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Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor 2023 West Virginia University

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical interface between the systemic circulation and the brain. It is a specialized multicellular unit composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, a basement membrane, and astrocytic end foot processes. BMECs are a principal component of the BBB that provide the structural framework needed for the stringent transport of molecules into the brain. BMEC dysfunction permits the trafficking of neurotoxins from systemic circulation into the brain, which ultimately exacerbates BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that BBB dysfunction is a key determinant of cognitive decline in sepsis. However, there are critical knowledge …


Visualization And Characterization Of The Immunological Synapse Between Chlorotoxin Chimeric Antigen (Cltx-Car) Redirected T Cells And Targeted Glioblastoma Tumors, Arianna Livi 2023 Claremont Colleges

Visualization And Characterization Of The Immunological Synapse Between Chlorotoxin Chimeric Antigen (Cltx-Car) Redirected T Cells And Targeted Glioblastoma Tumors, Arianna Livi

CMC Senior Theses

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T (CAR-T) cells have demonstrated anti-tumor activity against aggressive and invasive cancers such as glioblastoma (GBM); however, clinical response rates remain low in clinical trial studies. Tumor heterogeneity and tumor microenvironment conditions pose significant challenges for treatment of GBM, thus continuous optimization of CAR-T cell therapies and identification of novel, widely expressed, and highly specific GBM antigens are vital to better patient outcomes. A newly developed CAR-T cell construct incorporating chlorotoxin (CLTX) as the targeting domain exhibited broad GBM-targeting capabilities and elicited potent cytotoxic effects during preclinical studies and is currently being tested in a phase I …


Anatomical Analysis Of Olfactory Sensory Neuron Regeneration Via Glomerular Synaptic Activity Markers In Adult Mice, William Wamack 2022 East Tennessee State University

Anatomical Analysis Of Olfactory Sensory Neuron Regeneration Via Glomerular Synaptic Activity Markers In Adult Mice, William Wamack

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The olfactory system is a great model for studying regeneration due to the olfactory epithelium’s regenerative capability which makes it a potential a source of neural stem cells. The olfactory epithelium presents three types of cells: sustentacular cells which provide support and act as glial supporting cells; olfactory sensory neurons that are in charge of detecting odorant molecules in the air; and the stem cells that generated the aforementioned cell types. Olfactory sensory neurons are constantly dying and being replaced by new neurons originating from the stem cells that lie at the base of the olfactory epithelium. We have used …


Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Chemosensory Receptors In Berghia Stephanieae: Bioinformatics And Localization, Kelsi L. Watkins

Masters Theses

Chemosensation is achieved through the binding of chemical signals to chemoreceptor proteins embedded in the membranes of sensory neurons. The molecular identity of these receptors, as well as the downstream processing of chemosensory signals, has been well studied in arthropods and vertebrates. However, very little is known about molluscan chemosensation. The identity of chemoreceptor proteins in the nudibranch mollusc Berghia stephanieae are unknown. Data from other protostome and molluscan studies suggest Berghia may use ionotropic receptors for some forms of chemoreception. This study used a bioinformatics approach to identify potential chemosensory ionotropic receptors in the transcriptome of Berghia. A …


The Intersection Between Toxicology And Aging Research: A Toxic Aging Coin Perspective., John P. Wise Jr. 2022 University of Louisville

The Intersection Between Toxicology And Aging Research: A Toxic Aging Coin Perspective., John P. Wise Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

We are imminently faced with the challenges of an increasingly aging population and longer lifespans due to improved health care. Concomitantly, we are faced with ubiquitous environmental pollution linked with various health effects and age-related diseases which contribute to increased morbidity with age. Geriatric populations are rarely considered in the development of environmental regulations or in toxicology research. Today, life expectancy is often into one’s 80s or beyond, which means multiple decades living as a geriatric individual. Hence, adverse health effects and late-onset diseases might be due to environmental exposures as a geriatric, and we currently have no way of …


Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Clustered Protocadherins Ubiquitination And Phosphorylation Regulates Surface Expression, Albert Ptashnik

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a family of 60 adhesion-like molecules forming a neural barcode. In vertebrate neurons, 60 Pcdhs are coded by a large gene cluster. Numerous axons in the cluster are coding for the different extracellular, transmembrane, variable portion of the cytoplasmic and constant cytoplasmic domains where their expression is controlled epigenetically. These proteins mediate interactions between axons, dendrites, and glial cells during neural development. Yet, Pcdhs are not strictly adhesion molecules. In the amacrine cells of the retina, Pcdhs promote avoidance of the same cell dendrites, where in the cortex Pcdhs promote interactions between dendrites and astrocytes. In …


Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Alzheimer’S Disease: Prostaglandin D2 Signaling And Its Human Polymorphisms As Well As A Polypharmacological Approach, Charles H. Wallace

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age related neurodegenerative disease with pathology that includes amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and non-resolving neuroinflammation. Non-resolving neuroinflammation lasts the entire course of the disease and has deleterious effects and is often thought to accelerate AD pathology. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) have commonly been used as therapeutics to treat pain, inflammation and vascular. NSAIDs work by altering the cyclooxygenase (COX) mediated biosynthesis of prostaglandins which are lipid mediators that have many physiological functions, for example nociception, inflammation and vasodilation. Epidemiological studies support the notion that NSAIDs could be used to treat AD. Yet, clinical trials using …


Mechanism Of Tau Propagation: Putative Therapeutic Approaches, Viktoriya Morozova 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Mechanism Of Tau Propagation: Putative Therapeutic Approaches, Viktoriya Morozova

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

One of the characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease and associated tauopathies is the accumulation and aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The biological activity of tau is to bind to tubulin and promote its assembly into microtubules with subsequent stabilization of the latter. When tau gets hyperphosphorylated it cannot bind to tubulin and carry on its function, instead, it binds to normal tau and sequesters it from microtubules leading to disruption of microtubular assembly and ultimately to the death of neurons. Our lab had previously shown that tau phosphorylation sites 199, 212, 231, and 262, combined with the FTDP-17 mutation R406W (Pathological …


Role Of Nuclear Lamins In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Camila Yattah 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Role Of Nuclear Lamins In Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells, Camila Yattah

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Differentiation of oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells is a highly regulated process characterized by a series of molecular changes, resulting in nuclear and morphological features unique to the mature oligodendrocyte state. Heterochromatin formation starting at the nuclear periphery, as well as increased nuclear rigidity are characteristically observed. The nuclear periphery is characterized by the presence of the nuclear lamina and it has been implicated in higher-order genome organization in cells. Lamins are the protein components of the nuclear lamina, and their expression is dependent upon the cell differentiation stage of the cells. While Lamin B1 (LMNB1) expression is high in progenitors …


Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Marks A Novel Population Of Adult Stem Cells In The Mouse Brain That Respond To Metabolic Interventions By Modulating Adult Brain Plasticity, Gabriel S. Jensen 2022 University of Maine

Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Marks A Novel Population Of Adult Stem Cells In The Mouse Brain That Respond To Metabolic Interventions By Modulating Adult Brain Plasticity, Gabriel S. Jensen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is expressed by quiescent adult stem cells (qASC) in numerous adult murine and human tissues but has never been explored in the adult brain. Here, these data demonstrate that TERT+ cells in the adult mouse brain represent a novel population of multipotent qASCs. TERT+ cells were localized to numerous classical neuro/gliogenic niches including the ventricular-subventricular zone, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb, as well as newly discovered regions of adult tissue plasticity such as the meninges and choroid plexus. TERT+ cells expressed neural stem cell markers such as Nestin and Sox2, but not markers of activated stem/progenitor cells, …


The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen KW Wong 2022 Western University

The Effects Of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure On The Basolateral Amygdala, Karen Kw Wong

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Clinical and preclinical studies indicate prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) pathologically affects fetal brain development and may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood/anxiety disorders. In review research from our lab suggests that fetal exposure to Δ9-THC sex-selectively impairs mesocorticolimbic (MCL) circuit function. However, there is a distinct lack of focus on PCE models on the BLA. The BLA plays a central role within the MCL where it directly interacts with the VTA, PFC and HIPP. Importantly, our model exhibits significant VTA hyperdopaminergic activity, and sex-specific alterations to PFC/HIPP glutamate firing, alongside region- and sex-specific changes in dopamine (DA), …


Genetic Determinants Of Primary Nociceptor Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christine Hale 2022 University of Maine

Genetic Determinants Of Primary Nociceptor Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster, Christine Hale

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Abnormal pain affects ~50 million adults nationwide. With many of the current treatment options for chronic pain, such as opioid analgesics, carrying side effects such as the threat for addiction, research into safer and more effective options for chronic pain relief is crucial. Abnormal alterations in nociceptive sensitivity, which is the sensitivity of peripheral sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli, can underlie, and perpetuate chronic pain. However, much is still unknown about the mechanism of how these abnormal alterations in sensitivity occur. To help elucidate genetic components controlling nociceptive sensitivity, the Drosophila melanogaster larval nociception model has been used …


Analysis Of The Distributed Representation Of Operant Memory In Aplysia, Renan Murillo Costa 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Analysis Of The Distributed Representation Of Operant Memory In Aplysia, Renan Murillo Costa

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Operant conditioning, a ubiquitous form of learning in which animals learn from the consequences of behavior, engages a high-dimensional neuronal population space spanning multiple brain regions. A complete characterization of an operant memory remains elusive. Some sites of plasticity participating in the engram underlying an example of operant memory in Aplysia have been previously uncovered. Three studies are described here that sought to draw closer to a thorough characterization of this memory. The first study used a computational model to examine the ways in which sites of plasticity (individually and in combination) contribute to memory expression. Each site of plasticity …


The Effects Of Physical Function And Genetics On Cognition And Blood Biomarkers In Individuals At-Risk For Alzheimer’S Disease And Related Dementias, Joshua Louis Gills 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Physical Function And Genetics On Cognition And Blood Biomarkers In Individuals At-Risk For Alzheimer’S Disease And Related Dementias, Joshua Louis Gills

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia (ADRD) rates are expected to triple by the year 2050. Early detection and specific mitigation efforts are warranted to blunt the alarming rate. Physical function (PF) declines with age, but higher physical function is associated with better cognitive functioning in middle-to- older age individuals. Moreover, greater physical activity (PA) is associated with better global cognition; however, Apoliporotein e4 carriers may not gain the same benefits with exercise. Additionally, plasma phosphorylated tau 217 (p-tau217) has been identified as a novel diagnostic ADRD biomarker which needs further research to examine associations with risk factors. Therefore, the aims …


Chloride Channels That Mediate A Transient Nitric Oxide-Dependent Synaptic Polarity Switch In Retinal Amacrine Cells., Tyler Christopher Rodriguez 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Chloride Channels That Mediate A Transient Nitric Oxide-Dependent Synaptic Polarity Switch In Retinal Amacrine Cells., Tyler Christopher Rodriguez

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Cytosolic chloride (Cl-) concentration determines whether GABAergic and glycinergic synapses are inhibitory or excitatory. Ionotropic GABA and glycine receptors passively conduct Cl­- leading to membrane depolarization or hyperpolarization depending on the Cl- equilibrium potential. Accordingly, the distribution of Cl- across the plasma membrane has the potential to determine the properties of networks of retinal amacrine cells (ACs) and their postsynaptic partners. Ion channels are responsible for establishing Cl- reversal potential. Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that can be generated in the inner retina where ACs form synapses. We have shown that NO …


Genetic Heterogeneity In Schizophrenia And Contribution Of Context To Vowel Recognition, Eva Childers 2022 Dartmouth College

Genetic Heterogeneity In Schizophrenia And Contribution Of Context To Vowel Recognition, Eva Childers

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

This dissertation is composed of three chapters that address two distinct topics. Chapter 2 addresses the use of consonantal context in vowel perception. Previous studies have demonstrated that context is important for vowel identification, however, this effect may be an artifact of stimuli production. To address this potential confound, we used stimuli extracted from an audiobook and asked subjects to identify vowels encased in consonants and isolated by themselves. We show that subjects had improved vowel identification when the vowel is presented with a consonantal framing, suggesting there is information contained in the surrounding context that is important for phoneme …


Mirnas Levels In A Streptozocin Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Nada Moustafa 2022 American University in Cairo

Mirnas Levels In A Streptozocin Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Nada Moustafa

Theses and Dissertations

Dementia entails a progressive decrease in cognitive functions, with 50%-75% of cases attributed to Alzheimer’s disease (AD); an aging-associated condition characterized by the build-up of tangled phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) protein and beta-amyloid (Aβ) depositions. Sporadic AD (sAD) is multifactorial in nature, resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic predisposing factors. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading risk factor for dementia, and deregulation of brain glucose metabolism is associated with early cognitive affection in sAD. Thus, the diabetogenic agent Streptozotocin (STZ) is used to experimentally create an AD model in animals (STZ-induced sAD), in which abnormalities in cerebral …


Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Withdrawal From Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Female Specific Susceptibilities To Behavioral Deficits And Neurochemical Perpetuators Of Neurotoxicity And Drug Seeking Behavior, Nicoletta K. Memos

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

MA is a potent, highly addictive psychomotor stimulant known to produce neurotoxic effects on the brain leading to neurological impairments1-6 characterized by neurodegeneration of dopaminergic fibers, cell bodies and pathways, as well as brain regions such as the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and midbrain1,5.

In MA addiction, women are more vulnerable to the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA compared to men. Adult human literature reveals gender differences in usage patterns and women demonstrate increased vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects and health effects of MA use. Women begin drug use at an earlier age, escalate drug use quicker, …


Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioral changes which follow a 24-hour cycle. Drosophila Melanogaster’s circadian clock neuronal network (CCNN) has been identified and several subpopulations have been characterized based on previous studies; the classifications of subpopulations of neurons within the CCNN are based on a return of anticipatory locomotor activity preceding the two daily light transitions (Lights on = dawn/Lights off = dusk). The neurons responsible for the return of anticipatory morning locomotor activity have been referred to as the M-cells, the group of neurons known to rescue evening anticipatory locomotor activity have been termed the E-cells. In this …


Estimating Glutamate Transporter Surface Density In Mouse Hippocampal Astrocytes, Anca R. Radulescu, Annalisa Scimemi 2022 State University of New York at New Paltz

Estimating Glutamate Transporter Surface Density In Mouse Hippocampal Astrocytes, Anca R. Radulescu, Annalisa Scimemi

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


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