers, but little attention has been paid to postsurgical pain in sham controls or to C-fiber nociceptor OA promoting ongoing pain.

Operant assays that reveal negative motivational and cognitive aspects of voluntary pain-related behavior may be particularly sensitive to pain-related alterations. In the mechanical conflict (MC) test, rodents can freely choose to escape from a brightly ...


The Use Of Current Steering During Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation To Alleviate Upper Limb Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease, Shabna Iftikar Mohideen 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Use Of Current Steering During Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation To Alleviate Upper Limb Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease, Shabna Iftikar Mohideen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment to alleviate the appendicular motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Current steering during DBS allows the unequal fractionation of current between two electrodes on the lead, resulting in a non-spherical electrical field. It is hypothesized that the way the electrical field is shaped will affect a patient’s upper limb symptom alleviation. Seven PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS were tested over four weeks post-operation. 16 current fractionation settings were tested each week at an amplitude that increased weekly. Optimal setting was defined as the setting that provided the ...


Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman 2018 DePaul University

Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: Dementia is the largest cause of dependency and disability in older adults, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide with about 10 million new cases every year. Presently, there are no cures for dementia. Consequently, a growing body of evidence suggests that bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical dementia symptoms by several years.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to summarize and analyze current evidence from studies that examined how bilingualism delays the onset of dementia. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay the dementia symptoms due to an increase in cognitive reserve, which refers to an ...


Pornography’S Effect On The Brain: A Review Of Modifications In The Prefrontal Cortex, Kendra J. Muller 2018 Brigham Young University

Pornography’S Effect On The Brain: A Review Of Modifications In The Prefrontal Cortex, Kendra J. Muller

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal in Psychology

Pornography use has exponentially increased in the past 10 years. Most believe pornography use is largely a harmless behavior. Although sexuality is innate, hyper-sexual behavior, such as pornography use, has become increasingly commonplace. Addiction research has found that long-term substance addiction contributes to changes in brain volume (Hong et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2011). Recent studies have shown that behavioral addictions also have similar volume loss as substance abuse (Hong et al., 2013). Research has shown that the particular area most affected is the prefrontal cortex (Hong et al., 2013). The prefrontal cortex, which oversees regulating self-control, decreases in ...


Magnetic Field Frequency-Response For Human Magnetophosphene Perception And Associated Eeg Modulations, Cadence M. Baker 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Magnetic Field Frequency-Response For Human Magnetophosphene Perception And Associated Eeg Modulations, Cadence M. Baker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Magnetophosphenes are among the most reliably reported effects resulting from magnetic induction. The frequency dependence of the perception threshold is crucial, as guideline agencies use this information to set exposure limits whose purpose is to protect public and workers.

Objective:Establish the magnetophosphene perception thresholds throughout the extremely low frequency range (0-300 Hz) and evaluate the use of EEG as a biomarker.

Hypothesis:Perception thresholds will be lowest at ~30 Hz. EEG occipital alpha power will decrease upon perception.

Methods:60 participants were exposed to homogenous magnetic fields up to 300 Hz, and 70 mT. EEG alpha power was ...


Temporal Information Guides Prefrontal Preparatory Activity, Jacqueline R. Janowich 2018 University of New Mexico

Temporal Information Guides Prefrontal Preparatory Activity, Jacqueline R. Janowich

Shared Knowledge Conference

Proactive preparation for an upcoming goal differs from last-minute reactive adaptation, but it is unclear how preparatory mechanisms change based on when in the future a goal needs to be executed. To assess how timing information is integrated into preparatory control, we designed a novel variant of the Dot Pattern Expectancy task, where each cue signaled both task rule and delay duration (known short, known long, or unknown) between cue and probe. We recorded EEG while healthy young adult participants (n=36) performed this task, and found that delay demands elicited distinct prefrontal preparatory activities. Medial prefrontal amplitude was sensitive ...


The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy 2018 University of New Mexico

The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy

Shared Knowledge Conference

Based on a review of research and best practices in mental health awareness and skills, this inquiry project argues for state legislative policies that would require mental health awareness and skills in the K-12 curriculum. Mental health affects individual accomplishments in every stage of people’s lives beginning in early childhood and throughout the life cycle. Prevention and treatment of mental illness plays a key role in the ability of an individual to cope with loss and develop resiliency and perseverance in challenging times and to make better decisions that improve the individual’s life and the lives of those ...


Chd3 Helicase Domain Mutations Cause A Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Macrocephaly And Impaired Speech And Language, Lot Snijders Blok, Inderneel Sahai, Philippe M. Campeau 2018 Radboud University Medical Center

Chd3 Helicase Domain Mutations Cause A Neurodevelopmental Syndrome With Macrocephaly And Impaired Speech And Language, Lot Snijders Blok, Inderneel Sahai, Philippe M. Campeau

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates ...


11 - The Impact Of Obesity On Ingestion-Induced Hippocampal Arc Expression In Male Rats, Karan Sharma 2018 Georgia State University

11 - The Impact Of Obesity On Ingestion-Induced Hippocampal Arc Expression In Male Rats, Karan Sharma

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Obesity is a chronic disease that affects more than 33% of American adults and roughly 13% of adults worldwide. Obesity has many peripheral impacts, such as cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, and arthritis. Obesity also influences the functioning of the brain. In particular, obesity and overeating impair the function of the hippocampus, which is vital for memory. In humans, impairing the memory of a meal increases subsequent intake. In rats, our lab has shown that sucrose ingestion activates molecules necessary for hippocampal memory formation, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc). We hypothesize that obesity disrupts hippocampal-dependent memory formation ...


Rapid Visuomotor Integration As A Window Into Multisensory Processing, Margaret Schrayer 2018 University of Georgia

Rapid Visuomotor Integration As A Window Into Multisensory Processing, Margaret Schrayer

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Introduction: Neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s Disease (PD) cause changes in the subcortical and cortical structures of the brain, affecting interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual streams. The dorsal stream processes the location of objects in the visual workspace while the ventral stream identifies those objects. We expect that, in individuals with PD, motor deficits will occur as a result of disruptions in online interactions between the dorsal and ventral streams.

Purpose: In the experiment, participants identify object shape while shapes are either moving or stationary, and make accurate reaching movements to the objects. Our hypothesis is that ...


Drosophila Ror Is A Nervous System-Specific Co-Receptor For Wnt Ligands, Caroline Ripp, Julia Loth, Iveta Petrova, Karen Linnemannstons, Monique Ulepic, Lee G. Fradkin, Jasprien Noordermeer, Andreas Wodarz 2018 Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology

Drosophila Ror Is A Nervous System-Specific Co-Receptor For Wnt Ligands, Caroline Ripp, Julia Loth, Iveta Petrova, Karen Linnemannstons, Monique Ulepic, Lee G. Fradkin, Jasprien Noordermeer, Andreas Wodarz

Open Access Articles

Wnt ligands are secreted glycoproteins that control many developmental processes and are crucial for homeostasis of numerous tissues in the adult organism. Signal transduction of Wnts involves the binding of Wnts to receptor complexes at the surface of target cells. These receptor complexes are commonly formed between a member of the Frizzled family of seven-pass transmembrane proteins and a co-receptor, which is usually a single-pass transmembrane protein. Among these co-receptors are several with structural homology to receptor tyrosine kinases, including Ror, PTK7, Ryk and MUSK. In vertebrates, Ror-2 and PTK7 are important regulators of planar cell polarity (PCP). By contrast ...


Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19 2018 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19

Student Publications & Research

Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. The main cause for Parkinson’s Disease is the depletion of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. The basal ganglia contains four major nuclei: the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, the external globus pallidus, and the striatum. These nuclei communicate with each other by the use of neurons.


Are Different Actions Mediated By Distinct Systems Of Knowledge In Infancy?, Peter Vishton 2018 College of William and Mary

Are Different Actions Mediated By Distinct Systems Of Knowledge In Infancy?, Peter Vishton

Peter Vishton

This chapter considers why studies of infant looking and reaching often suggest different patterns of cognitive and perceptual development. In some cases, convergent results have emerged from studies of infant looking and reaching, but differences are common. The most typical results suggest less adult-like perception and cognition in studies of reaching than in studies of looking. Several reaching studies, however, do not fit this pattern, suggesting that reaching actions may be mediated by distinct systems of knowledge and information processing. Comparisons of research on other behaviors, such as crawling and walking, also suggest that infant knowledge systems vary across actions ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Lipophorin Receptors Supports Neuronal Adaptation To Chronic Elevations Of Activity, Jun Yin, Mary Gibbs, Caixia Long, Justin Rosenthal, Hyong S. Kim, Anna Kim, Chengyu Sheng, Peng Ding, Uzma Javed, Quan Yuan 2018 National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Transcriptional Regulation Of Lipophorin Receptors Supports Neuronal Adaptation To Chronic Elevations Of Activity, Jun Yin, Mary Gibbs, Caixia Long, Justin Rosenthal, Hyong S. Kim, Anna Kim, Chengyu Sheng, Peng Ding, Uzma Javed, Quan Yuan

Open Access Articles

Activity-dependent modifications strongly influence neural development. However, molecular programs underlying their context and circuit-specific effects are not well understood. To study global transcriptional changes associated with chronic elevation of synaptic activity, we performed cell-type-specific transcriptome profiling of Drosophila ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) in the developing visual circuit and identified activity-modified transcripts that are enriched in neuron morphogenesis, circadian regulation, and lipid metabolism and trafficking. Using bioinformatics and genetic analyses, we validated activity-induced isoform-specific upregulation of Drosophila lipophorin receptors LpR1 and LpR2, the homologs of mammalian low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family proteins. Furthermore, our morphological and physiological studies uncovered critical functions ...


Learning Expands The Preplanning Horizon In Finger Sequence Tasks, Neda Kordjazi 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Learning Expands The Preplanning Horizon In Finger Sequence Tasks, Neda Kordjazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Many everyday skills involve the production of complex sequences of movements. However, the dynamics of the interplay between action selection and execution processes in sequential movements is poorly understood.Here, we set out to investigate the extent to which information regarding upcoming actions is utilized by the motor system to preplan into the future and furthermore, how this ability is influenced by learning. We designed a finger sequence taskwhere participants were shown only a fixed number of upcoming cues regarding future presses in every trial (viewing window, W). W varied between 1 (next digit revealed with pressing the current digit ...


Microtubule Acetylation Is Required For Mechanosensation In Drosophila, Connie Yan, Fei Wang, Yang Xiang, Stephen L. Rogers, Jay Z. Parrish 2018 University of Washington

Microtubule Acetylation Is Required For Mechanosensation In Drosophila, Connie Yan, Fei Wang, Yang Xiang, Stephen L. Rogers, Jay Z. Parrish

Open Access Articles

At the cellular level, alpha-tubulin acetylation alters the structure of microtubules to render them mechanically resistant to compressive forces. How this biochemical property of microtubule acetylation relates to mechanosensation remains unknown, although prior studies have shown that microtubule acetylation influences touch perception. Here, we identify the major Drosophila alpha-tubulin acetylase (dTAT) and show that it plays key roles in several forms of mechanosensation. dTAT is highly expressed in the larval peripheral nervous system (PNS), but it is largely dispensable for neuronal morphogenesis. Mutation of the acetylase gene or the K40 acetylation site in alpha-tubulin impairs mechanical sensitivity in sensory neurons ...


Cannabinoid Transmission In The Basolateral Amygdala Modulates Prefrontal Cortex And Ventral Hippocampal Activity, Brian J. Pereira 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Cannabinoid Transmission In The Basolateral Amygdala Modulates Prefrontal Cortex And Ventral Hippocampal Activity, Brian J. Pereira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cannabinoid system is important for maintaining neuron-to-neuron communication within the mammalian brain. One of the most commonly used substances to alter the cannabinoid system is cannabis. Individuals who are exposed to cannabis report having dissociable effects; both positive and negative. High amounts of THC have been commonly associated with the negative effects of cannabis, whereas CBD can be used to counter these. Pre-clinical evidence suggests that the combination of the two compounds can produce a therapeutic benefit for individuals who are susceptible to the effects of THC. The present study investigates whether the combination of THC+CBD can prevent ...


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