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Morphological Changes In Dorsal Root Ganglia Macrophages Associated With Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms Suggest A Novel Target For Chronic Pain Therapy, Emily Kussick 2021 Claremont Colleges

Morphological Changes In Dorsal Root Ganglia Macrophages Associated With Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms Suggest A Novel Target For Chronic Pain Therapy, Emily Kussick

CMC Senior Theses

The present study examined morphological changes in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following an innate immune stimulus. The importance of the DRG has increasingly become recognized in pain processing as more than just the home of primary afferent cell bodies. All sensory information passes through the DRG via the primary afferents, and on to the spinal cord. The primary afferents synapse with second-order neurons in the spinal cord that ascend towards the brain, where they transmit the pain signal to the limbic forebrain and/or the somatosensory cortex for processing. The DRG is an interesting niche to study at as ...


Extending Power Series Methods For The Hodgkin-Huxley Equations, Including Sensitive Dependence, James S. Sochacki 2020 James Madison University

Extending Power Series Methods For The Hodgkin-Huxley Equations, Including Sensitive Dependence, James S. Sochacki

CODEE Journal

A neural cell or neuron is the basic building block of the brain and transmits information to other neurons. This paper demonstrates the complicated dynamics of the neuron through a numerical study of the Hodgkin-Huxley differential equations that model the ionic mechanisms of the neuron: slight changes in parameter values and inputted electrical impulses can lead to very different (unexpected) results. The methods and ideas developed for the ordinary differential equations are extended to partial differential equations for Hodgkin-Huxley networks of neurons in one, two and three dimensions.


Modelling The Impact Of Clot Fragmentation On The Microcirculation After Thrombectomy [Preprint], Wahbi K. El-Bouri, Andrew MacGowan, Tamás I. Józsa, Matthew J. Gounis, Stephen J. Payne 2020 University of Oxford

Modelling The Impact Of Clot Fragmentation On The Microcirculation After Thrombectomy [Preprint], Wahbi K. El-Bouri, Andrew Macgowan, Tamás I. Józsa, Matthew J. Gounis, Stephen J. Payne

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Many ischaemic stroke patients who have a mechanical removal of their clot (thrombectomy) do not get reperfusion of tissue despite the thrombus being removed. One hypothesis for this ‘no-reperfusion’ phenomenon is micro-emboli fragmenting off the large clot during thrombectomy and occluding smaller blood vessels downstream of the clot location. This is impossible to observe in-vivo and so we here develop an in-silico model based on in-vitro experiments to model the effect of micro-emboli on brain tissue. Through in-vitro experiments we obtain, under a variety of clot consistencies and thrombectomy techniques, micro-emboli distributions post-thrombectomy. Blood flow through the microcirculation is modelled ...


Mathematical Modelling Of Temperature Effects On The Afd Neuron Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Zachary Mobille, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa 2020 Illinois State University

Mathematical Modelling Of Temperature Effects On The Afd Neuron Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Zachary Mobille, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Optimizing Preprocessing Of Fmri Data To Maximize Correspondence Of Functional Anatomy Across Individuals, Nargess Ghazaleh 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Optimizing Preprocessing Of Fmri Data To Maximize Correspondence Of Functional Anatomy Across Individuals, Nargess Ghazaleh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In movie-activation fMRI, intersubject correlation (ISC) indicates a functional correspondence across viewers. Brains di↵er in shape; spatial normalization and smoothing enhance inter-subject functional overlap. We compare three normalization methods and six smoothing levels to discover which method yields the best functional overlap, indexed by ISC. This is key to optimizing data analysis in clinical studies using movie-activation fMRI in future. In a 3T scanner, 44 healthy subjects watched an 8-min movie. Both normalization and smoothing a↵ected the strength and extent of the ISC. ISC values were more robust for ANTs and DARTELthanforSPM12andwere(asymptotically)thestrongestat12mmsmoothing. When image data are ...


Methods For Detecting Per2::Luciferase Bioluminescence Rhythms In Freely Moving Mice [Preprint], B. Martin-Burgos, W. Wang, I. William, S. Tir, I. Mohammad, R. Javed, Smith College, Y. Cui, Ciearra B. Smith, V. van der Vinne, P.C. Molyneux, Stephen C. Miller, David R. Weaver, T.L. Leise, M.E. Harrington 2020 Smith College

Methods For Detecting Per2::Luciferase Bioluminescence Rhythms In Freely Moving Mice [Preprint], B. Martin-Burgos, W. Wang, I. William, S. Tir, I. Mohammad, R. Javed, Smith College, Y. Cui, Ciearra B. Smith, V. Van Der Vinne, P.C. Molyneux, Stephen C. Miller, David R. Weaver, T.L. Leise, M.E. Harrington

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Circadian rhythms are driven by daily oscillations of gene expression. An important tool for studying cellular and tissue rhythms is the use of a gene reporter, such as bioluminescence from the reporter gene luciferase controlled by a rhythmically expressed gene of interest. Here we describe methods that allow measurement of bioluminescence from a freely-moving mouse housed in a standard cage. Using a LumiCycle In Vivo (Actimetrics), we determined conditions that allow detection of circadian rhythms of bioluminescence from the PER2 reporter, PER2::LUC, in freely behaving mice. We tested delivery of D-luciferin via a subcutaneous minipump and in the drinking ...


3d Architectural Analysis Of Neurons, Astrocytes, Vasculature & Nuclei In The Motor And Somatosensory Murine Cortical Columns, Jared Leichner 2020 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University

3d Architectural Analysis Of Neurons, Astrocytes, Vasculature & Nuclei In The Motor And Somatosensory Murine Cortical Columns, Jared Leichner

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Characterization of the complex cortical structure of the brain at a cellular level is a fundamental goal of neuroscience which can provide a better understanding of both normal function as well as disease state progression. Many challenges exist however when carrying out this form of analysis. Immunofluorescent staining is a key technique for revealing 3-dimensional structure, but subsequent fluorescence microscopy is limited by the quantity of simultaneous targets that can be labeled and intrinsic lateral and isotropic axial point-spread function (PSF) blurring during the imaging process in a spectral and depth-dependent manner. Even after successful staining, imaging and optical deconvolution ...


Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison 2020 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Using Machine Learning To Conduct A Detailed Behavioral Analysis In An Appetitive Social Learning Task, Thomas Shao 2020 University of Connecticut

Using Machine Learning To Conduct A Detailed Behavioral Analysis In An Appetitive Social Learning Task, Thomas Shao

Honors Scholar Theses

Learning by watching others, or observational learning, is important for social development and survival. However, not much is known about the brain mechanisms underlying this type of learning. Since the 1960s, observational learning has been widely studied in humans, but developing and analyzing experiments for animals has been challenging. Here, I explore observational learning using a novel paradigm while performing an analysis that involves tracking the rats using an active learning paradigm called DeepLabCut. In this novel paradigm, customized operant conditioning chambers are used for the rats to observe and learn from another animal repeatedly on multiple trials each day ...


Dynamics Of Sensory Integration Of Olfactory And Mechanical Stimuli Within The Response Patterns Of Moth Antennal Lobe Neurons, Harrison Tuckman 2020 William & Mary

Dynamics Of Sensory Integration Of Olfactory And Mechanical Stimuli Within The Response Patterns Of Moth Antennal Lobe Neurons, Harrison Tuckman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Odors emanating from a biologically relevant source are rapidly embedded within a windy, turbulent medium that folds and spins filaments into fragmented strands of varying sizes. Environmental odor plumes therefore exhibit complex spatiotemporal dynamics, and rarely yield an easily discernible concentration gradient marking an unambiguous trail to an odor source. Thus, sensory integration of chemical input, encoding odor identity or concentration, and mechanosensory input, encoding wind speed, is a critical task that animals face in resolving the complex dynamics of odor plumes and tracking an odor source. In insects, who employ olfactory navigation as their primary means of foraging for ...


Serum-Based Biomarkers And Magnetic Resonance Imaging Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Collegiate Athletes Post Return-To-Play, Taylor R. Susa 2020 Northern Michigan University

Serum-Based Biomarkers And Magnetic Resonance Imaging Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In Collegiate Athletes Post Return-To-Play, Taylor R. Susa

All NMU Master's Theses

Recently there has been an increase in the use of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), to measure the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Proteins such as BDNF, S100B, UCH-L1, and Tau have been found to have altered levels in blood serum after TBI. However, there is limited knowledge about the relationship between serum-based and MRI-based biomarkers in concussed athletes post return-to-play. This study aimed to bridge this gap by collecting serum samples from 42 participants across two groups. The first group (n = 21) consisted of recently cleared to return-to-play collegiate athletes after experiencing a sports-related concussion. The second group (n ...


Mechanisms Of Value-Biased Prioritization In Fast Sensorimotor Decision Making, Kivilcim Afacan-Seref 2020 CUNY City College

Mechanisms Of Value-Biased Prioritization In Fast Sensorimotor Decision Making, Kivilcim Afacan-Seref

Dissertations and Theses

In dynamic environments, split-second sensorimotor decisions must be prioritized according to potential payoffs to maximize overall rewards. The impact of relative value on deliberative perceptual judgments has been examined extensively, but relatively little is known about value-biasing mechanisms in the common situation where physical evidence is strong but the time to act is severely limited. This research examines the behavioral and electrophysiological indices of how value biases split-second perceptual decisions and the possible mechanisms underlying the process. In prominent decision models, a noisy but statistically stationary representation of sensory evidence is integrated over time to an action-triggering bound, and value-biases ...


Effects Of Weak Electric Fields On Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity, Gregory Kronberg 2020 CUNY City College

Effects Of Weak Electric Fields On Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity, Gregory Kronberg

Dissertations and Theses

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique where a weak direct electrical current is applied to the scalp with the goal of stimulating the brain. There is tremendous interest in the use of tDCS for treating brain disorders and improving brain function. However, the effects of tDCS have been highly variable across studies, leading to a debate over its efficacy. A major challenge is therefore to design tDCS protocols that yield predictable effects, which will require a better understanding of its basic mechanisms of action. One commonly discussed mechanism is that tDCS may alter synaptic plasticity, but the biophysics ...


What Makes An Image Memorable? Effects Of Encoding On The Mechanism Of Recognition, Asiya Gul 2020 Wilfrid Laurier University

What Makes An Image Memorable? Effects Of Encoding On The Mechanism Of Recognition, Asiya Gul

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Memory is undoubtedly one of the most important processes of human cognition. A long line of research suggests that recognition relies on the assessment of two explicit memory phenomena: familiarity and recollection. Researchers who support the Dual Process Signal Detection (DPSD) model of recognition memory link the FN400 component (a negative ERP deflection peaking around 400 ms at frontal electrodes) with familiarity; however, it is currently unclear whether the FN400 reflects familiarity or implicit memory. Three event-related potentials (ERP) studies were conducted to determine whether implicit memory plays a role in setting up encoding strategies, and how these encoding strategies ...


Understanding Object Motion Encoding In The Mammalian Retina., Victor Julian DePiero 2019 University of Louisville

Understanding Object Motion Encoding In The Mammalian Retina., Victor Julian Depiero

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Phototransduction, transmission of visual information down the optic nerve incurs delays on the order of 50 – 100ms. This implies that the neuronal representation of a moving object should lag behind the object’s actual position. However, studies have demonstrated that the visual system compensates for neuronal delays using a predictive mechanism called phase advancing, which shifts the population response toward the leading edge of a moving object’s retinal image. To understand how this compensation is achieved in the retina, I investigated cellular and synaptic mechanisms that drive phase advancing. I used three approaches, each testing phase advancing at a ...


Computational Neuroscience, Michelle Greene, NS/PY 357 Students 2019 Bates College

Computational Neuroscience, Michelle Greene, Ns/Py 357 Students

Open Educational Resources

In Fall 2019, the Computational Neuroscience class at Bates College collaborated to begin an open textbook. Eight students across three majors collaborated to present the content they were learning to students who were similar to themselves. This project serves both pedagogical and social goals. By writing for fellow students, we leveraged the power of teaching for learning. By bringing together students of diverse academic backgrounds, we leveraged the power of peer instruction. Finally, by writing in the open, students not only brought their best work forward, but are working to contribute to an open knowledge environment that democratizes information. This ...


Network Structure And Dynamics Of Biological Systems, Deena R. Schmidt 2019 University of Nevada, Reno

Network Structure And Dynamics Of Biological Systems, Deena R. Schmidt

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Analog Implementation Of The Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neuron, Zachary D. Mobille, George H. Rutherford, Jordan Brandt-Trainer, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa 2019 Illinois State University

Analog Implementation Of The Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neuron, Zachary D. Mobille, George H. Rutherford, Jordan Brandt-Trainer, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Microarray Gene Expression Profiles Of Fasting Induced Changes In Liver And Adipose Tissues Of Pigs Expressing The Melanocortin-4 Receptor D298n Variant, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver P. Coutoure, C. Richard Barb, Gary J. Hausman, Dan Nettleton, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle 2019 Iowa State University

Microarray Gene Expression Profiles Of Fasting Induced Changes In Liver And Adipose Tissues Of Pigs Expressing The Melanocortin-4 Receptor D298n Variant, Sender Lkhagvadorj, Long Qu, Weiguo Cai, Oliver P. Coutoure, C. Richard Barb, Gary J. Hausman, Dan Nettleton, Lloyd L. Anderson, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Christopher K. Tuggle

Dan Nettleton

Transcriptional profiling coupled with blood metabolite analyses were used to identify porcine genes and pathways that respond to a fasting treatment or to a D298N missense mutation in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene. Gilts (12 homozygous for D298 and 12 homozygous for N298) were either fed ad libitum or fasted for 3 days. Fasting decreased body weight, backfat, and serum urea concentration and increased serum nonesterified fatty acid. In response to fasting, 7,029 genes in fat and 1,831 genes in liver were differentially expressed (DE). MC4R genotype did not significantly affect gene expression, body weight, backfat depth, or ...


The Origins And Development Of Visual Categorization, Laura Cabral 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Origins And Development Of Visual Categorization, Laura Cabral

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Forming categories is a core part of human cognition, allowing us to make quickly make inferences about our environment. This thesis investigated some of the major theoretical interpretations surrounding the neural basis of visual category development. In adults, there are category-selective regions (e.g. in ventral temporal cortex) and networks (which include regions outside traditional visual regions—e.g. the amygdala) that support visual categorization. While there has been extensive behavioural work investigating visual categorization in infants, the neural sequence of development remains poorly understood. Based on behavioral experiments, one view holds that infants are initially using subcortical structures to ...


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