Endocytosis And The Nitric Oxide-Dependent Release Of Chloride, 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
Endocytosis And The Nitric Oxide-Dependent Release Of Chloride, Vernon K. Dunn Jr
LSU Doctoral Dissertations
Understanding the regulation of retinal synapses is a key step in elucidating the processing of information in the retina. Our lab has previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) can alter the synaptic response properties of amacrine cells by releasing Cl- from internal acidic compartments. This alteration in the Cl- gradient brings about a positive shift in the reversal potential of the GABA-gated current, which can convert inhibitory synapses into excitatory synapses. Recently, we have shown that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel is involved in the Cl- release. Here, we test the hypothesis that (acidic) synaptic vesicles are ...
Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins
Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.
Ephrinb3 Modulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis And The Reelin Signaling Pathway In A Pilocarpineinduced Model Of Epilepsy, 2018 Central South University
Ephrinb3 Modulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis And The Reelin Signaling Pathway In A Pilocarpineinduced Model Of Epilepsy, Tian-Tian Liu, Yi Li, Yi Shu, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Open Access Articles
EphrinB3 is important in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and migration via cellcell contact, and can activate the reelin pathway during brain development. However, the effect of ephrinB3 on hippocampal neurogenesis and the reelin pathway in epilepsy remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of ephrinB3 in pilocarpineinduced status epilepticus (SE) rats was investigated. SYBR Greenbased reverse transcriptionquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemical labeling and western blot analysis were used to detect the gene and protein expression levels of ephrinB3 and reelin pathway proteins. Immunofluorescence staining of doublecortin (DCX) was utilized to analyze hippocampal neurogenesis ...
Exploiting Click-Chemistry And Microfluidics To Map The Neuronal Itinerary Of App Processing And Amyloid-Beta Generation, 2018 Washington University in St. Louis
Exploiting Click-Chemistry And Microfluidics To Map The Neuronal Itinerary Of App Processing And Amyloid-Beta Generation, Namratha Srinivas
Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States with approximately 5.5 million Americans diagnosed with it. The neuropathological hallmark includes extracellular senile plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. Recent GWAS studies have identified genes associated with AD, and have revealed several classes of genes implicated in disease pathogenesis. In particular, three general pathways associated with an increased risk of AD included: 1) cholesterol metabolism, innate immune system, and the membrane trafficking. Our lab has focused on intracellular trafficking as it relates to the processing of amyloid precursor ...
Expression Of An Arc-Immunoreactive Protein In The Adult Zebrafish Brain Increases In Response To A Novel Environment, 2018 Georgia Southern University - Armstrong
Expression Of An Arc-Immunoreactive Protein In The Adult Zebrafish Brain Increases In Response To A Novel Environment, Robert A. Mans, Kyle D. Hinton, Amanda E. Rumer, Kourtnei A. Zellner, Emily A. Blankenship, Lia M. Kerkes, Michael J. Hamilton, Theresa R. Reilly, Cicely H. Payne
Georgia Journal of Science
Zebrafish are a powerful research tool in the field of neuroscience, offering several logistical and physiological advantages over rodents as a research model. However, the molecular dynamics of this model organism, especially with regards to learning and memory, are scarcely known. The current study explored the zebrafish brain for the presence of a protein bearing a similar function to the activity-regulated, cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), a critical player in synaptic plasticity. The adult zebrafish brain was found to express a protein with immunoreactivity against the anti-Arc antibody H-300. Immunoreactivity was detected ubiquitously, especially in areas known as adult progenitor cell zones ...
Ethical Analysis Of Brain Augmentation Through Nanotechnology, 2018 University of Puget Sound
Ethical Analysis Of Brain Augmentation Through Nanotechnology, Austin Caras, James Dejesus
Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal
The use of nanoparticles for drug delivery and neural cell manipulation may soon allow for organic and electronic brain augmentations. Medical technology being used for cognitive enhancement brings a host of ethical questions related to safety, justice, privacy, and individuality. Issues concerning medical consent and intellectual property will be skewed as neuroscience expands our understanding of the brain, growing our capacity to read and modify it. Socioeconomic strata may realign based on augmentations and employment opportunities may become dependent on specific cognitive enhancements. Long-term effects of unregulated nanoparticle usage could elicit an environmental or human health disaster. The potential ...
Is Concussion-Related Sleep Disturbance Present After Return To Play In College Athletes?, 2018 University of Connecticut
Is Concussion-Related Sleep Disturbance Present After Return To Play In College Athletes?, Alexander Gallaer
Honors Scholar Theses
As one of the most commonly experienced symptoms, the ramifications of sleep disruption as a result of concussion are potentially great, yet widely unexplored. Particularly troublesome is murky data regarding the length of sleep disruption following a concussion. By analyzing self-reported sleep data via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, this study seeks to investigate potential differences in sleep quality between injured college athletes 40 days after they have been cleared to play and matched controls. Data was analyzed using ANOVA analysis as well as Pearson correlation. No significant differences were found in sleep quality between groups, nor was there a ...
Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin
Senior Honors Theses
The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...
Reconstitution Of Gabaergic Postsynapses In Host Cells, 2018 University of Connecticut
Reconstitution Of Gabaergic Postsynapses In Host Cells, Karthik Kanamalla
Honors Scholar Theses
Type A GABA receptors (GABAARs) can be found embedded in postsynaptic membranes or in a variety of extrasynaptic locations. Receptors with synaptic function are recruited to the postsynapse by submembranous scaffolds composed of gephyrin and collybistin (CB). This study was aimed at assessing whether the ability to interact with the scaffold differentiates synaptic from non-synaptic receptors. Using HEK293 cells as an expression system, and indirect immunofluorescence (IF), co-localization of extrasynaptic receptors α1β3δ and α4β3δ with the CB-gephyrin scaffold was assessed and compared with that of the synaptic receptor α1β3γ2. Results indicated that both extrasynaptic receptors were able to colocalize with ...
Factors That Determine Spreading Depolarization Propagation In Brain Slices, 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus
Factors That Determine Spreading Depolarization Propagation In Brain Slices, Linday Selters
Biomedical Engineering ETDs
In the US alone, more than 750,000 people had a stroke in 2017, more than 1.7 million reported a traumatic brain injury, and more than 9 million suffered from migraines with aura. While all three of these neurological conditions have vastly different causes and possible outcomes they all have a common phenomenon occurring within the brain. A wave that slowly propagates through grey matter, hitting neurons with a large burst of energy, opening them up to a flood of ions and silencing them for an extended period of time. These waves are known as spreading depolarizations (SD). Within ...
Inhibition Of Tnf-Alpha Decreases Microglia Activation In Rats Neonatally Treated With Poly I:C, 2018 East Tennessee State University
Inhibition Of Tnf-Alpha Decreases Microglia Activation In Rats Neonatally Treated With Poly I:C, Heath W. Shelton, Russell W. Brown
Appalachian Student Research Forum
Introduction: Current medical treatment for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCHZ) primarily relies on the inhibition of the dopamine D2 receptor that has been shown to be supersensitive in these patients. Treatment occurs through the use of antipsychotic medication which leads to a number of debilitating dose-dependent side effects, such as weight gain, agranulocytosis, and seizures. Patients diagnosed with SCHZ have also been shown to have increased inflammation in their central nervous system (CNS), particularly within specific brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. This is in large part due to the interaction between a pro-inflammatory cytokine called ...
Neutrophils In The Geniculate Ganglion Following Chorda Tympani Transection In Adult Rats, 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha
Neutrophils In The Geniculate Ganglion Following Chorda Tympani Transection In Adult Rats, Carlos Vera-Esquivel
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
Neutrophils in the Geniculate Ganglion Following Chorda Tympani Transection in Adult Rats
The chorda tympani nerve (CT) innervates taste buds on the tongue. The CT’s cell bodies are in the geniculate ganglion (GG). Previous work in our lab found that severing the CT (CTX) results in a reduction of taste bud numbers, and substantial immune responses at the tongue and in the brain. However, there is limited information on how the immune system responds at the GG following CTX. Neutrophils are critical members of the first wave of immune response to nerve injury, attacking foreign pathogens and clearing debris ...
Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. Vanosdol
All NMU Master's Theses
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small, diffusible protein essential for the development and function of neurons. It is synthesized by many types of tissue, including muscle. BDNF actions are mediated via binding to its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). The BDNF-TrkB complex is endocytosed into a specialized vesicle, which induces downstream signaling cascades locally in the dendrites, or, more often, is delivered to the cell soma via retrograde axonal transport, where it modulates gene expression. BDNF activation of TrkB is critical for the initiation of axonal transport, and this cellular process relies on the interaction of numerous adaptor ...
Rescue Of Neocortical Circuit Deficits With Modified Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Sb623, In A Rat Model Of Photothrombotic Stroke, Alexander Urry
Yale Day of Data
The following poster characterizes the effects of a novel stem cell line on treating the neural circuit deficits resulting from stroke.
The Lrrk2 Variant E193k Prevents Mitochondrial Fission Upon Mpp+ Treatment By Altering Lrrk2 Binding To Drp1, 2018 University of Trento
The Lrrk2 Variant E193k Prevents Mitochondrial Fission Upon Mpp+ Treatment By Altering Lrrk2 Binding To Drp1, Maria Perez Carrion, John E. Landers, Stefano Goldwurm, Giovanni Piccoli
Open Access Articles
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a complex protein that consists of multiple domains, including 13 putative armadillo-type repeats at the N-terminus. In this study, we analyzed the functional and molecular consequences of a novel variant, E193K, identified in an Italian family. E193K substitution does not influence LRRK2 kinase activity. Instead it affects LRRK2 biochemical properties, such as phosphorylation at Ser935 and affinity for 14-3-3epsilon. Primary fibroblasts obtained from an E193K carrier demonstrated increased cellular toxicity and abnormal mitochondrial fission upon 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium treatment. We found that ...
Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Arielle L. Baker, Allan T. Gulledge
Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles
Serotonin (5-HT) selectively excites subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex via activation of 5-HT2A (2A) receptors coupled to Gq subtype G-protein alpha subunits. Gq-mediated excitatory responses have been attributed primarily to suppression of potassium conductances, including those mediated by KV7 potassium channels (i.e., the M-current), or activation of non-specific cation conductances that underlie calcium-dependent afterdepolarizations (ADPs). However, 2A-dependent excitation of cortical neurons has not been extensively studied, and no consensus exists regarding the underlying ionic effector(s) involved. In layer 5 of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex, we tested potential mechanisms of ...
Transcription Factor Pebbled/Rreb1 Regulates Injury-Induced Axon Degeneration, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Transcription Factor Pebbled/Rreb1 Regulates Injury-Induced Axon Degeneration, Jonathan E. Farley, Thomas C. Burdett, Romina Barria, Lukas J. Neukomm, Kevin P. Kenna, John E. Landers, Marc R. Freeman
GSBS Student Publications
Genetic studies of Wallerian degeneration have led to the identification of signaling molecules (e.g., dSarm/Sarm1, Axundead, and Highwire) that function locally in axons to drive degeneration. Here we identify a role for the Drosophila C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor Pebbled [Peb, Ras-responsive element binding protein 1 (RREB1) in mammals] in axon death. Loss of Peb in Drosophila glutamatergic sensory neurons results in either complete preservation of severed axons, or an axon death phenotype where axons fragment into large, continuous segments, rather than completely disintegrate. Peb is expressed in developing and mature sensory neurons, suggesting it is required to ...
Chronic Clozapine Treatment Impairs Functional Activation Of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 Via An Hdac2-Depedent Mechanism, 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University
Chronic Clozapine Treatment Impairs Functional Activation Of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 Via An Hdac2-Depedent Mechanism, Travis M. Cuddy
Theses and Dissertations
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder affecting millions worldwide. It has no known cure. Current pharmaceutical treatments have shown efficacy in only one of the three symptom clusters of schizophrenia, providing little or no benefit in the other two. Furthermore, the current standard-of-care drugs, known as atypical antipsychotics, carry risks of severe side effects affecting multiple body systems. Most patients opt to discontinue drug therapy within two years of initiation due to lack of efficacy and/or preponderance of adverse effects. Previous findings have shown that chronic usage of atypical antipsychotics causes a 5-HT2A-dependent upregulation of histone deacetylase ...
Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder
Prior Voluntary Wheel Running Prevents Memory Deficits And Enhanced Neuropathic Pain Presenting After Morphine Dosing Ceases, Nathan Plattner
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Clinical research studies show that chronic pain is a prevalent, difficult affliction to manage. The most common management for chronic pain is opioids, which research is showing to paradoxically induce persistent, worsened pain states as well as potentially having negative effects on memory. The necessity for understanding chronic pain and drug management options is apparent, and research is aiming to do just that. Exercise is one potential preventative measure or post hoc treatment possibility for chronic pain, as abundant research has shown. Knowledge of the interactions between exercise, morphine dosing, and peripheral nerve injury is nonexistent. As such, we desired ...
Validating The Use Of Dreadds In The Study Of The Paraventricular Thalamus (Pvt) And Its Role As In Interface Of Circadian Information, 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder
Validating The Use Of Dreadds In The Study Of The Paraventricular Thalamus (Pvt) And Its Role As In Interface Of Circadian Information, Luke Millisor
Undergraduate Honors Theses
How the brain and body coordinate the phase of their internal clocks has remained elusive despite years of study. The discovery of clock genes showed how individual cells can keep time. The establishment of the suprachiasmatic nucleus as the master clock showed that in normal circumstances the brain relies on one nucleus to communicate time of day information to the rest of the body and brain. By what method the SCN accomplishes this is largely unknown. Glucocorticoid hormones are known to have a role in this communication, but evidence remains for a neuronal pathway between the SCN and extra SCN ...