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Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Commons

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All Articles in Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience

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512 full-text articles. Page 1 of 17.

Voltage-Gated K+ Channels And Hiv-1-Induced Neural Injury: Implications For Pathogenesis Of Hiv-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders, Han Liu 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Voltage-Gated K+ Channels And Hiv-1-Induced Neural Injury: Implications For Pathogenesis Of Hiv-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders, Han Liu

Theses & Dissertations

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a subcortical disease involving neuronal loss and myelin damage. Myelin is deposited by oligodendrocytes through a complex process including oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation and maturation. Oligodendrocytes/OPCs are susceptible to viral proteins such as Tat and that myelin damage is associated with oligodendrocyte number decrease. It has been shown that activation of voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels mediates apoptosis in various cell types. KV1.3 is the most predominant KV channel expressed in OPCs/oligodendrocytes and potentially involved in OPC developmental regulation. We studied the involvement of ...


Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PDZ (PSD95/Disc Large/Zona Occludens) domain-containing proteins are scaffolding proteins that play important roles in regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors. Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 (CRFR1) and Serotonin 2A Receptor (5-HT2AR) are two GPCRs that are commonly associated with mental disorders. Both receptors also contain a class I PDZ-binding motif at the carboxyl terminal tail. In the first chapter, we investigate the effects of CAL (CFTR-associated ligand) on regulating the trafficking and signaling of CRFR1. We demonstrate a role for CAL in inhibiting CRFR1 endocytosis, cell surface expression, and CRF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling via the ...


Therapeutic Raavrh10 Mediated Sod1 Silencing In Adult Sod1(G93a) Mice And Nonhuman Primates, Florie Borel, Gwladys Gernoux, Brynn Cardozo, Jake P. Metterville, Gabriela Toro Cabrera, Lina Song, Qin Su, Guang Ping Gao, Mai K. Elmallah, Robert H. Brown Jr., Christian Mueller 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Therapeutic Raavrh10 Mediated Sod1 Silencing In Adult Sod1(G93a) Mice And Nonhuman Primates, Florie Borel, Gwladys Gernoux, Brynn Cardozo, Jake P. Metterville, Gabriela Toro Cabrera, Lina Song, Qin Su, Guang Ping Gao, Mai K. Elmallah, Robert H. Brown Jr., Christian Mueller

Christian Mueller

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease; survival in ALS is typically 3-5 years. No treatment extends patient survival by more than three months. Approximately 20% of familial ALS and 1-3% of sporadic ALS patients carry a mutation in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). In a transgenic ALS mouse model expressing the mutant SOD1(G93A) protein, silencing the SOD1 gene prolongs survival. One study reports a therapeutic effect of silencing the SOD1 gene in systemically treated adult ALS mice; this was achieved with a short hairpin RNA, a silencing molecule that has raised multiple safety concerns ...


Microglia Contribute To Circuit Defects In Mecp2 Null Mice Independent Of Microglia-Specific Loss Of Mecp2 Expression, Dorothy P. Schafer, Christopher T. Heller, Georgia Gunner, Molly Heller, Christopher Gordon, Timothy Hammond, Yochai Wolf, Steffen Jung, Beth Stevens 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Microglia Contribute To Circuit Defects In Mecp2 Null Mice Independent Of Microglia-Specific Loss Of Mecp2 Expression, Dorothy P. Schafer, Christopher T. Heller, Georgia Gunner, Molly Heller, Christopher Gordon, Timothy Hammond, Yochai Wolf, Steffen Jung, Beth Stevens

Open Access Articles

Microglia, the resident CNS macrophages, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Rett Syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder. However, the mechanism by which microglia contribute to the disorder is unclear and recent data suggest that microglia do not play a causative role. Here, we use the retinogeniculate system to determine if and how microglia contribute to pathogenesis in a RTT mouse model, the Mecp2 null mouse (Mecp2(tm1.1Bird/y)). We demonstrate that microglia contribute to pathogenesis by excessively engulfing, thereby eliminating, presynaptic inputs at end stages of disease ( > /=P56 Mecp2 null mice) concomitant with synapse loss. Furthermore, loss ...


Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Encoding Of Saltatory Tactile Velocity In The Adult Orofacial Somatosensory System, Rebecca Custead

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a key function of somatosensory systems. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of motor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in trigeminal networks associated with mechanosensory inputs to the face, or the consequences of movement.

High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilateral saltatory pneumotactile inputs to perioral hairy skin in 20 healthy adults. A custom multichannel, scalable ...


Activation Of Target Gene Expression In Neurons By The C. Elegans Rfx Transcription Factor, Daf-19, Katherine P. Mueller 2016 Lawrence University

Activation Of Target Gene Expression In Neurons By The C. Elegans Rfx Transcription Factor, Daf-19, Katherine P. Mueller

Lawrence University Honors Projects

DAF-19, the only RFX transcription factor found in C. elegans, is required for the formation of neuronal sensory cilia. Four isoforms of the DAF-19 protein have been reported, and the m86 nonsense (null) mutation affecting all four isoforms has been shown to prevent cilia formation. Transcriptome analyses employing microarrays of L1 and adult stage worms were completed using RNA from daf-19(m86) worms and an isogenic wild type strain to identify additional putative DAF-19 target genes. Using transcriptional fusions with GFP, we compared the expression patterns of several potential gene targets using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Expression patterns were characterized in ...


Changes In Synaptic Protein Content And Signaling In A Mouse Model Of Fragile X Syndrome, Kelly Birch, Peter W. Vanderklish PhD 2016 University of San Diego

Changes In Synaptic Protein Content And Signaling In A Mouse Model Of Fragile X Syndrome, Kelly Birch, Peter W. Vanderklish Phd

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fragile X Syndrome--the most common inherited form of intellectual disability--is characterized by low IQ, impaired social interaction, hyperactivity and impulsivity, and abnormal physical traits including an elongated face and protruding ears. Nearly half of all children with Fragile X also meet diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Fragile X is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion on the X chromosome, leading to silencing of the Fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1) and thus lack of expression of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). As a key translational suppressor, FMRP is crucial for normal neural development and synaptic function. The current ...


An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church 2016 Trinity College

An Initial Analysis Of A Long-Term Ketogenic Diet’S Impact On Motor Behavior, Brain Purine Systems, And Nigral Dopamine Neurons In A New Genetic Rodent Model Of Parkinson’S Disease, Jacob Rubin, William H. Church

Senior Theses and Projects

A growing body of research suggests that dopaminergic cell death seen in Parkinson’s disease is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress, with subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species, is the hallmark biochemical product of mitochondrial dysfunction. The ketogenic diet has been found to enhance mitochondrial energy production, protect against reactive oxygen species-generated cell death, and increase adenosine, a purine that modulates dopamine activity. The current study evaluates the effects of a long-term (5-month) ketogenic diet on behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical measures in PINK1-KO rats, a new animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Both wild-type and PINK1-KO animals fed a ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


Exploring The Effect Of Novel Small Molecules On Oligodendrocyte Precursor Proliferation, Sagune Sakya 2016 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Exploring The Effect Of Novel Small Molecules On Oligodendrocyte Precursor Proliferation, Sagune Sakya

University Scholar Projects

Gliomas, a type of brain tumor, can be difficult to treat and have a poor survival rate. One pathway that leads to glioma formation is excessive signaling by platelet derived growth factors (PDGF) through PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα). Through this research, I found that novel compounds that downregulate PDGFRα decrease proliferation of Oli-neu cells, an oligodendrocyte precursor cell model, and identified signaling pathways through which these compounds may exert their effect. Further investigation may identify targets for development of glioma treatments.


Avt And Bromodeoxyuridine Cells And Aggressive Behavior In Anolis Carolines, Anandhi Martin 2016 Georgia State University

Avt And Bromodeoxyuridine Cells And Aggressive Behavior In Anolis Carolines, Anandhi Martin

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Adult Neurogenesis In The Brain Of Shore Crabs, Zachary D. Allen 2016 Georgia State University

Adult Neurogenesis In The Brain Of Shore Crabs, Zachary D. Allen

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Cannabinoid Cb1 Transmission In The Mesolimbic Reward Pathway, Tasha Ahmad 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Cannabinoid Cb1 Transmission In The Mesolimbic Reward Pathway, Tasha Ahmad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) transmission within the mesocorticolimbic system plays an important role in forming associative memories, and processing both positive and negative experiences. Opiates generally produce potent rewarding effects and previous evidence suggests that CB1 transmission may modulate the neural reward circuitry involved in opiate reward processing. The ventral tegmental area (VTA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and Nucleus Accumbens (NA) are all implicated in opiate-reward processing, contain high levels of CB1 receptors, and are all modulated by dopamine (DA). Although, CB1 transmission within these areas has been heavily implicated in associative memory and learning, the potential ...


The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation On Alcohol Consumption And Delta Fos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder 2016 James Madison University

The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation On Alcohol Consumption And Delta Fos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder

Graduate Showcase of Scholarship and Creative Activities

The present study explores the relation between sleep restriction and alcohol use and the neural substrates that result from chronic behaviors, such as transcription factors. Transcription factor activity is suggested as a possible outcome of chronic behaviors, such as addiction. Sleep is discussed as possible mediating factor in the relationship between specific transcription factors and alcohol. Analysis will focus on brain areas related to both sleep and reward.


“My Logic Is Undeniable”: Replicating The Brain For Ideal Artificial Intelligence, Samuel C. Adams 2016 Liberty University

“My Logic Is Undeniable”: Replicating The Brain For Ideal Artificial Intelligence, Samuel C. Adams

Senior Honors Theses

Alan Turing asked if machines can think, but intelligence is more than logic and reason. I ask if a machine can feel pain or joy, have visions and dreams, or paint a masterpiece. The human brain sets the bar high, and despite our progress, artificial intelligence has a long way to go. Studying neurology from a software engineer’s perspective reveals numerous uncanny similarities between the functionality of the brain and that of a computer. If the brain is a biological computer, then it is the embodiment of artificial intelligence beyond anything we have yet achieved, and its architecture is ...


Drosophila Vision Depends On Carcinine Uptake By An Organic Cation Transporter, Ratna Chaturvedi, Zhuo Luan, Peiyi Guo, Hong-Sheng Li 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Drosophila Vision Depends On Carcinine Uptake By An Organic Cation Transporter, Ratna Chaturvedi, Zhuo Luan, Peiyi Guo, Hong-Sheng Li

Open Access Articles

Recycling of neurotransmitters is essential for sustained neuronal signaling, yet recycling pathways for various transmitters, including histamine, remain poorly understood. In the first visual ganglion (lamina) of Drosophila, photoreceptor-released histamine is taken up into perisynaptic glia, converted to carcinine, and delivered back to the photoreceptor for histamine regeneration. Here, we identify an organic cation transporter, CarT (carcinine transporter), that transports carcinine into photoreceptors during histamine recycling. CarT mediated in vitro uptake of carcinine. Deletion of the CarT gene caused an accumulation of carcinine in laminar glia accompanied by a reduction in histamine, resulting in abolished photoreceptor signal transmission and blindness ...


Excitatory Transmission Onto Agrp Neurons Is Regulated By Cjun Nh2-Terminal Kinase 3 In Response To Metabolic Stress, Santiago Vernia, Caroline Morel, Joseph C. Madara, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Kathryn O. Chase, Norman J. Kennedy, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, Neil Aronin, Richard A. Flavell, Bradford B. Lowell, Roger J. Davis 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Excitatory Transmission Onto Agrp Neurons Is Regulated By Cjun Nh2-Terminal Kinase 3 In Response To Metabolic Stress, Santiago Vernia, Caroline Morel, Joseph C. Madara, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Kathryn O. Chase, Norman J. Kennedy, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, Neil Aronin, Richard A. Flavell, Bradford B. Lowell, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab

The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is implicated in the response to metabolic stress. Indeed, it is established that the ubiquitously expressed JNK1 and JNK2 isoforms regulate energy expenditure and insulin resistance. However, the role of the neuron-specific isoform JNK3 is unclear. Here we demonstrate that JNK3 deficiency causes hyperphagia selectively in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. JNK3 deficiency in neurons that express the leptin receptor LEPRb was sufficient to cause HFD-dependent hyperphagia. Studies of sub-groups of leptin-responsive neurons demonstrated that JNK3 deficiency in AgRP neurons, but not POMC neurons, was sufficient to cause the hyperphagic response. These ...


Therapeutic Raavrh10 Mediated Sod1 Silencing In Adult Sod1(G93a) Mice And Nonhuman Primates, Florie Borel, Gwladys Gernoux, Brynn Cardozo, Jake P. Metterville, Gabriela Toro Cabrera, Lina Song, Qin Su, Guang Ping Gao, Mai K. Elmallah, Robert H. Brown Jr., Christian Mueller 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Therapeutic Raavrh10 Mediated Sod1 Silencing In Adult Sod1(G93a) Mice And Nonhuman Primates, Florie Borel, Gwladys Gernoux, Brynn Cardozo, Jake P. Metterville, Gabriela Toro Cabrera, Lina Song, Qin Su, Guang Ping Gao, Mai K. Elmallah, Robert H. Brown Jr., Christian Mueller

Open Access Articles

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease; survival in ALS is typically 3-5 years. No treatment extends patient survival by more than three months. Approximately 20% of familial ALS and 1-3% of sporadic ALS patients carry a mutation in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). In a transgenic ALS mouse model expressing the mutant SOD1(G93A) protein, silencing the SOD1 gene prolongs survival. One study reports a therapeutic effect of silencing the SOD1 gene in systemically treated adult ALS mice; this was achieved with a short hairpin RNA, a silencing molecule that has raised multiple safety concerns ...


Reverse Genetic Screening Of Innexin Gap Junction Proteins In Drosophila Neurons, Shannon P. Fox 2016 James Madison University

Reverse Genetic Screening Of Innexin Gap Junction Proteins In Drosophila Neurons, Shannon P. Fox

Senior Honors Projects

The reflexive response and perception of pain (nociception) is an evolutionarily conserved process in animals. Pain can be a major health concern and current treatments often prove insufficient, especially in regards to chronic pain. Greater understanding of the molecular processes underlying pain sensation could lead to new and more effective treatments. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cold nociception in Drosophila melanogaster. A specific subset of peripheral sensory neurons (Class III dendritic arborization (da) neurons), are implicated in Drosophila larvae’s response to noxious cold.

Previous literature has associated a family of gap junction ...


Evaluating A Novel Photochemical Tool For Labeling And Tracking Live, Endogenous Calcium-Permeable Ampars, Rosamund Elizabeth Combs-Bachmann 2016 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Evaluating A Novel Photochemical Tool For Labeling And Tracking Live, Endogenous Calcium-Permeable Ampars, Rosamund Elizabeth Combs-Bachmann

Masters Theses May 2014 - current

The purpose of this research is to advance development of a photochemical tool designed to probe the role of ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling in neurodegenerative processes, and to delve more deeply into the biological processes underlying the role of these receptors in signaling and memory formation. This ligand-targeted nanoprobe was designed and developed in our lab to label endogenous calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) in live cells with minimal disruption to native receptor activity. Nanoprobe is designed to use naphthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM) as a photocleavable ligand to target and covalently label native CP-AMPARs with a non-perturbing, fluorescent marker that then allows ...


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