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Influence Of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Iodoamphetamine (Doi) On Ethanol Preference And Consumption In C57bl/6 Male Mice, Alaina M. Jaster, Sam Gottlieb, Michael Miles, Javier González-Maeso 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Influence Of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Iodoamphetamine (Doi) On Ethanol Preference And Consumption In C57bl/6 Male Mice, Alaina M. Jaster, Sam Gottlieb, Michael Miles, Javier González-Maeso

Graduate Research Posters

Substance use disorders (SUD) account for a large number of mental health diagnosis in the United States and around the world. Approximately 13.6 million adults 26 or older and 5.1 million young adults (ages 18-24) battled with a SUD in 2017. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) alone effects nearly 6% of the adult population within the United States. This creates a substantial burden on the individual, with alcohol being the third-leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Few treatments for AUD exist, with no new FDA-approved therapeutic treatments within the last 15 years. Additionally, the limited treatments ...


Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish 2021 West Virginia University

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


How Does Direct Volunteering Affect The Onset Of Alzheimer’S Dementia In Elderly Patients With Preexisting Cardiac Comorbidities?, Sneha R. Gade 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

How Does Direct Volunteering Affect The Onset Of Alzheimer’S Dementia In Elderly Patients With Preexisting Cardiac Comorbidities?, Sneha R. Gade

Undergraduate Research Posters

Alzheimer's Dementia is a disease that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. The Alzheimer's Association reported Alzheimer's as the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States, and a cure does not exist. Donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor drug, is frequently prescribed to treat Alzheimer's disease. Still, patients must continuously take the medication for years to receive any measurable improvement in quality of life after developing Alzheimer's Dementia. Further, research shows prolonged use of Donepezil can lead to other health problems, such as QTc prolongation, for cardiac disease patients. Therefore, the effectiveness of non-drug interventions, such as ...


Meta-Analyses Support A Taxonomic Model For Representations Of Different Categories Of Audio-Visual Interaction Events In The Human Brain, Matt Csonka, Nadia Mardmomen, Paula J. Webster, Julie A. Brefczynski-Lewis, Chris Frum, James W. Lewis 2021 West Virginia University

Meta-Analyses Support A Taxonomic Model For Representations Of Different Categories Of Audio-Visual Interaction Events In The Human Brain, Matt Csonka, Nadia Mardmomen, Paula J. Webster, Julie A. Brefczynski-Lewis, Chris Frum, James W. Lewis

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Our ability to perceive meaningful action events involving objects, people and other animate agents is characterized in part by an interplay of visual and auditory sensory processing and their cross-modal interactions. However, this multisensory ability can be altered or dysfunctional in some hearing and sighted individuals, and in some clinical populations. The present meta-analysis sought to test current hypotheses regarding neurobiological architectures that may mediate audio-visual multisensory processing. Reported coordinates from 82 neuroimaging studies (137 experiments) that revealed some form of audio-visual interaction in discrete brain regions were compiled, converted to a common coordinate space, and then organized along specific ...


The Inevitability Of Collision: Creating Empathy Through Fiction, Danielle Beckman 2021 Regis University

The Inevitability Of Collision: Creating Empathy Through Fiction, Danielle Beckman

Student Publications

While the stigma for mental illnesses has greatly declined in the last decade, there is still a disconnect between individuals without neurological illnesses and those with neurological illnesses, especially those that cause individuals to lose contact with reality. The goal of this interdisciplinary paper is to create empathy for these individuals, specifically people with schizophrenia, Alzheimer disease, and post-traumatic amnesia. Through a collection of four stories told from the perspective of these unreliable narrators, I used fiction writing techniques from the field of cognitive literary studies such as gapping and defamiliarization to create more empathy in the reader. In reading ...


Editorial., Jeffrey C Wang, Karsten Wiechert, Jens R Chapman 2021 Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA

Editorial., Jeffrey C Wang, Karsten Wiechert, Jens R Chapman

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Rolipram, A Selective Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor, On Immortalized Schwann Cell Proliferation, Akap95 And Cyclin D3 Expression, Kyle P. Kenney, Mary Pistack, Angela Asirvatham 2021 Misericordia University

The Effects Of Rolipram, A Selective Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor, On Immortalized Schwann Cell Proliferation, Akap95 And Cyclin D3 Expression, Kyle P. Kenney, Mary Pistack, Angela Asirvatham

Student Research Poster Presentations 2021

Schwann cells are a vital component of the Peripheral Nervous System and aid in the repair of axons following injury. The regulation of Schwann cell growth in vitro is facilitated by heregulin, a neuron-secreted growth factor, and an unknown mitogen that activates the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. The abundance of intracellular cAMP is regulated by a family of enzymes called phosphodiesterases (PDEs). PDE inhibitors such as rolipram have therapeutic potential in various disorders and function by increasing the levels of intracellular cAMP. A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a family of scaffolding proteins that belong to the cAMP/Protein Kinase A ...


Morphological Changes In Dorsal Root Ganglia Macrophages Associated With Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms Suggest A Novel Target For Chronic Pain Therapy, Emily Kussick 2021 Claremont Colleges

Morphological Changes In Dorsal Root Ganglia Macrophages Associated With Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms Suggest A Novel Target For Chronic Pain Therapy, Emily Kussick

CMC Senior Theses

The present study examined morphological changes in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following an innate immune stimulus. The importance of the DRG has increasingly become recognized in pain processing as more than just the home of primary afferent cell bodies. All sensory information passes through the DRG via the primary afferents, and on to the spinal cord. The primary afferents synapse with second-order neurons in the spinal cord that ascend towards the brain, where they transmit the pain signal to the limbic forebrain and/or the somatosensory cortex for processing. The DRG is an interesting niche to study at as ...


From Injury To Imprisonment: How Traumatic Brain Injury Can Lead To Violent Criminal Behavior, Kennedy O'Hara 2021 Assumption University

From Injury To Imprisonment: How Traumatic Brain Injury Can Lead To Violent Criminal Behavior, Kennedy O'Hara

Honors Theses

The United States currently has over 2 million people residing in prisons and jails across the country (Bronson & Carson, 2019; Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2009). The current literature review aims to study the prevalence of brain injuries across these imprisoned populations. The results of this review can have serious implications in law, medicine, and rehabilitation services. A traumatic brain injury can have significant influence over criminal justice procedures including ability to stand trial and proper sentencing depending on the timing and intensity of the offense. In addition, TBI prison prevalence could be implicated with the future of medicine and ...


Bilingualism: A Way To Delay The Onset Of Alzheimer’S Disease And Fight The Global Burden Of Disease It Imposes, Abigail Wester 2021 Regis University

Bilingualism: A Way To Delay The Onset Of Alzheimer’S Disease And Fight The Global Burden Of Disease It Imposes, Abigail Wester

Student Publications

Dementia is the second leading cause of death (accounts for 16.5%) and the leading cause of dependency and disability worldwide (GBD 2016 Neurology Collaborators, 2019). This burden associated with dementia falls heavily on family members, communities, and the individuals themselves. When looking at global dementia cases, the numbers are on the rise and expected to triple by 2050 (World Health Organization, 2019; Robinson, Stephan, & Magklara, 2019). The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), which accounts for 60-80% of all dementia cases (DeTure & Dickson, 2019). Characterized by memory impairment and cognitive decline, AD later impacts behavior, speech, visuospatial orientation, and the motor system (DeTure & Dickson, 2019). Specifically, it leads to atrophy of the brain in multimodal association cortices, limbic lobe structures, gyri in frontal and temporal cortices, posterior cortical areas, the amygdala, and hippocampus (DeTure & Dickson, 2019). One way to delay the onset of AD is through lifelong bilingualism. In addition to other brain changes, increased grey matter can be found in the temporal lobe and orbitofrontal cortex (Abutalebi et al., 2015). This increased grey matter builds-up at a young age and is maintained throughout a lifetime. This allows it to act as a defense against neuroanatomical changes and atrophy commonly associated with AD (Abutalebi et al., 2015; Green & Abutalebi, 2016). More specifically, bilingualism has been found to delay AD development by an average of 4.7 years (Brini et al., 2019).


Probation Officer’S Experiences Regarding Juvenile Delinquency And Alternatives To Detention Centers, Bailey Rodriguez 2021 Walden University

Probation Officer’S Experiences Regarding Juvenile Delinquency And Alternatives To Detention Centers, Bailey Rodriguez

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

With a shift in focus from punitive measures to rehabilitation within the juvenile justice system, it is imperative that the efficacy of alternative resources is more closely examined. Given the existing research that highlights adolescent development and the negative or neutral impacts detention centers impose on juveniles, the conversation has now shifted to the use of alternative resources or alternatives to detention. The question now, however, is whether or not these alternatives are sufficient enough to ensure the safety of the community, victims, and the well-beings of the juveniles, when a violent crime has been committed. This study, which was ...


Diversifying Participation: The Rarity Of Reporting Racial Demographics In Neuroimaging Research, Madeline Goldfarb 2021 Claremont Colleges

Diversifying Participation: The Rarity Of Reporting Racial Demographics In Neuroimaging Research, Madeline Goldfarb

Pitzer Senior Theses

Background: Functional neuroimaging techniques have been instrumental to progress in the cognitive and behavioral sciences; however, their increasing prevalence has evoked conversations concerning limitations associated with reproducibility and bias (Gilmore et al., 2017). While the literature has explored several mechanisms driving issues of replicability, few discussions have considered the effects of confounding social and environmental variables such as age, sex, socioeconomic status, and race (Sauce & Matzel, 2013). The prevailing racial, cultural, and socioeconomic bias in scientific research and the methodological limitations of EEG perpetuate racial and ethnic homogeneity in participation, eliciting qualms regarding the generalizability of findings (Henrich et al ...


Protocadherin-19 Expression And Function In Vertebrate Brain Review, Makana McGuire 2021 The University of Akron

Protocadherin-19 Expression And Function In Vertebrate Brain Review, Makana Mcguire

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

For this project, a systematic review will be conducted on published studies on protocadherin-19 expression and function in vertebrate central nervous system development in the last 10 years. Protocadherin-19 (pcdh19) is a member of the cadherin superfamily. Cadherins are calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules show to play important roles in vertebrate tissue development including the formation of the central nervous system. Understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the function of pcdh19 will help aid in understanding disease(s) caused by malfunction of this molecule, and lead to potential strategies for treatment. Data will be collected via online search of databases. The ...


Manipulating The Perineuronal Net In The Deep Cerebellar Nucleus, Deidre E. O'Dell 2021 West Virginia University

Manipulating The Perineuronal Net In The Deep Cerebellar Nucleus, Deidre E. O'Dell

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Perineuronal nets (PNN) are a type of specialized extracellular matrix in the central nervous system. The PNN forms during postnatal development but the ontogeny of the PNN has yet to be elucidated. Studying the PNN in the rat brain may allow us to further understand the PNN’s role in development, learning, and memory. The PNN is fully developed in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) of rats by post-natal day 18. By using enzymatic digestion of the PNN with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), we studied how digestion of the PNN affects cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning (EBC) and performed electrophysiological recordings from DCN ...


Opioid Use Disorder: The Timeline For Medication Assisted Therapy, Alexander Cristofori 2021 Arcadia University

Opioid Use Disorder: The Timeline For Medication Assisted Therapy, Alexander Cristofori

Capstone Showcase

Opioid Use Disorder is patterns of opioid use leading to withdrawal, giving up important life events in order to use opioids, and excessive time spent using opioids, to name a few diagnostic criteria. The clinical progression of the disorder involves periods of acute exacerbation and remission that are cyclic in nature. Treatment is most effective when it includes both pharmacological and psychosocial modalities, referred to as medication assisted therapy (MAT). Three drugs used commonly in MAT-based treatment for OUD from oldest to newest include Methadone, Buprenorphine-naloxone, and Naltrexone. Treatment program models that prioritize total abstinence from the addictive substance attached ...


Examining Human Apoe Genotype And Sex As Modulators Of Respiratory Plasticity In The Presence And Absence Of Spinal Cord Injury, Lydia Ella Strattan 2021 University of Kentucky

Examining Human Apoe Genotype And Sex As Modulators Of Respiratory Plasticity In The Presence And Absence Of Spinal Cord Injury, Lydia Ella Strattan

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

There are over 17,000 new spinal cord injuries (SCIs) every year in the Unites States alone. Almost 60% of these injuries occur at the cervical level, potentially leading to loss of function in a variety of sensory and motor systems including upper and lower limbs, respiratory, and autonomics. In addition to the physical and emotional costs, individuals who experience these higher level injuries also face a massive financial burden, incurring over $1 million in expenses during the first year after injury in addition to substantial yearly costs for the rest of their lifetime. A myriad of therapeutic approaches targeting ...


How The Amino Acid L-Serine Provides Neuroprotection Against L-Bmaa Induced Alzheimer’S Disease, Joseph Cimino 2021 Arcadia University

How The Amino Acid L-Serine Provides Neuroprotection Against L-Bmaa Induced Alzheimer’S Disease, Joseph Cimino

Capstone Showcase

More than 6 million people in America are living with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and there are currently no cures or treatments. It is time to move on from the ꞵ-amyloid hypothesis and broaden AD research. New research is suggesting that dietary exposure to a cyanobacterial toxin known as L-BMAA is causing neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson’s Disease. L-BMAA is misincorporated during protein folding, in place of the proper amino acid, L-Serine. It has been shown that the naturally occurring amino acid, L-Serine, can provide neuroprotection against L-BMAA, but the mechanism by which ...


Genus Applications For Alzheimer's Disease Pathology, Whitney L Carter 2021 University of Louisville

Genus Applications For Alzheimer's Disease Pathology, Whitney L Carter

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Estimates vary, but it is thought that 5.5 million Americans age 60 and up may be living with Alzheimer’s diseases (AD). AD is the most common type of dementia and is characterized by a decline in episodic memories, long-term memory, language, attention, and personality changes. The first symptoms can vary, but for most people memory is the first capacity to become impaired. However, symptoms can also be a decline in non-memory aspects of cognition like work-finding, vision/spatial issues, and impaired reasoning or judgement. AD is identified mainly by two histopathological features: extracellular plague of amyloid-beta protein and ...


Curation Techniques Of Small-Sized Natural History Specimens: A Collection Of Microfossils., Zachary V Biven-Leslie, Guillermo W. Rougier 2021 University of Louisville

Curation Techniques Of Small-Sized Natural History Specimens: A Collection Of Microfossils., Zachary V Biven-Leslie, Guillermo W. Rougier

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Small-sized fossil specimens are challenging regarding safety, storage and traceability of information. A recent collection of several hundred minute early mammalian teeth and jaws (most about 1mm) made impossible the standard practices of specimen numbering. A reliable association of the specimen and the collection number is the minimum required, however, a number of other data easily recoverable from the specimen/curating material is desirable. Geological provenance, locality, systematic and anatomical ID, collector, year, etc. is often included if possible. Use of the specimen is expected to be on the order of hundreds of years, manipulated by investigators, transported, and stored ...


Hippocampal Learning And Number Processing In Young Children, Thomas R Pilger, Manal Zafar, Nicholas Hindy 2021 University of Louisville

Hippocampal Learning And Number Processing In Young Children, Thomas R Pilger, Manal Zafar, Nicholas Hindy

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Children can enumerate the number of objects in a configuration in different ways: either through numerical processing or pattern recognition. An example of numerical processing is a child counting or subitizing a small number of disorganized blocks. This numerical cognition is related to neural processes in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Moreover, a child might be able to instantly know the value a configuration represents. For example, a child could instantly recognize a pattern seen on dice and know what value it represents. Recognizing previously seen patterns is related to neural processes in the hippocampus. Using fMRI and an at-home training ...


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