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5,619 full-text articles. Page 5 of 234.

Comparative Cognition And Nonhuman Individuality, Catia Correia Caeiro 2020 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan

Comparative Cognition And Nonhuman Individuality, Catia Correia Caeiro

Animal Sentience

Commentators Washington (2019) and Tiffin (2019) point out that the individual vs. collective dichotomy is much more complex than what is considered in the target article. This commentary will focus on why individuals are more important than collectives. Species differences in cognition and emotional processes and individuals’ feelings and experiences need to be taken into account.


Psychometric Properties Of The Standardized Assessment Of Concussion In Youth Football: Validity, Reliability, And Demographic Factors, Arthur C. Maerlender, Eric Smith, P. Gunnar Brolinson, Jillian Urban, Steven Rowson, Amaris Ajamil, Eamon T. Campolettano, Ryan A. Gellner, Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek Jones, Alex Powers, Jonathan Beckwith, Joseph J. Crisco, Joel Stitzel, Stefan Duma, Richard M. Greenwald 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Psychometric Properties Of The Standardized Assessment Of Concussion In Youth Football: Validity, Reliability, And Demographic Factors, Arthur C. Maerlender, Eric Smith, P. Gunnar Brolinson, Jillian Urban, Steven Rowson, Amaris Ajamil, Eamon T. Campolettano, Ryan A. Gellner, Srinidhi Bellamkonda, Mireille E. Kelley, Derek Jones, Alex Powers, Jonathan Beckwith, Joseph J. Crisco, Joel Stitzel, Stefan Duma, Richard M. Greenwald

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the psychometrics (reliability, validity) of the original Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) in a youth sample (ages 11 to 13). Demographic factors of race, level of vocabulary knowledge, mother’s level of education were also considered. Over 150 youth football athletes completed the SAC and a brief battery of NIH Toolbox cognitive tests as part of a larger study on biomechanical factors in youth sport concussion. This was a within-subjects design (pre-season, post-season assessments), and correlational analysis of convergent and discriminant validity. Between groups analysis based on demographic differences was also employed ...


Optimization And Validation Of The Neurolux Wireless Optoelectronics System For Optogenetics, Karis Courey, Su Hyun Lee Ph.D., Adam Smith Ph.D., Nicholas Cilz Ph.D., Sarah K. Williams Avram Ph.D., Adi Cymerblit-Sabba Ph.D., June Song, Nicholas Leipzig Ph.D., W. Scott Young M.D., Ph.D. 2020 University of Akron

Optimization And Validation Of The Neurolux Wireless Optoelectronics System For Optogenetics, Karis Courey, Su Hyun Lee Ph.D., Adam Smith Ph.D., Nicholas Cilz Ph.D., Sarah K. Williams Avram Ph.D., Adi Cymerblit-Sabba Ph.D., June Song, Nicholas Leipzig Ph.D., W. Scott Young M.D., Ph.D.

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Utilizing light and genetic engineering, optogenetics permits the manipulation of events within cells via light using the light-sensitive properties of single-component microbial opsins. Microbial opsins are activated by a light source, such as lasers, light-emitting diodes, and incandescent sources that deliver light to the region of interest either directly or indirectly, such as through fiberoptics. In classical in vivo optogenetics, the wiring of optic fibers necessitates tethering of animals by the optic fiber to the light source. The novel NeuroLux wireless optoelectronic system for optogenetics circumvents issues pertaining to classical optogenetics by utilizing near-field power transfer via magnetic coil antennae ...


Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal 2020 The University of Akron

Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Here I characterized the central neuroanatomy of the Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus striatus, native to French Polynesia. The neuroanatomy of E. striatus has not been studied prior to this paper. I used several histology and antibody staining techniques to accomplish this, including Crystal Violet, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Bielschowsky’s Silver Nitrate staining. This paper describes the most successful techniques used, identifies major structures in the species’ neuroanatomy, and also explains why studying E. striatus is important in the future of vertebrate research.


Assessing Morphology Of Iprgcs After Traumatic Brain Injury, Brian Foresi, Matt Smith 2020 The University of Akron

Assessing Morphology Of Iprgcs After Traumatic Brain Injury, Brian Foresi, Matt Smith

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

ipRGCs are retinal ganglion cells that project to visual processing centers of the brain for nonimage forming visual functions. The relation of ipRGCs to tramatic brain injury (TBI) is emerging as data has been published describing ipRGC functional changes in TBI affected military veterans. Major symptomologies of concussions, a mild form of TBI, also overlap with the function governed by sites in the brain with major ipRGC projection percentages. Assesing if a morphological change is occuring in the ipRGCs after a TBI could support the idea of a pathological mechanism of the injury. This study could also indicate further relevance ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan McNamara 2020 The University of Akron

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


The Effects Of A High-Fat Diet On The Brain; A Meta-Analysis Of Microglia In The Hypothalamus, Emily Karabeika 2020 Regis University

The Effects Of A High-Fat Diet On The Brain; A Meta-Analysis Of Microglia In The Hypothalamus, Emily Karabeika

All Regis University Theses

The typical ‘Western Diet’ includes a diet high in fats and sugars. This thesis explores the problems that this type of diet could have on the brain. A meta-analysis was conducted to show activated microglia count in the hypothalamus of mice after a high-fat diet. The results showed a large effect size with the included studies, showing that a high fat diet significantly increases microglia count across studies. Increased activated microglia leads to chronic inflammation in the hypothalamus, which is linked to metabolic problems like insulin resistance, leptin resistance and glucose intolerance.


The Effects Of Dorsal Lateral Telencephalon Lesions On Zebrafish Social Behaviour, Hailey Katzman 2020 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of Dorsal Lateral Telencephalon Lesions On Zebrafish Social Behaviour, Hailey Katzman

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Zebrafish are extremely social and aggregate in groups to form shoals. This social behaviour has been studied in the wild and in a laboratory setting, yet the mechanisms underlying the behaviour are unknown. There is evidence to suggest that the dorsal lateral telencephalon might play a role in shaping shoaling behaviour, being involved in modulating social behaviours and social reward associated with shoaling. In the current thesis, I adapted and combined several existing methods for performing lesions on the dorsal lateral telencephalon to create my own method to measure the role of the dorsal lateral telencephalon in social reward and ...


Diverse Autonomic Nervous System Stress Response Patterns In Childhood Sensory Modulation, Jacquelyn Christensen, Heather Wild, Erin S. Kenzie, Wayne Wakeland, Deborah Budding, Connie Lillas 2020 Pitzer College

Diverse Autonomic Nervous System Stress Response Patterns In Childhood Sensory Modulation, Jacquelyn Christensen, Heather Wild, Erin S. Kenzie, Wayne Wakeland, Deborah Budding, Connie Lillas

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

The specific role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in emotional and behavioral regulation—particularly in relation to automatic processes—has gained increased attention in the sensory modulation literature. This mini-review article summarizes current knowledge about the role of the ANS in sensory modulation, with a focus on the integrated functions of the ANS and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and their measurement. Research from the past decade illustrates that sympathetic and parasympathetic interactions are more complex than previously assumed. Patterns of ANS activation vary across individuals, with distinct physiological response profiles influencing the reactivity underlying automatic behavioral responses. This review ...


Effects Of Speaker-Identity Cueing On Listening Effort During Speech-In-Noise, Meghan Wickham, Jason Geller, Inyong Choi 2020 University of Iowa

Effects Of Speaker-Identity Cueing On Listening Effort During Speech-In-Noise, Meghan Wickham, Jason Geller, Inyong Choi

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

The brain is an organ that performs a variety of intricate functions. Specifically, the brain has an amazing ability to recover the complexities of a speech signal within a mixture of sounds. The process of extracting the speech signal from background noise, however, is not necessarily straightforward or easy. Previous studies have developed the concept of “listening effort” as an umbrella term to include all cognitive demand listeners confront to understand speech. From a clinical standpoint, this term suggests that accuracy measurements alone are not sufficient, and a supplementary assessment of how hard a client must try in order to ...


Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley 2020 U.S. Geological Survey

Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

This study utilized native chaparral and sage scrub shrubs to evaluate the impact of light summer irrigation on live fuel moisture content (LFMC) and predicted fire behavior. As to be expected LFMC varied markedly throughout the year being over 100% in winter in all species and treatments but differed markedly by treatment in the summer and fall. For most species lightly irrigated plants had the highest LFMC in the summer and fall, followed by thinned treatments and controls. These differences in moisture content coupled with structural differences in the vegetation contributed to expected differences in flame length and rate of ...


Covers, 2020 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


Moderators Of Depression And Self-Management In Type 2 Diabetes Patients, Cynthia Elaine Fraser 2020 Walden University

Moderators Of Depression And Self-Management In Type 2 Diabetes Patients, Cynthia Elaine Fraser

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although Type 2 diabetes can be reversed or controlled, many individuals choose not to adhere to treatment regimens, nor do they engage in self-management practices. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore self-management among individuals with Type 2 diabetes, examining whether some psychosocial variables have a moderating effect on self-management. The psychosocial variables explored in this research were perception of body image, fear of hypoglycemia, level of family support, and depression. The biopsychosocial model was the theoretical framework. Using the Body Appreciation Scale, Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire, The Family Relationship Scale, Hypoglycemic Fear Survey (HFS-II), and the Beck Depression ...


Young African American Men's Conception Of Fatherhood Among Survivors Of Childhood Abuse, Ohan Patricia Carter 2020 Walden University

Young African American Men's Conception Of Fatherhood Among Survivors Of Childhood Abuse, Ohan Patricia Carter

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Male survivors of abuse who become fathers themselves face challenges different from female survivors, such as conceptualizing their roles as providers and heads of households after the traumatic and often belittling experiences of abuse. However, very few researchers have studied the connection between child abuse and fatherhood, and none specific to young African American fathers. An interpretative phenomenological approach enabled exploration of how African American fathers who were abused as children, conceptualized and perceived their own experiences with fatherhood. The theoretical framework for this study was identity theory, which indicates that how people conceptualize a social role influences their actions ...


Young African American Men's Conception Of Fatherhood Among Survivors Of Childhood Abuse, Ohan Patricia Carter 2020 Walden University

Young African American Men's Conception Of Fatherhood Among Survivors Of Childhood Abuse, Ohan Patricia Carter

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Male survivors of abuse who become fathers themselves face challenges different from female survivors, such as conceptualizing their roles as providers and heads of households after the traumatic and often belittling experiences of abuse. However, very few researchers have studied the connection between child abuse and fatherhood, and none specific to young African American fathers. An interpretative phenomenological approach enabled exploration of how African American fathers who were abused as children, conceptualized and perceived their own experiences with fatherhood. The theoretical framework for this study was identity theory, which indicates that how people conceptualize a social role influences their actions ...


Neuroimaging Of Real-World Audio-Visual Sensory Integration In High-Functioning Autism, Paula J. Webster 2020 West Virginia University

Neuroimaging Of Real-World Audio-Visual Sensory Integration In High-Functioning Autism, Paula J. Webster

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Sensory processing differences are a prevalent aspect of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that may contribute to core deficits of ASD such as repetitive behaviors as well as comorbidities including anxiety disorders. The ability to integrate information among our senses is required to comprehend the world around us and is crucial for the development of language, motor skills, and social communication. Prior studies have shown that individuals with autism differ from individuals without autism when presented with simple, non-natural audio-visual stimuli such as basic shapes accompanied by pure tones. Because the human brain processes non-natural and natural stimuli differently, more recent ...


A Flight Sensory-Motor To Olfactory Histamine Circuit Mediates Olfactory Processing Of Ecologically And Behaviorally Natural Stimuli, Samual P. Bradley 2020 West Virginia University

A Flight Sensory-Motor To Olfactory Histamine Circuit Mediates Olfactory Processing Of Ecologically And Behaviorally Natural Stimuli, Samual P. Bradley

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Environmental pressures have conferred species specific behavioral and morphological traits to optimize reproductive success. To optimally interact with their environment, nervous systems have evolved motor-to-sensory circuits that mediate the processing of its own reafference. Moth flight behavioral patterns to odor sources are stereotyped, presumably to optimize the likelihood of interacting with the odor source. In the moth Manduca sexta wing beating causes oscillatory flow of air over the antenna; because of this, odorant-antennal interactions are oscillatory in nature. Electroantennogram recordings on antennae show that the biophysical properties of their spiking activity can effectively track odors presented at the wing beat ...


Serotonin 5-Ht2a And 5-Ht2c Receptors Regulate Rat Maternal Behavior Through Distinct Behavioral And Neural Mechanisms, Jun Gao, Lina Nie, Yu Li, Ming Li 2020 Southwest University, Chongqing, China

Serotonin 5-Ht2a And 5-Ht2c Receptors Regulate Rat Maternal Behavior Through Distinct Behavioral And Neural Mechanisms, Jun Gao, Lina Nie, Yu Li, Ming Li

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors play important yet distinctive roles in the regulation of rat maternal behavior. The present study investigated their neural substrates and explored the possible behavioral mechanisms (i.e., behavioral organization or maternal motivation). Sprague-Dawley postpartum females were microinjected with either a selective 5-HT2A agonist (TCB-2, 0.4 or 4.0 μg/side) or a 5-HT2C agonist (MK212, 2.5 or 5.0 μg/side) into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or ventral tegmental area (VTA). Ten and 60 min later, their maternal activities were observed in the home cage; and their motivational ...


Graph Theory Analysis Of Induced Neural Plasticity Post- Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Chronic Pain, Sarah K. Meier 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Graph Theory Analysis Of Induced Neural Plasticity Post- Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Chronic Pain, Sarah K. Meier

Honors Theses and Capstones

Chronic musculoskeletal pain affects the lives of over 100 million individuals in the United States making it the nation’s number one disability-causing condition (Institute of Medicine, 2011). Chronic pain leads to functional changes within the brains of those suffering from the condition. Not only does the pain network transform as acute pains become persistent, a state of hyperconnectivity also exists between the default mode, frontoparietal, and salience networks. Through behavioral assessment and graph theory analysis, the current study investigates how Acceptance and Commitment Therapy alleviates this functional hyperconnectivity. Results indicate that this treatment reduces the pre-existing hyperconnectivity between the ...


Tissue-Specific Regulation Of Pnmt By Intron Retention During Neural Development, Meeti Mehta 2020 University of Central Florida

Tissue-Specific Regulation Of Pnmt By Intron Retention During Neural Development, Meeti Mehta

Digital Repository: Showcase of Undergraduate Research Excellence

No abstract provided.


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