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Morphology And Structure Of Pb Thin Films Grown On Si (111) By Pulsed Laser Deposition, Bektur Abdisatarov 2020 Western Kentucky University

Morphology And Structure Of Pb Thin Films Grown On Si (111) By Pulsed Laser Deposition, Bektur Abdisatarov

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a versatile thin film deposition technique in which high powered laser beam interacts with a target material inside an ultrahigh vacuum chamber. Highly energetic particles such as electrons, atoms, protons, and ions generate a plasma plume that directed towards a substrate material where recondenses form a thin film. PLD is an effective and reliable method to create varieties of thin films such as metal, polymer, and ceramic for many technologically essential applications.

In this study, thin Pb films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si (111) at various laser fluences, pulse wavelengths, deposition times ...


Through-Thickness Reinforcement And Repair Of Carbon Fiber Based Honeycomb Structures Under Flexure And Tension Of Adhesively Bonded Joints, Aleric Alden Sanders 2020 Old Dominion University

Through-Thickness Reinforcement And Repair Of Carbon Fiber Based Honeycomb Structures Under Flexure And Tension Of Adhesively Bonded Joints, Aleric Alden Sanders

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Repair and reinforcement of composite honeycomb structures is an area of concern as higher demands are being placed on high strength, lightweight structural materials, such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics and corresponding honeycomb structures. A common issue with these structures is when a delamination in the facesheet may form and spread, leading to a failure scenario. An investigation of adding a through thickness reinforcement (TTR) to these structures at the sample level that undergo four-point-bending, tension, and joining methods is conducted throughout this thesis. The embedding of pultruded carbon fiber rods is found to be an ideal addition to composite ...


Compaction And Residual Stress Modeling In Composite Manufactured With Automated Fiber Placement, Von Clyde Jamora 2020 Old Dominion University

Compaction And Residual Stress Modeling In Composite Manufactured With Automated Fiber Placement, Von Clyde Jamora

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Automated fiber placement is a state-of-the-art manufacturing process that allows for complex layup patterns and can quickly place, cut, and restart composite tows. However, with this type of manufacturing process layup defects are inevitable, and manufacturing defects propagate after curing. Process modeling is the considered approach for exploring the defect prediction. Two different but related works were conducted, which are the thermochemical and hyperelastic model and the residual deformation model. For the model before cooling, a hyperelastic model and a thermo-chemical were made to simulate the compaction and heat transfer. Temperature dependent properties that are a function of degree of ...


Formation Of Size And Density Controlled Nanostructures By Galvanic Displacement, Minh Tran, Sougata Roy, Steven Kmiec, Alison Whale, Steve W. Martin, Sriram Sundararajan, Sonal Padalkar 2020 Iowa State University

Formation Of Size And Density Controlled Nanostructures By Galvanic Displacement, Minh Tran, Sougata Roy, Steven Kmiec, Alison Whale, Steve W. Martin, Sriram Sundararajan, Sonal Padalkar

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Gold (Au) and copper (Cu)-based nanostructures are of great interest due to their applicability in various areas including catalysis, sensing and optoelectronics. Nanostructures synthesized by the galvanic displacement method often lead to non-uniform density and poor size distribution. Here, density and size-controlled synthesis of Au and Cu-based nanostructures was made possible by galvanic displacement with limited exposure to hydrofluoric (HF) acid and the use of surfactants like L-cysteine (L-Cys) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). An approach involving cyclic exposure to HF acid regulated the nanostructure density. Further, the use of surfactants generated monodisperse nanoparticles in the initial stages of the ...


Surface Driven Flows : Liquid Bridges, Drops And Marangoni Propulsion, Samrat Sur 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Surface Driven Flows : Liquid Bridges, Drops And Marangoni Propulsion, Samrat Sur

Doctoral Dissertations

Molecules sitting at a free liquid surface against vacuum or gas have weaker binding than molecules in the bulk. The missing (negative) binding energy can therefore be viewed as a positive energy added to the surface itself. Since a larger area of the surface contains larger surface energy, external forces must perform positive work against internal surface forces to increase the total area of the surface. Mathematically, the internal surface forces are represented by surface tension, defined as the normal force per unit of length. One common manifestation of surface tension is the difference in pressure it causes across a ...


Dynamic Micromechanical Fabry-Perot Cavity Sensors Fabricated By Multiphoton Absorption Onto Optical Fiber Tips, Jeremiah C. Williams 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Dynamic Micromechanical Fabry-Perot Cavity Sensors Fabricated By Multiphoton Absorption Onto Optical Fiber Tips, Jeremiah C. Williams

Theses and Dissertations

This research leveraged two-photon polymerization microfabrication to integrate dynamic mechanical components with Fabry-Perot resonators onto the ends of low-loss optical fibers to prototype 3 micro-optic devices. The first device featured a multi-positional mirror that enabled thin-film deposition onto cavities of any length with mirrors of significant curvature, for refractive index sensing. The second device combined an FP cavity with a spring body featuring easily scalable stiffness for pressure sensing. The third device presented a high-speed rotating micro-anemometer for measuring a wide range of gas flows. All devices represent a significant reduction in size and weight over commercially available devices.


Wideband Metasurface Antenna, Thomas A. Lepley 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Wideband Metasurface Antenna, Thomas A. Lepley

Theses and Dissertations

This effort explored design of metasurface antennas and evaluated their suitability for ultra-wideband applications (2 to 18 GHz). Six unit cell types were characterized. Eigenmode simulations produced frequency vs. phase data for the unit cells, from which impedance vs. gap size data was computed. A holographic design equation was used to generate the metasurface antenna designs. The unit cell simulations revealed that the assumption of single mode operation is a constraint for wideband designs. An 8" by 8" metasurface antenna with a Rogers 3010 dielectric and a design frequency of 10 GHz was fabricated and tested. It had a 1 ...


Alternate Materials For High-Speed Projectile Casing, Andrew W. Beard 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Alternate Materials For High-Speed Projectile Casing, Andrew W. Beard

Theses and Dissertations

A high-speed projectile impact is a highly complex dynamic problem that can be simplified with the use of finite element analysis solvers. Abaqus/Explicit was used to evaluate the impact of various projectiles using a plane strain setup. Using a baseline stainless steel projectile, the proposed sandwich construction design was analyzed and compared to the baseline projectile. The overall goal was to see if a new composite casing could perform similarly to the simple baseline projectile. The sandwich construction used stainless steel, tungsten, and silicon-carbide reinforce aluminum as outer and inner shell materials. The core material was created using additive ...


Investigation Of Ultem 9085 For Use In Printed Orbital Structures, William R. Gallagher 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Investigation Of Ultem 9085 For Use In Printed Orbital Structures, William R. Gallagher

Theses and Dissertations

Additive manufacturing is revolutionizing industries ranging from medicine to space. However, the structural characteristics of plastic parts created by these methods are not as well understood as their more established counterparts. This research explored two relevant areas: how the structural characteristics of ULTEM 9085 plastic behaved after exposure to orbital conditions and the design of the cross-sectional area of a beam to be 3-D printed in microgravity based on the expected loads from the printer. To study orbital effects, ULTEM 9085 was printed into 1/4th scale ASTM D638- 14 dogbones using a Stratasys 450mc printer. These dogbones were placed ...


Enhancing The Conductivity Of Cell-Laden Alginate Microfibers With Aqueous Graphene For Neural Applications, Marilyn C. McNamara, Amir Ehsan Niaraki-Asli, Jingshuai Guo, Jasmin Okuzono, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi 2020 Iowa State University

Enhancing The Conductivity Of Cell-Laden Alginate Microfibers With Aqueous Graphene For Neural Applications, Marilyn C. Mcnamara, Amir Ehsan Niaraki-Asli, Jingshuai Guo, Jasmin Okuzono, Reza Montazami, Nicole N. Hashemi

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Microfluidically manufacturing graphene-alginate microfibers create possibilities for encapsulating rat neural cells within conductive 3D tissue scaffolding to enable the creation of real-time 3D sensing arrays with high physiological relavancy. Cells are encapsulated using the biopolymer alginate, which is combined with graphene to create a cell-containing hydrogel with increased electrical conductivity. Resulting novel alginate-graphene microfibers showed a 2.5-fold increase over pure alginate microfibers, but did not show significant differences in size and porosity. Cells encapsulated within the microfibers survive for up to 8 days, and maintain ~20% live cells over that duration. The biocompatible aqueous graphene suspension used in this ...


Cyclic Regeneration Of Nanostructured Composites For Catalytic Applications, Fatih Dogan 2020 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Cyclic Regeneration Of Nanostructured Composites For Catalytic Applications, Fatih Dogan

Materials Science and Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

A cermet catalyst material, defining a matrix having interconnected open pores, the matrix selected from the group consisting of YSZ and CGO and defining a substrate, a ceramic coating having a general formula AyBnOx at least partially coating the pores, and a plurality of metal particles A at least partially embedded in the ceramic coating. A is selected from the group consisting of Co, Cu, Ce, Ni, Ti, and combinations thereof and B is selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, Ce, and combinations thereof. When the coating is in a first oxidizing atmosphere ...


Ten Questions Concerning The Implications Of Carpet On Indoor Chemistry And Microbiology, Sarah R, Haines, Rachel I. Adams, Brandon E. Boor, Thomas A. Bruton, John Downey, Andrea R. Ferro, Elliot Gall, multiple additional authors 2020 The Ohio State University

Ten Questions Concerning The Implications Of Carpet On Indoor Chemistry And Microbiology, Sarah R, Haines, Rachel I. Adams, Brandon E. Boor, Thomas A. Bruton, John Downey, Andrea R. Ferro, Elliot Gall, Multiple Additional Authors

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Carpet and rugs currently represent about half of the United States flooring market and offer many benefits as a flooring type. How carpets influence our exposure to both microorganisms and chemicals in indoor environments has important health implications but is not well understood. The goal of this manuscript is to consolidate what is known about how carpet impacts indoor chemistry and microbiology, as well as to identify the important research gaps that remain. After describing the current use of carpet indoors, questions focus on five specific areas: 1) indoor chemistry, 2) indoor microbiology, 3) resuspension and exposure, 4) current practices ...


Biomimetic Metal-Organic Nanoparticles Prepared With A 3d-Printed Microfluidic Device As A Novel Formulation For Disulfiram-Based Therapy Against Breast Cancer, Ya Chang, Jizong Jiang, Wu Chen, Wen Yang, Lili Chen, Pengyu Chen, Jianzhong Shen, Shizhi Qian, Teng Zhou, Linfeng Wu, Liang Hong, Yongzhuo Huang, Feng Li 2020 Old Dominion University

Biomimetic Metal-Organic Nanoparticles Prepared With A 3d-Printed Microfluidic Device As A Novel Formulation For Disulfiram-Based Therapy Against Breast Cancer, Ya Chang, Jizong Jiang, Wu Chen, Wen Yang, Lili Chen, Pengyu Chen, Jianzhong Shen, Shizhi Qian, Teng Zhou, Linfeng Wu, Liang Hong, Yongzhuo Huang, Feng Li

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Disulfiram (DSF) is currently tested in several clinical trials for cancer treatment in combination with cop-per (Cu) ions. Usually, DSF and Cu are administered in two separate formulations. In the body, DSF andCu ions form diethyldithiocarbamate copper complex [Cu(DDC)2] which has potent antitumor activities.However, the “two formulation” approach often achieved low Cu(DDC)2 concentration at tumor regions and resulted in compromised anticancer efficacy. Therefore, preformed Cu(DDC)2 complex administered in a single formulation will have better anticancer efficacy. However, the poor aqueous solubility of Cu(DDC)2 is a significant challenge for its clinical use ...


Design, Development, And Testing Of A Low Cost, Additively-Manufactured, Centrifugal Compressor, Aaron P. Bauer 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Design, Development, And Testing Of A Low Cost, Additively-Manufactured, Centrifugal Compressor, Aaron P. Bauer

Theses and Dissertations

The three objectives of this research were to: 1.) design, build, and test AM compressors to substitute into COTS micro-gas turbine engines, 2.) provide initial correlations between FEA and compressor failure speed, and 3.) characterize the effects of AM on compressor performance. These goals improved the design cycle cost and the design-validation time cycle. ULTEM 9085, 300-AMB, and Onyx-Kevlar temperature-dependent tensile properties were measured. FEA-predicted failure speeds of stock compressor designs led design improvements, potentially fulfilling the original compressor requirements. Physical testing of the stock and ULTEM 9085 compressors occurred. Comparing these compressors' performances demonstrated that low cost, AM materials ...


Solution Anneal Heat Treatments To Enhance Mechanical Performance Of Additively Manufactured Inconel 718, David J. Newell 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Solution Anneal Heat Treatments To Enhance Mechanical Performance Of Additively Manufactured Inconel 718, David J. Newell

Theses and Dissertations

The nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718) is an excellent candidate among aerospace alloys for laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) manufacturing. As-built LPBF IN718 has a vertically aligned columnar (001) microstructure which translates into orthotropic mechanical behavior. The post-process heat treatments for IN718 were developed 60 years ago for wrought and cast processes and do not mitigate the columnar microstructure of the LPBF process. Recrystallization is required to remove the columnar microstructure, which would allow for parts to be fabricated on different machines or in different orientations but still achieve the same properties. This research investigated the microstructure of LPBF IN718 as ...


Modeling Hybrid Composites Using Tsai-Wu And Hashin Failure Criterion, Candice R. Roberts 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Modeling Hybrid Composites Using Tsai-Wu And Hashin Failure Criterion, Candice R. Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Hybrid composites require further study and testing for future use in various fields. This study focuses on simulating a Hybrid Composite using IM7-977-3 laminae with steel foils in Abaqus under bolt loading by using Hashin and Tsai-Wu failure criterion. Initial simulations contain only the IM7-977-3 composite with cohesive layers. Foil samples were then tested for accurate material properties from which the simulations were then updated to include steel foils. The two models show that Tsai-Wu failure criterion, while great for anisotropic material in tension, does not prove accuracy around the hole of the composite material which is in compression. Hashin ...


Fatigue Behavior Of An Advanced Melt-Infiltrated Sic/Sic Composite With Environmental Barrier Coating At 1200°C In Air And In Steam, Thaddeus M. Williams 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Fatigue Behavior Of An Advanced Melt-Infiltrated Sic/Sic Composite With Environmental Barrier Coating At 1200°C In Air And In Steam, Thaddeus M. Williams

Theses and Dissertations

Advanced aerospace applications such as aircraft turbine engine components, hypersonic flight vehicles, and spacecraft reentry thermal protection systems require structural materials that have superior long-term mechanical properties under high temperature, high pressure, and varying environmental factors, such as moisture. Because of their low density, high strength and fracture toughness at high temperatures SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites are being evaluated for aircraft engine hot-section components. In these applications the composites will be subjected to various types of mechanical loadings at elevated temperatures in oxidizing environments. Because their constituents are intrinsically oxidation-prone, the most significant problem hindering SiC/SiC composites is ...


Anomalous Eutectic Microstructures In Mg-Al Structural Alloy Prepared By Rapid Solidification, Soodabeh Azadehranjbar, Jian Wang, Jeffrey E. Shield 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Anomalous Eutectic Microstructures In Mg-Al Structural Alloy Prepared By Rapid Solidification, Soodabeh Azadehranjbar, Jian Wang, Jeffrey E. Shield

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Magnesium is the lightest engineering metal 1 However, conventional Mg alloys typically suffer from low strength and poor deformability due to very few slip systems and easy twinning 3 Alloying Mg with other materials and microstructural engineering are promising approaches to increase ductility and strength of Mg In the current work, non equilibrium solidification conditions were applied to induce a transition from regular to anomalous eutectic in Mg Al eutectic alloy such that four distinguished microstructures were acquired and the corresponding formation mechanisms were investigated


Fabrication Of 2d And 3d High-Resolution Binder-Free Graphene Circuits Using A Microfluidic Approach For Sensor Applications, Metin Uz, Matthew T. Lentner, Kyle Jackson, Maxsam S. Donta, Juhyung Jung, John Hondred, Eric Mach, Jonathan C. Claussen, Surya K. Mallapragada 2020 Iowa State University

Fabrication Of 2d And 3d High-Resolution Binder-Free Graphene Circuits Using A Microfluidic Approach For Sensor Applications, Metin Uz, Matthew T. Lentner, Kyle Jackson, Maxsam S. Donta, Juhyung Jung, John Hondred, Eric Mach, Jonathan C. Claussen, Surya K. Mallapragada

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this study, a simple microfluidic method, which can be universally applied to different rigid or flexible substrates, was developed to fabricate high-resolution, conductive, 2D and 3D microstructured graphene-based electronic circuits. The method involves controlled and selective filling of microchannels on substrate surfaces with a conductive binder-free graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) solution. The ethanol-thermal reaction of GNP solution at low temperatures (~75 °C) prior to microchannel filling (pre-heating) further reduces GNP, enhances conductivity, reduces sheet resistance (~0.05 kΩ sq-1), enables room temperature fabrication and eliminates harsh post-processing, which makes this fabrication technique compatible with degradable substrates. This method can also ...


Light Control Of Surface–Bulk Coupling By Terahertz Vibrational Coherence In A Topological Insulator, Xu Yang, Liang Luo, Chirag Vaswani, Xin Zhao, Yongxin Yao, Di Cheng, Zhiyan Liu, Richard H. J. Kim, Xinyu Liu, Malgorzata Dobrowolska-Furdyna, Jacek K. Furdyna, Ilias E. Perakis, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho, Jigang Wang 2020 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Light Control Of Surface–Bulk Coupling By Terahertz Vibrational Coherence In A Topological Insulator, Xu Yang, Liang Luo, Chirag Vaswani, Xin Zhao, Yongxin Yao, Di Cheng, Zhiyan Liu, Richard H. J. Kim, Xinyu Liu, Malgorzata Dobrowolska-Furdyna, Jacek K. Furdyna, Ilias E. Perakis, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho, Jigang Wang

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

The demand for disorder-tolerant quantum logic and spin electronics can be met by generating and controlling dissipationless spin currents protected by topology. Dirac fermions with helical spin-locking surface transport offer a way of achieving such a goal. Yet, surface-bulk coupling can lead to strong Dirac electron scattering with bulk carriers and phonons as well as impurities, assisted by such dissipative channel, which results in “topological breakdown”. Here, we demonstrate that coherent lattice vibrations periodically driven by a single-cycle terahertz (THz) pulse can significantly suppress such dissipative channel in topological insulators. This is achieved by reducing the phase space in the ...


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