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Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Arielle L. Baker, Allan T. Gulledge 2018 Dartmouth College

Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Arielle L. Baker, Allan T. Gulledge

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Serotonin (5-HT) selectively excites subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex via activation of 5-HT2A (2A) receptors coupled to Gq subtype G-protein alpha subunits. Gq-mediated excitatory responses have been attributed primarily to suppression of potassium conductances, including those mediated by KV7 potassium channels (i.e., the M-current), or activation of non-specific cation conductances that underlie calcium-dependent afterdepolarizations (ADPs). However, 2A-dependent excitation of cortical neurons has not been extensively studied, and no consensus exists regarding the underlying ionic effector(s) involved. In layer 5 of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex, we tested potential mechanisms of ...


Transcription Factor Pebbled/Rreb1 Regulates Injury-Induced Axon Degeneration, Jonathan E. Farley, Thomas C. Burdett, Romina Barria, Lukas J. Neukomm, Kevin P. Kenna, John E. Landers, Marc R. Freeman 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Transcription Factor Pebbled/Rreb1 Regulates Injury-Induced Axon Degeneration, Jonathan E. Farley, Thomas C. Burdett, Romina Barria, Lukas J. Neukomm, Kevin P. Kenna, John E. Landers, Marc R. Freeman

GSBS Student Publications

Genetic studies of Wallerian degeneration have led to the identification of signaling molecules (e.g., dSarm/Sarm1, Axundead, and Highwire) that function locally in axons to drive degeneration. Here we identify a role for the Drosophila C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor Pebbled [Peb, Ras-responsive element binding protein 1 (RREB1) in mammals] in axon death. Loss of Peb in Drosophila glutamatergic sensory neurons results in either complete preservation of severed axons, or an axon death phenotype where axons fragment into large, continuous segments, rather than completely disintegrate. Peb is expressed in developing and mature sensory neurons, suggesting it is required to ...


The Transcription Factor Pebbled/Rreb1 Regulates Injury-Induced Axon Degeneration, Jonathan E. Farley 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Transcription Factor Pebbled/Rreb1 Regulates Injury-Induced Axon Degeneration, Jonathan E. Farley

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Neurons establish complex networks within the nervous system allowing for rapid cell-cell communication via their long, thin axonal processes. These wire-thin projections are susceptible to a number of insults or injuries, and axonal damage can lead to disruption in signal propagation and an overall dysfunction of the neural network. Recent research focused on investigating the underlying mechanisms of injury-induced axon degeneration led to the discovery of a number of endogenous, pro-degenerative molecules such as dSarm/Sarm1, Highwire/Phr1, and Axundead. These signaling molecules are thought to execute axon degeneration in response to injury locally within the distal severed axon, but ...


Analytical Modeling Of A Communication Channel Based On Subthreshold Stimulation Of Neurobiological Networks, Alireza Khodaei 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Analytical Modeling Of A Communication Channel Based On Subthreshold Stimulation Of Neurobiological Networks, Alireza Khodaei

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The emergence of wearable and implantable machines manufactured artificially or synthesized biologically opens up a new horizon for patient-centered health services such as medical treatment, health monitoring, and rehabilitation with minimized costs and maximized popularity when provided remotely via the Internet. In particular, a swarm of machines at the scale of a single cell down to the nanoscale can be deployed in the body by the non-invasive or minimally invasive operation (e.g., swallowing and injection respectively) to perform various tasks. However, an individual machine is only able to perform basic tasks so it needs to exchange data with the ...


Mitochondrial Fission After Traumatic Brain Injury, Tara Fischer 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Mitochondrial Fission After Traumatic Brain Injury, Tara Fischer

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a central feature in the pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Loss of mitochondrial function disrupts normal cellular processes in the brain, as well as impedes the ability for repair and recovery, creating a vicious cycle that perpetuates damage after injury. To maintain metabolic homeostasis and cellular health, mitochondria constantly undergo regulated processes of fusion and fission and functionally adapt to changes in the cellular environment. An imbalance of these processes can disrupt the ability for mitochondria to functionally meet the metabolic needs of the cell, therefore resulting in mitochondrial damage and eventual cell death. Excessive fission ...


Neuronal Degeneration And Short-Term Memory Impairment After Tbi, Obiamaraije Igwe 2017 University of Louisville

Neuronal Degeneration And Short-Term Memory Impairment After Tbi, Obiamaraije Igwe

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with impaired short-term memory with causes of vehicle accidents and falls. Protein plaques containing fibrinogen (Fg), are associated with memory loss. After TBI, Fg in blood was higher than normal (>~2 mg/ml), which resulted in increased Fg in extravascular space. Therefore, Fg bonded to its endothelial receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Fg then interacted with cellular prion protein (PrPC), which had a strong effect on the loss of memory and cognition. Mechanisms of Fg and PrPC complex formation and its functional implication are not known. This present study tested the level of Fg-PrPC ...


Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Spinal Cord Injury Disrupts Circadian Rhythms In Rats, Emily M. Bateman

Psychology and Neuroscience Undergraduate Contributions

Traumatic spinal cord injury affects 282,000 people in the United States alone. Individuals often suffer from partial paralysis and chronic pain along with physiological impairments, such as abnormal thermoregulation, decreased motor function, and poor sleep quality. Current clinical therapies focus on symptomatic treatments. Despite extensive research, all of the physiologic effects and the molecular mechanism underlying spinal cord injury, and how they affect each other, remains elusive. Here, we tested whether spinal cord injury disrupted circadian rhythms, which could prolong the recovery process. We used implanted transmitters in male and female rats to measure a marker, body temperature, and ...


Social Status Modulates Restraint- Induced Neural Activity In Brain Regions Controlling Stress Vulnerability , Sahba Seddighi, Matthew A. Cooper 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Social Status Modulates Restraint- Induced Neural Activity In Brain Regions Controlling Stress Vulnerability , Sahba Seddighi, Matthew A. Cooper

Haslam Scholars Projects

Understanding the cellular mechanisms that control resistance and vulnerability to stress is an important step toward identifying novel targets for the prevention and treatment of stress-related mental illness. Dominant and subordinate animals have been shown to exhibit different behavioral and physiological responses to stress, with dominants often showing stress resistance and subordinates often showing stress vulnerability. We have previously found that dominant hamsters exhibit reduced social avoidance following social defeat stress compared to subordinate hamsters, although the extent to which stress resistance in dominants generalizes to non-social stressors is unknown. In this study, dominant, subordinate, and control male Syrian hamsters ...


Machine Learning Analysis Identifies Drosophila Grunge/Atrophin As An Important Learning And Memory Gene Required For Memory Retention And Social Learning, Balint Kacsoh 2017 Illinois State University

Machine Learning Analysis Identifies Drosophila Grunge/Atrophin As An Important Learning And Memory Gene Required For Memory Retention And Social Learning, Balint Kacsoh

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Regulation Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein By Prostaglandin J2, A Mediator Of Inflammation: Relevance To Alzheimer’S Disease, Teneka L. Jean-Louis

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Inflammation plays a major role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Investigating how specific mediators of inflammation contribute to neurodegeneration in AD is crucial. Our studies focused on cyclooxygenases, which are key enzymes in inflammation and highly relevant to AD. Cyclooxygenases (COX -1, constitutive; COX-2, inducible) have emerged as important determinants of AD pathogenesis and progression. COX-2 is highly induced in AD, correlating with AD severity, and COX-1 is also involved in AD. Cyclooxygenases are the rate-limiting enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs), the principal mediators of CNS neuroinflammation.

The overall GOAL of these studies was to address the ...


C. Elegans Avoids Toxin-Producing Streptomyces Using A Seven Transmembrane Domain Chemosensory Receptor, Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen O’Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl Eggers, Noelle L’Etoile, Laura Miller Conrad, Miri VanHoven 2017 San Jose State University

C. Elegans Avoids Toxin-Producing Streptomyces Using A Seven Transmembrane Domain Chemosensory Receptor, Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen O’Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl Eggers, Noelle L’Etoile, Laura Miller Conrad, Miri Vanhoven

Faculty Publications, Chemistry

Predators and prey co-evolve, each maximizing their own fitness, but the effects of predator–prey interactions on cellular and molecular machinery are poorly understood. Here, we study this process using the predator Caenorhabditis elegans and the bacterial prey Streptomyces, which have evolved a powerful defense: the production of nematicides. We demonstrate that upon exposure to Streptomyces at their head or tail, nematodes display an escape response that is mediated by bacterially produced cues. Avoidance requires a predicted G-protein-coupled receptor, SRB-6, which is expressed in five types of amphid and phasmid chemosensory neurons. We establish that species of Streptomyces secrete dodecanoic ...


C. Elegans Avoids Toxin-Producing Streptomyces Using A Seven Transmembrane Domain Chemosensory Receptor, Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen T. O’Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Y. Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl K. Eggers, Noelle L’Etoile, Laura C. Miller Conrad, Miri VanHoven 2017 San Jose State University

C. Elegans Avoids Toxin-Producing Streptomyces Using A Seven Transmembrane Domain Chemosensory Receptor, Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen T. O’Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Y. Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl K. Eggers, Noelle L’Etoile, Laura C. Miller Conrad, Miri Vanhoven

Daryl K. Eggers

Predators and prey co-evolve, each maximizing their own fitness, but the effects of predator–prey interactions on cellular and molecular machinery are poorly understood. Here, we study this process using the predator Caenorhabditis elegans and the bacterial prey Streptomyces, which have evolved a powerful defense: the production of nematicides. We demonstrate that upon exposure to Streptomyces at their head or tail, nematodes display an escape response that is mediated by bacterially produced cues. Avoidance requires a predicted G-protein-coupled receptor, SRB-6, which is expressed in five types of amphid and phasmid chemosensory neurons. We establish that species of Streptomyces secrete dodecanoic ...


C. Elegans Avoids Toxin-Producing Streptomyces Using A Seven Transmembrane Domain Chemosensory Receptor, Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen T. O’Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Y. Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl K. Eggers, Noelle L’Etoile, Laura C. Miller Conrad, Miri VanHoven 2017 San Jose State University

C. Elegans Avoids Toxin-Producing Streptomyces Using A Seven Transmembrane Domain Chemosensory Receptor, Alan Tran, Angelina Tang, Colleen T. O’Loughlin, Anthony Balistreri, Eric Chang, Doris Coto Villa, Joy Li, Aruna Varshney, Vanessa Jimenez, Jacqueline Pyle, Bryan Tsujimoto, Christopher Wellbrook, Christopher Vargas, Alex Duong, Nebat Ali, Sarah Y. Matthews, Samantha Levinson, Sarah Woldemariam, Sami Khuri, Martina Bremer, Daryl K. Eggers, Noelle L’Etoile, Laura C. Miller Conrad, Miri Vanhoven

Miri VanHoven

Predators and prey co-evolve, each maximizing their own fitness, but the effects of predator–prey interactions on cellular and molecular machinery are poorly understood. Here, we study this process using the predator Caenorhabditis elegans and the bacterial prey Streptomyces, which have evolved a powerful defense: the production of nematicides. We demonstrate that upon exposure to Streptomyces at their head or tail, nematodes display an escape response that is mediated by bacterially produced cues. Avoidance requires a predicted G-protein-coupled receptor, SRB-6, which is expressed in five types of amphid and phasmid chemosensory neurons. We establish that species of Streptomyces secrete dodecanoic ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Evolution Of Caffeine Biosynthetic Enzymes And Pathways In Flowering Plants, Ruiqi Huang 2017 Western Michigan University

Evolution Of Caffeine Biosynthetic Enzymes And Pathways In Flowering Plants, Ruiqi Huang

Dissertations

Convergent evolution generally refers to the independent evolution of similar biological function more than once in unrelated species. Caffeine is thought to have evolved by convergence, and is naturally produced through secondary metabolism in plants to defend against pathogen attack and insect feeding or to attract pollinators. The same caffeine biosynthetic pathway has been elucidated in Camellia (tea) and Coffea (coffee), in which xanthosine is sequentially methylated to caffeine via 7-methylxanthine and theobromine. However, although the same catalysis pathway is used, different (paralogous) enzymes in the SAMT/BAMT/theobromine synthase (SABATH) multigene family are used in the two species. In ...


Using The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus As A Model System To Assess Tolerance And Withdrawal To Alcohol, Jonathan Houghton Lindsay 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Using The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus As A Model System To Assess Tolerance And Withdrawal To Alcohol, Jonathan Houghton Lindsay

Doctoral Dissertations

Alcohol abuse induces many disorders including depression, metabolic syndrome, and sleep disturbances. The strong link between alcohol abuse and sleep problems, along with the close connection between sleep and circadian rhythms, led us to investigate ethanol’s effects on the circadian clock. Previous work has shown that acute ethanol blocks photic phase shifts in vivo and glutamatergic phase shifts in vitro. However, neural systems become tolerant to ethanol across different timeframes. Despite both ethanol tolerance and ethanol withdrawal syndrome being listed as criteria for developing alcohol use disorders, little is known about how ethanol tolerance and withdrawal induced hyperexcitability develop ...


Elucidating Mechanisms Of Protein Aggregation In Alzheimer’S Disease Using Antibody-Based Strategies., Benjamin A. Colvin 2017 University of Missouri - St. Louis

Elucidating Mechanisms Of Protein Aggregation In Alzheimer’S Disease Using Antibody-Based Strategies., Benjamin A. Colvin

Dissertations

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. There are two characteristic histopathological hallmarks in the brain: senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, composed of insoluble aggregates of the amyloids Amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau protein, respectively. These diagnostic markers, though distinctive, are not apparent effectors of AD pathology. Evidence has mounted suggesting smaller soluble aggregates (oligomers) of Aβ or tau are the true drivers of disease progression. This dissertation presents several amyloid biophysics projects. Aggregate biophysical parameters such as weight, shape, and conformation were measured using a range of methodologies, including Multiangle Light Scattering, Dynamic Light Scattering, UV-Circular Dichroism, UV-Fluorescence ...


The Lysosomal Protein Cathepsin L Is A Progranulin Protease, Chris W. Lee, Jeannette N. Stankowski, Jeannie Chew, Casey N. Cook, Ying-Wai Lam, Sandra Almeida, Yari Carlomagno, Kwok-Fai Lau, Mercedes Prudencio, Fen-Biao Gao, Matthew Bogyo, Dennis W. Dickson, Leonard Petrucelli 2017 Mayo Clinic

The Lysosomal Protein Cathepsin L Is A Progranulin Protease, Chris W. Lee, Jeannette N. Stankowski, Jeannie Chew, Casey N. Cook, Ying-Wai Lam, Sandra Almeida, Yari Carlomagno, Kwok-Fai Lau, Mercedes Prudencio, Fen-Biao Gao, Matthew Bogyo, Dennis W. Dickson, Leonard Petrucelli

Open Access Articles

Haploinsufficiency of GRN, the gene encoding progranulin (PGRN), causes frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the second most common cause of early-onset dementia. Receptor-mediated lysosomal targeting has been shown to regulate brain PGRN levels, and complete deficiency of PGRN is a direct cause of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disease. Here we show that the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L (Cat L) can mediate the proteolytic cleavage of intracellular PGRN into poly-granulin and granulin fragments. Further, PGRN and Cat L co-localize in lysosomes of HEK293 cells, iPSC-derived neurons and human cortical neurons from human postmortem tissue. These data identify Cat ...


Dynamic Control Of Dendritic Mrna Expression By Cnot7 Regulates Synaptic Efficacy And Higher Cognitive Function, Rhonda L. McFleder, Fernanda Mansur, Joel D. Richter 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dynamic Control Of Dendritic Mrna Expression By Cnot7 Regulates Synaptic Efficacy And Higher Cognitive Function, Rhonda L. Mcfleder, Fernanda Mansur, Joel D. Richter

GSBS Student Publications

Translation of mRNAs in dendrites mediates synaptic plasticity, the probable cellular basis of learning and memory. Coordination of translational inhibitory and stimulatory mechanisms, as well as dendritic transport of mRNA, is necessary to ensure proper control of this local translation. Here, we find that the deadenylase CNOT7 dynamically regulates dendritic mRNA translation and transport, as well as synaptic plasticity and higher cognitive function. In cultured hippocampal neurons, synaptic stimulation induces a rapid decrease in CNOT7, which, in the short-term, results in poly(A) tail lengthening of target mRNAs. However, at later times following stimulation, decreased poly(A) and dendritic localization ...


Neuroanatomical Tracing Of The Gut -- Brain Axis, Ricardo P. Torres, Elizabeth A. Davis, Coltan G. Parker, Megan J. Dailey 2017 Waubosee Community College

Neuroanatomical Tracing Of The Gut -- Brain Axis, Ricardo P. Torres, Elizabeth A. Davis, Coltan G. Parker, Megan J. Dailey

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

This poster summarizes a variety of methods to further characterize the gut-brain axis by tracing motor and sensory nerves between the gut and brain and identifying cell bodies in the sensory ganglia. Determines the meth method to trace the sensory and motor nerves was through fluorescence and the best method to identify sensory neuron cell bodies was the Nissi stain.


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