Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

873 Full-Text Articles 1,479 Authors 179,466 Downloads 118 Institutions

All Articles in Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience

Faceted Search

873 full-text articles. Page 1 of 39.

Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber 2024 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Optimization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody For Immunohistochemistry Fluorescence Detection In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Madison Thurber

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter produced through the catecholamine synthesis pathway that affects brain activity. Unregulated dopamine levels can lead to various diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Optimization of an immunohistochemistry protocol will allow for the quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase antibody, which indirectly allows for dopamine quantification in dopaminergic regions within the brain. However, the antibody concentration to give the optimal signal-to-noise ratio in IHC varies across studies. Through this experiment, I determined the concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) antibody for immunohistochemistry that gave the best signal-to-background noise ratio within several known dopaminergic regions …


Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda And Wt Α-Synuclein Induced Decreases In Neurite Growth In In Vitro Models Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda And Wt Α-Synuclein Induced Decreases In Neurite Growth In In Vitro Models Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration. This degeneration is partly driven by over expression of α-synuclein (α-syn) and development of α-syn aggregates known as Lewy bodies throughout the substantia nigra. As well as motor dysfunction, PD presents with several chronic gastrointestinal comorbidities, which cause a decline of gut microbial diversity and microbially derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Recent in vivo studies have shown SCFAs to be neuroprotective in various degenerative disease states, suggesting that SCFAs may protect against dopaminergic degeneration.

Methods

Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used as a model of human …


Cyclophosphamide And Epirubicin Induce Apoptotic Cell Death In Microglia Cells, Rafael de la Hoz-Camacho 2023 Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon

Cyclophosphamide And Epirubicin Induce Apoptotic Cell Death In Microglia Cells, Rafael De La Hoz-Camacho

Research Symposium

Background. Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment’s (CRCI), diminish patient’s quality life, being breast cancer (BC) patients the most affected. Microglia is described to play a major role in CRCI; hence, the aim of this research was to describe the cytotoxicity of cyclophosphamide (CTX) and Epirubicin (EPI), on microglia (SIM-A9), compared to BC cells (4T1).

Methods. We assessed cell viability (Resazurin) and cell death (AnnV), as well as nuclear damage with γ-H2AX, p53, p16 and cell cycle analysis (PI staining) by flow cytometry (FC). Furthermore, we evaluated ΔΨm (DIOC6), ROS (DCFDA) and NO (DAF-FM) production. Finally, caspase activation (TF2-VAD-FMK) and autophagy (CYTO-ID). …


Palmitoylation As A Regulator Of Maguk Proteins Postsynaptic Localization, Rozena Shirvani-Arani, Santiago Balderas, Yonghong Zhang, Xioaqian Fang 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Palmitoylation As A Regulator Of Maguk Proteins Postsynaptic Localization, Rozena Shirvani-Arani, Santiago Balderas, Yonghong Zhang, Xioaqian Fang

Research Symposium

Synaptic plasticity is the ability of the brain to make changes and the changes occur at synapses. To achieve the complicated functions, a good number of proteins are present at synapse and are called synaptic proteins. To stabilize these proteins at synapses, proteins are modified through posttranslational modifications (PTMs). The most studied PTMs include phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, palmitoylation, etc. Palmitoylation is a type of lipid modification and has received more attention recently for its contribution to protein trafficking, localization, and interaction in various synaptic plasticity. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family includes PSD-95, PSD-93 (also known as chapsyn-110), SAP102, …


Prenatal Cafeteria Diet Exposure Promotes Lymphocyte Infiltration Into The Brain And Autism-Like Behavior In The Offspring Of C57bl6 Mice, José Alfredo Castillo Luna, Martín García Juárez, Diana Reséndez Pérez, Alberto Camacho Morales 2023 Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon

Prenatal Cafeteria Diet Exposure Promotes Lymphocyte Infiltration Into The Brain And Autism-Like Behavior In The Offspring Of C57bl6 Mice, José Alfredo Castillo Luna, Martín García Juárez, Diana Reséndez Pérez, Alberto Camacho Morales

Research Symposium

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with an array of etiological causes, including environmental, genetic, and immunological triggers. High-energy diets activate the immune system during prenatal stages favoring infiltration of peripheral immune cells and cytokines into the brain by the choroid plexus and circumventricular regions and altering microglial activity. Accumulation of immune entities and microglia activation in brain have been reported to disrupt social behavior. However, the interplay between prenatal exposure to high-energy diets, neuroinflammation and defective social behavior has not been reported.

Methods: Female C57BL6 mice were exposed to cafeteria diet during pregnancy and lactation. The …


Modelling Prenatal Hypoxia As A Risk Factor For Schizophrenia Vulnerability In Patient-Derived Cerebral Organoids, Dana M. Gummerson 2023 Western University

Modelling Prenatal Hypoxia As A Risk Factor For Schizophrenia Vulnerability In Patient-Derived Cerebral Organoids, Dana M. Gummerson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prenatal hypoxia during fetal development is a significant environmental risk factor linked to schizophrenia (SCZ) vulnerability. However, hypoxia’s impact on human brain development at the cellular level remains unclear. Our laboratory has developed human cerebral organoids using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from healthy control or SCZ patient cell lines to address these questions. This creates a platform that allows for the investigation into the pathophysiology of SCZ and hypoxia in tandem. Organoids were exposed to hypoxic conditions at one month of development, mimicking the early stages of cortical growth in the human fetus. Results reveal innate differences in …


Oligodendrocyte 2phatal Reveals Dynamics Of Myelin Degeneration And Repair, Timothy W. Chapman 2023 Dartmouth College

Oligodendrocyte 2phatal Reveals Dynamics Of Myelin Degeneration And Repair, Timothy W. Chapman

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Oligodendrocytes are responsible for producing myelin in the central nervous system. This lipid-rich coating along axons helps to increase action potential velocity, provide metabolic support to axons, and facilitate fine-tuning of neuronal circuitry. Demyelination and/or myelin dysfunction is widespread in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Despite this, we know very little about how individual oligodendrocytes, or the myelin sheaths they produce, degenerate. Myelin repair, carried out by resident oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), is known to occur following myelin damage in certain contexts. We sought to investigate the cellular dynamics of oligodendrocyte degeneration and repair by developing a non-inflammatory demyelination model, combining …


Characterization Of Pathological Tau Mutants, Charles J. McDonald 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Characterization Of Pathological Tau Mutants, Charles J. Mcdonald

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Tau is a protein expressed exclusively in glia and neurons in the central nervous system and implicated in several neurogenerative diseases called “tauopathies”. Among all the tauopathies, one third is characterized by the presence of genetic mutations leading to the synthesis of tau proteins with single amino acid substitutions at specific locations and affecting protein function. While most of the initial studies have emphasize the functional role of tau as modulator of the axonal cytoskeleton, it has recently been well accepted that tau is also an intrinsically disordered protein that tends to form membraneless organelles called coacervates, due to a …


Examining The Emergence Of Mood And Anxiety Molecular Phenotypes Resulting From Chronic Prenatal Nicotine Exposure In Cerebral Organoids, Emma K. Proud 2023 Western University

Examining The Emergence Of Mood And Anxiety Molecular Phenotypes Resulting From Chronic Prenatal Nicotine Exposure In Cerebral Organoids, Emma K. Proud

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) from maternal smoking disrupts regulatory processes vital to fetal development. These changes result in long-term behavioural impairments, including mood and anxiety disorders, that manifest later in life. However the relationship underlying PNE, and the underpinnings of mood/anxiety molecular phenotypes remains elusive. To model nicotine exposure during prenatal development, our study used human cerebral organoids that were chronically exposed to nicotine and collected for molecular analyses. Short-term, nicotine altered molecular markers of neural identity, mood/anxiety disorders and those involved in maintaining the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance in the cortex. RNA sequencing further revealed transcriptomic changes in genes pertaining …


Sex Differences In Mood And Anxiety-Related Outcomes In Response To Adolescent Nicotine Exposure, Tsun Hay Jason Ng 2023 The University of Western Ontario

Sex Differences In Mood And Anxiety-Related Outcomes In Response To Adolescent Nicotine Exposure, Tsun Hay Jason Ng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nicotine dependence is causally linked to increased risk of mood/anxiety disorders in later life. Females are reported to experience a higher prevalence of anxiety/depressive disorders and challenges in smoking cessation therapies, suggesting a potential sex-specific response to nicotine exposure and mood/anxiety disorder risk. However, pre-clinical evidence of sex-specific responses to adolescent nicotine exposure is unclear. Thus, to determine any sex differences in anxiety/depressive-related outcomes, adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg; 3x daily) or saline injections for 10 consecutive days, followed by behavioural testing, in-vivo electrophysiology and Western Blot analyses. Our results revealed that adolescent nicotine …


Noradrenergic Regulation Of Decision-Making In Female And Male Rats, Emma S. Dauster 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Noradrenergic Regulation Of Decision-Making In Female And Male Rats, Emma S. Dauster

Doctoral Dissertations

Decision-making is regulated by many associated brain regions, including the locus coeruleus (LC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Disruptions in decision-making are a key feature of many disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder which is disproportionately diagnosed in one sex over another for reasons unknown. LC or its primary neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) have been implicated in the etiology or treatment of disrupted decision-making. Understanding the relationship among LC, PFC, and decision-making across sexes may provide insight into the basic neurobiology of cognition and disorders that lead to disrupted decision making.

There are sex differences in LC anatomy, however studies investigating sex differences …


Novel Insights Into Oligodendrocyte Biology From Developmental Myelination Studies In Autophagy Deficient Mice And Analysis Of Oligodendrocyte Translatome Response To Contusive Spinal Cord Injury., Michael David Forston 2023 University of Louisville

Novel Insights Into Oligodendrocyte Biology From Developmental Myelination Studies In Autophagy Deficient Mice And Analysis Of Oligodendrocyte Translatome Response To Contusive Spinal Cord Injury., Michael David Forston

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Loss of myelin causes severe neurological disorders and functional deficits in white matter injuries (WMI) such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). This dissertation is focused on autophagy in OL development and the OL translatome after SCI. Chapter I describes the history of myelin, OL development, and their involvement in neurodegenerative diseases and SCI. The proteostasis network, in particular autophagy, and its contributions to white matter pathology is discussed. It concludes examining advantages and disadvantages of unbiased omics tools, like RiboTag, to study transcriptional/translational landscapes after SCI. Chapter II focuses on autophagy in OPC/OL differentiation, survival, and proper myelination in …


Connectivity Of Amygdala Somatostatin-Expressing Neurons And Their Role In Taste-Guided Behavior., Jane Jeruto Bartonjo 2023 University of Louisville

Connectivity Of Amygdala Somatostatin-Expressing Neurons And Their Role In Taste-Guided Behavior., Jane Jeruto Bartonjo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The nucleus of solitary tract (NST) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) represent the first and second central synapses of ascending gustatory information. Neural processing in these nuclei is influenced by descending input from forebrain regions such as the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). In mice, we have shown that somatostatin (Sst) expressing neurons of CeA that project to NST and PBN are largely distinct cell populations and optogenetic inhibition of the CeA/Sst-to-NST subpopulation increases the intake of high concentrations of quinine with no apparent effect on sucrose intake. Synaptic connectivity of these cells is needed to understand the possible mechanisms …


Phenotyping Regression In A Female Mouse Model For Rett Syndrome Using Computational Neuroethology Tools, Michael J. Mykins 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Phenotyping Regression In A Female Mouse Model For Rett Syndrome Using Computational Neuroethology Tools, Michael J. Mykins

Doctoral Dissertations

Regression is defined as loss of acquired skills over time and is a key feature of many neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome (RTT). RTT is caused by mutations in the X-linked gene Methyl CpG-Binding Protein 2 (MECP2) and is characterized by a period of typical development with subsequent regression of previously acquired motor and speech skills in girls. In human and animal models, it is clear syndromic phenotypes are dynamic over time but phenotyping regression over time in animal models has remained elusive. Lack of established timelines to study the molecular, cellular, and behavioral features of regression in female …


Utilizing Crispr Cas9 To Visualize Dopamine Receptors In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Lauren Michelle Velasquez 2023 California State University – San Bernardino

Utilizing Crispr Cas9 To Visualize Dopamine Receptors In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Lauren Michelle Velasquez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with imperative implications in many functions including movement, reward, and cognition. Studying the pathways of dopaminergic neurons at multiple levels allows us to understand the ways in which these systems can go wrong. We study dopamine in a model system such as the worm Caenorhabditis elegans because of its relatively simple and well-characterized nervous system. DA is involved in regulating chemosensory behaviors in worms. The purpose of this research project is to definitively answer the following question: Are the dopamine receptors DOP-1 and DOP-4 expressed in chemosensory neurons? Previous reporter assays show that neither of …


The Combined Effects Of Physical Exercise And Cognitive Training On Gait Speed And Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism In Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 1h-Mrs Analysis, Jack Thomas Emsey Elkas 2023 Western University

The Combined Effects Of Physical Exercise And Cognitive Training On Gait Speed And Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism In Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 1h-Mrs Analysis, Jack Thomas Emsey Elkas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional stage before dementia. Altered gait in MCI has been associated with progression to dementia. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a relationship between primary motor cortex (M1) neurochemistry and dual task gait speed has been reported in MCI. Interventional research suggests exercise, cognitive training, and vitamin D supplementation may benefit MCI, yet the combined effect of these treatments on gait speed and M1 metabolism is unknown. Participants with MCI (N=75) were assigned to one of five intervention arms and dual task cost on gait speed and M1 metabolism was assessed before and five months after …


Complement System In Multiple Sclerosis: Its Role In Disease Course And Potential As A Therapeutic Target, Michael R. Linzey 2023 Dartmouth College

Complement System In Multiple Sclerosis: Its Role In Disease Course And Potential As A Therapeutic Target, Michael R. Linzey

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a clinically heterogeneous neurological condition characterized by neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Relapsing-remitting MS, defined by inflammatory attacks, is the most common initial form of MS and there are currently 23 FDA-approved treatments for these patients. These therapies work primarily by reducing inflammation in the CNS; they do not work well in progressive disease. Therefore, an unmet medical need exists for effective therapeutic options to treat progressive MS (PMS).

In MS, intrathecal immunoglobulins synthesis (IIgS) correlates with disease progression. My goals for this dissertation were to establish the pathological role of IIgS and identify new potential therapeutic …


Role Of Chronic Stress-Induced Neuroinflammation In Rodent Locus Coeruleus Physiology And Anxiety-Like Behaviors, Arthur Anthony Alfonso Reyes 2023 Rowan University

Role Of Chronic Stress-Induced Neuroinflammation In Rodent Locus Coeruleus Physiology And Anxiety-Like Behaviors, Arthur Anthony Alfonso Reyes

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The locus coeruleus (LC), the primary site of brain norepinephrine (NE), is a key anatomical brain region implicated in the stress response. Stress is a neuroendocrine physiologic response to a stressor that promotes organism survival through adaptive change and restoration of homeostasis. The central stress response, which drives behavioral and physiological change, is primarily mediated by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. While advantageous in the short term, chronic stress exposure can lead to HPA axis and LC dysregulation, which are thought to contribute to the etiology of anxiety disorders. Previous studies demonstrate the effects of acute stress in increasing LC …


The Protective Effects Of Anthocyanins On Neurons, Abigail Lynn 2023 Olivet Nazarene University

The Protective Effects Of Anthocyanins On Neurons, Abigail Lynn

Pence-Boyce STEM Student Scholarship

Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s are debilitating neurodegenerative diseases that are largely thought to be exacerbated, and perhaps even caused, by oxidative stress in and around neurons. At the same time, there has been increased research in the field of nutrition and how the foods we eat impact our short- and long-term health. These combined interests have resulted in fascinating studies that have found certain foods, namely plants, can have a variety of medicinal benefits.....The purpose of this study is to determine if plant extracts that have high levels of certain phytonutrients can increase the activity of cellular enzymes that reduce oxidative …


The Role Of Complement In Stroke And Traumatic Brain Injury, Christine Couch 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

The Role Of Complement In Stroke And Traumatic Brain Injury, Christine Couch

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Brain and neural injury are a non-specific disease category that includes traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke. Both TBI and stroke are common, costly, and leading causes of severe disability in adults. Both stroke and TBI are responsible for substantial disability in working age adults, with stroke being the second leading cause of death worldwide [1] and TBI a major cause of disability in people younger than their 40's [2]. The immune response after brain injury is multifactorial and involves both local and systemic events at the cellular and molecular level. The complement system is a component of both the …


Digital Commons powered by bepress