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Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor 2023 West Virginia University

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical interface between the systemic circulation and the brain. It is a specialized multicellular unit composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, a basement membrane, and astrocytic end foot processes. BMECs are a principal component of the BBB that provide the structural framework needed for the stringent transport of molecules into the brain. BMEC dysfunction permits the trafficking of neurotoxins from systemic circulation into the brain, which ultimately exacerbates BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that BBB dysfunction is a key determinant of cognitive decline in sepsis. However, there are critical knowledge ...


Mirnas Levels In A Streptozocin Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Nada Moustafa 2022 American University in Cairo

Mirnas Levels In A Streptozocin Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Nada Moustafa

Theses and Dissertations

Dementia entails a progressive decrease in cognitive functions, with 50%-75% of cases attributed to Alzheimer’s disease (AD); an aging-associated condition characterized by the build-up of tangled phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) protein and beta-amyloid (Aβ) depositions. Sporadic AD (sAD) is multifactorial in nature, resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic predisposing factors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading risk factor for dementia, and deregulation of brain glucose metabolism is associated with early cognitive affection in sAD. Thus, the diabetogenic agent Streptozotocin (STZ) is used to experimentally create an AD model in animals (STZ-induced sAD), in which abnormalities ...


Estimating Glutamate Transporter Surface Density In Mouse Hippocampal Astrocytes, Anca R. Radulescu, Annalisa Scimemi 2022 State University of New York at New Paltz

Estimating Glutamate Transporter Surface Density In Mouse Hippocampal Astrocytes, Anca R. Radulescu, Annalisa Scimemi

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Deletion Of The Cytoplasmic Domain Of Robo3 On Drosophila, Jessie Agcaoili 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Deletion Of The Cytoplasmic Domain Of Robo3 On Drosophila, Jessie Agcaoili

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

My research project examines how the deletion of the cytoplasmic domain affects the function of Robo3. If Robo3 is signaling repulsion in response to SLIT this activity should require the cytoplasmic domain. I investigated the functional importance of Robo3 by deleting the cytoplasmic domain of Robo3 using a CRISPR-based technique. This modified gene was then injected into Drosophila embryos where it replaced the normal copy of the gene. Embryos expressing the modified version of robo3 in place of normal robo3 were dissected and examined.


Hypocretin-Receptor Mrna Expression In The Central Amygdala Of Alcohol-Dependent And Non-Dependent Rats, Gabriel Aldridge 2022 East Tennessee State University

Hypocretin-Receptor Mrna Expression In The Central Amygdala Of Alcohol-Dependent And Non-Dependent Rats, Gabriel Aldridge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hypocretin/Orexin (HCRT) neurotransmission facilitates drug-seeking behavior. HCRT neurotransmission at HCRT-receptors 1 and 2 (HCRT-R1 and -R2, respectively) is implicated in addiction. During the shift to alcohol-dependency, adaptations in neurotransmitter systems occur in reward- and stress-related brain regions. Specifically, neurotransmission systems in the central amygdala (CeA) are modulated by alcohol drinking/exposure. Therefore, this study investigated Hcrtr1 and Hcrtr2 mRNA expression in the CeA of alcohol-dependent rats and in non-dependent controls during acute alcohol withdrawal. Fos mRNA expression in the CeA of alcohol-dependent and non-dependent rats was also determined to assess adaptations in neuronal activation. To our knowledge, this is ...


The Relationship Between Circadian Rhythms And Neurodegenerative Disease, Christopher Simpson 2022 Bowling Green State University

The Relationship Between Circadian Rhythms And Neurodegenerative Disease, Christopher Simpson

Honors Projects

Neurodegenerative disease is a pervasive and insidious disease affecting a large proportion of the elderly population. Leading to the degeneration of neural tissue throughout the nervous system, it is a slow and progressive disorder. Because of its nature, it is possible that it has a connection to circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are the endogenous approximately 24-hour rhythms of the body commonly associated with the sleep-wake cycle, but they account for much more. This review aims to ascertain the relationship between the two by covering several facets of research pursued in the past five years. Beginning with establishing a basic understanding ...


Carboplatin And Thalidomide Induced Neuro-Hepatotoxicity In Rats: Diminish Effect Of Citrullus Colocynthis, Mokhtar Ibrahim Yousef Ph.D., Sarah Samir Othman Ph.D., Moustafa Ahmed F.H. Mahdy Ph.d., Dina K.A.M. Khalil Ph.d., Maher Abd El-naby Kamel Ph.D. 2022 Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Egypt., Delta University for Science and Technology, Gamasa City, Coastal International Road, Mansoura, Egypt.

Carboplatin And Thalidomide Induced Neuro-Hepatotoxicity In Rats: Diminish Effect Of Citrullus Colocynthis, Mokhtar Ibrahim Yousef Ph.D., Sarah Samir Othman Ph.D., Moustafa Ahmed F.H. Mahdy Ph.D., Dina K.A.M. Khalil Ph.D., Maher Abd El-Naby Kamel Ph.D.

Delta University Scientific Journal

Carboplatin and thalidomide are good candidate’s treatments against many types of cancer. Latest studies demonstrated that these chemotherapeutic druges caused oxidative damage. So, the present study was conducted to estimate the neurotoxic and hepatotoxic effects induced by carboplatin/ thalidomide regimen and to explore the potential protective effect of Citrillus colocynthis extract (CCE). The obtained results showed that carboplatin/thalidomide induced histological changes, caused significant elevation in serum liver enzymes, decline in brain and plasma neurotransmitters, and increase in acetylcholine esterase. At the molecular level, thalidomide/carboplatin caused marked elevation in inflammatory and apoptotic markers and suppressed the expression of ...


Trkb Activity Alters Voluntary Alcohol Consumption In Nondependent Mice, Alfred Amendolara 2022 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

Trkb Activity Alters Voluntary Alcohol Consumption In Nondependent Mice, Alfred Amendolara

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Novel Methodology For The Investigation Of Dmrt3a Interneurons In Larval Zebrafish, Alfred Amendolara 2022 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

Novel Methodology For The Investigation Of Dmrt3a Interneurons In Larval Zebrafish, Alfred Amendolara

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Novel Strategies For Glutamate Clearance In The Glia-Deprived Synaptic Hub Of C. Elegans, Joyce Chan 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Novel Strategies For Glutamate Clearance In The Glia-Deprived Synaptic Hub Of C. Elegans, Joyce Chan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, Glutamate (Glu) is critical for normal neuronal physiology. Disruption in Glu clearance results in hyper-stimulation of glutamatergic circuits, potentially leading to excitotoxic neurodegeneration. The canonical model of brain connectivity describes glutamatergic synapses as well insulated and enveloped by glia. These glia express Glu Transporters (GluTs) which work to clear Glu following synaptic activity. However, critical areas of the brain such as the mammalian hippocampus display poor synaptic isolation, which may result in Glu spillover between adjacent synapses and subsequent loss of circuit specificity. How accurate signal transmission is achieved in these ...


The Effects Of Neuronal Growth Factors On Lps-Activated Schwann Cells, Caitlyn E. Henry, Peyton Kimmel, Angela Asirvatham Ph.D. 2022 Misericordia University

The Effects Of Neuronal Growth Factors On Lps-Activated Schwann Cells, Caitlyn E. Henry, Peyton Kimmel, Angela Asirvatham Ph.D.

Student Research Poster Presentations 2022

Schwann cells (SCs) are the principal support cells of neurons in the peripheral nervous system, that both myelinate axons for the rapid conduction of electrical impulses as well as assist in axonal repair during nerve injury. During nerve injury, SCs secrete tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)1,5,6 and other proinflammatory mediators1,6, attracting macrophages to the site of injury to induce inflammation and clear myelin debris.1,6 Once the debris is cleared, the neuron stimulates SC proliferation by secreting neuronal mitogens, such as heregulin3,4, and an unknown factor that activates the cAMP pathway3 ...


Simulation Of An Inflammatory Model Using Schwann Cells, Caitlyn Henry, Peyton Kimmel, Angela Asirvatham 2022 Misericordia University

Simulation Of An Inflammatory Model Using Schwann Cells, Caitlyn Henry, Peyton Kimmel, Angela Asirvatham

Student Research Poster Presentations 2022

During peripheral nerve injury, the myelin surrounding the neuronal axons is damaged, initiating an inflammatory response to remove myelin debris. Once myelin debris is cleared, Schwann cells acquire a proliferating phenotype which allows them to grow and divide so that remyelination can occur. The neuron stimulates Schwann cell division by secreting growth factors, like heregulin, and an unknown growth factor that activates the cAMP pathway. Although the role of cAMP in axonal regeneration is well-known, not much has been explored about its function in Schwann cells during nerve injury and inflammation. To simulate an inflammatory environment, the S16 Schwann cell ...


Viral Injection Of Rna Polymerase Ii-Interacting Protein Rprd2 In The Nucleus Accumbens Induces Anxiety-Like Behavior In Mice, Hannah E. Woolard 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Viral Injection Of Rna Polymerase Ii-Interacting Protein Rprd2 In The Nucleus Accumbens Induces Anxiety-Like Behavior In Mice, Hannah E. Woolard

Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety and its related disorders have become increasingly prevalent as more awareness and acceptance of mental illnesses have come to fruition, especially in the light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Anxiety can affect anyone regardless of their age, sex, or social status and is currently the most commonly diagnosed mental illness worldwide (Bandelow & Michaelis, 2015). While there are several effective treatments available, the underlying brain mechanisms that cause anxiety are still largely unknown and further research continues to piece together the complex pathophysiology behind this disease. The use of laboratory animal models, such as mice, to induce and observe anxiety-like behaviors are an effective research method to determine specific molecular mechanisms that can influence anxiety. These studies may help to identify more effective treatments and improve the understanding of complex mental illnesses.

Our laboratory previously identified increased levels of protein expression of RPRD2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice that were resilient to chronic social defeat stress (Hamilton et al., 2020). Known as regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing protein 2, this protein is largely unstudied and its mechanism and function remain incompletely understood. RPRD2 is a member of the RPRD family of proteins, which are known to downregulate transcription through interaction with the c-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (Ali et al., 2019; Ramani et al., 2021). This thesis project began by exploring the specific effects of RPRD2 in the NAc of C57BL/6J mice, and while the initial hypothesis was that RPRD2 overexpression would make mice resilient to social defeat stress, it was subsequently found that there is a ...


Effects Of Myosuppressin, A Peptide Neuromodulator, On Membrane Currents In The Crustacean Cardiac Ganglion, Anthony Yanez 2022 Bowdoin College

Effects Of Myosuppressin, A Peptide Neuromodulator, On Membrane Currents In The Crustacean Cardiac Ganglion, Anthony Yanez

Honors Projects

Central pattern generators are neural circuits that can independently produce rhythmic patterns of electrical activity without central or periphery inputs. They control rhythmic behaviors like breathing in humans and cardiac activity in crustaceans. Rhythmic behaviors must be flexible to respond appropriately to a changing environment; this flexibility is achieved through the action of neuromodulators. The cardiac ganglion of Homarus americanus, the American lobster, is a central pattern generator made up of four premotor neurons and five motor neurons. Membrane currents in each cell type, which can be targeted for modulation by various molecules, generate rhythmic bursts of action potentials. Myosuppressin ...


Exercise As A Treatment For Cognitive Decline In Older Adults: The Role Of Growth Factors And Inflammatory Cytokines, Joshua A. Titus 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Exercise As A Treatment For Cognitive Decline In Older Adults: The Role Of Growth Factors And Inflammatory Cytokines, Joshua A. Titus

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the effects that exercise modalities have on neurotrophic and inflammatory blood markers and cognitive outcomes in older adults. A systematic review and meta-analysis were completed. The included studies illustrated that most of the literature evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise interventions on systemic concentrations of the blood marker brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The review found that aerobic exercise increases BDNF and resistance training increases insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Interventions with sex-specific cohorts presented advantages in males for blood marker and cognitive outcomes compared to females. One of three included interventions decreased ...


Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen 2021 University of Toronto

Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Background: 7q11.23 duplication (Dup7) is one of the most frequent recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but based on gold-standard assessments, only 19% of Dup7 carriers have ASD, suggesting that additional genetic factors are necessary to manifest the ASD phenotype. To assess the contribution of additional genetic variants to the Dup7 phenotype, we conducted whole-genome sequencing analysis of 20 Dup7 carriers: nine with ASD (Dup7-ASD) and 11 without ASD (Dup7-non-ASD). Results: We identified three rare variants of potential clinical relevance for ASD: a 1q21.1 microdeletion (Dup7-non-ASD) and two ...


Deciphering The Role Of Hsp110 Chaperones In Diseases Of Protein Misfolding, Unekwu M. Yakubu 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Deciphering The Role Of Hsp110 Chaperones In Diseases Of Protein Misfolding, Unekwu M. Yakubu

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular chaperones maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) by ensuring the proper folding of polypeptides. Loss of proteostasis has been linked to the onset of numerous neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease. Hsp110 is a member of the Hsp70 class of molecular chaperones and acts as a nucleotide exchange factor (NEF) for Hsp70, the preeminent Hsp70-family protein folding chaperone. Hsp110 promotes rapid cycling of ADP for ATP, allowing Hsp70 to properly fold nascent or unfolded polypeptides in iterative cycles. In addition to its NEF activity, Hsp110 possesses an Hsp70-like substrate binding domain (SBD) whose biological roles are ...


Binge Alcohol Drinking Alters Synaptic Processing Of Executive And Emotional Information In Core Nucleus Accumbens Medium Spiny Neurons, Jenya Kolpakova, Vincent van der Vinne, Pablo Gimenez-Gomez, Timmy Le, In-Jee You, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Cristina Velazquez-Marrero, Andrew R. Tapper, Gilles E. Martin 2021 UMass Chan Medical School

Binge Alcohol Drinking Alters Synaptic Processing Of Executive And Emotional Information In Core Nucleus Accumbens Medium Spiny Neurons, Jenya Kolpakova, Vincent Van Der Vinne, Pablo Gimenez-Gomez, Timmy Le, In-Jee You, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Cristina Velazquez-Marrero, Andrew R. Tapper, Gilles E. Martin

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a forebrain region mediating the positive-reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including alcohol. It receives glutamatergic projections from multiple forebrain and limbic regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFCx) and basolateral amygdala (BLA), respectively. However, it is unknown how NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) integrate PFCx and BLA inputs, and how this integration is affected by alcohol exposure. Because progress has been hampered by the inability to independently stimulate different pathways, we implemented a dual wavelength optogenetic approach to selectively and independently stimulate PFCx and BLA NAc inputs within the same brain slice. This approach ...


Regional Lipid Expression Abnormalities Identified Using Maldi Ims Correspond To Mri-Defined White Matter Hyperintensities Within Post-Mortem Human Brain Tissue., William J. Pinsky 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Regional Lipid Expression Abnormalities Identified Using Maldi Ims Correspond To Mri-Defined White Matter Hyperintensities Within Post-Mortem Human Brain Tissue., William J. Pinsky

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Periventricular white matter hyperintensities (pvWMHs) are a neurological feature detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are clinically associated with an increased risk of stroke and dementia. pvWMHs are characterized by white matter lesions with myelin and axon rarefaction, and as such likely involve changes in lipid composition, however these alterations remain unknown. Lipids are critical in determining cell function and survival, although their detection within tissue, until recently has been challenging. Perturbations in lipid expression have previously been associated with neurological disorders. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an emerging technique for untargeted, high-throughput investigation ...


Neuroligin-3: A Circuit-Specific Synapse Organizer That Shapes Normal Function And Autism Spectrum Disorder-Associated Dysfunction, Motokazu Uchigashima, Amy Cheung, Kensuke Futai 2021 Niigata University

Neuroligin-3: A Circuit-Specific Synapse Organizer That Shapes Normal Function And Autism Spectrum Disorder-Associated Dysfunction, Motokazu Uchigashima, Amy Cheung, Kensuke Futai

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

Chemical synapses provide a vital foundation for neuron-neuron communication and overall brain function. By tethering closely apposed molecular machinery for presynaptic neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic signal transduction, circuit- and context- specific synaptic properties can drive neuronal computations for animal behavior. Trans-synaptic signaling via synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) serves as a promising mechanism to generate the molecular diversity of chemical synapses. Neuroligins (Nlgns) were discovered as postsynaptic CAMs that can bind to presynaptic CAMs like Neurexins (Nrxns) at the synaptic cleft. Among the four (Nlgn1-4) or five (Nlgn1-3, Nlgn4X, and Nlgn4Y) isoforms in rodents or humans, respectively, Nlgn3 has a ...


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