Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, 2018 Missouri State University
Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, Colten Z. Dillinger
MSU Graduate Theses
Fetal serotonin levels are involved in the development of the serotonergic system in an autoregulatory manner as well as the organization and connectivity of non-serotonergic neurons. Insufficient serotonin levels during development result in improper neuronal maturation and decreased synaptogenesis. Conversely, excess developmental serotonin levels can alter the progression of serotonergic neurons, ultimately resulting in a chronic decrease of serotonin in the developed brain via a negative feedback mechanism. There is a known correlation between autistic patients and chronically decreased brain serotonin concentrations; this is potentially implicated in the impaired development of the autistic brain. Incomplete or delayed development of motor ...
Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...
Tributyltin Inhibits Neural Induction Of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, 2018 National Institute of Health Sciences
Tributyltin Inhibits Neural Induction Of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Shigeru Yamada, Yusuke Kubo, Daiju Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yoko Nomura, Sachiko Yoshida, Yusunari Kanda
Publications and Research
Tributyltin (TBT), one of the organotin compounds, is a well-known environmental pollutant. In our recent study, we reported that TBT induces mitochondrial dysfunction, in human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the degradation of mitofusin1 (Mfn1), which is a mitochondrial fusion factor. However, the effect of TBT toxicity on the developmental process of iPSCs was not clear. The present study examined the effect of TBT on the differentiation of iPSCs into the ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal germ layers. We found that exposure to nanomolar concentration of TBT (50 nM) selectively inhibited the induction of iPSCs into the ectoderm, which is the ...
Endocytosis And The Nitric Oxide-Dependent Release Of Chloride, 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
Endocytosis And The Nitric Oxide-Dependent Release Of Chloride, Vernon K. Dunn Jr
LSU Doctoral Dissertations
Understanding the regulation of retinal synapses is a key step in elucidating the processing of information in the retina. Our lab has previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) can alter the synaptic response properties of amacrine cells by releasing Cl- from internal acidic compartments. This alteration in the Cl- gradient brings about a positive shift in the reversal potential of the GABA-gated current, which can convert inhibitory synapses into excitatory synapses. Recently, we have shown that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel is involved in the Cl- release. Here, we test the hypothesis that (acidic) synaptic vesicles are ...
Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins
Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.
Ephrinb3 Modulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis And The Reelin Signaling Pathway In A Pilocarpineinduced Model Of Epilepsy, 2018 Central South University
Ephrinb3 Modulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis And The Reelin Signaling Pathway In A Pilocarpineinduced Model Of Epilepsy, Tian-Tian Liu, Yi Li, Yi Shu, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Open Access Articles
EphrinB3 is important in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and migration via cellcell contact, and can activate the reelin pathway during brain development. However, the effect of ephrinB3 on hippocampal neurogenesis and the reelin pathway in epilepsy remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of ephrinB3 in pilocarpineinduced status epilepticus (SE) rats was investigated. SYBR Greenbased reverse transcriptionquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemical labeling and western blot analysis were used to detect the gene and protein expression levels of ephrinB3 and reelin pathway proteins. Immunofluorescence staining of doublecortin (DCX) was utilized to analyze hippocampal neurogenesis ...
Exploiting Click-Chemistry And Microfluidics To Map The Neuronal Itinerary Of App Processing And Amyloid-Beta Generation, 2018 Washington University in St. Louis
Exploiting Click-Chemistry And Microfluidics To Map The Neuronal Itinerary Of App Processing And Amyloid-Beta Generation, Namratha Srinivas
Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States with approximately 5.5 million Americans diagnosed with it. The neuropathological hallmark includes extracellular senile plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. Recent GWAS studies have identified genes associated with AD, and have revealed several classes of genes implicated in disease pathogenesis. In particular, three general pathways associated with an increased risk of AD included: 1) cholesterol metabolism, innate immune system, and the membrane trafficking. Our lab has focused on intracellular trafficking as it relates to the processing of amyloid precursor ...
Expression Of An Arc-Immunoreactive Protein In The Adult Zebrafish Brain Increases In Response To A Novel Environment, 2018 Georgia Southern University - Armstrong
Expression Of An Arc-Immunoreactive Protein In The Adult Zebrafish Brain Increases In Response To A Novel Environment, Robert A. Mans, Kyle D. Hinton, Amanda E. Rumer, Kourtnei A. Zellner, Emily A. Blankenship, Lia M. Kerkes, Michael J. Hamilton, Theresa R. Reilly, Cicely H. Payne
Georgia Journal of Science
Zebrafish are a powerful research tool in the field of neuroscience, offering several logistical and physiological advantages over rodents as a research model. However, the molecular dynamics of this model organism, especially with regards to learning and memory, are scarcely known. The current study explored the zebrafish brain for the presence of a protein bearing a similar function to the activity-regulated, cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), a critical player in synaptic plasticity. The adult zebrafish brain was found to express a protein with immunoreactivity against the anti-Arc antibody H-300. Immunoreactivity was detected ubiquitously, especially in areas known as adult progenitor cell zones ...
Precision Gene Therapy For Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: From Identifying Genetic Modifiers To Developing Allele-Specific Therapies, Kathryn H. Morelli Ph.D.
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous collection of inherited peripheral neuropathies generally characterized by progressive muscle atrophy, weakness, and loss of sensation in the distal extremities. This inherited disorder, for which there is currently no curative treatment, is the most common inherited disease of the peripheral nervous system, affecting 1:2,500 individuals worldwide.
Clinically, CMT is broadly divided into demyelinating (type 1) and axonal (type 2) forms. Although the clinical presentation can vary greatly in severity and progression within individual patients. Genetically, over 1,000 mutations in over 80 loci in the human genome have been ...
Ethical Analysis Of Brain Augmentation Through Nanotechnology, 2018 University of Puget Sound
Ethical Analysis Of Brain Augmentation Through Nanotechnology, Austin Caras, James Dejesus
Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal
The use of nanoparticles for drug delivery and neural cell manipulation may soon allow for organic and electronic brain augmentations. Medical technology being used for cognitive enhancement brings a host of ethical questions related to safety, justice, privacy, and individuality. Issues concerning medical consent and intellectual property will be skewed as neuroscience expands our understanding of the brain, growing our capacity to read and modify it. Socioeconomic strata may realign based on augmentations and employment opportunities may become dependent on specific cognitive enhancements. Long-term effects of unregulated nanoparticle usage could elicit an environmental or human health disaster. The potential ...
Is Concussion-Related Sleep Disturbance Present After Return To Play In College Athletes?, 2018 University of Connecticut
Is Concussion-Related Sleep Disturbance Present After Return To Play In College Athletes?, Alexander Gallaer
Honors Scholar Theses
As one of the most commonly experienced symptoms, the ramifications of sleep disruption as a result of concussion are potentially great, yet widely unexplored. Particularly troublesome is murky data regarding the length of sleep disruption following a concussion. By analyzing self-reported sleep data via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, this study seeks to investigate potential differences in sleep quality between injured college athletes 40 days after they have been cleared to play and matched controls. Data was analyzed using ANOVA analysis as well as Pearson correlation. No significant differences were found in sleep quality between groups, nor was there a ...
Functional And Structural Impact Of The Loss Of The Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Lrit1 In The Mouse Retina., 2018 University of Louisville
Functional And Structural Impact Of The Loss Of The Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Lrit1 In The Mouse Retina., Catherine Ann Cobb
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Mutations in genes encoding the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins nyctalopin and LRIT3 lead to complete congenital stationary night blindness because they are critical to depolarizing bipolar cell function in the retina. LRIT3 has two closely related family members, LRIT1 and LRIT2. In silico analyses of publicly available RNA-Seq data showed that Lrit1 was highly expressed in the retina. Here I describe the expression pattern and impact of loss of LRIT1 on retinal function. To enable these studies, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to create an Lrit1-/- mouse line. Retinal morphology and morphometry analyses showed no gross changes in retinal structure ...
Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin
Senior Honors Theses
The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...
Reconstitution Of Gabaergic Postsynapses In Host Cells, 2018 University of Connecticut
Reconstitution Of Gabaergic Postsynapses In Host Cells, Karthik Kanamalla
Honors Scholar Theses
Type A GABA receptors (GABAARs) can be found embedded in postsynaptic membranes or in a variety of extrasynaptic locations. Receptors with synaptic function are recruited to the postsynapse by submembranous scaffolds composed of gephyrin and collybistin (CB). This study was aimed at assessing whether the ability to interact with the scaffold differentiates synaptic from non-synaptic receptors. Using HEK293 cells as an expression system, and indirect immunofluorescence (IF), co-localization of extrasynaptic receptors α1β3δ and α4β3δ with the CB-gephyrin scaffold was assessed and compared with that of the synaptic receptor α1β3γ2. Results indicated that both extrasynaptic receptors were able to colocalize with ...
Factors That Determine Spreading Depolarization Propagation In Brain Slices, 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus
Factors That Determine Spreading Depolarization Propagation In Brain Slices, Linday Selters
Biomedical Engineering ETDs
In the US alone, more than 750,000 people had a stroke in 2017, more than 1.7 million reported a traumatic brain injury, and more than 9 million suffered from migraines with aura. While all three of these neurological conditions have vastly different causes and possible outcomes they all have a common phenomenon occurring within the brain. A wave that slowly propagates through grey matter, hitting neurons with a large burst of energy, opening them up to a flood of ions and silencing them for an extended period of time. These waves are known as spreading depolarizations (SD). Within ...
Inhibition Of Tnf-Alpha Decreases Microglia Activation In Rats Neonatally Treated With Poly I:C, 2018 East Tennessee State University
Inhibition Of Tnf-Alpha Decreases Microglia Activation In Rats Neonatally Treated With Poly I:C, Heath W. Shelton, Russell W. Brown
Appalachian Student Research Forum
Introduction: Current medical treatment for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCHZ) primarily relies on the inhibition of the dopamine D2 receptor that has been shown to be supersensitive in these patients. Treatment occurs through the use of antipsychotic medication which leads to a number of debilitating dose-dependent side effects, such as weight gain, agranulocytosis, and seizures. Patients diagnosed with SCHZ have also been shown to have increased inflammation in their central nervous system (CNS), particularly within specific brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. This is in large part due to the interaction between a pro-inflammatory cytokine called ...
Neutrophils In The Geniculate Ganglion Following Chorda Tympani Transection In Adult Rats, 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha
Neutrophils In The Geniculate Ganglion Following Chorda Tympani Transection In Adult Rats, Carlos Vera-Esquivel
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
Neutrophils in the Geniculate Ganglion Following Chorda Tympani Transection in Adult Rats
The chorda tympani nerve (CT) innervates taste buds on the tongue. The CT’s cell bodies are in the geniculate ganglion (GG). Previous work in our lab found that severing the CT (CTX) results in a reduction of taste bud numbers, and substantial immune responses at the tongue and in the brain. However, there is limited information on how the immune system responds at the GG following CTX. Neutrophils are critical members of the first wave of immune response to nerve injury, attacking foreign pathogens and clearing debris ...
Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. Vanosdol
All NMU Master's Theses
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small, diffusible protein essential for the development and function of neurons. It is synthesized by many types of tissue, including muscle. BDNF actions are mediated via binding to its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). The BDNF-TrkB complex is endocytosed into a specialized vesicle, which induces downstream signaling cascades locally in the dendrites, or, more often, is delivered to the cell soma via retrograde axonal transport, where it modulates gene expression. BDNF activation of TrkB is critical for the initiation of axonal transport, and this cellular process relies on the interaction of numerous adaptor ...
Rescue Of Neocortical Circuit Deficits With Modified Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Sb623, In A Rat Model Of Photothrombotic Stroke, Alexander Urry
Yale Day of Data
The following poster characterizes the effects of a novel stem cell line on treating the neural circuit deficits resulting from stroke.
The Lrrk2 Variant E193k Prevents Mitochondrial Fission Upon Mpp+ Treatment By Altering Lrrk2 Binding To Drp1, 2018 University of Trento
The Lrrk2 Variant E193k Prevents Mitochondrial Fission Upon Mpp+ Treatment By Altering Lrrk2 Binding To Drp1, Maria Perez Carrion, John E. Landers, Stefano Goldwurm, Giovanni Piccoli
Open Access Articles
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a complex protein that consists of multiple domains, including 13 putative armadillo-type repeats at the N-terminus. In this study, we analyzed the functional and molecular consequences of a novel variant, E193K, identified in an Italian family. E193K substitution does not influence LRRK2 kinase activity. Instead it affects LRRK2 biochemical properties, such as phosphorylation at Ser935 and affinity for 14-3-3epsilon. Primary fibroblasts obtained from an E193K carrier demonstrated increased cellular toxicity and abnormal mitochondrial fission upon 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium treatment. We found that ...