Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada
Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications
In this study, gelatin and graphene-based nerve regeneration conduits/scaffolds possessing tailored 3D microstructures and mechanical properties were fabricated using 3D printing. The effect of 3D conduit microstructure and mechanical properties along with the applied electrical stimuli on mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) behavior and transdifferentiation into Schwann cell (SC)-like phenotypes were investigated. The results indicated that the gelatin conduits/scaffolds had favorable 3D microstructural and mechanical properties for MSC attachment and growth. Immunocytochemistry results demonstrated that the application of electrical stimuli through the conductive graphene within the gelatin-based 3D microstructure had a profound effect on the differentiation of MSCs ...
Investigating Neurogenesis As A Veritable Epigenetic Endophenotype For Alzheimer's Disease, 2019 Claremont Colleges
Investigating Neurogenesis As A Veritable Epigenetic Endophenotype For Alzheimer's Disease, Layne Wells
Scripps Senior Theses
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by progressive amyloid plaque aggregation, neurofibrillary tangles, and cortical tissue death. As the prevalence of AD is projected to climb in coming years, there is a vested interest in identifying endophenotypes by which to improve diagnostics and direct clinical interventions. The risk for complex disorders, such as AD, is influenced by multiple genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Significant strides have been made in identifying genetic variants linked to AD through the genome-wide association study (GWAS). It has been estimated in more recent years, however, that GWAS-identified variants account for ...
Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis
Open Access Articles
The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Disruptions in dendritic spine development have been implicated in many neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Although the development of dendritic spines is vital for cognitive function, understanding the mechanisms driving their outgrowth and ...
Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Hypothalamic Circuits In The Control Of Feeding And Emotional Behaviors, Leandra Mangieri
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
Feeding results from the integration of both nutritional and affective states, and is guided by complex neural circuitry in the brain. The hypothalamus is a critical center controlling feeding and motivated behaviors. We found that targeted photostimulation of projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) in mice elicited voracious feeding and repetitive self-grooming behavior. GABA neurotransmission in the LH->PVH circuit mediated the evoked feeding behavior, and elicited behavioral approach, whereas glutamate release promoted repetitive self-grooming, which was stress-related in nature. Optogenetic inhibition of LHGABA ->PVH circuit reduced feeding after fasting, whereas photostimulation abruptly stopped ...
Investigating Autophagy Dysfunction Induced By A Parkinson's Disease-Causing Mutation In Vps35, 2018 Boise State University
Investigating Autophagy Dysfunction Induced By A Parkinson's Disease-Causing Mutation In Vps35, Abir Ashfakur Rahman
Boise State University Theses and Dissertations
Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is an idiopathic disorder with no known cure. With number of cases steadily rising around the world, it is imperative to turn to the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the disease manifestation and neurodegeneration to craft novel modes of therapy. VPS35 is one of the few genes that have identified and definitively linked to familial PD. The particular mutation that has been associated is known to cause dysfunction of a key cellular process known as autophagy. This process is primarily responsible for clearance of unwanted, damaged or misfolded proteins, among other things. Our study reveals ...
Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, 2018 Missouri State University
Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, Colten Z. Dillinger
MSU Graduate Theses
Fetal serotonin levels are involved in the development of the serotonergic system in an autoregulatory manner as well as the organization and connectivity of non-serotonergic neurons. Insufficient serotonin levels during development result in improper neuronal maturation and decreased synaptogenesis. Conversely, excess developmental serotonin levels can alter the progression of serotonergic neurons, ultimately resulting in a chronic decrease of serotonin in the developed brain via a negative feedback mechanism. There is a known correlation between autistic patients and chronically decreased brain serotonin concentrations; this is potentially implicated in the impaired development of the autistic brain. Incomplete or delayed development of motor ...
Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, 2018 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy
Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19
Student Publications & Research
Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. The main cause for Parkinson’s Disease is the depletion of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. The basal ganglia contains four major nuclei: the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, the external globus pallidus, and the striatum. These nuclei communicate with each other by the use of neurons.
Cannabinoid Transmission In The Basolateral Amygdala Modulates Prefrontal Cortex And Ventral Hippocampal Activity, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Cannabinoid Transmission In The Basolateral Amygdala Modulates Prefrontal Cortex And Ventral Hippocampal Activity, Brian J. Pereira
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The cannabinoid system is important for maintaining neuron-to-neuron communication within the mammalian brain. One of the most commonly used substances to alter the cannabinoid system is cannabis. Individuals who are exposed to cannabis report having dissociable effects; both positive and negative. High amounts of THC have been commonly associated with the negative effects of cannabis, whereas CBD can be used to counter these. Pre-clinical evidence suggests that the combination of the two compounds can produce a therapeutic benefit for individuals who are susceptible to the effects of THC. The present study investigates whether the combination of THC+CBD can prevent ...
Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, 2018 National Institutes of Health
Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Nagesh Pasupala, Jennifer Peek, Grace Lauren Holloway, Gloria D. Sclar, Reuben Levy-Myers, Richard E. Baker, Munira A. Basrai, Oliver Kerscher
Open Access Articles
Cell viability and gene expression profiles are altered in cellular models of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's Disease (HD). Using the yeast model system, we show that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 reduces the toxicity and abnormal transcriptional activity associated with a mutant, aggregation-prone fragment of huntingtin (Htt), the causative agent of HD. We demonstrate that expression of an aggregation-prone Htt construct with 103 glutamine residues (103Q), but not the non-expanded form (25Q), results in severe growth defects in slx5Delta and slx8Delta cells. Since Slx5 is a nuclear protein and because Htt expression affects gene transcription, we assessed ...
Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...
Tributyltin Inhibits Neural Induction Of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, 2018 National Institute of Health Sciences
Tributyltin Inhibits Neural Induction Of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Shigeru Yamada, Yusuke Kubo, Daiju Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yoko Nomura, Sachiko Yoshida, Yusunari Kanda
Publications and Research
Tributyltin (TBT), one of the organotin compounds, is a well-known environmental pollutant. In our recent study, we reported that TBT induces mitochondrial dysfunction, in human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the degradation of mitofusin1 (Mfn1), which is a mitochondrial fusion factor. However, the effect of TBT toxicity on the developmental process of iPSCs was not clear. The present study examined the effect of TBT on the differentiation of iPSCs into the ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal germ layers. We found that exposure to nanomolar concentration of TBT (50 nM) selectively inhibited the induction of iPSCs into the ectoderm, which is the ...
Cholinergic Control Of Cortical Circuit Activity, 2018 The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Cholinergic Control Of Cortical Circuit Activity, Rajan Dasgupta
UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
Cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain send extensive projections to all regions of the neocortex and are critically involved in a diverse array of cognitive functions, including sensation, attention and learning. Cholinergic signaling also plays a crucial role in the moment-to-moment control of ongoing cortical state transitions that occur during periods of wakefulness. Yet, the underlying circuit mechanisms of synaptic cholinergic function in the neocortex remain unclear. Moreover, acetylcholine continues to be widely viewed as a slow and diffuse neuromodulator, despite the preponderance of in vivo evidence demonstrating rapid cholinergic function. In this study, we used a combination of optogenetics ...
Organization And Development Of Cholinergic Input To The Mouse Visual Thalamus., 2018 University of Louisville
Organization And Development Of Cholinergic Input To The Mouse Visual Thalamus., Guela Sokhadze
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Cholinergic signaling plays a vital role in modulating the flow of sensory information through thalamic circuits in a state-dependent manner. In the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the thalamic visual relay, release of acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to enhanced thalamocortical transfer of retinal signal during behavioral states of arousal, wakefulness, and sleep/wake transitions. Moreover, ACh modulates activity of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a structure which provides inhibitory input to dLGN. While several cholinergic nuclei have been shown to innervate dLGN and TRN, it is unclear how projections from each area are organized. Furthermore, little is known of how or ...
Neurexin Directs Partner-Specific Synaptic Connectivity In C. Elegans, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Neurexin Directs Partner-Specific Synaptic Connectivity In C. Elegans, Alison Philbrook, Shankar Ramachandran, Christopher M. Lambert, Devyn Oliver, Jeremy Florman, Mark J. Alkema, Michele Lemons, Michael M. Francis
Open Access Articles
In neural circuits, individual neurons often make projections onto multiple postsynaptic partners. Here, we investigate molecular mechanisms by which these divergent connections are generated, using dyadic synapses in C. elegans as a model. We report that C. elegans nrx-1/neurexin directs divergent connectivity through differential actions at synapses with partnering neurons and muscles. We show that cholinergic outputs onto neurons are, unexpectedly, located at previously undefined spine-like protrusions from GABAergic dendrites. Both these spine-like features and cholinergic receptor clustering are strikingly disrupted in the absence of nrx-1. Excitatory transmission onto GABAergic neurons, but not neuromuscular transmission, is also disrupted. Our ...
Loss Of Sarm1 Does Not Suppress Motor Neuron Degeneration In The Sod1g93a Mouse Model Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Loss Of Sarm1 Does Not Suppress Motor Neuron Degeneration In The Sod1g93a Mouse Model Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Owen M. Peters, Elizabeth A. Lewis, Jeannette M. Osterloh, Alexandra Weiss, Johnny Salameh, Jake P. Metterville, Robert H. Brown Jr., Marc R. Freeman
Neurobiology Publications and Presentations
Axon degeneration occurs in all neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular pathways regulating axon destruction during neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Sterile Alpha and TIR Motif Containing 1 (Sarm1) is an essential component of the prodegenerative pathway driving axon degeneration after axotomy and represents an appealing target for therapeutic intervention in neurological conditions involving axon loss. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by rapid, progressive motor neuron degeneration and muscle atrophy, causing paralysis and death. Patient tissue and animal models of ALS show destruction of upper and lower motor neuron cell bodies and loss of their associated axons. Here, we investigate whether ...
Endocytosis And The Nitric Oxide-Dependent Release Of Chloride, 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
Endocytosis And The Nitric Oxide-Dependent Release Of Chloride, Vernon K. Dunn Jr
LSU Doctoral Dissertations
Understanding the regulation of retinal synapses is a key step in elucidating the processing of information in the retina. Our lab has previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) can alter the synaptic response properties of amacrine cells by releasing Cl- from internal acidic compartments. This alteration in the Cl- gradient brings about a positive shift in the reversal potential of the GABA-gated current, which can convert inhibitory synapses into excitatory synapses. Recently, we have shown that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel is involved in the Cl- release. Here, we test the hypothesis that (acidic) synaptic vesicles are ...
Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins
Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.
Ephrinb3 Modulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis And The Reelin Signaling Pathway In A Pilocarpineinduced Model Of Epilepsy, 2018 Central South University
Ephrinb3 Modulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis And The Reelin Signaling Pathway In A Pilocarpineinduced Model Of Epilepsy, Tian-Tian Liu, Yi Li, Yi Shu, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Open Access Articles
EphrinB3 is important in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and migration via cellcell contact, and can activate the reelin pathway during brain development. However, the effect of ephrinB3 on hippocampal neurogenesis and the reelin pathway in epilepsy remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of ephrinB3 in pilocarpineinduced status epilepticus (SE) rats was investigated. SYBR Greenbased reverse transcriptionquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemical labeling and western blot analysis were used to detect the gene and protein expression levels of ephrinB3 and reelin pathway proteins. Immunofluorescence staining of doublecortin (DCX) was utilized to analyze hippocampal neurogenesis ...
Exploiting Click-Chemistry And Microfluidics To Map The Neuronal Itinerary Of App Processing And Amyloid-Beta Generation, 2018 Washington University in St. Louis
Exploiting Click-Chemistry And Microfluidics To Map The Neuronal Itinerary Of App Processing And Amyloid-Beta Generation, Namratha Srinivas
Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States with approximately 5.5 million Americans diagnosed with it. The neuropathological hallmark includes extracellular senile plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. Recent GWAS studies have identified genes associated with AD, and have revealed several classes of genes implicated in disease pathogenesis. In particular, three general pathways associated with an increased risk of AD included: 1) cholesterol metabolism, innate immune system, and the membrane trafficking. Our lab has focused on intracellular trafficking as it relates to the processing of amyloid precursor ...
Expression Of An Arc-Immunoreactive Protein In The Adult Zebrafish Brain Increases In Response To A Novel Environment, 2018 Georgia Southern University - Armstrong
Expression Of An Arc-Immunoreactive Protein In The Adult Zebrafish Brain Increases In Response To A Novel Environment, Robert A. Mans, Kyle D. Hinton, Amanda E. Rumer, Kourtnei A. Zellner, Emily A. Blankenship, Lia M. Kerkes, Michael J. Hamilton, Theresa R. Reilly, Cicely H. Payne
Georgia Journal of Science
Zebrafish are a powerful research tool in the field of neuroscience, offering several logistical and physiological advantages over rodents as a research model. However, the molecular dynamics of this model organism, especially with regards to learning and memory, are scarcely known. The current study explored the zebrafish brain for the presence of a protein bearing a similar function to the activity-regulated, cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), a critical player in synaptic plasticity. The adult zebrafish brain was found to express a protein with immunoreactivity against the anti-Arc antibody H-300. Immunoreactivity was detected ubiquitously, especially in areas known as adult progenitor cell zones ...